Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Txnrd1
Description: thioredoxin reductase 1
Alias: thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic, NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase, selenoprotein oxidoreductase, thioredoxin reductase TR1
- Molecular cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial selenocysteine-containing thioredoxin reductase from rat liverS R Lee
Laboratory of Cell Signaling, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 274:4722-34. 1999....
- Rat and calf thioredoxin reductase are homologous to glutathione reductase with a carboxyl-terminal elongation containing a conserved catalytically active penultimate selenocysteine residueL Zhong
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 273:8581-91. 1998..This showed that the carboxyl-terminal motif was essential for the catalytic activity of the enzyme...
- High-level expression in Escherichia coli of selenocysteine-containing rat thioredoxin reductase utilizing gene fusions with engineered bacterial-type SECIS elements and co-expression with the selA, selB and selC genesE S Arner
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, S 171 77, Sweden
J Mol Biol 292:1003-16. 1999..These results show that with the strategy utilized here, the capacity of selenoprotein synthesis in E. coli is more than sufficient for making possible the use of the bacteria for production of recombinant selenoproteins...
- Essential role of selenium in the catalytic activities of mammalian thioredoxin reductase revealed by characterization of recombinant enzymes with selenocysteine mutationsL Zhong
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 275:18121-8. 2000..Thus selenium is required for the catalytic activities of TrxR explaining the essential role of this trace element in cell growth...
- Three-dimensional structure of a mammalian thioredoxin reductase: implications for mechanism and evolution of a selenocysteine-dependent enzymeT Sandalova
Division of Molecular Structural Biology and Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9533-8. 2001..Our results suggest that mammalian TrxR evolved from the GR scaffold rather than from its prokaryotic counterpart. This evolutionary switch renders cell growth dependent on selenium...
- The mammalian cytosolic selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase reduces ubiquinone. A novel mechanism for defense against oxidative stressLing Xia
Department of Microbiology, Pathology, and Immunology, Division of Pathology, F46, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, SE 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 278:2141-6. 2003..These data demonstrate that the selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase is an important selenium-dependent ubiquinone reductase and can explain how selenium and ubiquinone, by a combined action, may protect the cell from oxidative damage...
- Rapid induction of cell death by selenium-compromised thioredoxin reductase 1 but not by the fully active enzyme containing selenocysteineKarin Anestål
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 278:15966-72. 2003..The direct cellular effects of selenium-compromised forms of TrxR1 may be important for the pathophysiology of selenium deficiency as well as for the efficacy of antiproliferative drugs targeting the selenocysteine moiety of this enzyme...
- Penultimate selenocysteine residue replaced by cysteine in thioredoxin reductase from selenium-deficient rat liverJun Lu
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
FASEB J 23:2394-402. 2009..These results show a novel mechanism for decoding the UGA stop codon, inserting cysteine to make a full-length enzyme that may be required for selenium assimilation...
- Thioredoxin reductase is irreversibly modified by curcumin: a novel molecular mechanism for its anticancer activityJianguo Fang
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 280:25284-90. 2005..Modification of TrxR by curcumin provides a possible mechanistic explanation for its cancer preventive activity, shifting the enzyme from an antioxidant to a prooxidant...
- Mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin-glutathione reductase. Roles in disulfide bond formation and sperm maturationDan Su
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA
J Biol Chem 280:26491-8. 2005..Together, TGR and GPx4 can serve as a novel disulfide bond formation system. Both enzymes contain a catalytic selenocysteine consistent with the role of selenium in male reproduction...
- Differential regulation of expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in rat liver and kidneyL K Crosley
Vascular Health Programme, Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
Arch Biochem Biophys 459:178-88. 2007....
- Crystal structure and catalysis of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1Qing Cheng
Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 284:3998-4008. 2009....
- Reduction of Tetrathionate by Mammalian Thioredoxin ReductaseVivek Narayan
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, and Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States
Biochemistry 54:5121-4. 2015..Here we show that the rat liver selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd1, TR1) efficiently reduces tetrathionate in vitro...
- Mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1: roles in redox homoeostasis and characterization of cellular targetsAnton A Turanov
Department of Biochemistry and Redox Biology Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, U S A
Biochem J 430:285-93. 2010..Diminished hepatic TR1 function was associated with elevated Trx1 levels, but this protein was mostly in the oxidized state. Overall, this study provides evidence for the key role of the TR1-Trx1 pair in redox homoeostasis...
- Thioredoxin reductase was nitrated in the aging heart after myocardial ischemia/reperfusionKe Wang
1 Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P R China
Rejuvenation Res 16:377-85. 2013..Interventions that inhibit nitration and restore TrxR activity might be a therapy for attenuating enhanced MI/R injury in aging heart...
- Sec-containing TrxR1 is essential for self-sufficiency of cells by control of glucose-derived H2O2X Peng
Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Cell Death Dis 5:e1235. 2014..Here we show that the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), encoded by the Txnrd1 gene, is an essential enzyme for such protection...
- Deep-sea water containing selenium provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1Chih Ching Yang
Department of Planning, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan Department of Internal Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
PLoS ONE 9:e96006. 2014..DSW, which contains selenium, provides intestinal protection against duodenal ulcers through the upregulation of Bcl-2 and thioredoxin reductase 1. ..
- Thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system involvement in cerebellar granule cell apoptosisA Bobba
Istituto di Biomembrane e Bioenergetica, CNR, Via Amendola 165 A, 70126, Bari, Italy
Apoptosis 19:1497-508. 2014..When the reduced form of Trx is externally added to apoptotic cultures, a significant reduction in cell death is achieved confirming that a well-functioning thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system is required for survival of CGCs. ..
- The conserved Trp114 residue of thioredoxin reductase 1 has a redox sensor-like function triggering oligomerization and crosslinking upon oxidative stress related to cell deathJ Xu
Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
Cell Death Dis 6:e1616. 2015....
- Thioredoxin reductase 1 haplotypes modify familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onsetJohn Mitchell
Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Department of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
Free Radic Biol Med 46:202-11. 2009..The gene TXNRD1 was therefore screened for association with FALS...
- Thioredoxin reductase 1 is upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques: specific induction of the promoter in human macrophages by oxidized low-density lipoproteinsC Furman
INSERM U 545, and Institut Pasteur de Lille, 59019 Lille, France
Free Radic Biol Med 37:71-85. 2004....
- Neuroprotective effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on spinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in ratsLei Wang
Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Youyi Rd, Chongqing 400016, China wlei
J Ethnopharmacol 124:219-23. 2009..The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on spinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and explore the possible mechanism of the protective effect...
- Expression changes of dopaminergic system-related genes in PC12 cells induced by manganese, silver, or copper nanoparticlesJianyong Wang
Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Rd, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
Neurotoxicology 30:926-33. 2009..The expression of Txnrd1 was up-regulated after the Cu-90 treatment and the expression of Gpx1 was down-regulated after Ag-15 or Cu-90 ..
- Regulation of thyroid oxidative state by thioredoxin reductase has a crucial role in thyroid responses to iodide excessSuzana G Leoni
Instituto de Investigaciones Biome dicas Alberto Sols Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Universidad Auto noma de Madrid, Spain
Mol Endocrinol 25:1924-35. 2011....
- Selective metabolism of hypothiocyanous acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase promotes lung innate immunity and antioxidant defenseJoshua D Chandler
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
J Biol Chem 288:18421-8. 2013..These data support a novel selective mechanism of host defense in mammals wherein HOSCN formation simultaneously inhibits pathogens while sparing host tissue...
- Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expressionNicoletta Vesentini
Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
BMC Res Notes 5:124. 2012..Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression...
- The effect of sodium selenite on liver growth and thioredoxin reductase expression in regenerative and neoplastic liver cell proliferationSuvd Erkhembayar
Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Biochem Pharmacol 83:687-93. 2012..Furthermore, the over expression of TrxR1 in liver neoplasia can only partly be explained by increased growth...
- Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and cognitive impairments via upregulation of thioredoxin reductases in stressed ratsYe Peng
Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an 710032, China
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:1018-25. 2010....
- Hepatic transcriptome and proteome responses against diethyl maleate-induced glutathione depletion in the ratShusuke Yamauchi
Medicinal Safety Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co, Ltd, Shizuoka, Japan
Arch Toxicol 85:1045-56. 2011..a number of glutathione depletion-responsive genes reported previously, such as Trib3, Srxn1, Myc, Asns, Igfbp1, Txnrd1, or Hmox1, suggesting that these genes are robust mRNA biomarkers for evaluating hepatic glutathione depletion...
- Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin system proteins-immunolocalization in the rat central nervous systemMaria Laura Aon-Bertolino
Universidad de Buenos Aires Facultad de Medicina and Comisión Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Biochim Biophys Acta 1810:93-110. 2011....
- Vitamin E ameliorates iodine-induced cytotoxicity in thyroidJiashu Yu
The Endocrine Institute of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, People s Republic of China
J Endocrinol 209:299-306. 2011..These results show that excess iodine leads to thyroid damage and VE supplementation can partly ameliorate iodine-induced thyroid cytotoxicity...
- Effects of hyperoxia on cytoplasmic thioredoxin system in alveolar type epithelial cells of premature ratsRuiyan Shan
Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 31:258-63. 2011....
- Nitric oxide-dependent suppression of thioredoxin-interacting protein expression enhances thioredoxin activityP Christian Schulze
Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2666-72. 2006..We show the NO-dependent transcriptional regulation of the antioxidative thioredoxin system...
- Motexafin gadolinium, a tumor-selective drug targeting thioredoxin reductase and ribonucleotide reductaseSeyed Isaac Hashemy
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 281:10691-7. 2006..This may explain the effects of the drug on cancer cells, which often overproduce TrxR and have induced RNR for replication and repair...
- Effects of dietary selenium on post-ischemic expression of antioxidant mRNAKylie Venardos
Heart Foundation Research Centre, School of Health Science, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Australia
Mol Cell Biochem 270:131-8. 2005..Our results show selenium modulates the cardiac mRNA expression of thioredoxin and glutathione related enzymes post ischemia-reperfusion, and impacts on tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion...
- Identification and characterization of TRP14, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa. New insights into the specificity of thioredoxin functionWoojin Jeong
Laboratory of Cell Signaling, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 279:3142-50. 2004..These results suggest that TRP14 and Trx1 might act on distinct substrate proteins...
- Functional expression of rat thioredoxin reductase: selenocysteine insertion sequence element is essential for the active enzymeN Fujiwara
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Osaka University Medical School, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Biochem J 340:439-44. 1999..These data clearly showed a requirement of selenium for the formation of functional TR protein...
- Post-transcriptional defects of antioxidant selenoenzymes cause oxidative stress under methylmercury exposureFusako Usuki
Department of Clinical Medicine, National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058 18 Hama, Minamata 867 0008, Japan
J Biol Chem 286:6641-9. 2011..Treatment with ebselen, a seleno-organic compound, effectively suppressed oxidative stress and protected cells against MeHg-induced relative selenium deficiency and cytotoxicity...
- Effects of selenite and chelating agents on mammalian thioredoxin reductase inhibited by mercury: implications for treatment of mercury poisoningCristina M L Carvalho
Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
FASEB J 25:370-81. 2011..These results stress the role of TrxR as a target of mercurials and provide the mechanism of selenite as a detoxification agent for mercury poisoning...
- [The change of thioredoxin system in myocardial tissue of type 2 diabetic rats undergoing myocardial injury]Xiao qin Zhao
Department of Physiology, Key Laboratory of Cellular Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China
Sheng Li Xue Bao 62:261-8. 2010..These results suggest diabetes can decrease myocardial Trx, TR activity, inducing myocardial cell apoptosis and heart injury. The inhibitory effect of diabetes is mainly associated with TXNIP up-regulation and Trx nitration...
- Mitochondrial respiratory chain and thioredoxin reductase regulate intermembrane Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: implications for mitochondrial energy metabolism and apoptosisPedro Iñarrea
Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Biochem J 405:173-9. 2007..These findings suggest that H2O2, superoxide and TxrR-1 regulate IMS SOD1 activity reversibly, and that the active enzyme is implicated in protecting vital mitochondrial functions...
- The effect of iron(III) on the activity of selenoenzymes and oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Interaction with natural antioxidants and deferiproneAnna Hodková
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
Hemoglobin 34:278-83. 2010..Further studies including the combination of synthetic and natural compounds (e.g., flavonoids) are being considered for their possible development and clinical use in antioxidant therapies...
- Antioxidant defenses in the rat placenta in late gestation: increased labyrinthine expression of superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase 3, and uncoupling protein 2Megan L Jones
Schools of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Biol Reprod 83:254-60. 2010..Expression of several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (Sod1, Sod2, Sod3, Cat, Gpx3, Txn1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, and Txnrd3) and Ucp2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in the labyrinth (LZ) and junctional zones (JZ) ..
- Selective targeting of selenocysteine in thioredoxin reductase by the half mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide in lung epithelial cellsYi Hua Jan
Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 23:1045-53. 2010..Taken together, these data suggest that sulfur mustard vesicants target TrxR and that this may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and tissue injury...
- Overexpression of thioredoxins 1 and 2 increases retinal ganglion cell survival after pharmacologically induced oxidative stress, optic nerve transection, and in experimental glaucomaJoseph Caprioli
Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 107:161-5. 2009....
- Simultaneous expression of glutathione, thioredoxin-1, and their reductases in nerve transected hypoglossal motor neurons of ratIsuzu Hama
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University, Graduate School of Medicine, 1 4 3 Asahimachi, Abeno Ku, Osaka 545 8585, Japan
Brain Res 1306:1-7. 2010..These data suggest that the two major redox systems, GSH/GSHr and TRX1/TRXr1, are simultaneously activated in injured neurons, and likely provide protection of injured neurons against oxidative stress...
- Modulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by cytochrome P450 induction revealed by metabonomics and transcriptional profilingNelly Aranibar
Bristol Myers Squibb Co, Province Line Road and Route 206, Princeton, NJ 08543 4000, USA
Magn Reson Chem 47:S12-9. 2009..enzymes regulating ascorbic acid reutilization including glutaredoxin reductase (Glrx2) and thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd1)...
- Cell death by SecTRAPs: thioredoxin reductase as a prooxidant killer of cellsKarin Anestål
Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
PLoS ONE 3:e1846. 2008..SecTRAPs are devoid of thioredoxin reductase activity but can induce rapid cell death in cultured cancer cell lines by a gain of function...
- Highly active dimeric and low-activity tetrameric forms of selenium-containing rat thioredoxin reductase 1Olle Rengby
Division of Biochemistry, Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Free Radic Biol Med 46:893-904. 2009..The tetrameric forms of the protein could represent hitherto unknown regulatory states of the enzyme...
- Protective effect of tetraethyl pyrazine against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: therapeutic time window and its mechanismJie Jia
Department of Rehabilitation, Huashan Hospital, and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
Thromb Res 123:727-30. 2009..This study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine on temporary focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury...
- Regulation of Kv4 channel expression in failing rat heart by the thioredoxin systemXun Li
Dept of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Univ of Nebraska Medical Ctr, Omaha, NE 68198 5850, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H416-24. 2008..These data suggest that the expression of Kv4.x channels is redox-regulated by the thioredoxin system, which may be a novel therapeutic target to reverse or limit electrical remodeling of the failing heart...