esxA

Summary

Gene Symbol: esxA
Description: ESAT-6 protein EsxA
Alias: esat-6
Species: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

Top Publications

  1. pmc Delayed protection by ESAT-6-specific effector CD4+ T cells after airborne M. tuberculosis infection
    Alena M Gallegos
    Infectious Diseases Service, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Exp Med 205:2359-68. 2008
  2. doi ESAT-6 inhibits production of IFN-gamma by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-responsive human T cells
    Xisheng Wang
    Department of Microbiologyand Immunology, Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX 75708, USA
    J Immunol 182:3668-77. 2009
  3. ncbi Recall of long-lived immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice
    P Andersen
    Department of Bacterial Vaccine, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Immunol 154:3359-72. 1995
  4. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 exhibits a unique membrane-interacting activity that is not found in its ortholog from non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Joaquin De Leon
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:44184-91. 2012
  5. doi Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6 is a potent activator of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome
    Bibhuti B Mishra
    Centro de Patogenese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    Cell Microbiol 12:1046-63. 2010
  6. pmc Potential role for ESAT6 in dissemination of M. tuberculosis via human lung epithelial cells
    Arvind G Kinhikar
    Department of Pathology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, USA
    Mol Microbiol 75:92-106. 2010
  7. ncbi Direct extracellular interaction between the early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TLR2 inhibits TLR signaling in macrophages
    Sushil Kumar Pathak
    Bose Institute, Department of Chemistry, Kolkata 700 009, India
    Nat Immunol 8:610-8. 2007
  8. ncbi The ESAT6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces apoptosis of macrophages by activating caspase expression
    Steven C Derrick
    Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Microbiol 9:1547-55. 2007
  9. pmc Structure and function of the complex formed by the tuberculosis virulence factors CFP-10 and ESAT-6
    Philip S Renshaw
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    EMBO J 24:2491-8. 2005
  10. pmc Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-mass T-cell antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A L Sørensen
    Mycobacteria Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Infect Immun 63:1710-7. 1995

Scientific Experts

  • Kiran I Masood
  • Zahra Hasan
  • Steven C Derrick
  • Niladri Ganguly
  • Buka Samten
  • Ajay Grover
  • F X Berthet
  • Jianjun Sun
  • Yue Ma
  • Manish Kumar
  • Ranjeet Kumar
  • Manikuntala Kundu
  • Joyoti Basu
  • Priscille Brodin
  • Xisheng Wang
  • Roland Brosch
  • Stewart T Cole
  • Xiuli Peng
  • Shaojun Yang
  • Amira Refai
  • Guozhong Jiang
  • R J Francis
  • Junwei Shi
  • Luis Solans
  • Gopalkrishna Sreejit
  • Kuladip Jana
  • Zhumur Ghosh
  • Elena A Uvarova
  • Hua Yang
  • Jeffrey M Chen
  • Maria Lerm
  • Joaquin De Leon
  • Amanda Welin
  • Hui Peng
  • Madhan Kumar Murthy
  • Ying Yin
  • Arvind G Kinhikar
  • Peter F Barnes
  • Jose Davila
  • Hannah E Volkman
  • Brian Callahan
  • James C Townsend
  • D S M Van-Lume
  • Bibhuti B Mishra
  • Krishan Kumar
  • Pawan Sharma
  • Alena M Gallegos
  • Sushil Kumar Pathak
  • Peter Andersen
  • Bryant McLaughlin
  • Philip S Renshaw
  • Gyanesh Singh
  • Wei Qian
  • Qi Zhang
  • Wei Liu
  • Geert Van Loo
  • Rudi Beyaert
  • Verena Keil
  • Wenbing Jiang
  • Meriam Haoues
  • Houcemeddine Othman
  • Philippe Moua
  • Fake Li
  • Umesh D Gupta
  • Pushpa Gupta
  • Kejun Zhang
  • Makram Essafi
  • Ming Chen
  • Arijita Subuddhi
  • Sanjaya Kumar Sahu
  • Arnaud Bondon
  • Mohamed Ridha Barbouche
  • Kai Chang
  • Liza Mouret
  • Najet Srairi-Abid
  • Ya Shang
  • Shaoli Deng
  • Ranjan Kumar Maji
  • Shuangrong Jia
  • Johanna Raffetseder
  • Rui Luo
  • Shaobo Xiao
  • Nacho Aguilo
  • Carlos Martin
  • Vishwanath Jha
  • Alexandre Pawlik
  • Yongqiang Xi
  • Liurong Fang
  • Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
  • Huan Zhang

