Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: F2rl1
Description: F2R like trypsin receptor 1
Alias: Par-2, Par2, proteinase-activated receptor 2, Proteinase-activated receptor-2, G protein-coupled receptor 11, coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1, coagulation factor II receptor-like 1, thrombin receptor-like 1
- Trypsin IV or mesotrypsin and p23 cleave protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 to induce inflammation and hyperalgesiaWolfgang Knecht
Molecular Pharmacology and Lead Generation, AstraZeneca Research and Development, Mölndal 431 83, Sweden
J Biol Chem 282:26089-100. 2007..Thus, trypsin IV and p23 are inhibitor-resistant trypsins that can cleave and activate PARs, causing PAR(1)- and PAR(2)-dependent inflammation and PAR(2)-dependent hyperalgesia...
- Sensitization of TRPA1 by PAR2 contributes to the sensation of inflammatory painYi Dai
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan
J Clin Invest 117:1979-87. 2007Proinflammatory agents trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave and activate PAR2, which is expressed on sensory nerves to cause neurogenic inflammation...
- Proteinases and proteinase-activated receptor 2: a possible role to promote visceral hyperalgesia in ratsAnne Marie Coelho
Neuro Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, INRA, Toulouse Cedex, France
Gastroenterology 122:1035-47. 2002..The aim of this study was to determine whether colonic administration of PAR-2 agonists affects visceral sensitivity to rectal distention in conscious rats...
- Proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and -2 agonists induce mediator release from mast cells by pathways distinct from PAR-1 and PAR-2Grant R Stenton
Pulmonary Research Group, Department of Medicine, Astra Zeneca Canada Inc, Glaxo Heritage Asthma Research Laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2, Canada
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:466-74. 2002..The responsiveness of mast cells to PAR-AP via a non-PAR-1/non-PAR-2 mechanism complicates the interpretation of in vivo studies using these peptides...
- Chronic compression or acute dissociation of dorsal root ganglion induces cAMP-dependent neuronal hyperexcitability through activation of PAR2Zhi Jiang Huang
Department of Neurobiology, Parker University Research Institute, Dallas, TX 75229, USA
Pain 153:1426-37. 2012..Here, we report that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) activation after CCD or dissociation mediates the increase of cAMP activity and protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP-..
- Effects of chronic in-vivo treatments with protease-activated receptor 2 agonist on endothelium function and blood pressures in miceKeon H Hughes
Cardiovascular Research Group, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Memorial University, St John s, NL A1B 3V6, Canada
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 91:295-305. 2013Short-term treatments with protease-activated receptor 2-activating peptides (PAR2-AP) induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation and decrease blood pressure...
- Acute PAR2 activation reduces GABAergic inhibition in the spinal dorsal hornZhangxiang Huang
Department of Anesthesiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
Brain Res 1425:20-6. 2011..of spinal dorsal horn GABAergic neurotransmission to elucidate the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Initially, we confirmed that PAR2 agonist SL-NH(2) applied intrathecally produced mechanical hyperalgesia...
- Rat proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2): cDNA sequence and activity of receptor-derived peptides in gastric and vascular tissueM Saifeddine
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, AB Canada
Br J Pharmacol 118:521-30. 1996....
- Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) protein and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) protein coupling is required for sustained inflammatory signalingDaniel P Poole
Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
J Biol Chem 288:5790-802. 2013..Thus, PAR(2) activation generates a signal that induces sustained activation of TRPV4, which requires a key tyrosine residue (TRPV4-Tyr-110). This mechanism partly mediates the proinflammatory actions of PAR(2)...
- Proteinase-activated receptor-1 and -2 induce the release of chemokine GRO/CINC-1 from rat astrocytes via differential activation of JNK isoforms, evoking multiple protective pathways in brainYingfei Wang
Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Medizinische Fakultat, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Leipziger Str 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Biochem J 401:65-78. 2007..This provides new functional insights into PAR/JNK signalling and the protective actions of PARs in brain...
- Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): differential signalling by kallikrein-related peptidases KLK8 and KLK14Rithwik Ramachandran
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, AB, Canada
Biol Chem 393:421-7. 2012..Further, we analysed processing by KLK8 vs. KLK14 of synthetic human and rat PAR2-derived sequences representing the cleavage-activation domain of PAR2...
- PAR-2-mediated control of barrier function and motility differs between early and late phases of postinfectious gut dysfunction in the ratJoan Antoni Fernández-Blanco
Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Veterinary School, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 304:G390-400. 2013..A lack of a ketotifen effect suggests no interplay between MCs and PAR-2-mediated motility and ion transport alterations. These observations question the role of MC mediators in PAR-2-modulating postinfectious gut dysfunction...
- Effects of protease-activated receptors (PARs) on intracellular calcium dynamics of acinar cells in rat lacrimal glandsMakoto Oikawa
Department of Anatomy Cell Biology, Iwate Medical University, 2 1 1 Nishitokuda, Yahaba, Iwate, 028 3694, Japan
Histochem Cell Biol 140:463-76. 2013..Only PAR2 mRNA was detected in acinar cells of lacrimal glands...
- Involvement of protease-activated receptor 2 in nociceptive behavior in a rat model of bone cancerYanju Bao
Department of Oncology, Guang anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beixiange 5, Xicheng, Beijing, 100053, China
J Mol Neurosci 52:566-76. 2014..Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a receptor for inflammatory proteases, has been implicated in nociceptive signaling under both normal and ..
- PAR2-mediated upregulation of BDNF contributes to central sensitization in bone cancer painYanju Bao
Department of Oncology, Guang anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beixiange 5, Xicheng District, 100053 Beijing, China
Mol Pain 10:28. 2014..While several studies demonstrated the critical role of proteinase-activated receptor (PAR2) in the pathogenesis of several types of inflammatory or neuropathic pain, the involvement of spinal PAR2 and the ..
- The intracellular carboxyl tail of the PAR-2 receptor controls intracellular signaling and cell deathZhihui Zhu
Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultat, Leipziger Straße 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Germany
Cell Tissue Res 359:817-27. 2015..In summary, the PAR-2 carboxyl tail was found to control the receptor localization, internalization, intracellular Ca(2+) responses and signaling to ERK and AKT. The latter can be considered to be important for cell death control. ..
- Enhanced Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation via Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Is Involved in the Preserved Vasodilation in Aortas from Metabolic Syndrome RatsKana Maruyama
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women s University, Nishinomiya, Japan
J Vasc Res 52:232-43. 2015Endothelium-dependent vasodilation via protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in mesenteric arteries from SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP...
- Cross Talk Pathways Between Coagulation and InflammationJonathan H Foley
From the Department of Haematology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom J H F Katharine Dormandy Haemophilia Centre and Thrombosis Unit, Royal Free NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom J H F and Centre for Blood Research, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada E M C
Circ Res 118:1392-408. 2016..In this review, we highlight some of the key molecular interactions, some of which are already showing promise as therapeutic targets for inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. ..
- [Relationship of protease-activated receptor-2 and mast cell in the rat model of small intestinal mucosal damage by short-term administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug]Ming Yan Chen
Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310061, China
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 91:1502-5. 2011..To identify the expression and significance of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and mast cell (MC) in the rat model of small intestinal mucosal damage by a short-term administration of diclofenac...
- Increase of L-type Ca2+ current by protease-activated receptor 2 activation contributes to augmentation of spontaneous uterine contractility in pregnant ratsYoung Hwan Kim
Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Department of Physiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120 752, Republic of Korea
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 418:167-72. 2012....
- Neutrophil elastase acts as a biased agonist for proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2)Rithwik Ramachandran
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
J Biol Chem 286:24638-48. 2011..Our data illustrate a new mode of PAR regulation that involves biased PAR(2) signaling by neutrophil elastase and a disarming/silencing effect of cathepsin-G and proteinase-3...
- Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2Elise Duchesne
CHUQ Research Center and Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, 2705 Boul, Laurier, Quebec, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada
BMC Musculoskelet Disord 12:235. 2011..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade...
- Antagonism of protease-activated receptor 2 protects against experimental colitisRink Jan Lohman
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 340:256-65. 2012..Here, we investigate whether masking their common target, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), is an effective therapeutic strategy for treating acute and chronic experimental colitis in rats...
- Implantation serine proteinase 1 exhibits mixed substrate specificity that silences signaling via proteinase-activated receptorsNavneet Sharma
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
PLoS ONE 6:e27888. 2011..We observed that ISP1 silenced enzyme-triggered PAR signaling by receptor-disarming. This PAR-disarming action of ISP1 may be important for embryo development and implantation...
- Lesioning of TRPV1 expressing primary afferent neurons prevents PAR-2 induced motility, but not mechanical hypersensitivity in the rat colonS K Suckow
Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA
Neurogastroenterol Motil 24:e125-35. 2012b>Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is expressed by many neurons in the colon, including primary afferent neurons that co-express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)...
- Mast-cell-releasing tryptase triggers acute lung injury induced by small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by activating PAR-2 in ratsXiaoliang Gan
Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat Sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, China
Inflammation 35:1144-53. 2012..Tryptase released from mast cells mediates ALI induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by activating PAR-2 to produce IL-8...
- PAR-2 inhibition reverses experimental pulmonary hypertensionGrazyna Kwapiszewska
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Giessen Lung Centre, Germany
Circ Res 110:1179-91. 2012..Accumulating evidence suggests that mast cell mediators play a role in the pathogenesis of PH...
- Potentiation of the P2X3 ATP receptor by PAR-2 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, through protein kinase-dependent mechanisms, contributes to inflammatory painShenglan Wang
State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100088, China
Eur J Neurosci 36:2293-301. 2012....
- Activation of PAR(2) receptors sensitizes primary afferents and causes leukocyte rolling and adherence in the rat knee jointF A Russell
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
Br J Pharmacol 167:1665-78. 2012..The PAR(2) receptors are involved in chronic arthritis by mechanisms that are as yet unclear. Here, we examined PAR(2) activation in the rat knee joint...
- Cross-talk between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2) ) is involved in vascular functionM Bucci
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy
Br J Pharmacol 168:411-20. 2013..The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cross-talk between PAR(2) and TLR4 in vessels in physiological condition and how it varies following stimulation of TLR4 by using in vivo and ex vivo models...
- [Effects of cromolyn sodium on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting PAR-2 expression in rats]De Zhao Liu
Department of Anesthesiology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 92:2597-600. 2012..To explore the effects of cromolyn sodium (CS) on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR) and its relationship with mast cell activation and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression...
- Potentiation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel contributes to pruritogenesis in a rat model of liver diseaseMajedeline Belghiti
Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, 46012 Valencia, Spain
J Biol Chem 288:9675-85. 2013..contribution of histaminergic/serotonergic receptors, but significant activation of protein-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) receptors, prostaglandin PGE2 formation, and potentiation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ..
- Expression of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, but not other PARs, is regulated by inflammatory cytokines in rat astrocytesElena Sokolova
Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultat, Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Leipziger Straße 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Neurochem Int 60:276-85. 2012..These findings provide new information about the regulation of expression of PAR subtypes in brain cells. This is of importance for targeting PARs, especially PAR-2, for the treatment of CNS disorders...
- Renal proteinase-activated receptor 2, a new actor in the control of blood pressure and plasma potassium levelLuciana Morla
Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Descartes, INSERM, UMRS872 and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ERL7226, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
J Biol Chem 288:10124-31. 2013Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled membrane receptor that is activated upon cleavage of its extracellular N-terminal domain by trypsin and related proteases...
- Proteinase-activated receptor 2 mediates thermal hyperalgesia and is upregulated in a rat model of chronic pancreatitisWei Zhang
Division of Field Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, PR China
Pancreas 40:300-7. 2011The mechanism of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) has yet to be explored. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) plays a pronociceptive role in visceral pain...
- Acute PAR2 activation reduces alpha, beta-MeATP sensitive currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neuronsZhi Jie Lu
Department of Anesthesiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438, China
Neuroreport 21:227-32. 2010It has been reported that proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) receptor activation enhances the animal's pain response and PAR2 coexpresses with P2X3 in dorsal root ganglion neurons...
- [The effect of protease-activated receptor2 on rat apoptotic cardiomyocytes underwent ischemia reperfusion injury]Xiao Hong Tong
Department of Cardiology, First College of Clinical Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang Central People s Hospital, Yichang 443003, China
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 37:832-6. 2009..To investigate the effect of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) on rat apoptotic cardiomyocytes underwent ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury...
- House dust mite extract activates apical Cl(-) channels through protease-activated receptor 2 in human airway epitheliaHyung Ju Cho
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
J Cell Biochem 109:1254-63. 2010..Our results suggest a role for PAR-2 in mucociliary clearance and fluid hypersecretion of airway mucosa in response to air-borne allergens such as HDM...
- Long-term downregulation of protease-activated receptor-2 expression in distal colon in rats following bacillary dysenteryYan Luo
Department of Physiology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, 250012, PR China
Regul Pept 163:49-56. 2010..This might be the reason of the low sensitivity of the colon circular muscle strips to the PAR-2-AP-induced relaxation following intragastric administration of S.flexneri...
- Upregulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 and increased response to trypsin in endothelial cells after exposure to oxidative stress in rat aortasMurasaki Aman
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Research Institute of Angiocardiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Japan
J Vasc Res 47:494-506. 2010..The effects of oxidative stress on the vascular responsiveness to the agonists of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) were investigated...
- Activation of PAR-2 elicits NO-dependent and CGRP-independent dilation of the dural arteryDeepak K Bhatt
Department of Neurology, Glostrup Research Institute, Glostrup Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark
Headache 50:1017-30. 2010..The goal of this study was to determine the vascular effects of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation in the rat cranial vasculature...
- TRPV4-mediated calcium influx into human bronchial epithelia upon exposure to diesel exhaust particlesJinju Li
Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Environ Health Perspect 119:784-93. 2011..Human respiratory epithelia function in airway mucociliary clearance and barrier function and have recently been implicated in sensory functions...
- Proinflammatory role of protease-activated receptor-2 in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in ratsNorimasa Yoshida
Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
Mol Med Rep 4:81-6. 2011..Pre-treatment with anti-rat PCS antibody significantly inhibited the increases in these parameters. These results suggest that PAR-2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced intestinal injury...
- Recognition of fungal protease activities induces cellular activation and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release in human eosinophilsYoshinori Matsuwaki
Department of Medicine and Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
J Immunol 183:6708-16. 2009..Thus, fungal aspartate protease and eosinophil PAR-2 appear critical for the eosinophils' innate immune response to certain fungi, suggesting a novel mechanism for pathologic inflammation in asthma and for host-pathogen interaction...
- Bidirectional regulation of renal hemodynamics by activation of PAR1 and PAR2 in isolated perfused rat kidneyYu Gui
Canadian Institutes of Health Group on the Regulation of Vascular Contractility, Smooth Muscle Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285:F95-104. 2003..In the present study, we evaluated the impact of PAR activation on renal hemodynamics using PAR1- and PAR2-activating peptides (TFLLR-NH2 and SLIGRL-NH2) and proteinases (thrombin and trypsin) as PAR agonists in the ..
- [Changes of mast cells and protease activated receptor-2 in experimental rat liver fibrosis]Ke shu Xu
Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 14:753-6. 2006..To explore the quantity of mast cells and the role of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in experimental rat liver fibrosis...
- Hypersensitivity of pulmonary chemosensitive neurons induced by activation of protease-activated receptor-2 in ratsQihai Gu
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
J Physiol 574:867-76. 2006This study was carried out to determine the effect of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) activation on the pulmonary chemoreflex responses and on the sensitivity of isolated rat vagal pulmonary chemosensitive neurons...
- Protease-activated receptor 2 expression in trigeminal neurons innervating the rat nasal mucosaQ Thai Dinh
Department of Internal Medicine, Charite School of Medicine, Humboldt University, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
Neuropeptides 39:461-6. 2005Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is activated by trypsin and mast cell tryptase to induce widespread inflammation by unknown mechanisms...
- Protease-activated receptor stimulation activates a Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 in bladder microvascular endothelial cellsAlice Rickard
Dept of Pathology, Saint Louis Univ School of Medicine, 1402 S Grand Blvd, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288:F714-21. 2005....
- Receptor-activating peptides for PAR-1 and PAR-2 relax rat gastric artery via multiple mechanismsAtsufumi Kawabata
Division of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, 3 4 1 Kowakae, Higashi Osaka 577 8502, Japan
Life Sci 75:2689-702. 2004..These findings demonstrate that endothelial PAR-1 and PAR-2, upon activation, dilate the gastric artery via NO and prostanoid formation and also EDHF mechanisms including gap junctions, which would enhance GMBF...
- Redundant signaling mechanisms contribute to the vasodilatory response of the afferent arteriole to proteinase-activated receptor-2Xuemei Wang
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr N W, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288:F65-75. 2005....
- A protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activating peptide, tc-LIGRLO-NH2, induces protease release from mast cells: role in TNF degradationHashem N Alshurafa
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2S2
BMC Pharmacol 4:12. 2004..Recent evidence also suggests that MC-induced inflammation can be mediated through PAR. Therefore, we hypothesized that specific PAR-2 agonist peptides (PAR-2ap) induce protease release from PMC...
- Protease-activated receptor 2 exerts local protection and mediates some systemic complications in acute pancreatitisWan Namkung
Department of Pharmacology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Sinchon dong, Seoul 120 752, Korea
Gastroenterology 126:1844-59. 2004..In this study, we investigated the roles of pancreatic and circulatory protease-activated receptor 2 in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis by using in vitro and in vivo model systems...
- Protease-activated receptor subtype expression in developing eye and adult retina of the rat after optic nerve crushT Rohatgi
Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Medizinische Fakultat, Magdeburg, Germany
J Neurosci Res 73:246-54. 2003..PAR upregulation because of nerve crush in the mild trauma model could act as an effector of early cell death. Eventual return of receptor mRNA to basal levels is consistent with neuroprotection...
- Chymase increases glomerular albumin permeability via protease-activated receptor-2Ram Sharma
Renal Research Laboratory, Kansas City VA Medical Center, 4801 Linwood Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64128, USA
Mol Cell Biochem 297:161-9. 2007..MCC may also play a role in renal scarring. We propose that inhibiting MCC activity or blocking the activation of PAR-2 may provide new targets for therapy in renal diseases...
- Essential role for proteinase-activated receptor-2 in arthritisWilliam R Ferrell
Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, Royal Infirmary, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
J Clin Invest 111:35-41. 2003....
- Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the pancreas and parotid gland: Immunolocalization and involvement of nitric oxide in the evoked amylase secretionAtsufumi Kawabata
Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, 3 4 1 Kowakae, 577 8502, Higashi Osaka, Japan
Life Sci 71:2435-46. 2002....
- Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and the nitric oxide pathway in nociception/hyperalgesia elicited by protease-activated receptor-2 activation in mice and ratsAtsufumi Kawabata
Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Higashi Osaka 577 8502, Japan
Neurosci Lett 329:349-53. 2002..Our study thus provides a novel mouse model for PAR-2-mediated nociception, and suggests that NMDA receptors are involved in PAR-2-triggered nociception and hyperalgesia, while NO contributes only to the latter...
- Increase of prothrombin-mRNA after global cerebral ischemia in rats, with constant expression of protease nexin-1 and protease-activated receptorsM Riek-Burchardt
Project Group Neuropharmacology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, POB 1860, Brenneckestrasse 6, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany
Neurosci Lett 329:181-4. 2002..Thus, control of the balance between the expression of prothrombin and PN-1 may reflect an important mechanism that underlies postischemic thrombin effects...
- Protease-activated receptor-2 activation improves efficiency of experimental ischemic preconditioningClaudio Napoli
Department of Medicine, Federico II University of Naples, Italy
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 282:H2004-10. 2002..These data support the concept that PAR-2-dependent cell trafficking may regulate signaling responses to cardiac ischemia and inflammation...
- PAR-2 elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent actionsGreg Trottier
Smooth Muscle Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N1
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 282:F891-7. 2002..These findings indicate that PAR-2 is expressed in the afferent arteriole and that its activation elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms...
- Protease-activated receptor-2 activation causes EDHF-like coronary vasodilation: selective preservation in ischemia/reperfusion injury: involvement of lipoxygenase products, VR1 receptors, and C-fibersPeter G McLean
Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University College London, UK
Circ Res 90:465-72. 2002..Therefore, we investigated the effects of PAR2 activation on coronary tone in isolated perfused rat hearts and elucidated the mechanisms of any observed effects...
- Regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by proteinase-activated receptorsMarianna D A Gaca
Liver Research Group, University Division of Infection, Inflammation and Repair, Southampton General Hospital, SO16 6YD, Southampton, UK
J Hepatol 36:362-9. 2002..We have examined if rat stellate cells express these receptors and if receptor agonists influence stellate cell activation...
- Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in the proteinase-activated receptor 2-mediated vasodilatation in the rat dura materM Dux
Department of Physiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
Neuroscience 161:887-94. 2009..The results indicate that the PAR-2-mediated activation and sensitization of meningeal capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber nociceptors may be significantly implicated in the pathophysiology of headaches...
- Regulation of acid signaling in rat pulmonary sensory neurons by protease-activated receptor-2Qihai Gu
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 298:L454-61. 2010....
- Protease-activated receptor 2 and bradykinin-mediated vasodilation in the cerebral arteries of stroke-prone ratsJohn S Smeda
Division of Biomedical Sciences, Memorial University, St John s, Newfoundland, Canada
Peptides 31:227-37. 2010..Despite the presence of vascular injury, edema, inflammation and the loss of endothelium-dependent bradykinin vasodilation we found no evidence that PAR(2) expression or vascular function was altered in MCA after stroke...
- Phosphorylation of protease-activated receptor-2 differentially regulates desensitization and internalizationTiffany K Ricks
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7365, USA
J Biol Chem 284:34444-57. 2009Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor irreversibly activated by extracellular proteases...
- NMDA receptor subunit expression and PAR2 receptor activation in colospinal afferent neurons (CANs) during inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivityShelby K Suckow
Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Mol Pain 5:54. 2009..afferent neurons (CANs), co-localize with the NR1 and NR2D subunits of the NMDA receptor as well as with the PAR2 receptor...
- Gabexate mesilate inhibits the expression of HMGB1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injurySeigo Hidaka
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
J Surg Res 165:142-50. 2011..This indicates that GM can inhibit lung injury induced by LPS in rats. GM is a candidate for use in novel strategies to prevent or minimize lung injury in sepsis...
- Involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors in protease-activated receptor-2-induced joint inflammation and nociceptionZs Helyes
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pecs, H 7624 Pecs, Szigeti u 12, Hungary
Eur J Pain 14:351-8. 2010..Although intraplantar PAR-2 activation-induced oedema is also TRPV1 receptor-mediated, primary mechanical hyperalgesia, impaired weight distribution and IL-1beta production are independent of this channel...
- Mechanisms underlying enhanced vasorelaxant response to protease-activated receptor 2-activating peptide in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat mesenteric arteryTakayuki Matsumoto
Department of Physiology and Morphology, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo, Japan
Peptides 30:1729-34. 2009Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is proteolytically activated by certain endogenous proteases, such as trypsin, tryptase, and factor Xa...
- A regulatory role for protease-activated receptor-2 in motivational learning in ratsRink Jan Lohman
Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Neurobiol Learn Mem 92:301-9. 2009..Given our previous findings that trypsin and its receptor, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), are both highly expressed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and that activation of PAR2 attenuates '..
- Proinflammatory cytokines suppress the expression level of protease-activated receptor-2 through the induction of iNOS in rat colonAi Horie
Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University
J Vet Med Sci 71:1609-15. 2009..These results suggest that suppression of PAR-2 expression under inflammatory conditions is at least partially induced by NO produced in the colonic muscularis externa by proinflammatory cytokines...
- Protease-activated receptor 2 blocking peptide counteracts endotoxin-induced inflammation and coagulation and ameliorates renal fibrin deposition in a rat model of acute renal failureSubrina Jesmin
Department of Gene Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan
Shock 32:626-32. 2009..These results show that PAR-2 plays a key role in the inflammatory and coagulation process of LPS-induced renal failure; however, PAR-2 inhibition alone does not affect improvement in the renal function...
- Expression of proteinase-activated receptor-2 in the intervertebral discRyu Iida
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie, Japan
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 34:470-8. 2009..Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in rat and human intervertebral discs (IVDs)...
- PAR2 exerts local protection against acute pancreatitis via modulation of MAP kinase and MAP kinase phosphatase signalingWan Namkung
Dept of Pharmacology, Yonsei Univ College of Medicine, Seoul 120 752, Korea
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295:G886-94. 2008During acute pancreatitis, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) can be activated by interstitially released trypsin...
- Proteinase-activated receptor 2 stimulates Na,K-ATPase and sodium reabsorption in native kidney epitheliumLuciana Morla
Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Univ Paris 06, UMR 7134, 75005 Paris
J Biol Chem 283:28020-8. 2008Proteinase-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) are expressed in kidney, but their function is mostly unknown...
- Up-regulation of protease-activated receptor 2 in allergic rhinitisHeung Man Lee
Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 116:554-8. 2007..We compared the patterns of PAR-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in the nasal mucosa of subjects with and without allergic rhinitis...
- PAR-2 activation at the time of reperfusion salvages myocardium via an ERK1/2 pathway in in vivo rat heartsRong Jiang
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cardiothoracic Research Laboratory, Carlyle Fraser Heart Center of Crawford Long Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293:H2845-52. 2007..LY + PAR-2 AP, 38 +/- 3%; P > 0.05). Therefore, PAR-2 activation is cardioprotective in the in vivo rat heart ischemia-reperfusion model, and this protection involves the ERK1/2 pathway and PKC...
- p24A, a type I transmembrane protein, controls ARF1-dependent resensitization of protease-activated receptor-2 by influence on receptor traffickingWeibo Luo
Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Medizinische Fakultat, Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
J Biol Chem 282:30246-55. 2007..These findings identify a new function of p24A as a regulator of signal-dependent trafficking that regulates the life cycle of PAR-2, Thus, we reveal a new molecular mechanism underlying resensitization of PAR-2...
- Differential expression, time course and distribution of four PARs in rats with endotoxin-induced acute lung injurySubrina Jesmin
Division of Acute and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15 W7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060, Japan
Inflammation 30:14-27. 2007..The differential expression patterns (over a time course) and distribution of PAR isoforms suggests a distinct role for each isoform in the pathogenesis of LPS-induced ALI...