Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Rock2
Description: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2
Alias: ROCK-II, ROK, rho-associated protein kinase 2, ROKalpha, Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 2, RhoA - binding serine/threosine kinase alpha (ROK - alpha), p150 ROK-alpha, p164 ROCK-2, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase II, rhoA-binding kinase 2
- The p160 RhoA-binding kinase ROK alpha is a member of a kinase family and is involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeletonT Leung
Glaxo IMCB Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Mol Cell Biol 16:5313-27. 1996..We recently reported on a p150 serine/threonine kinase (termed ROK alpha) binding RhoA only in its active GTP-bound state and on its cDNA; introduction of RhoA into HeLa cells ..
- ROCK isoform regulation of myosin phosphatase and contractility in vascular smooth muscle cellsYuepeng Wang
Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Circ Res 104:531-40. 2009..Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are expressed in many tissues, yet the isoform-specific roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in vascular smooth muscle and ..
- Aldosterone induction of hepatic stellate cell contraction through activation of RhoA/ROCK-2 signaling pathwayHongli Ji
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
Regul Pept 169:13-20. 2011..This finding may provide a potential therapeutic target for control of cirrhosis and portal hypertension...
- A novel serine/threonine kinase binding the Ras-related RhoA GTPase which translocates the kinase to peripheral membranesT Leung
Glaxo IMCB Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore
J Biol Chem 270:29051-4. 1995..Antibody raised against the kinase domain of the predicted protein, termed ROK alpha (for ROK alpha, RhoA-binding kinase), recognized a ubiquitous 150-kDa protein...
- Pantoprazole decreases gastroesophageal muscle tone in newborn rats via rho-kinase inhibitionChristopher Welsh
Physiology and Experimental Medicine Program, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 307:G390-6. 2014..Further studies addressing the effect of proton pump inhibitors on gastroesophageal muscle contraction are warranted to justify its therapeutic use in gastroesophageal reflux disease. ..
- Rho-Kinase inhibitor fasudil suppresses high glucose-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis through activation of autophagyHuikuan Gao
Department of Cardiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Cardiovasc Ther 34:352-9. 2016..Recent studies have shown that fasudil, a Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, inhibits cardiac cell apoptosis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
- Chelerythrine perturbs lamellar actomyosin filaments by selective inhibition of myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinaseIvan Tan
The Neuroscience Research Partnership, A STAR, Singapore, Singapore
FEBS Lett 585:1260-8. 2011..Together with the Rho effector ROK required for cell rear retraction, they cooperatively regulate cell motility and tumour cell invasion...
- Hyperosmolar glucose induces vasoconstriction through Rho/Rho-kinase pathway in the rat aortaIsmail Un
Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Mersin University, Campus Yenişehir 33169, Mersin, Turkey
Fundam Clin Pharmacol 27:244-51. 2013..Furthermore, RhoA translocation but not ROCK-2 expression markedly increased by hyperosmolar glucose solution. These results may indicate that hyperosmolarity could induce vasoconstriction through Rho/Rho-kinase signalling...
- Y-39983 downregulates RhoA/Rho-associated kinase expression during its promotion of axonal regenerationZijian Yang
Department of Ophthalmology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025, PR China
Oncol Rep 29:1140-6. 2013..The expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
- Role of ROCK upregulation in endothelial and smooth muscle vascular functions in diabetic rat aortaFigen Amber Cicek
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
Cardiovasc Diabetol 12:51. 2013....
- Kamolonol suppresses angiotensin II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular hypertrophy through inhibition of Rho-associated kinase 2 activityMun Sun Kim
Research Center for Drug Discovery Technology, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305 343, Republic of Korea
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 438:318-23. 2013..Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) studies using a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) showed that kamolonol possesses a ..
- Phosphorylation and mRNA splicing of collapsin response mediator protein-2 determine inhibition of rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) II function in carcinoma cell migration and invasionMarie Morgan-Fisher
From the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, and Biotech Research and Innovation Centre BRIC, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, Copenhagen N, 2200, Denmark and
J Biol Chem 288:31229-40. 2013..Recently, we reported collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 as an endogenous ROCK II inhibitor...
- Complex regulation of PKCβ2 and PDK-1/AKT by ROCK2 in diabetic heartGuorong Lin
Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology Research Group, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
PLoS ONE 9:e86520. 2014..The purpose of this study was to investigate if over-activation of ROCK in the diabetic heart leads to direct phosphorylation and activation of PKCβ2, and to determine if their interaction affects PDK-1/Akt signaling...
- The role of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in gender-dependent differences in gastric smooth muscle contractionOthman Al-Shboul
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan
J Physiol Sci 66:85-92. 2016..Expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 protein and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced activation of RhoA and ROCK were measured using a specifically designed ..
- Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and rat vascular smooth muscle cell migration via ROCK and ERK/p38 MAPK pathwaysYing Cui
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Lvshun, Dalian, 116044, People s Republic of China
Mol Cell Biochem 393:255-63. 2014....
- ROCK2 is a major regulator of axonal degeneration, neuronal death and axonal regeneration in the CNSJ C Koch
Department of Neurology, University Medicine Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
Cell Death Dis 5:e1225. 2014..To answer these questions, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors to specifically downregulate ROCK2 and LIM domain kinase (LIMK)-1 in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vitro and in vivo...
- Rho-kinase activation contributes to Lps-induced impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation by endothelin-1 in cultured hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cellsWillson Kwok
Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina
Shock 42:554-61. 2014..Rho-kinase ROCK-2 inhibition restores ET-1-mediated NO production after the LPS pretreatment, in part, through an increase in actin depolymerization. ..
- Improving erectile function of spontaneously hypertensive rats by silencing ROCK2Xiubo Zhu
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Affiliated Hospital, Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou, China
Urology 84:983.e11-8. 2014To improve the erectile function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by silencing Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2).
- 28-Day hindlimb unweighting reduces expression of Rho kinase and inhibits its effects in femoral artery of ratZhong Chao Wang
Department of Aerospace Physiology, Fourth Military Medical University, No 169, Changle West Road, Xi an, 710032, China
J Physiol Biochem 71:205-16. 2015..3) HU significantly decreased ROCK II expression and the effects of ROCK on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) and MLC (P < 0...
- ROCK1 and 2 differentially regulate actomyosin organization to drive cell and synaptic polarityKaren A Newell-Litwa
Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908
J Cell Biol 210:225-42. 2015..We have found that the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, differentially regulate distinct molecular pathways downstream of RhoA, and their coordinated activities drive ..
- A modified "double-hit" induced acute lung injury model in rats and protective effects of tetramethylpyrazine on the injury via Rho/ROCK pathwayShidi Zhao
Department of Pathophysiology, Bengbu Medical College Bengbu 233030, Anhui Province, PR China
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 8:4581-7. 2015..breathing frequency, histological examination, lung W/D-weight ratio, BAL fluid PMNs percentage, MPO activity and ROCK2 mRNA expression. We found inhibiting RhoA/ROCK pathway might attribute to TMP-induced protection against ALI.
- Chronic Rho-kinase inhibition improves left ventricular contractile dysfunction in early type-1 diabetes by increasing myosin cross-bridge extensionMark T Waddingham
Department of Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
Cardiovasc Diabetol 14:92. 2015..Our aim was to examine if chronic ROCK inhibition prevents impaired CB dynamics and LV dysfunction in a rat model of early diabetes, and whether these changes are associated with changes in myofilament phosphorylation state...
- Active Rho kinase (ROK-alpha ) associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and inhibits insulin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cellsNajma Begum
Diabetes Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York 11501, USA
J Biol Chem 277:6214-22. 2002..In control VSMCs, insulin inactivates ROK-alpha, the major Rho kinase isoform in VSMCs, and inhibits thrombin-induced increase in ROK-alpha association with ..
- Vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin-1 on hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle involves Rho-kinase and protein kinase CScott A Barman
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293:L472-9. 2007..These results suggest that both PKC and Rho/Rho-kinase mediate the heightened pulmonary vascular response to ET-1 in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle...
- G protein-coupled estrogen receptor1 (GPER1) may mediate Rho-kinase (ROCK-2) up-regulation in coronary endothelial cellsA H Kurt
Department of Pharmacology, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey
Endocr Regul 47:75-84. 2013..Effect of estrogenic compounds and 17β-estradiol (E2), which induces endothelial cell motility, was investigated on ROCK-2 expression in rat coronary vascular endothelial cells (CVEC)...
- Spironolactone lowers portal hypertension by inhibiting liver fibrosis, ROCK-2 activity and activating NO/PKG pathway in the bile-duct-ligated ratWei Luo
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China
PLoS ONE 7:e34230. 2012..However, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of spionolactone on liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension...
- Rho-associated protein kinase isoforms stimulate proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells through ERK and induction of cyclin D1 and PCNAYing Zhao
Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Liaoning Province, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 432:488-93. 2013..We have reported that ROCK1, rather than ROCK2, induces platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated migration of VSMCs...
- RanBPM is expressed in synaptic layers of the mammalian retina and binds to metabotropic glutamate receptorsAngela Seebahn
Institut für Biochemie Emil Fischer Zentrum, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Fahrstr 17, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
FEBS Lett 582:2453-7. 2008..RanBPM interacts with mGlu2 and other group II and group III receptors, except mGlu6. Our data suggest that RanBPM might be associated with mGlu receptors at synaptic sites...
- Hydroxyfasudil-mediated inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 improves kidney function in rat renal acute ischemia-reperfusion injuryDominik Kentrup
Department of Internal Medicine D, Experimental Nephrology, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
PLoS ONE 6:e26419. 2011..We conclude from our study that ROCK-inhibition by hydroxyfasudil significantly improves kidney function in a rat model of acute renal IRI and is therefore a potential new therapeutic option in humans...
- Molecular pathways regulating contractility in rat uterus through late gestation and parturitionMichael J Taggart
Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Am J Obstet Gynecol 207:76.e15-24. 2012..Our objective was to assess expression of key constituents of these pathways, in alliance with contractile function, through late gestation and during term and preterm labor...
- Rho kinase activation plays a major role as a mediator of irreversible injury in reperfused myocardiumShabaz A Hamid
Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292:H2598-606. 2007..Inhibition of ROCK at reperfusion onset limits infarct size through an Akt/eNOS-dependent mechanism, suggesting that ROCK activation at reperfusion may be deleterious through suppression of the RISK pathway...
- ROK contribution to endothelin-mediated contraction in aorta and mesenteric arteries following intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia in ratsKyan J Allahdadi
Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Vascular Physiology Group, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293:H2911-8. 2007..Because Rho-associated kinase (ROK) can mediate Ca(2+) sensitization, we hypothesized that augmented vasoconstrictor sensitivity to ET-1 in arteries ..
- Fibronectin matrix assembly requires distinct contributions from Rho kinases I and -IIAtsuko Yoneda
Division of Biomedical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
Mol Biol Cell 18:66-75. 2007..reflection microscopy revealed that a submembranous pool of myosin light chain in control cells was missing in ROCK II-deficient cells and replaced by stress fibers...
- Elevated RhoA/Rho-kinase activity in the aged rat penis: mechanism for age-associated erectile dysfunctionLiming Jin
Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
FASEB J 20:536-8. 2006..05). Taken together, these data suggest that impaired erectile function during the aging process involves increased RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling, and this pathway may be exploited for the treatment of age-associated ED...
- Enhanced role for RhoA-associated kinase in adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction in gracilis arteries from obese Zucker ratsJay S Naik
University of Mississippi Medical Center, Deptartment of Physiology and Biophysics, 2500 N State St, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R154-61. 2006..Total RhoA and ROKalpha protein expressions were similar between groups...
- Chronic hypoxia augments protein kinase G-mediated Ca2+ desensitization in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle through inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase signalingNikki L Jernigan
Vascular Physiology Group, Department of Cell Biology MSC 08 4750, 1 Univ of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 287:L1220-9. 2004..following CH is a function of VSM myofilament Ca(2+) desensitization via inhibition of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway...
- Vessel- and vasoconstrictor-dependent role of rho/rho-kinase in renal microvascular toneAkira Nakamura
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
J Vasc Res 40:244-51. 2003....
- Rho-kinase inhibition blunts renal vasoconstriction induced by distinct signaling pathways in vivoAlessandro Cavarape
Department of Experimental and Clinical Pathology and Medicine DPMSC, University of Udine, Udine, Italy
J Am Soc Nephrol 14:37-45. 2003..Recent evidence suggests that distinct signaling cascades of vasoactive hormones interact with the Rho/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway, affecting the activity of MLCP...
- ROCK-II-induced membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation require actin cytoskeletonYuhong Song
Department of Medicine, Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 900095 1678, USA
Exp Cell Res 278:45-52. 2002Ectopic expression of ROCK II (Rho kinase II or ROKalpha), an effector of Rho GTPase, induces membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation...
- RhoA and Rho kinase-dependent phosphorylation of moesin at Thr-558 in hippocampal neuronal cells by glutamateSonghee Jeon
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440 746, Korea
J Biol Chem 277:16576-84. 2002....
- Calcium sensitization of smooth muscle mediated by a Rho-associated protein kinase in hypertensionM Uehata
Discovery Research Tokyo, Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Saitama, Japan
Nature 389:990-4. 1997..Our findings indicate that p160ROCK-mediated Ca2+ sensitization is involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and suggest that compounds that inhibit this process might be useful therapeutically...
- Re-expression of proteins involved in cytokinesis during cardiac hypertrophyPreeti Ahuja
Institute of Cell Biology, ETH Zurich Honggerberg, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Exp Cell Res 313:1270-83. 2007..we demonstrate for the first time that small GTPases like RhoA along with their downstream effectors like ROCK I, ROCK II and Citron Kinase show a developmental stage specific expression in heart, with high levels being expressed in ..
- Cellular regulation of basal tone in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle by RhoA/ROCKChirag A Patel
Dept of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Thomas Jefferson Univ, 1025 Walnut St, Rm 901 College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G1747-56. 2007..We conclude that RhoA/ROCK play a critical role in maintenance of spontaneous tone in the IAS SMC via inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase...
- Structure basis and unconventional lipid membrane binding properties of the PH-C1 tandem of rho kinasesWenyu Wen
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Neuroscience Center, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
J Biol Chem 283:26263-73. 2008..Finally, the analysis of all split PH domains with known structures indicates that split PH domains represent a unique class of tandem protein modules, each possessing distinct structural and functional features...
- Defective endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling is mediated by rho-kinase activation in rats with secondary biliary cirrhosisGo Anegawa
Department of Surgery and Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
Hepatology 47:966-77. 2008....
- MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein that modulates the Rho/ROCK pathway, induces cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbanceTakehiro Ogata
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Translational Research Center, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
Mol Cell Biol 28:3424-36. 2008..These findings indicate that MURC modulates RhoA signaling and that MURC plays an important role in the development of cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance with increased vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias...
- Reactive oxygen species mediate RhoA/Rho kinase-induced Ca2+ sensitization in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle following chronic hypoxiaNikki L Jernigan
Vascular Physiology Group, Dept of Cell Biology and Physiology, Univ of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, MSC 08 4750, 1 Univ of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L515-29. 2008Recent evidence supports a prominent role for Rho kinase (ROK)-mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction in the development and maintenance of chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension...
- Regulation of V-ATPase recycling via a RhoA- and ROCKII-dependent pathway in epididymal clear cellsWinnie Waichi Shum
Center for Systems Biology, Program in Membrane Biology Nephrology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301:C31-43. 2011..We propose that inhibition of RhoA-ROCKII might be part of the intracellular signaling cascade that is triggered upon agonist-induced apical membrane V-ATPase accumulation...
- Effects of estrogen, raloxifene, and levormeloxifene on the expression of Rho-kinase signaling molecules in urethral smooth muscle cellsNongxiu Ning
Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Urology 76:1517.e6-11. 2010..To investigate the effects of estrogen, raloxifene, and levormeloxifene on the expression of Rho-kinase signaling molecules in urethral smooth muscle cells (USMCs)...
- Rescue treatment with a Rho-kinase inhibitor normalizes right ventricular function and reverses remodeling in juvenile rats with chronic pulmonary hypertensionEmily Z Xu
Clinical Integrative Biology, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299:H1854-64. 2010..In addition, our data suggest that ROCK-II may be dominant in enhancing survival of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle...
- ROCK pathway participates in the processes that 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) mediated the pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by hypoxia in ratJun Ma
Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, PR China
J Cell Physiol 222:82-94. 2010..Thus, these findings indicate that 15-HETE protects PASMC from apoptosis, contributing to pulmonary vascular medial thickening, and the effect is, at least in part, mediated via the ROCK pathway...
- Extracellular matrix controls insulin signaling in mammary epithelial cells through the RhoA/Rok pathwayYi Ju Lee
Institute of Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC
J Cell Physiol 220:476-84. 2009..The amount and the activity of Rho kinase (Rok) associated with IRS-1 are greater in these cells, leading to serine phosphorylation of IRS-1...
- Regulation of ROCKII by localization to membrane compartments and binding to DynaminISylvester Tumusiime
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, LSU Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido St, 5th Floor MEB, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 381:393-6. 2009..Our data suggest that ROCKII is regulated by localization to specific membrane compartments and its novel binding partner, Dynamin1...