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. pmc Delayed protection by ESAT-6-specific effector CD4+ T cells after airborne M. tuberculosis infection
    Alena M Gallegos
    Infectious Diseases Service, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Exp Med 205:2359-68. 2008
    ..Our results demonstrate that pathogen-specific Th1 cells can provide protection against inhaled M. tuberculosis, but only after the first week of infection...
  2. doi ESAT-6 inhibits production of IFN-gamma by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-responsive human T cells
    Xisheng Wang
    Department of Microbiologyand Immunology, Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX 75708, USA
    J Immunol 182:3668-77. 2009
    ..We conclude that ESAT-6 directly inhibits human T cell responses to mycobacterial Ags by affecting TCR signaling pathways downstream of ZAP70...
  3. ncbi Recall of long-lived immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice
    P Andersen
    Department of Bacterial Vaccine, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Immunol 154:3359-72. 1995
    ..ESAT-6 was biochemically purified, characterized, and the gene encoding the protein was cloned...
  4. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 exhibits a unique membrane-interacting activity that is not found in its ortholog from non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Joaquin De Leon
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:44184-91. 2012
    ..tuberculosis...
  5. doi Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6 is a potent activator of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome
    Bibhuti B Mishra
    Centro de Patogenese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    Cell Microbiol 12:1046-63. 2010
    ..In summary, we show that recognition of Mtb infection by the NLRP3 inflammasome requires the activity of the bacterial virulence factor ESAT-6, and the subsequent IL-1beta response is regulated by a number of NLR/CARD proteins...
  6. pmc Potential role for ESAT6 in dissemination of M. tuberculosis via human lung epithelial cells
    Arvind G Kinhikar
    Department of Pathology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, USA
    Mol Microbiol 75:92-106. 2010
    ....
  7. ncbi Direct extracellular interaction between the early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TLR2 inhibits TLR signaling in macrophages
    Sushil Kumar Pathak
    Bose Institute, Department of Chemistry, Kolkata 700 009, India
    Nat Immunol 8:610-8. 2007
    ....
  8. ncbi The ESAT6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces apoptosis of macrophages by activating caspase expression
    Steven C Derrick
    Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Microbiol 9:1547-55. 2007
    ..Finally, experimental results using a cell impermeable fluorescent stain suggests that the formation of membrane pores may be a primary mechanism by which ESAT6 evokes an apoptotic response...
  9. pmc Structure and function of the complex formed by the tuberculosis virulence factors CFP-10 and ESAT-6
    Philip S Renshaw
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    EMBO J 24:2491-8. 2005
    ....
  10. pmc Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-mass T-cell antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    A L Sørensen
    Mycobacteria Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Infect Immun 63:1710-7. 1995
    ..tuberculosis complex species. Among filtrates from mycobacteria not belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex, reactivity was observed in Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium szulgai, and Mycobacterium marinum...
  11. pmc Dissection of ESAT-6 system 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and impact on immunogenicity and virulence
    Priscille Brodin
    Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 25 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Infect Immun 74:88-98. 2006
    ..The present study has allowed us to identify new aspects of the extRD1 region of M. tuberculosis and to explore its role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis...
  12. ncbi A Mycobacterium tuberculosis operon encoding ESAT-6 and a novel low-molecular-mass culture filtrate protein (CFP-10)
    F X Berthet
    Unite de Genetique Mycobacterienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Microbiology 144:3195-203. 1998
    ..These results show that the genes encoding CFP-10 and ESAT-6 are transcribed together in M. tuberculosis and that both code for small exported proteins...
  13. ncbi ESAT-6 proteins: protective antigens and virulence factors?
    Priscille Brodin
    Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex, France
    Trends Microbiol 12:500-8. 2004
    ..Here, we discuss these findings and their implications for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against tuberculosis...
  14. pmc Characterization of differential pore-forming activities of ESAT-6 proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Xiuli Peng
    Key Laboratory of Agriculture Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan, China
    FEBS Lett 590:509-19. 2016
    ..This study suggests I25-H26 as the pH-sensor essential for MsESAT-6 to fully acquire the activity, while multiple residues contributed to MtbESAT-6 PFA...
  15. pmc Phenotypic profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EspA point mutants reveals that blockage of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 secretion in vitro does not always correlate with attenuation of virulence
    Jeffrey M Chen
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Bacteriol 195:5421-30. 2013
    ..However, our data also indicate for the first time that blockage of M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 secretion in vitro and attenuation are mutually exclusive. ..
  16. doi Differential Early Secreted Antigen Target (ESAT) 6 kDa-induced IFN-γ and SOCS1 expression distinguishes latent and active tuberculosis
    Kiran Iqbal Masood
    The Aga Khan University, P O Box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
    J Infect Dev Ctries 8:59-66. 2014
    ..Early Secreted Antigen Target (ESAT)-6 kDa - induced IFN-γ responses indicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The effect of ESAT6- stimulation on SOCS1 in the host is not known...
  17. pmc Oral Immunogenicity of plant-made Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CFP10
    Elena A Uvarova
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr Lavrentieva 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Biomed Res Int 2013:316304. 2013
    ..As has been shown, oral immunization of mice induces both the cell-mediated and humoral immunities. These data suggest that the proteins in question are appropriate as a candidate edible vaccine against tuberculosis. ..
  18. pmc A specific polymorphism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv causes differential ESAT-6 expression and identifies WhiB6 as a novel ESX-1 component
    Luis Solans
    Grupo de Genética de Micobacterias, Departamento de Microbiologia, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Infect Immun 82:3446-56. 2014
    ....
  19. doi A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Junwei Shi
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 452:1046-53. 2014
    ..We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis...
  20. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 is a leukocidin causing Ca2+ influx, necrosis and neutrophil extracellular trap formation
    R J Francis
    Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences and Bioimaging and Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK
    Cell Death Dis 5:e1474. 2014
    ....
  21. pmc The ESAT-6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) affecting antigen presentation function of macrophage
    Gopalkrishna Sreejit
    Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics CDFD, Nampally, Hyderabad, India
    PLoS Pathog 10:e1004446. 2014
    ..Identification of such novel interactions may help us in designing small molecule inhibitors as well as effective vaccine design against tuberculosis. ..
  22. pmc Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA membrane insertion: roles of N- and C-terminal flexible arms and central helix-turn-helix motif
    Yue Ma
    From the Department of Biological Sciences and Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968
    J Biol Chem 290:7314-22. 2015
    b>EsxA (ESAT-6), an important virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, plays an essential role in phagosome rupture and bacterial cytosolic translocation within host macrophages...
  23. doi MicroRNA let-7 modulates the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection via control of A20, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway
    Manish Kumar
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009, India
    Cell Host Microbe 17:345-56. 2015
    ..These results uncover a role for let-7f and its target A20 in regulating immune responses to Mtb and controlling bacterial burden. ..
  24. doi Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the microRNA155-SOCS1 interaction
    Shaojun Yang
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
    Cell Physiol Biochem 35:1276-88. 2015
    ..However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages...
  25. doi Two distinct conformational states of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulent factor early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa are behind the discrepancy around its biological functions
    Amira Refai
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, LTCII LR11 IPT02, Tunisia
    FEBS J 282:4114-29. 2015
    ..Overall, the present study clarifies the intriguing divergences between reports that could be attributed to the ESAT-6 oligomeric state and sheds light on its importance for a better comprehension of the physiopathology of tuberculosis. ..
  26. doi Cytokine and chemokine responses to selected early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10 peptides in tuberculosis
    Madhan Kumar Murthy
    Department of Immunology, Tuberculosis Research Centre ICMR, Chetput, Chennai, India
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 31:299-307. 2011
    ..Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 positive monocytes increased in response to the peptides Esp1, Esp6, Cfp8, and Cfp9 in PTB. These peptides deserve attention for further immune studies. ..
  27. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) protein downregulates lipopolysaccharide induced c-myc expression by modulating the extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2
    Niladri Ganguly
    Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
    BMC Immunol 8:24. 2007
    ....
  28. doi Hepatitis B virus core particles displaying Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen ESAT-6 enhance ESAT-6-specific immune responses
    Ying Yin
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dongdajie, Fengtai, Beijing 100071, China
    Vaccine 29:5645-51. 2011
    ..These data demonstrate the feasibility of HBc particles serving as an efficient immune carrier for ESAT-6 and suggest that HE6 has potential for use in a tuberculosis subunit vaccine...
  29. doi Identification of a novel role of ESAT-6-dependent miR-155 induction during infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Ranjeet Kumar
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India
    Cell Microbiol 14:1620-31. 2012
    ..Inhibition of miR-155 hindered survival of M.tb. in RAW264.7 and in murine BMDMs. Thus, our results offer new insights into the role of miRNAs in modulation of the host innate immune response by M.tb. for its own benefit...
  30. pmc BAT3 regulates Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6-mediated apoptosis of macrophages
    Ajay Grover
    Departments of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40836. 2012
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that BAT3 plays a role in the early immune response to M. tuberculosis infection and may be a key protein associated with the fate of antigen presenting cells during infection...
  31. pmc Human macrophages infected with a high burden of ESAT-6-expressing M. tuberculosis undergo caspase-1- and cathepsin B-independent necrosis
    Amanda Welin
    Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 6:e20302. 2011
    ..It was, however, dependent on mycobacterial expression of ESAT-6. We conclude that as virulent Mtb reaches a threshold number of bacilli inside the human macrophage, ESAT-6-dependent necrosis occurs, activating caspase-1 in the process...
  32. pmc A novel B-cell epitope identified within Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10/ESAT-6 protein
    Hua Yang
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tuberculosis, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e52848. 2013
    ..The B-cell epitopes of CFP10 and ESAT-6 separately have been analyzed before, however, the epitopes of the CE protein are unclear and the precise epitope in the positions 40 to 62 of ESAT-6 is still unknown...
  33. pmc A mycobacterium ESX-1-secreted virulence factor with unique requirements for export
    Bryant McLaughlin
    Program in Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e105. 2007
    ..The results establish EspB as a substrate of ESX-1 that is required for virulence and growth in macrophages and suggests that the contribution of ESX-1 to virulence may arise from the secretion of multiple independent substrates...
  34. doi Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-1 system-secreted protein ESAT-6 but not CFP10 inhibits human T-cell immune responses
    Buka Samten
    Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX 75708 3154, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:S74-6. 2009
    ..We conclude that ESAT-6 directly inhibits human T-cell responses by affecting TCR signaling pathways downstream of ZAP70...
  35. ncbi Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6 kDa early secreted antigenic target stimulates activation of J774 macrophages
    Gyanesh Singh
    Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
    Immunol Lett 98:180-8. 2005
    ..1, MHC-II, and ICAM-1. Collectively, these data suggest that ESAT-6 might contribute to macrophage activation in tuberculosis...
  36. pmc ESAT6-induced IFNgamma and CXCL9 can differentiate severity of tuberculosis
    Zahra Hasan
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    PLoS ONE 4:e5158. 2009
    ..However, most studies have been performed in non-endemic regions and to study pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We have studied ESAT6 and CFP10 induced cytokine and chemokines responses in PTB and extrapulmonary (EPul) TB...
  37. pmc Conservation of structure and protein-protein interactions mediated by the secreted mycobacterial proteins EsxA, EsxB, and EspA
    Brian Callahan
    Division of Genetics, Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:326-35. 2010
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA and EsxB proteins are founding members of the WXG100 (WXG) protein family, characterized by their small size (approximately 100 amino acids) and conserved WXG amino acid motif. M...
  38. pmc Phenylalanine-rich peptides potently bind ESAT6, a virulence determinant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and concurrently affect the pathogen's growth
    Krishan Kumar
    Recombinant Gene Products Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India
    PLoS ONE 4:e7615. 2009
    ..Among this set, many proteins have been hypothesized to play a critical role at the genesis of the onset of infection, the primary site of which is invariably the human lung...
  39. pmc Tuberculous granuloma induction via interaction of a bacterial secreted protein with host epithelium
    Hannah E Volkman
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98155, USA
    Science 327:466-9. 2010
    ..Disruption of MMP9 function attenuated granuloma formation and bacterial growth. Thus, interception of epithelial MMP9 production could hold promise as a host-targeting tuberculosis therapy...
  40. pmc Assessment of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis esxA, esxH, and fbpB genes among clinical isolates and its implication for the future immunization by new tuberculosis subunit vaccines Ag85B-ESAT-6 and Ag85B-TB10.4
    Jose Davila
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2029, USA
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:208371. 2010
    ..tuberculosis strains may compromise vaccine efficacy. In this study, we sequenced the esxA, esxH, and fbpB genes of M. tuberculosis encoding ESAT-6, TB10...
  41. doi Immunological diagnosis of tuberculosis based on recombinant antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in children from an endemic area in northeast Brazil
    D S M Van-Lume
    Aggeu Magalhães Research Center Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ, Department of Immunology, Av Moares Rego s n, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
    Scand J Immunol 72:460-8. 2010
    ..In conclusion, the ESAT-6 test may be the most appropriate for diagnosis of childhood TB, both LTBI and TB disease, when associated with epidemiological and clinical data, especially in endemic areas such as Brazil...
  42. pmc The Mycobacterium tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa inhibits T cell interferon-γ production through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
    Hui Peng
    Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, Texas 75708, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:24508-18. 2011
    ..Silencing of p38α MAPK with siRNA rendered T cells resistant to ESAT-6 inhibition of IFN-γ production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ESAT-6 inhibits T cell IFN-γ production in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner...