Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: esxA
Description: ESAT-6 protein EsxA
Species: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
- Delayed protection by ESAT-6-specific effector CD4+ T cells after airborne M. tuberculosis infectionAlena M Gallegos
Infectious Diseases Service, Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
J Exp Med 205:2359-68. 2008..Our results demonstrate that pathogen-specific Th1 cells can provide protection against inhaled M. tuberculosis, but only after the first week of infection...
- ESAT-6 inhibits production of IFN-gamma by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-responsive human T cellsXisheng Wang
Department of Microbiologyand Immunology, Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX 75708, USA
J Immunol 182:3668-77. 2009..We conclude that ESAT-6 directly inhibits human T cell responses to mycobacterial Ags by affecting TCR signaling pathways downstream of ZAP70...
- Recall of long-lived immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in miceP Andersen
Department of Bacterial Vaccine, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
J Immunol 154:3359-72. 1995..ESAT-6 was biochemically purified, characterized, and the gene encoding the protein was cloned...
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 exhibits a unique membrane-interacting activity that is not found in its ortholog from non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatisJoaquin De Leon
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA
J Biol Chem 287:44184-91. 2012..tuberculosis...
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6 is a potent activator of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasomeBibhuti B Mishra
Centro de Patogenese Molecular, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Cell Microbiol 12:1046-63. 2010..In summary, we show that recognition of Mtb infection by the NLRP3 inflammasome requires the activity of the bacterial virulence factor ESAT-6, and the subsequent IL-1beta response is regulated by a number of NLR/CARD proteins...
- Potential role for ESAT6 in dissemination of M. tuberculosis via human lung epithelial cellsArvind G Kinhikar
Department of Pathology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, USA
Mol Microbiol 75:92-106. 2010....
- Direct extracellular interaction between the early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TLR2 inhibits TLR signaling in macrophagesSushil Kumar Pathak
Bose Institute, Department of Chemistry, Kolkata 700 009, India
Nat Immunol 8:610-8. 2007....
- The ESAT6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces apoptosis of macrophages by activating caspase expressionSteven C Derrick
Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Cell Microbiol 9:1547-55. 2007..Finally, experimental results using a cell impermeable fluorescent stain suggests that the formation of membrane pores may be a primary mechanism by which ESAT6 evokes an apoptotic response...
- Structure and function of the complex formed by the tuberculosis virulence factors CFP-10 and ESAT-6Philip S Renshaw
Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
EMBO J 24:2491-8. 2005....
- Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-mass T-cell antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosisA L Sørensen
Mycobacteria Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
Infect Immun 63:1710-7. 1995..tuberculosis complex species. Among filtrates from mycobacteria not belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex, reactivity was observed in Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium szulgai, and Mycobacterium marinum...
- Dissection of ESAT-6 system 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and impact on immunogenicity and virulencePriscille Brodin
Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 25 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Infect Immun 74:88-98. 2006..The present study has allowed us to identify new aspects of the extRD1 region of M. tuberculosis and to explore its role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis...
- A Mycobacterium tuberculosis operon encoding ESAT-6 and a novel low-molecular-mass culture filtrate protein (CFP-10)F X Berthet
Unite de Genetique Mycobacterienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Microbiology 144:3195-203. 1998..These results show that the genes encoding CFP-10 and ESAT-6 are transcribed together in M. tuberculosis and that both code for small exported proteins...
- ESAT-6 proteins: protective antigens and virulence factors?Priscille Brodin
Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex, France
Trends Microbiol 12:500-8. 2004..Here, we discuss these findings and their implications for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against tuberculosis...
- Characterization of differential pore-forming activities of ESAT-6 proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatisXiuli Peng
Key Laboratory of Agriculture Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan, China
FEBS Lett 590:509-19. 2016..This study suggests I25-H26 as the pH-sensor essential for MsESAT-6 to fully acquire the activity, while multiple residues contributed to MtbESAT-6 PFA...
- Phenotypic profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EspA point mutants reveals that blockage of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 secretion in vitro does not always correlate with attenuation of virulenceJeffrey M Chen
Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
J Bacteriol 195:5421-30. 2013..However, our data also indicate for the first time that blockage of M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 secretion in vitro and attenuation are mutually exclusive. ..
