angiotensin converting enzyme

Summary

Gene Symbol: angiotensin converting enzyme
Description: angiotensin I converting enzyme
Alias: CD143, Dcp1, StsRR92, angiotensin-converting enzyme, Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1 (Angiotensin I-converting enzyme), angiotensin 1 converting enzyme 1, angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1, angiotensin I converting enzyme 1, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1), dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase I, kininase II
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Blockade of endogenous angiotensin-(1-7) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reduces renal sympathetic tone
    Ana Quênia Gomes da Silva
    Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Hypertension 46:341-8. 2005
  2. pmc Epistatic interaction between variations in the angiotensin I converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1 receptor genes in relation to extent of coronary atherosclerosis
    S Ye
    Human Genetics Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK
    Heart 89:1195-9. 2003
  3. ncbi Impaired heart rate baroreflex in older rats: role of endogenous angiotensin-(1-7) at the nucleus tractus solitarii
    Atsushi Sakima
    The Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1032, USA
    Hypertension 46:333-40. 2005
  4. doi Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression
    B Lu
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Xi an Jiaotong University, 76 W Yanta Road, Xi an, 710061, PR China
    Neuroscience 164:1303-11. 2009
  5. pmc The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiogenesis-(1-7)/Mas axis confers cardiopulmonary protection against lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension
    Vinayak Shenoy
    Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1065-72. 2010
  6. ncbi Relationships between angiotensin I converting enzyme gene polymorphism, plasma levels, and diabetic retinal and renal complications
    M Marre
    Medical Department B, University Hospital, Angers, France
    Diabetes 43:384-8. 1994
  7. ncbi Angiotensin I-converting enzyme genotype influences arterial response to injury in normotensive rats
    M Challah
    INSERM Unité 460, Paris, France
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18:235-43. 1998
  8. ncbi Species-specific splicing and expression of angiotensin converting enzyme
    Xiao Li Tian
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Benjamin Franklin Medical Center, Free University of Berlin, Gary Str 5, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Biochem Pharmacol 66:1037-44. 2003
  9. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in Behçet's disease
    M Akif Ozturk
    Department of Rheumatology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Clin Rheumatol 23:142-6. 2004
  10. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Behçet's disease
    Sebahat Turgut
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Med Princ Pract 14:213-6. 2005

Detail Information

Publications139 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Blockade of endogenous angiotensin-(1-7) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus reduces renal sympathetic tone
    Ana Quênia Gomes da Silva
    Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofisica, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Hypertension 46:341-8. 2005
    ..These results suggest that Ang-(1-7) Mas receptors and AT2 receptors in the PVN neurons play a role in mediating the tonic maintenance of RSNA...
  2. pmc Epistatic interaction between variations in the angiotensin I converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1 receptor genes in relation to extent of coronary atherosclerosis
    S Ye
    Human Genetics Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK
    Heart 89:1195-9. 2003
    ..To test the hypothesis that gene-gene interaction of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with an effect on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis...
  3. ncbi Impaired heart rate baroreflex in older rats: role of endogenous angiotensin-(1-7) at the nucleus tractus solitarii
    Atsushi Sakima
    The Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center, Department of General Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1032, USA
    Hypertension 46:333-40. 2005
    ..The attenuated counterbalancing effect of Ang-(1-7) on baroreflex function is lost in older rats, which may be attributable to diminished production of the peptide from neprilysin...
  4. doi Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression
    B Lu
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Xi an Jiaotong University, 76 W Yanta Road, Xi an, 710061, PR China
    Neuroscience 164:1303-11. 2009
    ....
  5. pmc The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiogenesis-(1-7)/Mas axis confers cardiopulmonary protection against lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension
    Vinayak Shenoy
    Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1065-72. 2010
    ..The recent discovery of a counterregulatory axis of the renin angiotensin system composed of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas has led us to examine the role of this vasoprotective axis on such disorders...
  6. ncbi Relationships between angiotensin I converting enzyme gene polymorphism, plasma levels, and diabetic retinal and renal complications
    M Marre
    Medical Department B, University Hospital, Angers, France
    Diabetes 43:384-8. 1994
    ..0022). The II genotype of ACE gene is a marker for reduced risk for diabetic nephropathy...
  7. ncbi Angiotensin I-converting enzyme genotype influences arterial response to injury in normotensive rats
    M Challah
    INSERM Unité 460, Paris, France
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18:235-43. 1998
    ....
  8. ncbi Species-specific splicing and expression of angiotensin converting enzyme
    Xiao Li Tian
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Benjamin Franklin Medical Center, Free University of Berlin, Gary Str 5, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Biochem Pharmacol 66:1037-44. 2003
    b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a critical determinant in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases and in the control of male fertility...
  9. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in Behçet's disease
    M Akif Ozturk
    Department of Rheumatology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Clin Rheumatol 23:142-6. 2004
    ..Moreover, possession of either the D or the I allele does not have an impact on the development of ocular, neurologic or vascular manifestations of the disease...
  10. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Behçet's disease
    Sebahat Turgut
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
    Med Princ Pract 14:213-6. 2005
    ..To investigate a potential relationship between I/D polymorphism within intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene located on human chromosome 17 and Behçet's disease...
  11. ncbi Angiotensin II exerts positive feedback on the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system by an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism
    Javid Sadjadi
    Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Surg Res 129:272-7. 2005
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that an incremental increase in plasma ANG II induces the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the non-ischemic kidney by an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) dependent mechanism.
  12. ncbi Antihypertensives as novel antineoplastics: angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Hwyda A Arafat
    Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 204:996-1005; discussion 1005-6. 2007
    ..Angiotensin II (AngII), which has been shown to increase VEGF production in a variety of cancers, is actively generated in the pancreas. We hypothesized that AngII plays a crucial role in PDA-associated angiogenesis...
  13. doi Blockade of sensory abnormalities and kinin B(1) receptor expression by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ramipril in a rat model of insulin resistance
    Mahmoud Ali Ismael
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Eur J Pharmacol 589:66-72. 2008
    ..Both therapies were associated with a reduction of the expression of the pro-nociceptive kinin B(1) receptor...
  14. ncbi The deletion/insertion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene and cardiovascular-renal risk
    J A Staessen
    Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, University of Leuven, Belgium
    J Hypertens 15:1579-92. 1997
    This meta-analysis attempted to derive pooled estimates for the associations between various cardiovascular-renal disorders and the deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene.
  15. doi Upregulation of a local renin-angiotensin system in the rat carotid body during chronic intermittent hypoxia
    Siu Yin Lam
    M L Fung Department of Physiology, University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
    Exp Physiol 99:220-31. 2014
    ..Collectively, the upregulated local RAS expression could play a pathogenic role in the augmented CB activity and local inflammation via AT1 receptor activation during IH conditions in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. ..
  16. pmc Atrial fibrosis in a chronic murine model of obstructive sleep apnea: mechanisms and prevention by mesenchymal stem cells
    Pablo Ramos
    Thorax Institute, Unitat de Fibril lació Auricular, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona and Institut d Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Respir Res 15:54. 2014
    ..The aims of this work were to determine whether chronic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces an atrial pro-arrhythmogenic substrate and to explore whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to prevent it in a rat model of OSA...
  17. doi Persistent change in cardiac fibroblast physiology after transient ACE inhibition
    K M D'Souza
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 309:H1346-53. 2015
    ..It may be that the cardioprotective effects of ACE inhibition are related in part to beneficial changes in cardiac fibroblast physiology. ..
  18. ncbi Some characteristics of a peptidyl dipeptidase (kininase II) from rat CSF: differential effects of NaCl on the sequential degradation steps of bradykinin
    T Yoshida
    Department of Physiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Neurochem 55:1861-9. 1990
    ..presence in CSF of a peptidyl dipeptidase [peptidyl dipeptide hydrolase; angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE); kininase II; EC 3.4.15...
  19. ncbi Angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with myocardial infarction, but not with retinopathy or nephropathy, in NIDDM
    T Fujisawa
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Japan
    Diabetes Care 18:983-5. 1995
    ..To clarify the relationship between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)...
  20. pmc Role of angiotensin converting enzyme in the vascular effects of an endopeptidase 24.15 inhibitor
    S E Telford
    Baker Medical Research Institute, Prahran, Victoria, Australia
    Br J Pharmacol 114:1185-92. 1995
    1. We investigated the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the cardiovascular effects of N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), a peptidase inhibitor selective for metalloendopeptidase (EP) E.C...
  21. ncbi Suppression of angiotensin-converting enzyme expression and activity by shear stress
    M J Rieder
    Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Circ Res 80:312-9. 1997
    ..These studies suggest that elevations in the level of shear stress alter endothelial cell function by suppressing ACE gene and protein expression in vitro and in vivo...
  22. ncbi Association of 3 gene polymorphisms with atopic diseases
    L Holla
    Institute of Pathological Physiology, Medical Faculty, Masaryk University Brno, Czech Republic
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:702-8. 1999
    ..This enzyme is also involved in the conversion or activation of 2 bronchoconstriction mediators: angiotensin II from angiotensinogen and endothelin (ET), respectively...
  23. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme in non-neoplastic kidney diseases
    R Metzger
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Germany
    Kidney Int 56:1442-54. 1999
    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, CD143, kininase II) plays a critical role in controlling the level of vasoactive peptides such as angiotensins and kinins in the local circulations and tissue interstitium...
  24. ncbi Cardiac angiotensin II participates in coronary microvessel inflammation of unstable angina and strengthens the immunomediated component
    Gian Gastone Neri Serneri
    Clinica Medica Generale e Cardiologia, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 Florence, Italy
    Circ Res 94:1630-7. 2004
    ..These results show that locally generated Ang II amplifies the immunomediated inflammatory process of coronary microvessels occurring in unstable angina...
  25. pmc Polymorphism of the ACE Gene in dialysis patients: overexpression of DD genotype in type 2 diabetic end-stage renal failure patients
    Hyeong Cheon Park
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yongdong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 146 92 Dogok dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 46:779-87. 2005
    ..These findings may substantiate the previously noted relationship between the ACE DD genotype and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients...
  26. ncbi Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and serum vitamin D levels on ambulatory blood pressure measurement and left ventricular mass in Turkish hypertensive population
    Eyup Kulah
    Department of Nephrology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak, Turkey
    Blood Press Monit 12:207-13. 2007
    Regulation of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ang-II) levels is under genetic control...
  27. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with anemia in non small-cell lung cancer
    Arzu Yaren
    University of Pamukkale, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Denizli, Turkey
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233:32-7. 2008
    ..02; P=0.001). Our findings suggest that I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene may influence the development of anemia in patients with NSCLC...
  28. ncbi Upregulation of Th1 cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    R M Mroz
    Department of Pneumology, Bialystok Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
    J Physiol Pharmacol 59:499-505. 2008
    ..68, P=0.015) and a negative one between IL-12 and the percentage of macrophages in BALF (r=-0.64, P=0.024). We conclude that upregulation of the Th1 cell cytokine profile may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of HP...
  29. ncbi Association between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism and recurrent wheezing in Chinese children: a 4-year follow-up study
    S Guo
    Department of Paediatrics, Shanghai Sixth People s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
    J Int Med Res 37:351-8. 2009
    ..Patients with the DD genotype had a higher frequency of relapse than patients expressing the ID or II genotypes. It is concluded that the DD genotype of ACE is a risk factor for recurrent wheezing in early childhood...
  30. doi Inhibitory effect of αS1- and αS2-casein hydrolysates on angiotensin I-converting enzyme in human endothelial cells in vitro, rat aortic tissue ex vivo, and renovascular hypertensive rats in vivo
    D Rousseau-Ralliard
    INRA, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1154 INRA Université Paris Sud 11, Laboratoire Lipides membranaires et régulations fonctionnelles du coeur et des vaisseaux, Chatenay Malabry, F 92296 France
    J Dairy Sci 93:2906-21. 2010
    A great number of milk-derived peptides have been shown to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and thus potential utility in the regulation of blood pressure...
  31. doi Investigation of ocular neovascularization-related genes and oxidative stress in diabetic rat eye tissues after resveratrol treatment
    Atiye Seda Yar
    Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
    J Med Food 15:391-8. 2012
    ..Although oxidative stress was increased in eye tissue from diabetic rats, mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-9, and ACE genes associated with vascular remodeling did not change in diabetic eyes...
  32. doi Tissue-specific upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 in spontaneously hypertensive rats through histone code modifications
    Hae Ahm Lee
    Department of Pharmacology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, 101 Dongin 2 Ga, Daegu, 700 422 Republic of Korea
    Hypertension 59:621-6. 2012
    ..In conclusion, ACE1 is upregulated in local tissues of SHRs via histone code modifications...
  33. pmc Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy initiation with a reduction in hemoglobin levels in patients without renal failure
    Eran Leshem-Rubinow
    Department of Medicine D, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Mayo Clin Proc 87:1189-95. 2012
    ....
  34. doi Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression and attenuate renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Tarek K Motawi
    Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 27:378-87. 2013
    ..Prevention of diabetes-induced changes in ACE expression and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity could be a new explanation of the renoprotective effects of ACEIs and ARBs...
  35. doi NQO1 activation regulates angiotensin-converting enzyme shedding in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Yong Hoon Kim
    Laboratory Animal Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon, South Korea
    Cardiovasc Res 99:743-50. 2013
    ..In this study, we evaluated whether NQO1 activation by βL modulates BP through regulation of ACE shedding in an animal model of hypertension...
  36. doi Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis protects against lung fibrosis by inhibiting the MAPK/NF-κB pathway
    Ying Meng
    1 Department of Respiratory Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 50:723-36. 2014
    ..Up-regulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis protected against pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the MAPK/NF-κB pathway. However, close attention should be paid to the proinflammatory effects of Ang-(1-7). ..
  37. doi Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines
    Yu Ming Kang
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi an 710061, China Electronic address
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 274:436-44. 2014
    ....
  38. doi Inhibition of AAA in a rat model by treatment with ACEI perindopril
    Fei Xiong
    Department of Vascular Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    J Surg Res 189:166-73. 2014
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on the formation of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in a rat model induced by intraluminal elastase ..
  39. pmc Inhibition of ACE Retards Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Signs of Neuronal Degeneration in Aged Rats Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress
    Said AbdAlla
    Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Biomed Res Int 2015:917156. 2015
    ..Moreover, ACE inhibitor treatment could counteract glutamate neurotoxicity by preventing the downregulation of glutamate decarboxylase 2 (Gad2). Taken together, ACE inhibition targets neurodegeneration triggered by environmental stress. ..
  40. ncbi Interaction of angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion-deletion polymorphism and daily salt intake influences hypertension in Japanese men
    Ling Zhang
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    Hypertens Res 29:751-8. 2006
    ..042). Our results suggest that ACE I/D and daily salt intake constitute a gene-environment interaction, which may be further modulated by overweight...
  41. doi ACE-inhibitor suppresses the apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress in renal tubular in experimental diabetic rats
    H L Sun
    Department of Nephrology, Shenzhen Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Fuhua Road, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 117:336-44. 2009
    ..The effects of ACE inhibitor on the endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis were also assessed...
  42. doi The impact of statins, ACE inhibitors and gastric acid suppressants on pneumonia mortality in a UK general practice population cohort
    Puja R Myles
    Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Clinical Sciences Building, City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18:697-703. 2009
    ..Pneumonia is a common diagnosis in general practice in the United Kingdom. Previous studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice may influence pneumonia mortality...
  43. doi The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and aspirin delay progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer formation in a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer
    Volker Fendrich
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, Marburg, Germany
    Gut 59:630-7. 2010
    ..In this study, we used a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of these drugs...
  44. doi Effect of enalapril on exercise cardiopulmonary performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pilot study
    Fabiano Di Marco
    Clinica di Malattie dell Apparato Respiratorio, Ospedale San Paolo, Università degli Studi di, 20142 Milano, Italy
    Pulm Pharmacol Ther 23:159-64. 2010
    ..The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on cardiopulmonary exercise performance in COPD patients...
  45. pmc Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    S Pabst
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine, Universitatsklinikum Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Eur J Med Res 14:177-81. 2009
    ..The aim of the study was to find out whether the ACE gene polymorphism can determine the course of COPD...
  46. pmc Ventilator-induced inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-exposed rat lung is mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme
    Roelie M Wösten-van Asperen
    Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Emma Children s Hospital Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Pathol 176:2219-27. 2010
    ..In conclusion, during mechanical ventilation ACE, via Ang II, mediates the inflammatory response of both healthy and preinjured lungs...
  47. ncbi Evidence for the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric damage via angiotensin II
    A Nakagiri
    Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Clinical Pharmacy, Doshisha Women s College of Liberal Arts, Kodo, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, Japan
    J Physiol Pharmacol 61:171-9. 2010
    ..These results suggest that ischemia/reperfusion generated reactive oxygen species are derived from NADPH oxidase activation via AT1 receptor in rat stomachs...
  48. ncbi Angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA decrease and AT1 receptor mRNA and protein increase in epididymal fat tissue accompany age-induced elevation of adiposity and reductions in expression of GLUT4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated re
    K Krskova
    Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
    J Physiol Pharmacol 62:403-10. 2011
    ..We believe that this complex regulation of adipose tissue RAS slows down the negative age and adiposity related changes in adipose tissue leptin, adiponectin, GLUT4 and PPARgamma...
  49. doi Molecular imaging of human ACE-1 expression in transgenic rats
    Vasken Dilsizian
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 1595, USA
    JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 5:409-18. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a molecular imaging strategy that can monitor myocardial angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-1 upregulation as a function of progressive heart failure...
  50. ncbi Interdependent effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene polymorphisms on the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy
    H J Yoon
    Seoul Clinical Genomics Inc, Seoul, Korea, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
    Clin Genet 62:128-34. 2002
    ..5; 95% CI, 1.6-12.7). These results suggest that the interdependent effects of ACE and PAF-AH polymorphisms on the progression of IgA nephropathy might be more important than the effect of the individual polymorphisms...
  51. doi Inflammation alters angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE and ACE-2) balance in rat heart
    Sherif Hanafy
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2N8
    Inflammation 34:609-13. 2011
    ..Disruption of the balance between ACE and ACE-2 observed in inflammation may be, at least in part, involved in the cardiovascular complications seen in patients with inflammatory diseases...
  52. doi Effect of captopril treatment on recuperation from ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal injury
    Shai Efrati
    Research and Development Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin 70300, Tel Aviv University, Israel
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 27:136-45. 2012
    ..We investigated the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the progression of AKI in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion...
  53. pmc Distribution of the activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme in the rat aorta and changes in the activity with aging and by the action of L-NAME
    Antonina F Korystova
    Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia
    Age (Dordr) 34:821-30. 2012
    ....
  54. pmc Rat Ace allele variation determines susceptibility to AngII-induced renal damage
    Jelena Kamilic
    Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 12:420-9. 2011
    ....
  55. doi Central angiotensin converting enzyme facilitates memory impairment in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin treated rats
    Santoshkumar Tota
    Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow U P India
    Behav Brain Res 226:317-30. 2012
    ..However, exact role of RAS in cognition is still ambiguous. Our aim was to explore how angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) modulates memory in experimental model of memory impairment...
  56. doi Time course involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in the vascular alterations of renovascular hypertension
    Carla S Ceron
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, 14049 900, Brazil
    Matrix Biol 31:261-70. 2012
    ..Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured to assess renin-angiotensin system activation...
  57. pmc Differential regulation of circulating and renal ACE2 and ACE in hypertensive mRen2.Lewis rats with early-onset diabetes
    Liliya M Yamaleyeva
    Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302:F1374-84. 2012
    ..In conclusion, female mRen2 rats are not protected from vascular damage, renal inflammation, and kidney injury in early STZ-induced diabetes despite a marked increase in circulating ACE2 and significantly reduced ACE within the kidney...
  58. ncbi [Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow]
    E Zderkiewicz
    Pol Tyg Lek 33:1157-9. 1978
  59. ncbi Cosegregation of blood pressure with angiotensin converting enzyme and atrial natriuretic peptide receptor genes using Dahl salt-sensitive rats
    Y Deng
    Department of Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo 43699
    Nat Genet 1:267-72. 1992
    We have evaluated the genes for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and guanylyl cyclase A/atrial natriuretic peptide receptor (GCA) for genetic effects on blood pressure response to high salt diet...
  60. pmc Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus angiotensin II, AT1 receptor antagonist. Effects on smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation after balloon catheter injury
    M F Prescott
    Research Department, CIBA GEIGY Corporation, Summit, New Jersey 07901
    Am J Pathol 139:1291-6. 1991
    ..A more pronounced reduction in lesion size was obtained after AT1 antagonism, however, when both SMC migration and proliferation were inhibited...
  61. pmc Locus for the inducible, but not a constitutive, nitric oxide synthase cosegregates with blood pressure in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat
    A Y Deng
    Department of Physiology and Molecular Medicine, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo 43699, USA
    J Clin Invest 95:2170-7. 1995
    ..In F2(S x MNS) functionally variant alleles at both QTL influence blood pressure, but in F2(S x WKY) only the QTL marked by Nos2 is segregating alleles influencing blood pressure...
  62. ncbi Genetic linkage of the ACE gene to plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity but not to blood pressure. A quantitative trait locus confers identical complex phenotypes in human and rat hypertension
    R Kreutz
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Circulation 92:2381-4. 1995
    ..We therefore investigated the genetic determination of plasma ACE activity and its relation to blood pressure and dietary NaCl exposure in a model of experimental genetic hypertension, the SHRSPHD...
  63. ncbi Heart mass and blood pressure have separate genetic determinants in the New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rat
    E L Harris
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    J Hypertens 13:397-404. 1995
    ..To determine associations between cardiovascular parameters and genotype in 205 F2 rats of both sexes and lineages from reciprocal crosses made between rats of the New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains...
  64. ncbi Lack of association of polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensinogen genes with nonfamilial hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy
    Y Yamada
    Department of Geriatric Research, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Obu, Aichi, Japan
    Am J Hypertens 10:921-8. 1997
    ..An allelic association study for the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen genes has now been performed with 71 patients with nonfamilial HCM, 88 ..
  65. ncbi Rat angiotensin-converting enzyme promoter regulation by beta-adrenergics and cAMP in endothelium
    J Xavier-Neto
    Laboratório de Genética e Cardiologia Molecular e Dept Clínica Médica LIM 13, Instituto do Coracao, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Hypertension 34:31-8. 1999
    ..In summary, beta-adrenergic activation of rat ACE promoter is specific; uses G(s) proteins, adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A; and probably includes cAMP responsive element-like sequences...
  66. ncbi Release of angiotensin-(1-7) from the rat hindlimb: influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition
    M C Chappell
    Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1095, USA
    Hypertension 35:348-52. 2000
    ..Neprilysin inhibition reduced but did not abolish Ang-(1-7) release, which suggests that other endopeptidases may contribute to the release of the peptide...
  67. ncbi Nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels correlate with gene expression of angiotensin II type-1 but not type-2 receptors, renin or angiotensin converting enzyme in selected brain areas
    O Krizanova
    Institute of Molecular Physiology and Genetics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava
    Physiol Res 50:473-80. 2001
    ..the sites of gene expression of different components of the rat brain renin angiotensin system (renin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) or angiotensin receptors of AT1 and AT2 subtypes)...
  68. ncbi Germinal angiotensin I-converting enzyme is totally shed from the rodent sperm membrane during epididymal maturation
    Sonia Metayer
    Equipe Spermatozoïdes, UMR 6073 INRA CNRS, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Nouzilly, 37380 Monnaie, France
    Biol Reprod 67:1763-7. 2002
    ..This result is discussed in view of the suggested role for this enzyme in sperm fertility...
  69. ncbi Involvement of renal ACE activity in proteinuria-associated renal damage in untreated and treated adriamycin nephrotic rats
    Hendrik Bos
    Department of Nephrology, Groningen University, Groningen, The Netherlands
    J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 4:106-12. 2003
    ..Renal ACE activity is a consistent marker of individual differences in proteinuria-associated renal damage: further studies are needed to investigate a possible pathogenetic role in renal damage...
  70. ncbi Regulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by a time-course hypoxia in the carotid body
    Siu Yin Lam
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 96:809-13. 2004
    ..This may be important in the modulation of cardiopulmonary adaptation in the hypoxic ventilatory response as well as for electrolyte and water homeostasis during chronic hypoxia...
  71. ncbi Increases in brain and cardiac AT1 receptor and ACE densities after myocardial infarct in rats
    Junhui Tan
    Hypertension Unit, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Y 4W7
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286:H1665-71. 2004
    ..Brain OLC appears to play a major role in activation of brain RAS in rats after MI and, to a modest degree, in activation of the cardiac RAS...
  72. ncbi Identification of two novel shear stress responsive elements in rat angiotensin I converting enzyme promoter
    Ayumi Aurea Miyakawa
    Laboratory of Genetic and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute InCor and Internal Medicine Department LIM13, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, 05403 901 São Paulo SP, Brazil
    Physiol Genomics 17:107-13. 2004
    ....
  73. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition modulates mitogen-activated protein kinase family expressions in the neonatal rat kidney
    Byung Min Choi
    Department of Pediatrics, Korea University, 152 703, Seoul, Korea
    Pediatr Res 57:115-23. 2005
    ..JNK and p38 may be implicated to participate in angiotensin II-related intracellular signaling pathways of renal apoptosis in the developing kidney...
  74. ncbi Targeting the renin-angiotensin system: what's new?
    B J Leckie
    Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, RK Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents 3:23-32. 2005
    ..11 may be of value where there is both sodium retention and increased angiotensin II. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system by gene therapy or antibody treatment may provide a longer-term treatment for hypertension...
  75. ncbi Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans
    Louise M Burrell
    Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Repatriation Heidelberg Hospital, Heidelberg 3081, Victoria, Australia
    Eur Heart J 26:369-75; discussion 322-4. 2005
    b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 catalyses the cleavage of angiotensin (Ang) I to Ang 1-9 and of Ang II to Ang 1-7...
  76. ncbi Angiotensin converting enzyme-independent angiotensin ii production by chymase is up-regulated in the ischemic kidney in renovascular hypertension
    Javid Sadjadi
    Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    J Surg Res 127:65-9. 2005
    ..It has been demonstrated previously that intrarenal ANG II is augmented by an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) dependent mechanism in the non-ischemic kidney, but the role of ACE-independent production of ..
  77. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition attenuates myonuclear addition in overloaded slow-twitch skeletal muscle
    Christopher M Westerkamp
    Human Performance Laboratory, 363 Ward Sports Medicine Bldg, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289:R1223-31. 2005
    ....
  78. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and ACE activities display tissue-specific sensitivity to undernutrition-programmed hypertension in the adult rat
    Guillaume Rivière
    The UPRES EA 2701, Laboratoire de Neuroendocrinologie du Developpement, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq cedex, France
    Hypertension 46:1169-74. 2005
    ..Our results indicate that ACE2 and ACE are coexpressed in numerous rat tissues and that their increased activity in the lung of FR30 rats may participate in hypertension programming...
  79. ncbi Effects of blockade of the renin-angiotensin and endothelin systems on experimental bronchiolitis obliterans
    Balazs Antus
    Department of Pathophysiology, National Koranyi Institute for TB and Pulmonology, Budapest, Hungary
    J Heart Lung Transplant 25:1324-9. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to test which of these pharmacologic interventions attenuates the process more effectively, and whether combination therapy confers additional benefit...
  80. pmc Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of mice transgenic for the human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 virus receptor
    Chien Te K Tseng
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, G 150 Keiller Building, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 81:1162-73. 2007
    ....
  81. ncbi No contribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene variants to severe obesity: a model for comprehensive case/control and quantitative cladistic analysis of ACE in human diseases
    Christopher G Bell
    Genomic Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Eur J Hum Genet 15:320-7. 2007
    ..Such a study design exemplifies the strategy needed to clearly define the contribution of the ACE gene to the plethora of complex genetic diseases where weak associations have been previously reported...
  82. ncbi Association of somatic and N-domain angiotensin-converting enzymes from Wistar rat tissue with renal dysfunction in diabetes mellitus
    Fernanda A Ronchi
    Department of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 8:34-41. 2007
    ..The modulation of angiotensin peptides suggests that sACE, nACE, ACE 2 and NEP could have important functions in renal RAS regulation through a counter-regulatory mechanism to protect the kidney in diabetes mellitus...
  83. ncbi Effect of an angiotensin II receptor blocker and two angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and alpha-actomyosin (alpha SMA), important mediators of radiation-induced pneumopathy and lung fibrosis
    Agostino Molteni
    Department of Pathology and Basic Medicinal Science, University of Missouri at Kansas City, Truman Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 13:1307-16. 2007
    ..with the protective effects of L 158,809, an angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor blocker, and two angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the development of IPS and the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) ..
  84. ncbi Effects on cytokines and histology by treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril and the antioxidant retinoic acid in the monocrotaline model of experimentally induced lung fibrosis
    Richard C Baybutt
    Dept of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 13:1327-33. 2007
    ..fibrosis can be interrupted or decreased by intervention with retinoic acid (RA) or with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril...
  85. ncbi Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D corrected serum ACE activity and severity assessment of community-acquired pneumonia
    Ewoudt M W van de Garde
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, St Antonius Hospital, Koekoekslaan 1, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
    Clin Chem Lab Med 45:1326-31. 2007
    ....
  86. ncbi Rho kinase activation and gene expression related to vascular remodeling in normotensive rats with high angiotensin I converting enzyme levels
    Paulina Rivera
    Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Medical School, P Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Hypertension 50:792-8. 2007
    ....
  87. ncbi Effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II receptor blockade on cardiac angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats
    Yoshiyu Takeda
    Division of Endocrinology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Takara machi, Kanazawa, Japan
    Am J Hypertens 20:1119-24. 2007
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a novel regulator of blood pressure (BP) and cardiac function. The effect of blockade of aldosterone or angiotensin II (Ang II) on cardiac angiotensinogen and ACE2 in DS rats is unknown...
  88. doi A twofold genetic increase of ACE expression has no effect on the development of spontaneous hypertension
    Ibrahim Nassar
    Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charité Centrum für Thearapieforschung, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Hypertens 21:200-5. 2008
    ..e., the Ace allele of the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, in the hypertensive background of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats...
  89. ncbi Altered angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effects on the brain in a rat model of Alzheimer disease
    De Ren Hou
    Department of Neurology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China
    Chin Med J (Engl) 121:2320-3. 2008
    ....
  90. doi Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on the inflammatory response in in vivo and in vitro models
    Satoshi Hagiwara
    Department of Brain and Nerve Science, Anesthesiology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan
    Crit Care Med 37:626-33. 2009
    ....
  91. pmc Podocyte repopulation contributes to regression of glomerular injury induced by ACE inhibition
    Daniela Macconi
    Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Laboratory of Renal Biophysics, Via Gavazzeni, 11, 24125 Bergamo, Italy
    Am J Pathol 174:797-807. 2009
    ..Increased parietal podocyte number in lisinopril-treated MWF rats suggests that the remodeling of Bowman's capsule epithelial cells contributes to this effect...
  92. doi Differential ACE expression among tissues in allele-specific Wistar rat lines
    Jelena Kamilic
    Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Mamm Genome 20:170-9. 2009
    In humans, the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene accounts for half of the variance in plasma ACE activity...
  93. doi Metabolic effects of low dose angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in dietary obesity in the rat
    E Velkoska
    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20:49-55. 2010
    ..in adipose tissue, and its association with obesity-related hypertension, the metabolic effects of treatment with a low dose angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) were investigated in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity.
  94. doi Expression of testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats
    Nina Atanassova
    Institute of Experimental Morphology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
    Folia Histochem Cytobiol 47:117-22. 2009
    ..Therefore, tACE can be used as a marker for germ cell depletion due to hypertension and other pathological conditions...
  95. doi Down regulation of angiotensin II receptor AT1 expression in the pancreas of diabetic rat
    J Monosíková
    Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina B 2, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 117:438-9. 2009
    ..Expression of AT (1) was decreased in diabetic rats during the light and the dark phase of 24 h cycle. Our data show down-regulation of the pancreatic RAS during early stage of diabetes development...
  96. doi Reciprocal interactions of obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension associated with ACE I/D polymorphism in males
    Renata G Koyama
    Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Sleep Med 10:1107-11. 2009
    ..However, ACE is a pleiotropic gene that has several influences, including skeletal muscle and control of ventilation. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ACE polymorphism influences OSA severity...

Research Grants5

  1. Robotics Extraction System/HPLC for Shared Resource Lab
    Mark Chappell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Heavy Drinking & Coronary Disease: Acute/Chronic Effects
    Kenneth Mukamal; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These results may prove to have important biological, clinical, and public health implications for the care of CHD. ..
  3. Estrogen, ACE2 and Salt-Sensitivity
    Mark Chappell; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Lewis strain. ..
  4. Impact of statins and ACE inhibitors on outcomes for pneumonia and sepsis
    Eric Mortensen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  5. Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease
    Kenneth Jay Mukamal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, we will examine how a derived dietary antioxidant score, based upon measured oxidative potential of specific foods using the ferric-reducing/antioxidant power method, is related to PAD. ..