Par 4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Par 4
Description: pro-apoptotic WT1 regulator
Alias: Par-4, Par4, PRKC apoptosis WT1 regulator protein, PRKC, apoptosis, WT1, regulator, Prostate apoptosis response protein 4, par-4 induced by effectors of apoptosis, prostate apoptosis response 4 protein, transcriptional repressor Par-4-like protein PAWR
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. pmc A novel repressor, par-4, modulates transcription and growth suppression functions of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1
    R W Johnstone
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 16:6945-56. 1996
  2. ncbi Binding of Par-4 to the actin cytoskeleton is essential for Par-4/Dlk-mediated apoptosis
    Susanne Vetterkind
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Römerstr 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 305:392-408. 2005
  3. pmc Phosphorylation of Par-4 by protein kinase A is critical for apoptosis
    Sushma Gurumurthy
    Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Combs Research Building, Rm 303, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:1146-61. 2005
  4. ncbi Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis
    Meike Boosen
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Römerstr 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 311:177-91. 2005
  5. pmc Identification of a unique core domain of par-4 sufficient for selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells
    Nadia El-Guendy
    Department of Microbiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:5516-25. 2003
  6. pmc The pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 facilitates vascular contractility by cytoskeletal targeting of ZIPK
    Susanne Vetterkind
    Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA, USA
    J Cell Mol Med 13:887-95. 2009
  7. pmc The tumor suppressor Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway for apoptosis
    Ravshan Burikhanov
    Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Cell 138:377-88. 2009
  8. ncbi Interaction partners of Dlk/ZIP kinase: co-expression of Dlk/ZIP kinase and Par-4 results in cytoplasmic retention and apoptosis
    G Page
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Oncogene 18:7265-73. 1999
  9. doi Cellular expression pattern of the protease-activated receptor 4 in the hippocampus in naïve rats and after global ischaemia
    P Henrich-Noack
    Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 88:850-7. 2010
  10. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of ghrelin is associated with decreased expression of prostate apoptosis response-4
    Sunyoung Hwang
    Department of Pharmacology and Medical Research Center for Bioreaction to ROS and Biomedical Science Institute, Kyunghee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Endocr J 56:609-17. 2009

Scientific Experts

  • Nathalie Vergnolle
  • A Kawabata
  • Flavia Mulè
  • Jennifer L Strande
  • J A MacDonald
  • David S Libich
  • Susanne Vetterkind
  • Meike Boosen
  • Fiona A Russell
  • V M Rangnekar
  • Ute Preuss
  • Vivek M Rangnekar
  • T Rohatgi
  • P Henrich-Noack
  • Ravshan Burikhanov
  • Susanne Illenberger
  • A de Thonel
  • G Reiser
  • Zhaojin Wang
  • Sushma Gurumurthy
  • Clivia Pazin Miwa
  • Xiongzhao Zhu
  • Jason J McDougall
  • Leisa A Glantz
  • Antonio Franchitto
  • Kathleen G Morgan
  • Sunyoung Hwang
  • M P Mattson
  • G Page
  • Szilvia Vajda
  • Karl Heinz Scheidtmann
  • Anindya Goswami
  • K G Reymann
  • Jan Kubicek
  • S Asfaha
  • Inmaculada Hernandez Gonzalez
  • Subrina Jesmin
  • Yanming Zhao
  • Petra Henrich-Noack
  • Kevin Pruitt
  • Zheng Feng
  • S F Sells
  • Natasa Kukoc-Zivojnov
  • F Sedehizade
  • Nadia El-Guendy
  • A Hammann
  • G Jego
  • V Mezger
  • J E Eriksson
  • C Garrido
  • O Filhol
  • K Isoniemi
  • V Kochin
  • E Fourmaux
  • P Rocchi
  • H Mjahed
  • O Micheau
  • A Hazoume
  • Shuhong An
  • Qingyuan Ma
  • Rui Zhang
  • Dan Chen
  • Zaifeng Zhang
  • C Culmsee
  • H S Dhillon
  • Monica R M Vianna
  • Marc Pouliot
  • Gustavo Vedana
  • Stéphanie Lagarde
  • Sheng Zhang
  • Maria Noemia Martins de Lima
  • Liana Lisboa Fernandez
  • Raquel Mattos
  • Xiuwu Zhang
  • Nadja Schroder
  • Aline Dumas
  • Arlete Hilbig
  • Shu Zhan
  • Sufang Peng
  • Felipe Scalco
  • Alfredo Cantafora
  • Terence C Tao
  • John H Gilmore
  • Jeffrey A Lieberman
  • M Riek-Burchardt
  • Eric Sundberg
  • Kayvon Salimi
  • David H Overstreet
  • L Fredrik Jarskog
  • Ransom H Poythress

Detail Information

Publications44

  1. pmc A novel repressor, par-4, modulates transcription and growth suppression functions of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1
    R W Johnstone
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 16:6945-56. 1996
    ..Significantly, par-4, but not a mutant unable to interact with WT1, rescued growth suppression caused by WT1. Thus, we identified a novel repressor that modulates transcription as well as growth suppression functions of WT1...
  2. ncbi Binding of Par-4 to the actin cytoskeleton is essential for Par-4/Dlk-mediated apoptosis
    Susanne Vetterkind
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Römerstr 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 305:392-408. 2005
    ..We propose a model, in which Par-4 recruits Dlk to stress fibers, leading to enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) and to the induction of apoptosis...
  3. pmc Phosphorylation of Par-4 by protein kinase A is critical for apoptosis
    Sushma Gurumurthy
    Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Combs Research Building, Rm 303, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:1146-61. 2005
    ..These findings uncover a novel mechanism engaging PKA, a procancerous activity commonly elevated in most tumor cells, to activate the cancer selective apoptotic action of Par-4...
  4. ncbi Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis
    Meike Boosen
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Römerstr 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 311:177-91. 2005
    ....
  5. pmc Identification of a unique core domain of par-4 sufficient for selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells
    Nadia El-Guendy
    Department of Microbiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:5516-25. 2003
    ....
  6. pmc The pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 facilitates vascular contractility by cytoskeletal targeting of ZIPK
    Susanne Vetterkind
    Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA, USA
    J Cell Mol Med 13:887-95. 2009
    ..These results identify Par-4 as a novel regulator of myosin light chain phosphorylation in differentiated, contractile vascular smooth muscle...
  7. pmc The tumor suppressor Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway for apoptosis
    Ravshan Burikhanov
    Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Cell 138:377-88. 2009
    ..Thus, Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway involving cell surface GRP78 receptor for induction of apoptosis...
  8. ncbi Interaction partners of Dlk/ZIP kinase: co-expression of Dlk/ZIP kinase and Par-4 results in cytoplasmic retention and apoptosis
    G Page
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr 164, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Oncogene 18:7265-73. 1999
    ..These interactions provoked a dramatic reorganization of the cytoskeleton and morphological symptoms of apoptosis, thus suggesting a functional relationship between Dlk and Par-4 in the control of apoptosis...
  9. doi Cellular expression pattern of the protease-activated receptor 4 in the hippocampus in naïve rats and after global ischaemia
    P Henrich-Noack
    Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 88:850-7. 2010
    A pronounced hippocampal expression of the Protease-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4) has recently been shown...
  10. ncbi Neuroprotective effect of ghrelin is associated with decreased expression of prostate apoptosis response-4
    Sunyoung Hwang
    Department of Pharmacology and Medical Research Center for Bioreaction to ROS and Biomedical Science Institute, Kyunghee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Endocr J 56:609-17. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that des-acyl ghrelin, as well as ghrelin, protect cortical neurons against ischemic injury through the inhibition of Par-4 expression and apoptotic molecules in mitochondrial pathway...
  11. doi Proteinase-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) activation leads to sensitization of rat joint primary afferents via a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism
    Fiona A Russell
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive N W, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 103:155-63. 2010
    ..This PAR(4)-induced sensitization is TRPV1-independent but involves B(2) receptor activation, suggesting a role for kinins in this process...
  12. pmc Inhibiting protease-activated receptor 4 limits myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts by unmasking adenosine signaling
    Jennifer L Strande
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 324:1045-54. 2008
    ..The protective role of two structurally unrelated PAR4 antagonists, trans-cinnamoyl-YPGKF-amide (tc-Y-NH(2)) and palmitoyl-SGRRYGHALR-amide (P4pal10), were evaluated in ..
  13. pmc Protease-activated receptor-4: a novel mechanism of inflammatory pain modulation
    S Asfaha
    Mucosal Inflammation Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Br J Pharmacol 150:176-85. 2007
    ..As both PAR(1) and PAR(2) have been implicated in the modulation of nociceptive mechanisms, we investigated the expression of PAR(4) in sensory neurons and the effects of its selective activation on nociception...
  14. pmc Pro-apoptotic Par-4 and dopamine D2 receptor in temporal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression
    Leisa A Glantz
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Schizophr Res 118:292-9. 2010
    ..Changes in the Par-4/D2DR signaling pathway represent a novel mechanism that may link apoptotic and dopamine signaling pathways in major depression and schizophrenia...
  15. ncbi Differential expression, time course and distribution of four PARs in rats with endotoxin-induced acute lung injury
    Subrina Jesmin
    Division of Acute and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15 W7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060, Japan
    Inflammation 30:14-27. 2007
    ..The differential expression patterns (over a time course) and distribution of PAR isoforms suggests a distinct role for each isoform in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced ALI...
  16. ncbi Focal ischemia induces expression of protease-activated receptor1 (PAR1) and PAR3 on microglia and enhances PAR4 labeling in the penumbra
    Petra Henrich-Noack
    Institute for Neurobiochemistry, Medical Faculty, Otto von Guericke University, Leipziger Str 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Brain Res 1070:232-41. 2006
    ..b>PAR4 was expressed, both in naïve and in ischemic animals, exclusively in neuronal cells...
  17. pmc Prostate apoptosis response-4 is expressed in normal cholangiocytes, is down-regulated in human cholangiocarcinoma, and promotes apoptosis of neoplastic cholangiocytes when induced pharmacologically
    Antonio Franchitto
    Department of Human Anatomy, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Am J Pathol 177:1779-90. 2010
    ..Par-4 protein levels decrease during cell proliferation but increase during apoptosis. Pharmacological or genetic induction of Par-4 determines apoptosis of CCA cells, suggesting Par-4 targeting as a CCA treatment strategy...
  18. doi Interleukin-1β increased the expression of protease-activated receptor 4 mRNA and protein in dorsal root ganglion neurons
    Zhaojin Wang
    Department of Anatomy, Taishan Medical University, Taian, 271000, Shandong Province, China
    Neurochem Res 38:1895-903. 2013
    Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is localized in primary sensory neurons and is believed to implicate in the modulation of nociceptive mechanisms...
  19. pmc Regulation of the proapoptotic functions of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) by casein kinase 2 in prostate cancer cells
    A de Thonel
    1 INSERM U866, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France 2 Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France
    Cell Death Dis 5:e1016. 2014
    ..Thus, Par-4 seems a critical target of CK2 that could be exploited for the development of new anticancer drugs. ..
  20. ncbi Long-term melatonin or 17beta-estradiol supplementation alleviates oxidative stress in ovariectomized adult rats
    Zheng Feng
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, No 1 Xiannong Tan Street, Beijing 10050, People s Republic of China
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:195-204. 2005
    ..Early, long-term melatonin application is a promising strategy which could potentially be applied in a clinical setting...
  21. pmc Evidence for the presence of functional protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) in the rat colon
    F Mule
    Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e dello Sviluppo, Laboratorio di Fisiologia generale, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy
    Gut 53:229-34. 2004
    ..The aims of this study were: (i) to examine expression of PAR(4) in rat proximal colon; (ii) to determine the mechanical effects induced by PAR(4) activation in longitudinal muscle; and (iii) to characterise the underlying mechanisms...
  22. ncbi Transient focal ischemia in rat brain differentially regulates mRNA expression of protease-activated receptors 1 to 4
    T Rohatgi
    Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultat, Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 75:273-9. 2004
    ..Taken together, these data suggest involvement of the thrombin receptors PAR-1, PAR-3, and PAR-4 in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia...
  23. ncbi Immunohistochemical analysis of the proapoptotic protein Par-4 in normal rat tissues
    E R Boghaert
    Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
    Cell Growth Differ 8:881-90. 1997
    ..The observation of constitutive Par-4 expression in the stem cell compartments is inconsistent with the probability of apoptosis per se and can be extended to determine whether Par-4 plays a role in other cellular processes...
  24. ncbi Characterization of thrombin-induced leukocyte rolling and adherence: a potential proinflammatory role for proteinase-activated receptor-4
    Nathalie Vergnolle
    Mucosal Inflammation Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Immunol 169:1467-73. 2002
    ....
  25. ncbi Regional expression of Par-4 mRNA and protein after fluid percussion brain injury in the rat
    H S Dhillon
    Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Exp Neurol 170:140-8. 2001
    ....
  26. ncbi Evidence for the involvement of Par-4 in ischemic neuron cell death
    C Culmsee
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:334-43. 2001
    ..The current data suggest that early up-regulation of Par-4 plays a pivotal role in ischemic neuronal death in animal models of stroke and cardiac arrest...
  27. ncbi Par-4 is a mediator of neuronal degeneration associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease
    Q Guo
    Sanders Brown Research Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
    Nat Med 4:957-62. 1998
    ..Par-4 expression was enhanced, and mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis exacerbated, in cells expressing presenilin-1 mutations associated with early-onset inherited AD...
  28. pmc Dual modulation by thrombin of the motility of rat oesophageal muscularis mucosae via two distinct protease-activated receptors (PARs): a novel role for PAR-4 as opposed to PAR-1
    A Kawabata
    Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, 3 4 1 Kowakae, Higashi Osaka 577 8502, Japan
    Br J Pharmacol 131:578-84. 2000
    ..Our data could provide evidence for a novel role of PAR-4 as opposed to PAR-1, although the underlying mechanisms are still open to question...
  29. ncbi Prostate apoptosis response-4 mediates trophic factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons: actions prior to mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation
    S L Chan
    Sanders Brown Research Center on Aging and Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536 0230, USA
    J Neurochem 73:502-12. 1999
    ..Collectively, our data identify Par-4 as an early and pivotal player in neuronal apoptosis resulting from TFW and suggest that estrogen and antioxidants may prevent apoptosis, in part, by suppressing Par-4 production...
  30. ncbi Prostate apoptosis response-4 production in synaptic compartments following apoptotic and excitotoxic insults: evidence for a pivotal role in mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal degeneration
    W Duan
    Sanders Brown Research Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
    J Neurochem 72:2312-22. 1999
    ..Local translational regulation of death-related proteins in synaptic compartments may play a role in programmed cell death, adaptive remodeling of synapses, and neurodegenerative disorders...
  31. doi Prostate-apoptosis response-4 phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle
    Justin A MacDonald
    Smooth Muscle Research Group and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6
    Arch Biochem Biophys 535:84-90. 2013
    ..We conclude that phosphorylation of Par-4 does not regulate contraction of this vascular smooth muscle tissue by inducing dissociation of Par-4 from MYPT1 to allow phosphorylation of MYPT1 and inhibition of MLCP...
  32. doi Neonatal iron treatment increases apoptotic markers in hippocampal and cortical areas of adult rats
    Clivia Pazin Miwa
    Neurobiology and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Biosciences, Pontifical Catholic University, Av Ipiranga, 6681 Predio 12D, Sala 340, 90619 900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Neurotox Res 19:527-35. 2011
    ....
  33. ncbi Commonality of the gene programs induced by effectors of apoptosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cells
    S F Sells
    Department of Surgery, Nano Probe Laboratory, Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington
    Cell Growth Differ 5:457-66. 1994
    ..Since elevation of intracellular Ca2+ is central to apoptosis in many cell types, we predict that par genes will be important components of diverse effector-driven apoptotic pathways...
  34. ncbi Ras-mediated loss of the pro-apoptotic response protein Par-4 is mediated by DNA hypermethylation through Raf-independent and Raf-dependent signaling cascades in epithelial cells
    Kevin Pruitt
    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599 7295, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:23363-70. 2005
    ....
  35. doi Stress-induced depressive behaviors are correlated with Par-4 and DRD2 expression in rat striatum
    Xiongzhao Zhu
    Medical Psychological Institute, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China
    Behav Brain Res 223:329-35. 2011
    ..This process is associated with down-regulated Par-4 and DRD2 gene expression in the striatum through a non-methylation mechanism...
  36. doi The pronociceptive effect of proteinase-activated receptor-4 stimulation in rat knee joints is dependent on mast cell activation
    Fiona A Russell
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
    Pain 152:354-60. 2011
    ..Proteinase-activated receptor-4 is expressed on synovial mast cells, and the activation of Proteinase-activated receptor-4 has a pronociceptive effect that is dependent on mast cell activation...
  37. pmc Par-4: a new activator of myosin phosphatase
    Susanne Vetterkind
    Department of Health Sciences, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 21:1214-24. 2010
    ....
  38. ncbi AATF, a novel transcription factor that interacts with Dlk/ZIP kinase and interferes with apoptosis
    G Page
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr 164, D 53117, Bonn, Germany
    FEBS Lett 462:187-91. 1999
    ..Indeed, a Gal4-BD-AATF fusion protein exhibited strong transactivation activity. Interestingly, AATF interfered with Dlk-induced apoptosis...
  39. pmc Par-4 is an essential downstream target of DAP-like kinase (Dlk) in Dlk/Par-4-mediated apoptosis
    Meike Boosen
    Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, D 53117 Bonn, Germany
    Mol Biol Cell 20:4010-20. 2009
    ..In vivo phosphorylation of Par-4 at T155 was demonstrated with a phospho-specific Par-4 antibody. Our results demonstrate that Dlk-mediated phosphorylation of Par-4 at T155 is a crucial event in Dlk/Par-4-induced apoptosis...
  40. doi Intrinsic disorder and coiled-coil formation in prostate apoptosis response factor 4
    David S Libich
    Centre for Structural Biology, Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    FEBS J 276:3710-28. 2009
    ..Interruption of self-association by urea also resulted in loss of secondary structure. These results are consistent with the stabilization of the coiled-coil motif through an intramolecular association...
  41. doi Identification of protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) in puromycin-purified brain capillary endothelial cells cultured on Matrigel
    Szilvia Vajda
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Semmelweis University, Neurobiochemical Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szentagothai Knowledge Center, Budapest, Hungary
    Neurochem Int 52:1234-9. 2008
    ..This indicates that RBCE cells grown on Matrigel express PAR-4 receptors...
  42. ncbi Regulation of the expression of prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (Par-4) in rat granulosa cells
    Inmaculada Hernandez Gonzalez
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
    Apoptosis 12:769-79. 2007
    ..These findings indicate that FSH by suppressing Par-4 expression in the ovary activates PKCzeta-dependent antiapoptotic pathway and suggest that Par-4 is part of the mechanism underlying granulosa cells apoptotic demise...
  43. ncbi Protease-activated receptor subtype expression in developing eye and adult retina of the rat after optic nerve crush
    T Rohatgi
    Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultat, Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 73:246-54. 2003
    ..PAR upregulation because of nerve crush in the mild trauma model could act as an effector of early cell death. Eventual return of receptor mRNA to basal levels is consistent with neuroprotection...
  44. ncbi Prostate apoptosis response gene-4 (par-4) abrogates the survival function of p185(BCR-ABL) in hematopoietic cells
    Natasa Kukoc-Zivojnov
    Department of Medicine III, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany
    Exp Hematol 32:649-56. 2004
    ..Given its pro-apoptotic role in neoplastic lymphocytes and evidence that par-4 antagonizes oncogenic Ras in solid tumors, we hypothesized that par-4 may act as a tumor suppressor impairing transformation induced by p185(BCR-ABL)...