EFFECTS OF INHALED FLORIDA RED TIDE BREVETOXINS

Summary

Principal Investigator: Daniel G Baden
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This amended Program Project competitive renewal is focused on revealing mechanisms of action following Florida red tide toxin exposure in laboratory models, and at providing relevant information for humans exposed on beaches. Florida red tides caused by Karenia brevis occur annually along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastline, and release 12 irritating natural environmental polyether brevetoxins into water and air with toxic results. Toxin antagonists are also released. The investigators have shown during the first 5 years that brevetoxins elicit neurotoxic, immunologic, and pulmonary effects in inhalation-exposed humans and animal models. The investigators shall further characterize inhalation exposure to the complex mixture of materials aerosolized from red tide, depositing in occupational, recreational, and susceptible human and animal populations. Mechanisms of action and prevention, and therapeutics are intensified foci in laboratory and field alike. Elements include: Administrative Core;Facility Core 1 "Toxin Probes &Assays" provides QA/QC toxins, derivatives and antagonists, analytical support and assay development;;Facility Core 2 "Field Logistics &Deployment" optimizes environmental monitoring of organism and seawater, deploys air samplers and meterologic gear, and provides logistics for Research Project 4. Research Project 1 "Characterization of Red Tide Aerosols" correlates bloom dynamics with the size, composition, and aerosol potency, and adds meteorlogic modeling to data sets. Research Project 2 "Inhaled PbTxs: Health Effects &Mechanisms" explores pulmonary and immunotoxic mechanisms in rodents. Research Project 3 "Mechanism of PbTx-lnduced Responses" explores inhaled effects in a sheep model, including inflammation, mucociliary clearance, therapeutics and prevention. Research Project 4 "Aerosolized Red Tide PbTx on Humans" collects pre/post exposure data (chemical and physiological criteria) for a revised cohort, as well as prevention/intervention trials. Using the Research Projects and Facility Cores synergy optimized over the past 5 years, the investigators will evaluate acute and chronic immune and pulmonary PbTx effects on humans and animals, as well as prevention and intervention. Lay summary: Florida red tides cause human illness through the airborne release of bioactive chemicals produced during a bloom. Using an interdisciplinary approach, this Program Project employs both laboratory studies and beachside work to understand the human consequences of exposure to aerosolized toxins, to explore therapies for intoxication, and to develop new drugs exploiting red tide bioactive materials.
Funding Period: ----------------2000 - ---------------2012-
more information: NIH RePORT

Top Publications

  1. pmc Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure
    Barbara Kirkpatrick
    Environmental Health Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 32436, United States
    Sci Total Environ 402:1-8. 2008
  2. pmc Brevisamide: an unprecedented monocyclic ether alkaloid from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that provides a potential model for ladder-frame initiation
    Masayuki Satake
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina, Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, North Carolina 28409, USA
    Org Lett 10:3465-8. 2008
  3. pmc Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems
    R H Pierce
    Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA
    Ecotoxicology 17:623-31. 2008
  4. pmc Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells
    Cesar Mattei
    CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Gif sur Yvette, France
    PLoS ONE 3:e3448. 2008
  5. pmc Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
    Sharon M Watkins
    Aquatic Toxins Program, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, FL 32399 1712, USA
    Mar Drugs 6:431-55. 2008
  6. pmc Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health
    Stephanie K Moore
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Box 355351, Seattle, Washington 98195 5351, USA
    Environ Health 7:S4. 2008
  7. pmc Linking the oceans to public health: current efforts and future directions
    Hauke L Kite-Powell
    Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA
    Environ Health 7:S6. 2008
  8. pmc Structure activity relationship of brevenal hydrazide derivatives
    Allan Goodman
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington UNCW, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA
    Mar Drugs 12:1839-58. 2014
  9. pmc Characterization of aerosols containing microcystin
    Yung Sung Cheng
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest, SE, Albuquerque, NM, 87111, USA E mails for Yue Zhou C Mitch Irvin
    Mar Drugs 5:136-50. 2007
  10. pmc Evaluation of harmful algal bloom outreach activities
    Lora E Fleming
    NSF NIEHS Oceans and Human Health Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136 USA
    Mar Drugs 5:208-19. 2007

Scientific Experts

  • Yung-Sung Cheng
  • Rachel N Murrell
  • J M Benson
  • Yue Zhou
  • L E Fleming
  • Porter Hoagland
  • Daniel G Baden
  • Masayuki Satake
  • Andrea J Bourdelais
  • William M Abraham
  • Takefumi Kuranaga
  • Jeffrey L C Wright
  • Joju George
  • Barbara Kirkpatrick
  • Lorraine C Backer
  • Zhengyu Cao
  • Thomas F Murray
  • Henry M Jacocks
  • Truong D Nguyen-Huu
  • Cesar Mattei
  • Kate Nierenberg
  • Andrew Reich
  • Allan Goodman
  • Julia Zaias
  • Laura T Truxal
  • Kazuo Tachibana
  • Henry Jacocks
  • Jordi Molgo
  • Peter J Wen
  • Richard J Lewis
  • Frederic A Meunier
  • Evelyne Benoit
  • Sara E Kuhar
  • Ryan M Van Wagoner
  • Sharon M Watkins
  • Hauke L Kite-Powell
  • Stephanie K Moore
  • R H Pierce
  • Jerome P Naar
  • Carol Potera
  • K T LePage
  • Sophie Michelliza
  • Alexyz Milian
  • Mark A Poli
  • D G Baden
  • Xiuzhen Yan
  • Brad M Tibbetts
  • J D Salierno
  • A N Sayer
  • Haruhiko Fuwa
  • Alysha Thompson
  • Daniel Baden
  • Andrea Bourdelais
  • Jennifer R McCall
  • Naohito Ohtani
  • Ryosuke Tsutsumi
  • Sairam V Jabba
  • Anna Campbell
  • Anand Prakash
  • Jun Xie
  • Shashank M Dravid
  • Jennifer Peterson
  • Tomohiro Shirai
  • Graham A Tobin
  • Edward A Laws
  • Micaela S Parker
  • Richard Stumpf
  • M S Henry
  • Robert Currier
  • Vera L Trainer
  • Gary Kirkpatrick
  • Martha Alvarez
  • Nathan J Mantua
  • William H Gerwick
  • Jon D Rainier
  • Bruce A Wilcox
  • Elaine M Faustman
  • Lisa R Younglove
  • Roberta Hammond
  • Rebecca J Gast
  • Ami Tsuchiya
  • Allison Lenzi
  • Damon Gannon
  • Steven M Plakas
  • Michael Henry
  • J D Rainier
  • Jennifer Wolny
  • Victor R Rivera
  • Robert W Dickey
  • Adam Wanner

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. pmc Florida red tide and human health: a pilot beach conditions reporting system to minimize human exposure
    Barbara Kirkpatrick
    Environmental Health Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 32436, United States
    Sci Total Environ 402:1-8. 2008
    ..The system has proven to be robust and well received by the public. The system has reported variability from beach to beach and has provided vital information to users to minimize their exposure to toxic marine aerosols...
  2. pmc Brevisamide: an unprecedented monocyclic ether alkaloid from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that provides a potential model for ladder-frame initiation
    Masayuki Satake
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina, Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, North Carolina 28409, USA
    Org Lett 10:3465-8. 2008
    ..This report describes the structure elucidation of brevisamide based on detailed MS and NMR spectral analysis, and the importance of this new compound in shedding light on the biogenesis of fused polyethers is discussed...
  3. pmc Harmful algal toxins of the Florida red tide (Karenia brevis): natural chemical stressors in South Florida coastal ecosystems
    R H Pierce
    Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA
    Ecotoxicology 17:623-31. 2008
    ..These results provide new insight into the distribution, persistence and impacts of red tide toxins to south-west Florida ecosystems...
  4. pmc Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells
    Cesar Mattei
    CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Gif sur Yvette, France
    PLoS ONE 3:e3448. 2008
    ..Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera...
  5. pmc Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
    Sharon M Watkins
    Aquatic Toxins Program, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, FL 32399 1712, USA
    Mar Drugs 6:431-55. 2008
    ..A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented...
  6. pmc Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health
    Stephanie K Moore
    School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Box 355351, Seattle, Washington 98195 5351, USA
    Environ Health 7:S4. 2008
    ..We review the interactions between selected patterns of large-scale climate variability and climate change, oceanic conditions, and harmful algae...
  7. pmc Linking the oceans to public health: current efforts and future directions
    Hauke L Kite-Powell
    Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA
    Environ Health 7:S6. 2008
    ....
  8. pmc Structure activity relationship of brevenal hydrazide derivatives
    Allan Goodman
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington UNCW, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA
    Mar Drugs 12:1839-58. 2014
    ..Only small modifications were tolerated, with larger moieties leading to loss of affinity for the brevenal receptor and bronchoconstriction in the sheep model. ..
  9. pmc Characterization of aerosols containing microcystin
    Yung Sung Cheng
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest, SE, Albuquerque, NM, 87111, USA E mails for Yue Zhou C Mitch Irvin
    Mar Drugs 5:136-50. 2007
    ..4 and 27.8 mum. The sampling and analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystin aerosol in situ...
  10. pmc Evaluation of harmful algal bloom outreach activities
    Lora E Fleming
    NSF NIEHS Oceans and Human Health Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136 USA
    Mar Drugs 5:208-19. 2007
    ..These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials...
  11. pmc Influence of lipid-soluble gating modifier toxins on sodium influx in neocortical neurons
    Zhengyu Cao
    Department of Pharmacology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 326:604-13. 2008
    ....
  12. pmc Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks in the marine environment
    L E Fleming
    National Science Foundation NSF, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIEHS, Oceans and Human Health Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
    Mar Pollut Bull 53:545-60. 2006
    ..It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans...
  13. pmc Uptake, tissue distribution, and excretion of brevetoxin-3 administered to mice by intratracheal instillation
    Brad M Tibbetts
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 69:1325-35. 2006
    ..These results are consistent with earlier reports of rapid absorption and widespread tissue distribution of brevetoxins in rats...
  14. pmc Placental transport of brevetoxin-3 in CD-1 mice
    Janet M Benson
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr SE, Albuquerque NM 87108, USA
    Toxicon 48:1018-26. 2006
    ..The consequences of these findings for pregnant women exposed to brevetoxins by inhalation or ingestion remain to be determined...
  15. pmc Brevetoxin-induced neural insult in the retrosplenial cortex of mouse brain
    Xiuzhen Yan
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Georgia Athens, Georgia, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 18:1109-16. 2006
    ..These results suggest that subacute exposure to PbTx-3 for 2 days is sufficient to induce neuronal degeneration in a discrete region of the mouse cerebral cortex...
  16. pmc Total synthesis, structure revision, and absolute configuration of (-)-brevenal
    Haruhiko Fuwa
    Laboratory of Biostructural Chemistry, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8555, Japan
    J Am Chem Soc 128:16989-99. 2006
    ..The revised structure was finally validated by completing the first total synthesis of (-)-2, which also unambiguously established the absolute configuration of the natural product...
  17. pmc Harmful algal bloom toxins alter c-Fos protein expression in the brain of killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus
    J D Salierno
    Aquatic Pathobiology Center, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Aquat Toxicol 78:350-7. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Aerosolized red-tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma
    Lora E Fleming
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
    Chest 131:187-94. 2007
    ..In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma...
  19. pmc Particle size distribution and inhalation dose of shower water under selected operating conditions
    Yue Zhou
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Inhal Toxicol 19:333-42. 2007
    ..Alveolar deposition was 6-10% and 0.9% assuming oral and nasal breathing, respectively. The consequences deposition of shower water droplets will depend on the nature and extent of any pollutants in the source water...
  20. pmc The inhibition of CHO-K1-BH4 cell proliferation and induction of chromosomal aberrations by brevetoxins in vitro
    A N Sayer
    The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, 600 Moye Blvd, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 44:1082-91. 2006
    ..Results from the inhibition of cellular proliferation assays demonstrated that PbTxs inhibit the ability of CHO-K1-BH4 cells to proliferate, an effect which can be reduced with brevenal...
  21. pmc Synthesis, modeling, and biological evaluation of analogues of the semisynthetic brevetoxin antagonist beta-naphthoyl-brevetoxin
    Sophie Michelliza
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA
    Chembiochem 8:2233-9. 2007
    ....
  22. pmc Brevetoxin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and Src in murine neocortical neurons involves distinct signaling pathways
    Zhengyu Cao
    Creighton University, School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
    Brain Res 1184:17-27. 2007
    ..Considered together these data suggest that although activation of neuronal Pyk2 and Src result from PbTx-2 stimulation of VGSC, engagement of these two non-receptor tyrosine kinases involves distinct signaling pathways...
  23. pmc Reported respiratory symptom intensity in asthmatics during exposure to aerosolized Florida red tide toxins
    Alexyz Milian
    Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA
    J Asthma 44:583-7. 2007
    ..This is the first study to examine the intensity of reported respiratory symptoms in asthmatics after a 1-hour exposure to Florida red tide...
  24. pmc Brevetoxins, like ciguatoxins, are potent ichthyotoxic neurotoxins that accumulate in fish
    Jerome P Naar
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, NC 28409, USA
    Toxicon 50:707-23. 2007
    ..Concentrations were highest in fish liver and stomach contents, and increased during and immediately following the bloom. The persistence of brevetoxins in the fish food web was followed for 1 year after the K. brevis bloom...
  25. pmc Gambierol acts as a functional antagonist of neurotoxin site 5 on voltage-gated sodium channels in cerebellar granule neurons
    K T LePage
    Department of Biology, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:174-9. 2007
    ..6 nM). These results provide evidence for gambierol acting as a functional antagonist of neurotoxin site 5 on neuronal VGSCs...
  26. pmc Marine biology. Florida red tide brews up drug lead for cystic fibrosis
    Carol Potera
    Science 316:1561-2. 2007
  27. pmc An electrochemiluminescence-based competitive displacement immunoassay for the type-2 brevetoxins in oyster extracts
    Mark A Poli
    United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    J AOAC Int 90:173-8. 2007
    ..We believe this assay could be useful as a regulatory screening tool and could support pharmacokinetic studies in animals and clinical evaluation of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning victims...
  28. pmc Brevetoxin inhalation alters the pulmonary response to influenza A in the male F344 rat
    Janet M Benson
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 74:313-24. 2011
    ..These results suggest that repeated inhalation exposure to brevetoxin may delay virus particle clearance and recovery from influenza A infection in the rat lung...
  29. pmc Total synthesis of (-)-brevisin: a concise synthesis of a new marine polycyclic ether
    Takefumi Kuranaga
    Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Org Lett 13:696-9. 2011
    ..The title compound was synthesized in only 29 steps (longest linear sequence) from commercially available starting materials. The synthesis provided over 70 mg of a marine polycyclic ether compound...
  30. ncbi Repeated exposure to aerosolized brevetoxin-3 induces prolonged airway hyperresponsiveness and lung inflammation in sheep
    Julia Zaias
    University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Division of Comparative Pathology, Miami, Florida, 33140 USA
    Inhal Toxicol 23:205-11. 2011
    ..g., asthma). Although environmental monitoring indicates that toxins remain airborne for up to 4 consecutive days, there is little information on airway responses after multiple-day exposures...