- Differential Early Secreted Antigen Target (ESAT) 6 kDa-induced IFN-γ and SOCS1 expression distinguishes latent and active tuberculosisKiran Iqbal Masood
The Aga Khan University, P O Box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
J Infect Dev Ctries 8:59-66. 2014..Early Secreted Antigen Target (ESAT)-6 kDa - induced IFN-γ responses indicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The effect of ESAT6- stimulation on SOCS1 in the host is not known...
- Oral Immunogenicity of plant-made Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CFP10Elena A Uvarova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr Lavrentieva 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Biomed Res Int 2013:316304. 2013..As has been shown, oral immunization of mice induces both the cell-mediated and humoral immunities. These data suggest that the proteins in question are appropriate as a candidate edible vaccine against tuberculosis. ..
- A specific polymorphism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv causes differential ESAT-6 expression and identifies WhiB6 as a novel ESX-1 componentLuis Solans
Grupo de Genética de Micobacterias, Departamento de Microbiologia, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Infect Immun 82:3446-56. 2014....
- A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosisJunwei Shi
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 452:1046-53. 2014..We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis...
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 is a leukocidin causing Ca2+ influx, necrosis and neutrophil extracellular trap formationR J Francis
Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences and Bioimaging and Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK
Cell Death Dis 5:e1474. 2014....
- The ESAT-6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) affecting antigen presentation function of macrophageGopalkrishna Sreejit
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics CDFD, Nampally, Hyderabad, India
PLoS Pathog 10:e1004446. 2014..Identification of such novel interactions may help us in designing small molecule inhibitors as well as effective vaccine design against tuberculosis. ..
- Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA membrane insertion: roles of N- and C-terminal flexible arms and central helix-turn-helix motifYue Ma
From the Department of Biological Sciences and Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968
J Biol Chem 290:7314-22. 2015b>EsxA (ESAT-6), an important virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, plays an essential role in phagosome rupture and bacterial cytosolic translocation within host macrophages...
- MicroRNA let-7 modulates the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection via control of A20, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathwayManish Kumar
Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700009, India
Cell Host Microbe 17:345-56. 2015..These results uncover a role for let-7f and its target A20 in regulating immune responses to Mtb and controlling bacterial burden. ..
- Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the microRNA155-SOCS1 interactionShaojun Yang
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
Cell Physiol Biochem 35:1276-88. 2015..However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages...
- Two distinct conformational states of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulent factor early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa are behind the discrepancy around its biological functionsAmira Refai
Institut Pasteur de Tunis, LTCII LR11 IPT02, Tunisia
FEBS J 282:4114-29. 2015..Overall, the present study clarifies the intriguing divergences between reports that could be attributed to the ESAT-6 oligomeric state and sheds light on its importance for a better comprehension of the physiopathology of tuberculosis. ..
- Cytokine and chemokine responses to selected early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10 peptides in tuberculosisMadhan Kumar Murthy
Department of Immunology, Tuberculosis Research Centre ICMR, Chetput, Chennai, India
J Interferon Cytokine Res 31:299-307. 2011..Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 positive monocytes increased in response to the peptides Esp1, Esp6, Cfp8, and Cfp9 in PTB. These peptides deserve attention for further immune studies. ..
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) protein downregulates lipopolysaccharide induced c-myc expression by modulating the extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2Niladri Ganguly
Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
BMC Immunol 8:24. 2007....
- Hepatitis B virus core particles displaying Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen ESAT-6 enhance ESAT-6-specific immune responsesYing Yin
State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dongdajie, Fengtai, Beijing 100071, China
Vaccine 29:5645-51. 2011..These data demonstrate the feasibility of HBc particles serving as an efficient immune carrier for ESAT-6 and suggest that HE6 has potential for use in a tuberculosis subunit vaccine...
- Identification of a novel role of ESAT-6-dependent miR-155 induction during infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosisRanjeet Kumar
Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India
Cell Microbiol 14:1620-31. 2012..Inhibition of miR-155 hindered survival of M.tb. in RAW264.7 and in murine BMDMs. Thus, our results offer new insights into the role of miRNAs in modulation of the host innate immune response by M.tb. for its own benefit...
- BAT3 regulates Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6-mediated apoptosis of macrophagesAjay Grover
Departments of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e40836. 2012..Taken together, the data suggest that BAT3 plays a role in the early immune response to M. tuberculosis infection and may be a key protein associated with the fate of antigen presenting cells during infection...
- Human macrophages infected with a high burden of ESAT-6-expressing M. tuberculosis undergo caspase-1- and cathepsin B-independent necrosisAmanda Welin
Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
PLoS ONE 6:e20302. 2011..It was, however, dependent on mycobacterial expression of ESAT-6. We conclude that as virulent Mtb reaches a threshold number of bacilli inside the human macrophage, ESAT-6-dependent necrosis occurs, activating caspase-1 in the process...
- A novel B-cell epitope identified within Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP10/ESAT-6 proteinHua Yang
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tuberculosis, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
PLoS ONE 8:e52848. 2013..The B-cell epitopes of CFP10 and ESAT-6 separately have been analyzed before, however, the epitopes of the CE protein are unclear and the precise epitope in the positions 40 to 62 of ESAT-6 is still unknown...
- A mycobacterium ESX-1-secreted virulence factor with unique requirements for exportBryant McLaughlin
Program in Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 3:e105. 2007..The results establish EspB as a substrate of ESX-1 that is required for virulence and growth in macrophages and suggests that the contribution of ESX-1 to virulence may arise from the secretion of multiple independent substrates...
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-1 system-secreted protein ESAT-6 but not CFP10 inhibits human T-cell immune responsesBuka Samten
Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX 75708 3154, USA
Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:S74-6. 2009..We conclude that ESAT-6 directly inhibits human T-cell responses by affecting TCR signaling pathways downstream of ZAP70...
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6 kDa early secreted antigenic target stimulates activation of J774 macrophagesGyanesh Singh
Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
Immunol Lett 98:180-8. 2005..1, MHC-II, and ICAM-1. Collectively, these data suggest that ESAT-6 might contribute to macrophage activation in tuberculosis...
- ESAT6-induced IFNgamma and CXCL9 can differentiate severity of tuberculosisZahra Hasan
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
PLoS ONE 4:e5158. 2009..However, most studies have been performed in non-endemic regions and to study pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We have studied ESAT6 and CFP10 induced cytokine and chemokines responses in PTB and extrapulmonary (EPul) TB...
- Conservation of structure and protein-protein interactions mediated by the secreted mycobacterial proteins EsxA, EsxB, and EspABrian Callahan
Division of Genetics, Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA
J Bacteriol 192:326-35. 2010Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA and EsxB proteins are founding members of the WXG100 (WXG) protein family, characterized by their small size (approximately 100 amino acids) and conserved WXG amino acid motif. M...
- Phenylalanine-rich peptides potently bind ESAT6, a virulence determinant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and concurrently affect the pathogen's growthKrishan Kumar
Recombinant Gene Products Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India
PLoS ONE 4:e7615. 2009..Among this set, many proteins have been hypothesized to play a critical role at the genesis of the onset of infection, the primary site of which is invariably the human lung...
- Tuberculous granuloma induction via interaction of a bacterial secreted protein with host epitheliumHannah E Volkman
Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98155, USA
Science 327:466-9. 2010..Disruption of MMP9 function attenuated granuloma formation and bacterial growth. Thus, interception of epithelial MMP9 production could hold promise as a host-targeting tuberculosis therapy...
- Assessment of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis esxA, esxH, and fbpB genes among clinical isolates and its implication for the future immunization by new tuberculosis subunit vaccines Ag85B-ESAT-6 and Ag85B-TB10.4Jose Davila
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2029, USA
J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:208371. 2010..tuberculosis strains may compromise vaccine efficacy. In this study, we sequenced the esxA, esxH, and fbpB genes of M. tuberculosis encoding ESAT-6, TB10...
- Immunological diagnosis of tuberculosis based on recombinant antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in children from an endemic area in northeast BrazilD S M Van-Lume
Aggeu Magalhães Research Center Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ, Department of Immunology, Av Moares Rego s n, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
Scand J Immunol 72:460-8. 2010..In conclusion, the ESAT-6 test may be the most appropriate for diagnosis of childhood TB, both LTBI and TB disease, when associated with epidemiological and clinical data, especially in endemic areas such as Brazil...
- The Mycobacterium tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa inhibits T cell interferon-γ production through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathwayHui Peng
Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, Texas 75708, USA
J Biol Chem 286:24508-18. 2011..Silencing of p38α MAPK with siRNA rendered T cells resistant to ESAT-6 inhibition of IFN-γ production. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ESAT-6 inhibits T cell IFN-γ production in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner...