GIGANTEA

Summary

Gene Symbol: GIGANTEA
Description: gigantea protein (GI)
Alias: GIGANTEA, T22J18.6, T22J18_6
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. pmc GIGANTEA regulates phytochrome A-mediated photomorphogenesis independently of its role in the circadian clock
    Karina Andrea Oliverio
    IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Plant Physiol 144:495-502. 2007
  2. pmc The circadian oscillator gene GIGANTEA mediates a long-term response of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock to sucrose
    Neil Dalchau
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5104-9. 2011
  3. doi GIGANTEA is a component of a regulatory pathway determining wall ingrowth deposition in phloem parenchyma transfer cells of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Joshua Edwards
    Plant Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle NSW 2308, Australia
    Plant J 63:651-61. 2010
  4. ncbi Oxidative stress tolerance and longevity in Arabidopsis: the late-flowering mutant gigantea is tolerant to paraquat
    J Kurepa
    Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
    Plant J 14:759-64. 1998
  5. pmc The GIGANTEA-regulated microRNA172 mediates photoperiodic flowering independent of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis
    Jae Hoon Jung
    Molecular Signaling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    Plant Cell 19:2736-48. 2007
  6. pmc FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in Arabidopsis
    Mariko Sawa
    Department of Biochemistry, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 318:261-5. 2007
  7. ncbi ZEITLUPE is a circadian photoreceptor stabilized by GIGANTEA in blue light
    Woe Yeon Kim
    Department of Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology Plant Biotechnology Center, Ohio State University, 054 Rightmire Hall, 1060 Carmack Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Nature 449:356-60. 2007
  8. pmc CONSTANS and the CCAAT box binding complex share a functionally important domain and interact to regulate flowering of Arabidopsis
    Stephan Wenkel
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Plant Cell 18:2971-84. 2006
  9. pmc GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation
    Ellen L Martin-Tryon
    Section of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Plant Physiol 143:473-86. 2007
  10. pmc The molecular basis of temperature compensation in the Arabidopsis circadian clock
    Peter D Gould
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 18:1177-87. 2006

Scientific Experts

  • Mariko Sawa
  • M Koornneef
  • Neil Dalchau
  • Marcus T Brock
  • Woe Yeon Kim
  • Joanna Putterill
  • Yumi Kim
  • George Coupland
  • Hee Jin Park
  • Jeongsik Kim
  • David E Somers
  • Hong Gil Nam
  • Seth J Davis
  • Ellen L Martin-Tryon
  • Fabio Fornara
  • Marek M Galka
  • Young Hun Song
  • Markus C Berns
  • Sang Yeol Lee
  • Joon Yung Cha
  • Matteo Riboni
  • Yingying Han
  • Dae Jin Yun
  • Eigo Ando
  • Miji Yeom
  • Hyunmin Kim
  • Junhyun Lim
  • Daehee Hwang
  • Moyra M Black
  • Joshua Edwards
  • Frederic Cremer
  • Markus Günl
  • Jae Woong Yu
  • Karine David
  • Amanda C Wollenberg
  • Hideaki Kawamura
  • Zhaojun Ding
  • Stacey L Harmer
  • Jae Hoon Jung
  • Karina Andrea Oliverio
  • Andrew J Millar
  • Raechel Milich
  • Peter D Gould
  • Alon Samach
  • Stephan Wenkel
  • Sumire Fujiwara
  • Mingjie Chen
  • Judith Paltiel
  • Shuqing Cao
  • Tsuyoshi Mizoguchi
  • Tong Seung Tseng
  • Mayu Nakagawa
  • Yasuyuki Takahashi
  • Alfredo Sanchez-Villarreal
  • Michele C Loewen
  • Suzanne R Abrams
  • Peter C Loewen
  • Amaury de Montaigu
  • David R J Palmer
  • Adrian J Cutler
  • Ken M Nelson
  • Leann M Buhrow
  • Bruno Huettel
  • Jacek Switala
  • Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat
  • Nandhakishore Rajagopalan
  • Michael J MacCoss
  • Ingmar Bürstel
  • Richard S Johnson
  • Daniel A Estrada
  • Somi K Kim
  • Reka Toth
  • Jonas R Klasen
  • Takato Imaizumi
  • Samson Simon
  • Martin Hartke
  • Karl Nordstrom
  • Feng Ming
  • Hyeong Cheol Park
  • Wei Wang
  • Masato Ohnishi
  • Javier Pérez-Hormaeche
  • Yin Wang
  • Jose M Pardo
  • Richard A Gallenstein
  • Toshinori Kinoshita
  • Su Jung Park
  • Ray A Bressan
  • Li Ning
  • Seungmin Han

Detail Information

Publications40

  1. pmc GIGANTEA regulates phytochrome A-mediated photomorphogenesis independently of its role in the circadian clock
    Karina Andrea Oliverio
    IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Plant Physiol 144:495-502. 2007
    b>GIGANTEA (GI) is a nuclear protein involved in the promotion of flowering by long days, in light input to the circadian clock, and in seedling photomorphogenesis under continuous red light but not far-red light (FR)...
  2. pmc The circadian oscillator gene GIGANTEA mediates a long-term response of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock to sucrose
    Neil Dalchau
    Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5104-9. 2011
    ..The mathematical studies identified GIGANTEA (GI) as being associated with sucrose sensing...
  3. doi GIGANTEA is a component of a regulatory pathway determining wall ingrowth deposition in phloem parenchyma transfer cells of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Joshua Edwards
    Plant Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle NSW 2308, Australia
    Plant J 63:651-61. 2010
    ..analysis of public microarray datasets derived from the leaves of plants subjected to these treatments identified GIGANTEA (GI) as one of 46 genes that are commonly up-regulated twofold or more under both high-light and cold conditions...
  4. ncbi Oxidative stress tolerance and longevity in Arabidopsis: the late-flowering mutant gigantea is tolerant to paraquat
    J Kurepa
    Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
    Plant J 14:759-64. 1998
    ..Furthermore, the mutant gigantea (gi-3) with the longest delay in flowering time had a high tolerance level to paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
  5. pmc The GIGANTEA-regulated microRNA172 mediates photoperiodic flowering independent of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis
    Jae Hoon Jung
    Molecular Signaling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    Plant Cell 19:2736-48. 2007
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the GIGANTEA (GI)-regulated miR172 defines a unique genetic pathway that regulates photoperiodic flowering by inducing ..
  6. pmc FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in Arabidopsis
    Mariko Sawa
    Department of Biochemistry, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 318:261-5. 2007
    ..The FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1), and GIGANTEA (GI) proteins regulate CO transcription in Arabidopsis...
  7. ncbi ZEITLUPE is a circadian photoreceptor stabilized by GIGANTEA in blue light
    Woe Yeon Kim
    Department of Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology Plant Biotechnology Center, Ohio State University, 054 Rightmire Hall, 1060 Carmack Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Nature 449:356-60. 2007
    ..Here we show that GIGANTEA (GI) is essential to establish and sustain oscillations of ZTL by a direct protein-protein interaction...
  8. pmc CONSTANS and the CCAAT box binding complex share a functionally important domain and interact to regulate flowering of Arabidopsis
    Stephan Wenkel
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Plant Cell 18:2971-84. 2006
    ..During plant evolution, the number of genes encoding HAP proteins was greatly amplified, and these proteins may have acquired novel functions, such as mediating the effect of CCT domain proteins on gene expression...
  9. pmc GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation
    Ellen L Martin-Tryon
    Section of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Plant Physiol 143:473-86. 2007
    ..Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI)...
  10. pmc The molecular basis of temperature compensation in the Arabidopsis circadian clock
    Peter D Gould
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
    Plant Cell 18:1177-87. 2006
    ..affects the rhythmic accumulation of transcripts encoding the clock components TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), GIGANTEA (GI), and the partially redundant genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY)...
  11. ncbi Involvement of GIGANTEA gene in the regulation of the cold stress response in Arabidopsis
    Shuqing Cao
    School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, People s Republic of China
    Plant Cell Rep 24:683-90. 2005
    The Arabidopsis GIGANTEA (GI) gene has been shown to regulate several developmental processes, including photoperiod-mediated flowering, phytochrome B signaling, circadian clock, and carbohydrate metabolism...
  12. pmc Distinct roles of GIGANTEA in promoting flowering and regulating circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis
    Tsuyoshi Mizoguchi
    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8572, Japan
    Plant Cell 17:2255-70. 2005
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, a circadian clock-controlled flowering pathway comprising the genes GIGANTEA (GI), CONSTANS (CO), and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) promotes flowering specifically under long days...
  13. pmc SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movements
    Tong Seung Tseng
    Department of Plant Biology and Plant Molecular Genetics Institute, University of Minesota, St Paul, Minesota 55108, USA
    Plant Cell 16:1550-63. 2004
    ..b>GIGANTEA (GI) was recovered from a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the TPR domain...
  14. pmc GIGANTEA is a nuclear protein involved in phytochrome signaling in Arabidopsis
    E Huq
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:9789-94. 2000
    ..locus by using the T-DNA insertion and found that the disrupted gene is identical to the recently described GIGANTEA (GI) gene identified as being involved in control of flowering time...
  15. pmc Distinct roles of FKF1, Gigantea, and Zeitlupe proteins in the regulation of Constans stability in Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering
    Young Hun Song
    Departments of Biology and Department of Life Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443 749, Korea and
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:17672-7. 2014
    ..Here we demonstrated that the FKF1-interacting proteins Gigantea (GI) and Zeitlupe (ZTL) are involved in CO stability regulation...
  16. pmc Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase
    Marek M Galka
    National Research Council of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    PLoS ONE 10:e0133033. 2015
    ..While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation...
  17. pmc The GI-CDF module of Arabidopsis affects freezing tolerance and growth as well as flowering
    Fabio Fornara
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linne Weg 10, D 50829, Cologne, Germany Department of Biosciences, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Plant J 81:695-706. 2015
    ..The GIGANTEA (GI) protein is central in diverse signaling pathways, including photoperiodic, sugar and light signaling ..
  18. pmc A role for GIGANTEA: keeping the balance between flowering and salinity stress tolerance
    Hee Jin Park
    Division of Applied Life Science BK21 Program Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University Jinju, South Korea
    Plant Signal Behav 8:e24820. 2013
    ..The model shows GI as a transitory regulator of SOS pathway activity whose presence or amount connects flowering to environmental conditions. ..
  19. pmc TWIN SISTER OF FT, GIGANTEA, and CONSTANS have a positive but indirect effect on blue light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis
    Eigo Ando
    Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464 8602, Japan
    Plant Physiol 162:1529-38. 2013
    ..We show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), CONSTANS (CO), and GIGANTEA (GI) provide a positive effect on stomatal opening...
  20. pmc GIGANTEA enables drought escape response via abscisic acid-dependent activation of the florigens and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS
    Matteo Riboni
    Department of Life Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Plant Physiol 162:1706-19. 2013
    ..flowering time mutants under DE-triggering conditions revealed the central role of the flower-promoting gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in the DE response...
  21. pmc Evening expression of arabidopsis GIGANTEA is controlled by combinatorial interactions among evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs
    Markus C Berns
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D 50829 Cologne, Germany
    Plant Cell 26:3999-4018. 2014
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA (GI) contributes to photoperiodic flowering, circadian clock control, and photoreceptor signaling, and its ..
  22. pmc The suppression of WRKY44 by GIGANTEA-miR172 pathway is involved in drought response of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Yingying Han
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e73541. 2013
    ..In this study, plants with loss-of-function mutations of GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) exhibited abnormal drought-escape phenotypes...
  23. pmc The F-box protein ZEITLUPE controls stability and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of GIGANTEA
    Jeongsik Kim
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Development 140:4060-9. 2013
    ..Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL...
  24. doi Balanced nucleocytosolic partitioning defines a spatial network to coordinate circadian physiology in plants
    Yumi Kim
    Department of New Biology, DGIST, Daegu 711 873, Republic of Korea
    Dev Cell 26:73-85. 2013
    ..Here we show, using experimentation and mathematical modeling, that spatial segregation of GIGANTEA (GI), a critical component of plant circadian systems, into nuclear and cytosolic compartments leads to ..
  25. doi Release of SOS2 kinase from sequestration with GIGANTEA determines salt tolerance in Arabidopsis
    Woe Yeon Kim
    Division of Applied Life Science BK21 program, Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660 701, South Korea
    Nat Commun 4:1352. 2013
    ..Here we report a link between the flowering time regulator, GIGANTEA (GI), and adaptation to salt stress that is mechanistically based on GI degradation under saline conditions, thus ..
  26. pmc GIGANTEA and EARLY FLOWERING 4 in Arabidopsis exhibit differential phase-specific genetic influences over a diurnal cycle
    Yumi Kim
    Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, POSTECH, Hyojadong, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 790 784, Republic of Korea
    Mol Plant 5:678-87. 2012
    The endogenous circadian clock regulates many physiological processes related to plant survival and adaptability. GIGANTEA (GI), a clock-associated protein, contributes to the maintenance of circadian period length and amplitude, and also ..
  27. pmc Acceleration of flowering during shade avoidance in Arabidopsis alters the balance between FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated repression and photoperiodic induction of flowering
    Amanda C Wollenberg
    Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Plant Physiol 148:1681-94. 2008
    ..A low red to far-red ratio required the photoperiod-pathway genes GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) to fully accelerate flowering in long days and did not promote flowering in short days...
  28. pmc GIGANTEA directly activates Flowering Locus T in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Mariko Sawa
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0130, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11698-703. 2011
    ..We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) regulates the timing of CO expression, together with FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX protein 1...
  29. doi Expression, purification and characterisation of GIGANTEA: a circadian clock-controlled regulator of photoperiodic flowering in plants
    Moyra M Black
    AgResearch Structural Biology Laboratory, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Protein Expr Purif 76:197-204. 2011
    The Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) GIGANTEA (GI) gene is a central component of the photoperiodic flowering pathway...
  30. pmc Analysis of a post-translational steroid induction system for GIGANTEA in Arabidopsis
    Markus Günl
    Plant Molecular Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
    BMC Plant Biol 9:141. 2009
    To investigate the link between the flowering time gene GIGANTEA (GI) and downstream genes, an inducible GI system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh...
  31. pmc COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stability
    Jae Woong Yu
    Department of Plant Science and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Korea
    Mol Cell 32:617-30. 2008
    ..We propose a model in which ELF3 acts as a substrate adaptor, enabling COP1 to modulate light input signal to the circadian clock through targeted destabilization of GI...
  32. ncbi Characterization of genetic links between two clock-associated genes, GI and PRR5 in the current clock model of Arabidopsis thaliana
    Hideaki Kawamura
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:2770-4. 2008
    The GI (GIGANTEA) and PRR5 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 5) genes are crucially implicated in the Arabidopsis circadian clock...
  33. ncbi [Molecular mechanism by which plant determines flowering timing with circadian clock]
    Mariko Sawa
    Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 53:739-46. 2008
  34. ncbi Sequence diversity and haplotype associations with phenotypic responses to crowding: GIGANTEA affects fruit set in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Marcus T Brock
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, 1445 Gortner Avenue, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
    Mol Ecol 16:3050-62. 2007
    ..For one gene, GIGANTEA (GI), we detected significant haplotype structure...
  35. pmc TIME FOR COFFEE encodes a nuclear regulator in the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock
    Zhaojun Ding
    Department of Plant Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne D 50829, Germany
    Plant Cell 19:1522-36. 2007
    ..Neither its abundance nor its cellular distribution was found to be clock regulated. We suggest that TIC encodes a nucleus-acting clock regulator working close to the central oscillator...
  36. ncbi Novel roles for GIGANTEA revealed under environmental conditions that modify its expression in Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula
    Judith Paltiel
    The Robert H Smith Institute for Plant Sciences and Genetics, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University, P O Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
    Planta 224:1255-68. 2006
    b>GIGANTEA (GI) is a large nuclear protein which is involved in circadian-clock function, red-light signaling and photoperiodic flowering...
  37. ncbi RFI2, a RING-domain zinc finger protein, negatively regulates CONSTANS expression and photoperiodic flowering
    Mingjie Chen
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, 55108, USA
    Plant J 46:823-33. 2006
    ..Both co-2 and gigantea-2 (gi-2) were epistatic to rfi2-1 in their flowering responses...
  38. ncbi Flowering of Arabidopsis cop1 mutants in darkness
    Mayu Nakagawa
    Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Sapporo, 060 0810 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 45:398-406. 2004
    ..The delay in flowering in the double mutants was not strongly influenced by the light conditions, whereas that of the gi-2 cop1-6 double mutant was reduced in darkness...
  39. ncbi The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana
    W J Soppe
    Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Dreijenlaan 2, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Development 126:4763-70. 1999
    ..By comparing the length of the juvenile and adult phases of vegetative growth for wild-type, efs and the double mutant plants, it is apparent that efs mainly reduces the length of the adult phase...
  40. ncbi Auxin polar transport and flower formation in Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with indoleacetamide hydrolase (iaaH) gene
    M Oka
    College of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 40:231-7. 1999
    ..These results suggest that the construction of the system of auxin polar transport and its normal activities are essential for the differentiation and the formation of floral meristem in the early growth stage of Arabidopsis thaliana...