  31. ncbi Brevetoxin 2 alters expression of apoptotic, DNA damage, and cytokine genes in Jurkat cells
    Rachel N Murrell
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    Hum Exp Toxicol 30:182-91. 2011
    ..The gene expression data supports the idea that brevetoxins trigger complex reactions involving both inflammation and cell death...
  32. ncbi Brevisin: an aberrant polycyclic ether structure from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and its implications for polyether assembly
    Masayuki Satake
    Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K Moss Lane, Wilmington, North Carolina 28409, USA
    J Org Chem 74:989-94. 2009
    ..Brevisin was found to inhibit the binding of [(3)H]-PbTx-3 to its binding site on the voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes...
  33. pmc Sodium channel activation augments NMDA receptor function and promotes neurite outgrowth in immature cerebrocortical neurons
    Joju George
    Department of Pharmacology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska 68178, USA
    J Neurosci 29:3288-301. 2009
    ..Voltage-gated sodium channel activators may accordingly represent a novel pharmacologic strategy to regulate neuronal plasticity through an NMDA receptor and Src family kinase-dependent mechanism...
  34. pmc Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks
    Sara E Kuhar
    University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
    Risk Anal 29:963-9. 2009
    ..Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides...
  35. ncbi Brevetoxins 2, 3, 6, and 9 show variability in potency and cause significant induction of DNA damage and apoptosis in Jurkat E6-1 cells
    Rachel N Murrell
    Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695 7633, USA
    Arch Toxicol 83:1009-19. 2009
    ..The conclusions are that brevetoxins affect cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion, are genotoxic, and cause cell death through an apoptotic mechanism...
  36. pmc Exposure and effect assessment of aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma
    Lora E Fleming
    National Science Foundation National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Oceans and Human Health Center, University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1095-100. 2009
    ....
  37. pmc The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms
    Porter Hoagland
    Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:1239-43. 2009
    ..brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans...
  38. ncbi Ciguatoxin-induced catecholamine secretion in bovine chromaffin cells: mechanism of action and reversible inhibition by brevenal
    Truong D Nguyen-Huu
    Queensland Brain Institute and School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Australia
    Toxicon 56:792-6. 2010
    ..This effect is partially reversible. Our results therefore raise the prospect of finding functional antagonists for P-CTX-1B that could be useful for the treatment of ciguatera...
  39. pmc Characterization of Florida red tide aerosol and the temporal profile of aerosol concentration
    Yung Sung Cheng
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Toxicon 55:922-9. 2010
    ..The temporal profile of the Florida red tide aerosol during a sampling period could be explained generally with the variation of wind direction...
  40. ncbi Evaluation of IOM personal sampler at different flow rates
    Yue Zhou
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 7:88-93. 2010
    ..The test results indicate that the IOM sampler can be used at higher flow rates...
  41. pmc Characterization of tamulamides A and B, polyethers isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis
    Laura T Truxal
    Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, P O Box 357940, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Nat Prod 73:536-40. 2010
    ..However, unlike the brevetoxins, tamulamides A and B showed no toxicity to fish at doses up to 200 nM and did not cause significant bronchoconstriction in sheep pulmonary assays...
  42. ncbi Personal exposure to aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins)
    Yung Sung Cheng
    Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    J Occup Environ Hyg 7:326-31. 2010
    ..Results showed that the personal sample might provide an estimate of individual exposure level. Nasal swab samples showed that brevetoxins indeed were inhaled and deposited in the nasal passage during the March 2005 red tide event...
  43. ncbi Total synthesis and structural confirmation of brevisamide, a new marine cyclic ether alkaloid from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis
    Takefumi Kuranaga
    Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Org Lett 11:217-20. 2009
    ..A synthetic highlight is the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling between an ether ring fragment and a dienol side chain. This result confirmed the structure of 1 isolated from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis...