Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Mapk3
Description: mitogen activated protein kinase 3
Alias: ERK1, ERT2, Erk-1, Esrk1, MAPK1, MNK1, Prkm3, p44, p44erk1, p44mapk, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 3, MAP kinase isoform p44, MAPK 1, MAPK 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase, microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, mitogen-activated 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Publications139 found, 100 shown here
- 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) modulate growth plate chondrocyte physiology via protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinaseZ Schwartz
Department of Orthopedics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78229, USA
Endocrinology 143:2775-86. 2002..In both cells the effect was due to ERK1/2 activation (p42 > p44 in GC; p42 = p44 in RC). MAPK activation was dependent on PKC, but not protein kinase A...
- Dual specificity MAPK phosphatase 3 activates PEPCK gene transcription and increases gluconeogenesis in rat hepatoma cellsHaiyan Xu
Millennium Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139, USA
J Biol Chem 280:36013-8. 2005..Therefore, dysregulation of MKP-3 expression and/or function in liver may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type II diabetes...
- Axonal outgrowth is associated with increased ERK 1/2 activation but decreased caspase 3 linked cell death in Schwann cells after immediate nerve repair in ratsYoshifumi Tsuda
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan
BMC Neurosci 12:12. 2011..In the present study, axonal outgrowth, activation of ERK1/2 by phosphorylation (p-ERK 1/2 ) and immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase 3 were examined after immediate, delayed, or no repair of transected ..
- A novel binding factor of 14-3-3beta functions as a transcriptional repressor and promotes anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasisYuko Komiya
Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda shi, Chiba 278 8510, Japan
J Biol Chem 283:18753-64. 2008..In addition, the duration of ERK1/2 activation was curtailed in antisense FBI1-expressing K2 cells...
- Human and rat brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3: gene structures, distributions, and chromosomal localizationsP C Maisonpierre
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, New York 10591
Genomics 10:558-68. 1991..Finally, we localize the gene encoding human BDNF (gene symbol designated BDNF) to chromosome 11, band p13, and the gene encoding human NT-3 (gene symbol designated NTF3) to chromosome 12, band p13...
- Neuroprotection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against hypoxic injury in vitro requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinaseXiaomei Sun
Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China
Int J Dev Neurosci 26:363-70. 2008....
- Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 mediate reoxygenation-induced cardioprotection during hypoxiaGiuseppina Milano
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235:401-10. 2010..role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) and p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), which are known to be associated with protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
- An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle controlT G Boulton
Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Dallas 75235
Science 249:64-7. 1990..serine-threonine kinase has been cloned, and the protein designated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1). ERK1 has striking similarity to two protein kinases, KSS1 and FUS3, from yeast...
- The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) directly binds to ERK by a D-domain-like docking siteKatsuya Ishihara
Discovery Biology, Tsukuba Research Institute, Novartis Pharma K K, Okubo 8, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 300 2611, Japan
FEBS Lett 550:107-13. 2003..These data suggest that ERK may play a role in RAGE signaling through direct interaction with RAGE...
- Role of ERK1/2 in uterine contractility and preterm labor in ratsYunping Li
Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02215, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R328-35. 2004..We suggest that the ERK pathway could possibly be used to identify targets for the development of a novel class of tocolytic agents...
- Congenital hypothyroidism alters the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK in the hippocampus of neonatal ratsGiordano W Calloni
Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, 88040 900, Brazil
Brain Res Dev Brain Res 154:141-5. 2005..Congenital hypothyroidism promotes an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation (+50%) and a decrease in p38(MAPK) phosphorylation (-50%) without changing in Jun N-terminal ..
- ERK1/2 activation mediates Abeta oligomer-induced neurotoxicity via caspase-3 activation and tau cleavage in rat organotypic hippocampal slice culturesYoung Hae Chong
Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Division of Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Yangcheonku, Seoul, 158 710, Korea
J Biol Chem 281:20315-25. 2006..This was accompanied by activation of the ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway in rat organotypic hippocampal slices...
- Myotube depolarization generates reactive oxygen species through NAD(P)H oxidase; ROS-elicited Ca2+ stimulates ERK, CREB, early genesAlejandra Espinosa
Escuela de Tecnología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
J Cell Physiol 209:379-88. 2006..Minutes after Ca2+ signal initiation, an increase in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation and of mRNA for the early genes c-fos and c-jun was detected...
- Descending serotonergic facilitation of spinal ERK activation and pain behaviorCamilla I Svensson
Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0818, USA
FEBS Lett 580:6629-34. 2006..Here we report that formalin injection in the paw produced pain behavior (flinching) and phosphorylation of spinal ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2, indicating activation) in rats...
- Growth factor-induced MAPK network topology shapes Erk response determining PC-12 cell fateSilvia D M Santos
European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Cell Biology and Biophysics, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Nat Cell Biol 9:324-30. 2007..These results show that growth factor context determines the topology of the MAPK signalling network and that the resulting dynamics govern cell fate...
- Renin-stimulated TGF-beta1 expression is regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase in mesangial cellsY Huang
Division of Nephrology, Fibrosis Research Laboratory, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
Kidney Int 72:45-52. 2007..hypothesis that renin receptor activation, in turn, activates the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase system in mesangial cells...
- Activation of ERK in the rostral ventromedial medulla is involved in hyperalgesia during peripheral inflammationHiroki Imbe
Department of Physiology, Wakayama Medical University, Kimiidera 811 1, Wakayama City, 641 8509, Japan
Brain Res 1187:103-10. 2008..3% vs. baseline, n=7) was significantly longer than that in the control group (52.0%+/-3.6% vs. baseline, n=8). These findings suggest that activation of ERK in the RVM contributes to thermal hyperalgesia during peripheral inflammation...
- PKA and ERK, but not PKC, in the amygdala contribute to pain-related synaptic plasticity and behaviorYu Fu
Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1069, USA
Mol Pain 4:26. 2008..The data suggest that in the amygdala PKA and ERK, but not PKC, contribute to pain-related synaptic facilitation and behavior by increasing NMDA receptor function through independent signaling pathways...
- Estrogen-dependent facilitation on spinal reflex potentiation involves the Cdk5/ERK1/2/NR2B cascade in anesthetized ratsHsien Yu Peng
Department of Physiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E416-26. 2009..kinase, may alter pain-related neuronal plasticity by regulating extracellular signal-related kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) activation...
- Static pressure drives proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via caveolin-1/ERK1/2 pathwayDi Xian Luo
Division of Pharmacoproteomics, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Research Center of Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, China
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 391:1693-7. 2010..Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation showed a peak at the pressure of 120 mm Hg at 4-h time point...
- Phenotypic modulation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells: a functional analysis focusing on MLC and ERK1/2 phosphorylationM A Carrillo-Sepúlveda
Laboratory of Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Mol Cell Biochem 341:279-89. 2010..Taking in account that Myosin light chain (MLC) and ERK1/2 directly participate in the process of vascular contraction, the aim of the current study was to analyze the ..
- Shear stress modulation of smooth muscle cell marker genes in 2-D and 3-D depends on mechanotransduction by heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ERK1/2Zhong Dong Shi
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, The City University of New York, New York, New York, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e12196. 2010..We investigate the effects of these two types of fluid flows on the phenotypes of SMCs and MFBs and the underlying mechanotransduction mechanisms...
- Stimulus-specific activation and actin dependency of distinct, spatially separated ERK1/2 fractions in A7r5 smooth muscle cellsSusanne Vetterkind
Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e30409. 2012A proliferative response of smooth muscle cells to activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) has been linked to cardiovascular disease...
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitroJunhua Xiao
Centre for Neuroscience Research, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
J Neurochem 122:1167-80. 2012..By selectively manipulating Erk1/2 activation in oligodendrocytes in vitro, we found that constitutive activation of Erk1/2 significantly increased ..
- Pravastatin normalizes ET-1-induced contraction in the aorta of type 2 diabetic OLETF rats by suppressing the KSR1/ERK complexShingo Nemoto
Department of Physiology and Morphology, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303:H893-902. 2012..those from age-matched LETO rats), we found the following: 1) ET-1-induced contraction was enhanced, 2) ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased, 3) phosphorylations of KSR1 and PP2A were reduced (i.e...
- The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 N-terminal noncatalytic region is responsible for tight substrate binding and enzymatic specificityM Muda
Serono Pharmaceutical Research Institute, CH 1228 Plan les Ouates, Geneva, Switzerland
J Biol Chem 273:9323-9. 1998..Biol. Chem. 271, 27205-27208). We now show that MKP-3 enzymatic specificity is paralleled by tight binding to both ERK1 and ERK2 while, in contrast, little or no interaction with either c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein ..
- ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of myometrial caldesmon during pregnancy and laborYunping Li
Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R192-9. 2003..A 40-fold increase in the signal from a phospho-CaD antibody specific for phosphorylation at an ERK1/2 site occurred during labor. ERK1/2 activation increased significantly at the onset of labor...
- ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin II inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake in vascular smooth muscle cellsYuki Izawa
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15 Kuramoto 770 8503, Japan
Exp Cell Res 308:291-9. 2005..It is shown that Ang II-induced ERK1/2 activation inhibits insulin-dependent glucose uptake through serine phophorylation of IRS-1 in RASMC.
- Angiotensin II induces tyrosine nitration and activation of ERK1/2 in vascular smooth muscle cellsElena Pinzar
Laboratoire HP2, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38706 La Tronche, France
FEBS Lett 579:5100-4. 2005Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces a prominent and sustained nitration and activation of ERK1/2 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, both mediated via AT1 receptor...
- Erk1/2 MAPK and caldesmon differentially regulate podosome dynamics in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cellsZhizhan Gu
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology, Box G B3, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Exp Cell Res 313:849-66. 2007..These results suggest that Erk1/2 and caldesmon differentially modulate PKC-mediated formation and/or dynamics of podosomes in A7r5 vascular smooth ..
- Activation of Erk in the anterior cingulate cortex during the induction and expression of chronic painFeng Wei
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, Maryland 20201, USA
Mol Pain 4:28. 2008..We propose a synaptic model for explaining the roles of Erk activity during different phases of chronic pain. Our findings suggest that cortical activation of Erk may contribute to both induction and expression of chronic pain...
- Regulation of insulin gene transcription by ERK1 and ERK2 in pancreatic beta cellsShih Khoo
Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
J Biol Chem 278:32969-77. 2003We show that the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 are components of the mechanism by which glucose stimulates insulin gene expression...
- Role of osteoclast extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cell survival and maintenance of cell polarityHiroaki Nakamura
Department of Oral Morphology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
J Bone Miner Res 18:1198-205. 2003..PD98059 promoted apoptosis of osteoclasts and the loss of ruffled borders. This study supports the importance of ERK in survival and polarity of osteoclasts...
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway in solitary nucleus mediates cholecystokinin-induced suppression of food intake in ratsGregory M Sutton
Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA
J Neurosci 24:10240-7. 2004....
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ERK1/2 are not involved in adenosine A1, A2A or A3 receptor-mediated preconditioning in rat ventricle stripsLaura Button
School of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
Exp Physiol 90:747-54. 2005Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) are important antiapoptotic signalling pathways ..
- Basic fibroblast growth factor protects against rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell death through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathwaysShih Ling Hsuan
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7234, USA
J Neurosci 26:4481-91. 2006..bFGF activated both extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase) pathways in SH-SY5Y cells...
- ERK1/2 control phosphorylation and protein level of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein: a key role in glucose-mediated pancreatic beta-cell survivalSafia Costes
INSERM U661, Equipe Avenir, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, 141, rue de la Cardonille, 34094 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Diabetes 55:2220-30. 2006..This indicates that ERK1/2, reported to be located downstream of PKA, participates in the PKA-mediated CREB phosphorylation elicited by ..
- Increased limbic phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 expression after chronic stress is reduced by cyclic 17beta-estradiol administrationM Gerrits
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30 001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
Neuroscience 142:1293-302. 2006..Moreover, acute stress reduced the number of phosphorylated ERK1/2 positive neurons in the prefrontal cortex of ovariectomized rats...
- Exposure of C6 glioma cells to Pb(II) increases the phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and JNK1/2 but not of ERK1/2Thais Posser
Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, 88040 900, Brazil
Arch Toxicol 81:407-14. 2007..Cells were exposed to lead acetate 0.1, 1, 10 microM for 24 and 48 h. MAPKs activation - in particular ERK1/2, p38(MAPK) and JNK1/2 - were analyzed by western blotting...
- Cardioprotection induced by hydrogen sulfide preconditioning involves activation of ERK and PI3K/Akt pathwaysYeshi Hu
Cardiovascular Biology Research Group, Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Pflugers Arch 455:607-16. 2008..involved in SP-induced cardioprotection by investigating the role of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt...
- Differential roles of basolateral and central amygdala on the effects of uncontrollable stress on hippocampal synaptic plasticityChih Hao Yang
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Hippocampus 18:548-63. 2008..Exposure to the novel environment following stress increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the CEA, but reversed the stress-induced increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampal ..
- Somatostatin receptors 1, 2, and 5 cooperate in the somatostatin inhibition of C6 glioma cell proliferation in vitro via a phosphotyrosine phosphatase-eta-dependent inhibition of extracellularly regulated kinase-1/2Federica Barbieri
Laboratory pf Pharmacology, Department of Oncology, Biology, and Genetics, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova, Italy
Endocrinology 149:4736-46. 2008..induced cytostatic effects through the activation of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase PTPeta and the inhibition of ERK1/2...
- Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates the epidermal growth factor-stimulated prolactin expression and release in lactotrophsNira Ben-Jonathan
Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
Endocrinology 150:795-802. 2009..EGF-receptor (EGFR/ErbB1)-activated Erk1/2 has been reported to activate estrogen receptor (ER) in an estrogen (E2)-independent manner...
- Activation of ERK1/2 in the primary injury site is required to maintain melittin-enhanced wind-up of rat spinal wide-dynamic-range neuronsYao Qing Yu
Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an 710038, PR China
Neurosci Lett 459:137-41. 2009..We conclude that peripheral ERKs pathway in the primary injury site is required to maintain melittin-enhanced wind-up of rat spinal cord wide-dynamic-range neurons...
- Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 enhanced motility of human osteosarcoma cells involves MEK1/2, ERK and NF-kappaB-dependent pathwaysChun Yin Huang
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yun Lin County, Taiwan
J Cell Physiol 221:204-12. 2009....
- Metabolites of sesamin, a major lignan in sesame seeds, induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells through activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathwayNanako Hamada
Department of Longevity and Aging Research, Gifu International Institute of Biotechnology, 1 1 Naka fudogaoka, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504 0838, Japan
J Neural Transm (Vienna) 116:841-52. 2009..SC-1 potentiated neuronal differentiation in cells co-treated with NGF, which was associated with enhanced ERK1/2 activation and increased expression of neuronal differentiation markers...
- Sorafenib induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human synovial sarcoma cells via inhibiting the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathwayChang Liang Peng
Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University Peoples Hospital, Beijing, China
Cancer Biol Ther 8:1729-36. 2009..In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that sorafenib is effective for growth inhibition of synovial sarcoma cell lines in vitro and suggest that sorafenib may be a new therapeutic option for patients with synovial sarcoma...
- Stretch activates human myometrium via ERK, caldesmon and focal adhesion signalingYunping Li
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS ONE 4:e7489. 2009..These results suggest that focal adhesion proteins may present new targets for drug discovery programs aimed at regulation of uterine contractility...
- Role of angiotensin II in the remodeling induced by a chronic increase in flow in rat mesenteric resistance arteriesMaud Cousin
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 6214, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U771, Universite d Angers, Angers, France
Hypertension 55:109-15. 2010..Thus, a chronic rise in blood flow in resistance arteries induces a diameter enlargement involving NO and superoxide, whereas hypertrophy was associated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation by angiotensin II...
- [Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 on inhibition of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline on proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured rat pulmonary fibroblasts induced by platelet-derived growth factor]Kun Fei Wu
North China Coal Medical College, Tangshan 063000, China
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 27:385-9. 2009....
- h3/Acidic calponin: an actin-binding protein that controls extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in nonmuscle cellsSarah Appel
Department of Health Sciences and Whitaker Imaging Facility, Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Mol Biol Cell 21:1409-22. 2010..Knockdown of h3/acidic calponin results in a loss of PDBu-mediated ERK1/2 targeting, whereas PKCalpha targeting is unaffected...
- Compression alters kinase and phosphatase activity and tau and MAP2 phosphorylation transiently while inducing the fast adaptive dendritic remodeling of underlying cortical neuronsLi Jin Chen
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
J Neurotrauma 27:1657-69. 2010..The large-scale structural changes that result can alter cortical function for an extended period of time...
- Pre-ischemic treadmill training induces tolerance to brain ischemia: involvement of glutamate and ERK1/2Feng Zhang
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hua Shan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Molecules 15:5246-57. 2010..induce brain ischemic tolerance (BIT) by inhibiting the excessive glutamate release and event-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation observed in rats exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
- IGF-1 reduces BACE-1 expression in PC12 cells via activation of PI3-K/Akt and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathwaysHua Zhang
Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No 1 Youyi Road, Chongqing 400016, China
Neurochem Res 36:49-57. 2011..Furthermore, IGF-1 increased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2...
- [KeLuoXin medicated serum extract inhibits high glucose-induced proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in rat mesangial cell]Lian Li
Department of Pharmaceutical Preparation, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 41:780-3. 2010..To investigate the effects and mechanism of KeLuoXin (KLX) capsule on rat mesangial cell proliferation induced by high glucose...
- Matrine inhibits disturbed flow-enhanced migration via downregulation of ERK1/2-MLCK signaling vascular smooth muscle cellsPing Zhu
Cardiovascular Surgery Department, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academic of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
Ann Vasc Surg 26:268-75. 2012..To investigate the effects of matrine on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration modulated by disturbed flow and their underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro...
- Endogenous angiotensin II-induced p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation mediates sodium appetite but not thirst or neurohypophysial secretion in male ratsL A Felgendreger
Neuroscience Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6241, USA
J Neuroendocrinol 25:97-106. 2013..The present study used an experimental model of endogenous AngII to examine the role of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as a signalling mechanism to mediate these responses...
- Early interference with p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertensionYang Yu
Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242
Hypertension 61:842-9. 2013Blood-borne angiotensin II (ANG II) can upregulate p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and ANG II type-1 receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical cardiovascular and autonomic center...
- C3G overexpression promotes the survival of rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes by p-ERK1/2Xu Zhang
Division of Cardiology, Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China
Cell Biol Int 37:1106-13. 2013..pro-survival signalling molecules, such as the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2)...
- Dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) enhance differentiation of BMMSCs via ERK and P38 MAPK pathwaysYan Yu
Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, 140 Hanzhong Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029, China
Cell Tissue Res 356:171-82. 2014..Expression of phosphor-ERK/phosphor-P38 in BMMSCs was up-regulated by DMPs and, in the presence of the ERK1/2- and p38-specific inhibitors, the differentiation of BMMSCs was inhibited...
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation during cardiac hypertrophy reduces sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) transcriptionHaiyan Huang
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 622 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, United States
J Mol Cell Cardiol 75:58-63. 2014..This work establishes novel connections between ERK, NFkB, and SERCA2 repression during cardiac hypertrophy. This mechanism may have implications for the progression of hypertrophy to heart failure. ..
- ERK1/2 pathway is involved in renal gluconeogenesis inhibition under conditions of lowered NADPH oxidase activityKatarzyna Winiarska
Department of Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, I Miecznikowa 1, 02 096 Warsaw, Poland Electronic address
Free Radic Biol Med 81:13-21. 2015..of the above-noted compounds the expression of PEPCK and the phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB and ERK1/2 kinases are lowered; (3) both U0126 (MEK inhibitor) and 3-(2-aminoethyl)-5-((4-ethoxyphenyl)methylene)-2,4-..
- Tonic, but not phasic corticosterone, constrains stress activatedextracellular-regulated-kinase 1/ 2 immunoreactivity within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleusC D Osterlund
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, UCB 345, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
J Neuroendocrinol 23:1241-51. 2011..This tonic CORT inhibition of stress-induced activation of ERK1/2 may involve both alteration of the activity of stress-dependent neural inputs to PVN CRH neurones and alteration ..
- Lentiviral vector-mediated down-regulation of IL-17A receptor in hepatic stellate cells results in decreased secretion of IL-6Sheng Chu Zhang
Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang Province, China
World J Gastroenterol 18:3696-704. 2012..To investigate the mechanism of interleukin (IL)-6 secretion through blocking the IL-17A/IL-17A receptor (IL-17RA) signaling pathway with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro...
- Signal-dependent repression of DUSP5 by class I HDACs controls nuclear ERK activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophyBradley S Ferguson
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9806-11. 2013..phosphatase 5 (DUSP5) DUSP5, a nuclear phosphatase that negatively regulates prohypertrophic signaling by ERK1/2...
- Elevated activation of ERK1 and ERK2 accompany enhanced liver injury following alcohol binge in chronically ethanol-fed ratsAnnayya R Aroor
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, 65212, USA
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:2128-38. 2011..We have therefore examined in rats the effect of single and repeat ethanol binge superimposed on chronic ethanol intake on liver injury, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and gene expression...
- Selective inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 blocks nerve growth factor to brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and suppresses the development of and reverses already established pain behavior in ratsY Matsuoka
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Neuroscience 206:224-36. 2012..that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces BDNF mRNA through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), whether ERK1/2 or ERK5, two closely related members of the ERK family, mediate this signal is still unclear because classical ..
- ERK activation and expression of neuronal cell cycle markers in the hippocampus after entorhinal cortex lesionKarina Hernández-Ortega
Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D F, Mexico
J Neurosci Res 90:2116-26. 2012..mechanisms initially acquired to direct cell proliferation, such as the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway, to regulate synaptic plasticity...
- Desipramine protects neuronal cell death and induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in Mes23.5 dopaminergic neuronsHsiao Yun Lin
Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
PLoS ONE 7:e50138. 2012..It has also been used in a number of other psychiatric and medical conditions. The present study is the first to investigate the neuroprotective effect of desipramine...
- Noradrenaline-induced paxillin phosphorylation, ERK activation and MEK-regulated contraction in intact rat mesenteric arteriesDonald T Ward
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
J Vasc Res 39:1-11. 2002..In addition, the modulation of NA-induced mesenteric artery contraction by inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway further implicates ERK in the regulation of, though perhaps not the mediation of NA-induced small artery contraction...
- P2X7 receptors activate protein kinase D and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) downstream of protein kinase CMichelle D Bradford
Division of Signal Transduction, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, MA 02215, USA
Biochem J 366:745-55. 2002..in cellular signalling initiated by P2X(7) receptors as well as by G-protein-coupled receptors, and demonstrate that PKD and ERK1/2 are activated in similar PKC-dependent signalling pathways initiated by these diverse receptor types.
- Prostacyclin induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by a cAMP-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and can counteract the mitogenic activity of endothelin-1 or basic fibroblast growth factorRung Chi Li
Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge, UK
Circ Res 94:759-67. 2004..However, ERK stimulation by a selective EP4 receptor agonist, suggests that prostanoids may have diverse and complex roles in VSMC physiology...
- Glucagon promotes cAMP-response element-binding protein phosphorylation via activation of ERK1/2 in MIN6 cell line and isolated islets of LangerhansStephane Dalle
Unité INSERM U376, CHU Arnaud de Villeneuve, 371 rue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
J Biol Chem 279:20345-55. 2004..cell caused a rapid, time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) independently from extracellular calcium influx...
- Protein kinase C-dependent activation of P44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 70 in signal transduction during hepatocyte ischemic preconditioningYi Gao
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, 253 Gongye Road, Guangzhou 510282, Guangdong Province, China
World J Gastroenterol 10:1019-27. 2004To investigate the significance of protein kinase C(PKC), P44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and heat shock protein (HSP)70 signal transduction during hepatocyte ischemic preconditioning.
- CREG, a new regulator of ERK1/2 in cardiac hypertrophyLi Xu
Division of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100037, People s Republic of China
J Hypertens 22:1579-87. 2004..In this study, our aim was to understand the role of CREG in cardiac hypertrophy...
- Rosiglitazone ameliorates insulin resistance in brown adipocytes of Wistar rats by impairing TNF-alpha induction of p38 and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinasesR Hernandez
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Diabetologia 47:1615-24. 2004..Since treatment with TNF-alpha activates stress kinases, including c-jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), and p42/p44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), we explored the contribution of these pathways to insulin ..
- Regulation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve growth factor withdrawal-induced pruning of axons of sympathetic neurons by the proteasome and the MEK/Erk pathwayBronwyn L MacInnis
Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, 6 22 Medical Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2H7
Mol Cell Neurosci 28:430-9. 2005..Axons protected by MG132 displayed persistent phosphorylation of Erk1/2, and pharmacological inhibition of MEK activity with U0126 (50 microM) restored rapid axonal degeneration...
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated IL-1-induced cortical neuron damage during traumatic brain injuryKwok Tung Lu
Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
Neurosci Lett 386:40-5. 2005..Our results suggest that TBI-induced cortical neuron death was mediated by the IL-1 receptor through ERK phosphorylation...
- Epidermal growth factor-induced rapid retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser780 and Ser795 is mediated by ERK1/2 in small intestine epithelial cellsJun Guo
Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
J Biol Chem 280:35992-8. 2005..In vitro, Rb is directly phosphorylated by active ERK1/2 as shown by [gamma-32P]ATP labeling...
- Mechanotransduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in smooth muscle is dependent on the extracellular matrix and regulated by matrix metalloproteinasesKaren J Aitken
Research Institute and Division of Urology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Am J Pathol 169:459-70. 2006..matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), thereby releasing matrix neoepitopes and growth factor ligands, leading to ERK1/2 activation. However, the role of MMPs in mechanotransduction of ERK1/2 signaling in the bladder is unknown...
- Genistein, a soy isoflavone, up-regulates expression of antioxidant genes: involvement of estrogen receptors, ERK1/2, and NFkappaBConsuelo Borras
Catholic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
FASEB J 20:2136-8. 2006..Peroxide levels were determined by fluorimetry, activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB)-signaling pathways by Western blot analysis and ELISA, respectively, and ..
- Effects of statin treatment and withdrawal on angiotensin II-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cellsAntonio G Tristano
Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Health Professions Division, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:11-7. 2007..In VSMC, AII stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), with an EC50% of 0.86 and 3 nM, respectively...
- Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) during carbon tetrachloride intoxication in the rat liverChinatsu Iida
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women s University, Nara, 630 8506 Japan
Arch Toxicol 81:489-93. 2007..Phosphorylated JNK (c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase) and phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2) were significantly increased transiently 1-3 h after treatment with ..
- Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell linesD Romano
Unite Mixte de Recherche 6544, Institut Federatif de Recherche Jean Roche, Faculte de Medecine Nord, Boulevard Pierre Dramard, 13916 Marseille Cedex 20, France
Endocrinology 148:2973-83. 2007..cyclase and cAMP levels were 10-fold lower in the wild-type G(s)alpha-overexpressing cell line, a sustained MAPK ERK1/2 activation was observed in both cell lines...
- Sequential actions of ERK1/2 on the AP-1 transcription factor allow temporal integration of metabolic signals in pancreatic beta cellsDominique A Glauser
Fondation pour Recherches Medicales, University of Geneva, Switzerland
FASEB J 21:3240-9. 2007..b>ERK1/2 activation paralleled c-FOS expression...
- Reversal of ERK activation in the dorsal horn after decompression in chronic constriction injuryTo Jung Tseng
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, and Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10051, Taiwan
Exp Neurol 206:17-23. 2007..This report suggests that ERK activation in the dorsal horn is correlated with neuropathic pain behaviors and its normalization reflects the reversal of neuropathic pain behaviors after decompression...
- Role of cAMP inhibition of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in potentiation of protein secretion in rat lacrimal glandChika Funaki
Schepens Eye Research Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293:C1551-60. 2007..In the present study we determined whether cAMP decreases p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in the lacrimal gland...
- ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases control prion protein fragment 90-231-induced astrocyte proliferation and microglia activationStefano Thellung
Department of Oncology, Biology and Genetics, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
Glia 55:1469-85. 2007..PrP90-231 elicited in both cell types the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase that displays, in astrocytes, a rapid kinetics and a proliferative response...
- 17beta-estradiol induces the translocation of the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2 to the cell membrane, MAPK3/1 phosphorylation and proliferation of cultured immature rat Sertoli cellsThaís F G Lucas
Section of Experimental Endocrinology, Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Biol Reprod 78:101-14. 2008..E(2)) induced a translocation of ESR1 and ESR2 to the plasma membrane and a concomitant phosphorylation of MAPK3/1...
- Characterization of the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase in submandibular gland acinar cellsMichael R Bruchas
Department of Pharmacology, Creighton University School of Medicine, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
Eur J Pharmacol 578:349-58. 2008Alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) regulate salivary secretion...
- Bcl-xL prevents staurosporine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by restoring protein kinase B/mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and mitochondria integrityYinna Wang
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
J Cell Physiol 215:676-83. 2008..Our data suggest that Bcl-x(L) prevents staurosporine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by modulating protein kinase B and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and disrupts mitochondria death signaling.
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulation and activation during rat parotid gland atrophy and regeneration: role of epidermal growth factor and beta2-adrenergic receptorsHoward Dang
Department of Community Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
Differentiation 76:546-57. 2008..Similarly, increases in activated, i.e., phosphorylated, ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and p38 (phospho-p38) were demonstrable in both ductal and recovering acinar cells, with pERKs ..
- A comparison of the involvement of p38, ERK1/2 and PI3K in growth factor-induced chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cellsLouise A McMahon
Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 368:990-5. 2008..The data demonstrated involvement of the p38 pathway, but not ERK1/2 or PI3K in TGF-beta1-induced chondrogenic differentiation in monolayer...
- Nerve Growth factor regulation of cyclin D1 in PC12 cells through a p21RAS extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway requires cooperative interactions between Sp1 and nuclear factor-kappaBFrancesco Marampon
Department of Cancer Biology and Medical Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Mol Biol Cell 19:2566-78. 2008..NGF induction via Sp1 involved the formation of a Sp1/p50/p107 complex. Cyclin D1 induction by NGF governs differentiation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells...
- Neuroprotective effect of the new thiadiazolidinone NP00111 against oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices: implication of ERK1/2 and PPARgamma receptorsAngelo O Rosa
Departamento de Farmacologia y Terapeutica, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Teofilo Hernando, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
Exp Neurol 212:93-9. 2008..NP00111 increased by two fold phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and its protective effects were lost when the hippocampal slices were co-incubated with the mitogen-activated ..
- The transactivated epidermal growth factor receptor recruits Pyk2 to regulate Src kinase activityDag Schauwienold
Abteilung Klinische Pharmakologie, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
J Biol Chem 283:27748-56. 2008..ligands and activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src contributed to the thrombin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation...
- Ether-linked diglycerides inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell growth via decreased MAPK and PI3K/Akt signalingKristy L Houck
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H1657-68. 2008..Taken together, our studies identify ether-linked DGs as potential adjuvant therapies to limit vascular smooth muscle migration and mitogenesis in atherosclerotic and restenotic models...
- Transcriptional down-regulation of thromboxane A(2) receptor expression via activation of MAPK ERK1/2, p38/NF-kappaB pathwaysWei Zhang
Division of Experimental Vascular Research, Institute of Clinical Science in Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
J Vasc Res 46:162-74. 2009..By using this model, alteration of VSMC thromboxane A(2) (TP) receptors was studied...
- Estrogen exerts concentration-dependent pro-and anti-hypertrophic effects on adult cultured ventricular myocytes. Role of NHE-1 in estrogen-induced hypertrophyAna Kilic
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
J Mol Cell Cardiol 46:360-9. 2009..05; males: 29%, P<0.05) and ANP expression (females: 414%, P<0.05; males: 497%, P<0.05) in a NHE-1-, and ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent manner. At 1 nM, 17beta-estradiol decreased pHi (females: -0.24 pH units, P<0.05; males: -0...
- Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulates myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation and survival via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathwaysReut Kornasio
Department of Animal Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P O Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Biochim Biophys Acta 1793:755-63. 2009..These direct effects of HMB on myoblast differentiation and survival resembling those of IGF-I, at least in culture, suggest its positive influence in preventing muscle wasting...
- The function of RhoBTB proteinsSTEPHEN PAUL SOLTOFF; Fiscal Year: 2010..The results of these studies may reveal a new pathway involved in the development of cancer and advance our understanding of the basic biology of transformation. ..
- GLU6PASE AND 6P2K/FBASE GENE REGULATION IN SEPSISSUBIR MAITRA; Fiscal Year: 2001..The results of this study are essential to understand the molecular basis of deranged metabolism in sepsis. Understanding the mechanism might be useful for developing appropriate therapeutic intervention during sepsis. ..
- Identification of a new protein that binds Src and PKCSTEPHEN SOLTOFF; Fiscal Year: 2004..Future efforts will determine if this new protein alters cell morphology, tight junction formation, or other functions in salivary cells. ..
- Cellular Regulation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2)Patricia Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2009..The regulation of ACE2 may be critical to maintaining the normal function of the renin-angiotensin system in the brain. ..
- Tat-mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunctionMichal Toborek; Fiscal Year: 2009..In a broader aspect, this proposal will contribute to better knowledge of how injury to brain endothelium can contribute to the development of neuroAIDS. ..