Whrn

Summary

Gene Symbol: Whrn
Description: whirlin
Alias: 1110035G07Rik, AW122018, AW742671, C430046P22Rik, Dfnb31, Ush2d, whirlin, whirler
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mutant analysis reveals whirlin as a dynamic organizer in the growing hair cell stereocilium
    Yoshiaki Kikkawa
    MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell OX11 ORD, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 14:391-400. 2005
  2. pmc Ablation of whirlin long isoform disrupts the USH2 protein complex and causes vision and hearing loss
    Jun Yang
    The Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000955. 2010
  3. pmc Regulation of stereocilia length by myosin XVa and whirlin depends on the actin-regulatory protein Eps8
    Uri Manor
    Laboratory of Cell Structure and Dynamics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Biol 21:167-72. 2011
  4. pmc Whirlin interacts with espin and modulates its actin-regulatory function: an insight into the mechanism of Usher syndrome type II
    Le Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 21:692-710. 2012
  5. ncbi A novel Usher protein network at the periciliary reloading point between molecular transport machineries in vertebrate photoreceptor cells
    Tina Maerker
    Department of Cell and Matrix Biology, Institute of Zoology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
    Hum Mol Genet 17:71-86. 2008
  6. ncbi Molecular characterization of the ankle-link complex in cochlear hair cells and its role in the hair bundle functioning
    Nicolas Michalski
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé 587, College de France, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Neurosci 27:6478-88. 2007
  7. pmc Whirlin complexes with p55 at the stereocilia tip during hair cell development
    Philomena Mburu
    Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell OX11 ORD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10973-8. 2006
  8. ncbi The DFNB31 gene product whirlin connects to the Usher protein network in the cochlea and retina by direct association with USH2A and VLGR1
    Erwin Van Wijk
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Hum Mol Genet 15:751-65. 2006
  9. ncbi Usherin, the defective protein in Usher syndrome type IIA, is likely to be a component of interstereocilia ankle links in the inner ear sensory cells
    Avital Adato
    Unité de Génétique des Déficits Sensoriels, INSERM U587, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Hum Mol Genet 14:3921-32. 2005
  10. ncbi Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly
    Benjamin Delprat
    Unité de Génétique des Déficits Sensoriels, INSERM U587, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    Hum Mol Genet 14:401-10. 2005

Scientific Experts

  • DOMINIC E COSGROVE
  • Manzoor A Bhat
  • Mette M Mogensen
  • Haydn M Prosser
  • Jun Yang
  • Junhuang Zou
  • Pranav Dinesh Mathur
  • Karen P Steel
  • Christine Petit
  • Yong Wang
  • Tihua Zheng
  • Qian Chen
  • Philomena Mburu
  • Bechara Kachar
  • Le Wang
  • Erwin Van Wijk
  • Zuolian Shen
  • Vincent Michel
  • Dominique Weil
  • Nicolas Michalski
  • Morag A Lewis
  • Steve D M Brown
  • Seham Ebrahim
  • Jean Pierre Hardelin
  • Maria Grazia Ciardo
  • Uwe Wolfrum
  • Hannie Kremer
  • Ronald Roepman
  • Ferry F J Kersten
  • Joriene C de Nooij
  • Ali Almishaal
  • Deepti Vashist
  • Mei Tian
  • Mirna Mustapha
  • James A Green
  • Yoshiaki Kikkawa
  • Benjamin Delprat
  • M Hamed Grati
  • Rachel N Wright
  • Aziz El-Amraoui
  • Uri Manor
  • Raphaël Etournay
  • Cynthia M Grimsley-Myers
  • Ralph H Holme
  • Tina Maerker
  • Ilse Gosens
  • Theo Peters
  • Bert van der Zwaag
  • Frans P M Cremers
  • Tina Märker
  • Sébastien Chardenoux
  • Gaelle Lefevre
  • M J Rogers
  • Stuart Townsend
  • Avital Adato
  • Inna A Belyantseva
  • Isabelle Perfettini
  • Michael J C Rogers
  • Natalia Cuesta
  • Rosa Planells-Cases
  • Antonio Ferrer-Montiel
  • Pierluigi Valente
  • Johanna C Pass
  • Amparo Andrés-Borderia
  • Runjia Cui
  • Neil J Ingham
  • María Camprubí-Robles
  • Staceyann Doobar
  • Timothy A Jones
  • Anna Simon
  • Steve Brown
  • Albert Park
  • Guy S Bewick
  • Thomas M Jessell
  • George Z Mentis
  • Christian M Simon
  • Sherri M Jones
  • Robert W Banks
  • Pranav D Mathur
  • Albert H Park
  • Sarath Vijayakumar
  • Weimin Wang
  • Bifeng Pan
  • Linda Cheung
  • Jeffrey R Holt
  • Chongyu Ren
  • Marisa Zallocchi
  • Xiao Ping Liu
  • You Wei Peng
  • Weiping Zhang

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi Mutant analysis reveals whirlin as a dynamic organizer in the growing hair cell stereocilium
    Yoshiaki Kikkawa
    MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell OX11 ORD, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 14:391-400. 2005
    ..The PDZ protein whirlin is known, by virtue of the whirler mutation, to be involved in the process of stereocilia elongation and actin polymerization in the sensory hair ..
  2. pmc Ablation of whirlin long isoform disrupts the USH2 protein complex and causes vision and hearing loss
    Jun Yang
    The Berman Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000955. 2010
    Mutations in whirlin cause either Usher syndrome type II (USH2), a deafness-blindness disorder, or nonsyndromic deafness. The molecular basis for the variable disease expression is unknown...
  3. pmc Regulation of stereocilia length by myosin XVa and whirlin depends on the actin-regulatory protein Eps8
    Uri Manor
    Laboratory of Cell Structure and Dynamics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Biol 21:167-72. 2011
    Myosin XVa (MyoXVa) and its cargo whirlin are implicated in deafness and vestibular dysfunction and have been shown to localize at stereocilia tips and to be essential for the elongation of these actin protrusions [1-4]...
  4. pmc Whirlin interacts with espin and modulates its actin-regulatory function: an insight into the mechanism of Usher syndrome type II
    Le Wang
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 21:692-710. 2012
    b>Whirlin mutations cause retinal degeneration and hearing loss in Usher syndrome type II (USH2) and non-syndromic deafness, DFNB31...
  5. ncbi A novel Usher protein network at the periciliary reloading point between molecular transport machineries in vertebrate photoreceptor cells
    Tina Maerker
    Department of Cell and Matrix Biology, Institute of Zoology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
    Hum Mol Genet 17:71-86. 2008
    ..we analyzed a protein network organized in the absence of harmonin by the scaffold proteins SANS (USH1G) and whirlin (USH2D)...
  6. ncbi Molecular characterization of the ankle-link complex in cochlear hair cells and its role in the hair bundle functioning
    Nicolas Michalski
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé 587, College de France, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Neurosci 27:6478-88. 2007
    ..vezatin, and the PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-containing submembrane protein whirlin are colocalized with Vlgr1 at the stereocilia base in developing cochlear hair cells and are absent in Vlgr1-/- ..
  7. pmc Whirlin complexes with p55 at the stereocilia tip during hair cell development
    Philomena Mburu
    Medical Research Council Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell OX11 ORD, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10973-8. 2006
    ..1R is also expressed in stereocilia structures with an identical pattern to p55. Mutations in the whirlin gene (whirler) and in the myosin XVa gene (shaker2) affect stereocilia development and lead to early ablation of p55 and 4...
  8. ncbi The DFNB31 gene product whirlin connects to the Usher protein network in the cochlea and retina by direct association with USH2A and VLGR1
    Erwin Van Wijk
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Hum Mol Genet 15:751-65. 2006
    Mutations in the DFNB31 gene encoding the PDZ scaffold protein whirlin are causative for hearing loss in man and mouse...
  9. ncbi Usherin, the defective protein in Usher syndrome type IIA, is likely to be a component of interstereocilia ankle links in the inner ear sensory cells
    Avital Adato
    Unité de Génétique des Déficits Sensoriels, INSERM U587, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Hum Mol Genet 14:3921-32. 2005
    ..By co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays, we establish that the usherin cytodomain can bind to whirlin and harmonin, two PDZ domain-containing proteins that are defective in genetic forms of isolated deafness and USH ..
  10. ncbi Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly
    Benjamin Delprat
    Unité de Génétique des Déficits Sensoriels, INSERM U587, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    Hum Mol Genet 14:401-10. 2005
    Defects in myosin XVa and the PDZ domain-containing protein, whirlin, underlie deafness in humans and mice. Hair bundles of mutant mice defective for either protein have abnormally short stereocilia...
  11. ncbi Elongation of hair cell stereocilia is defective in the mouse mutant whirler
    Ralph H Holme
    MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 450:94-102. 2002
    The recessive mouse mutant whirler (wi) shows no response to sound and exhibits circling and head-tossing behaviour, indicative of both auditory and vestibular dysfunction. The wi mutation maps genetically to mouse chromosome 4...
  12. ncbi Defects in whirlin, a PDZ domain molecule involved in stereocilia elongation, cause deafness in the whirler mouse and families with DFNB31
    Philomena Mburu
    MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit and UK Mouse Genome Centre, Harwell, Oxon OX11 ORD, UK
    Nat Genet 34:421-8. 2003
    The whirler mouse mutant (wi) does not respond to sound stimuli, and detailed ultrastructural analysis of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti of the inner ear indicates that the whirler gene encodes a protein involved in the ..
  13. ncbi Myosin-XVa is required for tip localization of whirlin and differential elongation of hair-cell stereocilia
    Inna A Belyantseva
    Section on Human Genetics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 7:148-56. 2005
    ..short stereocilia bundles that have a diminished staircase are characteristic of the shaker 2 (Myo15a(sh2)) and whirler (Whrn(wi)) strains of deaf mice...
  14. pmc Photoreceptors in whirler mice show defective transducin translocation and are susceptible to short-term light/dark changes-induced degeneration
    Mei Tian
    Sensory Neuroscience Department, Boys Town National Research Hospital, 555 North 30th St, Omaha, NE 68131, USA National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100088, China
    Exp Eye Res 118:145-53. 2014
    ..Mutations in the whirlin gene (DFNB31/WHRN) cause a subtype of Usher syndrome (USH2D). Whirler mice have a defective whirlin gene. They have inner ear defects but usually do not develop retinal degeneration...
  15. pmc Alternative Splice Forms Influence Functions of Whirlin in Mechanosensory Hair Cell Stereocilia
    Seham Ebrahim
    Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King s College London, Guy s Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Cell Rep 15:935-43. 2016
    WHRN (DFNB31) mutations cause diverse hearing disorders: profound deafness (DFNB31) or variable hearing loss in Usher syndrome type II. The known role of WHRN in stereocilia elongation does not explain these different pathophysiologies...
  16. doi Whirlin increases TRPV1 channel expression and cellular stability
    Maria Grazia Ciardo
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular Universitas Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain Centro de Investigaciones Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, Spain
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1863:115-27. 2016
    The expression and function of TRPV1 are influenced by its interaction with cellular proteins. Here, we identify Whirlin, a cytoskeletal PDZ-scaffold protein implicated in hearing, vision and mechanosensory transduction, as an ..
  17. pmc A study of whirlin isoforms in the mouse vestibular system suggests potential vestibular dysfunction in DFNB31-deficient patients
    Pranav Dinesh Mathur
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, 20 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 24:7017-30. 2015
    ..In this study, we find that full-length (FL-) and C-terminal (C-) whirlin isoforms are expressed in the vestibular organs, where their stereociliary localizations are similar to those of ..
  18. pmc Individual USH2 proteins make distinct contributions to the ankle link complex during development of the mouse cochlear stereociliary bundle
    Junhuang Zou
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 24:6944-57. 2015
    ..Our thorough phenotypical characterization of USH2 mouse models is essential for future use of these animal models in therapeutic development. ..
  19. pmc Whirlin, a cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, stabilizes the paranodal region and axonal cytoskeleton in myelinated axons
    James A Green
    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    BMC Neurosci 14:96. 2013
    ..b>Whirlin (Whrn) is a PDZ domain-containing cytoskeletal scaffold whose absence in humans results in Usher Syndromes or ..
  20. pmc Distinct expression and function of whirlin isoforms in the inner ear and retina: an insight into pathogenesis of USH2D and DFNB31
    Pranav Dinesh Mathur
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, 20 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 24:6213-28. 2015
    ..We found that the mouse DFNB31 ortholog (Dfnb31) expressed different mRNA variants and whirlin protein isoforms in the cochlea and retina, where these isoforms played different roles spatially and temporally...
  21. pmc The PDZ-domain protein Whirlin facilitates mechanosensory signaling in mammalian proprioceptors
    Joriene C de Nooij
    Departments of Neuroscience, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
    J Neurosci 35:3073-84. 2015
    ..We show here that Whirlin/Deafness autosomal recessive 31 (DFNB31), a PDZ-scaffold protein involved in vestibular and auditory hair cell ..
  22. pmc Whirlin and PDZ domain-containing 7 (PDZD7) proteins are both required to form the quaternary protein complex associated with Usher syndrome type 2
    Qian Chen
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A Moran Eye Center
    J Biol Chem 289:36070-88. 2014
    ..Among the three USH clinical types, type 2 (USH2) occurs most commonly. USH2A, GPR98, and WHRN are three known causative genes of USH2, whereas PDZD7 is a modifier gene found in USH2 patients...
  23. pmc Deletion of PDZD7 disrupts the Usher syndrome type 2 protein complex in cochlear hair cells and causes hearing loss in mice
    Junhuang Zou
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 23:2374-90. 2014
    ..PDZD7, a paralog of two USH causative genes, USH1C and USH2D (WHRN), was recently reported to be implicated in USH2 and non-syndromic deafness...
  24. pmc Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors
    Dominic Cosgrove
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE, USA Electronic address
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 46:80-9. 2014
    ....
  25. pmc RpgrORF15 connects to the usher protein network through direct interactions with multiple whirlin isoforms
    Rachel N Wright
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:1519-29. 2012
    ..Rpgr suggest a role in intracellular protein trafficking through the connecting cilia, the goal of this study was to identify potential binding partners for Rpgr(ORF15) and to identify the domains on whirlin necessary for Rpgr binding.
  26. pmc Whirler mutant hair cells have less severe pathology than shaker 2 or double mutants
    Mirna Mustapha
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, 4909 Buhl Building, 1241 East Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0618, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 8:329-37. 2007
    ..b>Whirler (wi) mice have a similar phenotype caused by a deletion in the third PDZ domain of WHIRLIN...
  27. pmc Whirlin replacement restores the formation of the USH2 protein complex in whirlin knockout photoreceptors
    Junhuang Zou
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:2343-51. 2011
    b>Whirlin is the causative gene for Usher syndrome type IID (USH2D), a condition manifested as both retinitis pigmentosa and congenital deafness...
  28. doi Cochlear outer hair cells undergo an apical circumference remodeling constrained by the hair bundle shape
    Raphaël Etournay
    Unite de Genetique et Physiologie de l Audition, INSERM UMRS587 Université Paris VI, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, Paris Cedex 15, France
    Development 137:1373-83. 2010
    ..We propose that this remodeling contributes to optimize the mechanical coupling between the basal and apical poles of mature OHCs...
  29. pmc The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis
    Cynthia M Grimsley-Myers
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Neurosci 29:15859-69. 2009
    ..Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle...
  30. pmc An ENU-induced mutation of miR-96 associated with progressive hearing loss in mice
    Morag A Lewis
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK
    Nat Genet 41:614-8. 2009
    ..This is the first microRNA found associated with deafness, and diminuendo represents a model for understanding and potentially moderating progressive hair cell degeneration in hearing loss more generally...
  31. pmc Mosaic complementation demonstrates a regulatory role for myosin VIIa in actin dynamics of stereocilia
    Haydn M Prosser
    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 28:1702-12. 2008
    ..Myosin VIIa-deficient hair cells showed an abnormally persistent tip localization of whirlin, a protein directly linked to elongation of stereocilia, in stereocilia...
  32. ncbi Metabolism rate, biochemical and endocrine alterations in male whirler mice
    A S Weltman
    Physiol Behav 5:17-22. 1970
  33. ncbi MPP1 links the Usher protein network and the Crumbs protein complex in the retina
    Ilse Gosens
    Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Hum Mol Genet 16:1993-2003. 2007
    ..MPP1 expression in the retina throughout development resembles the expression of whirlin, a multi-PDZ scaffold protein and an important organizer in the Usher protein network...
  34. pmc The deaf mouse mutant whirler suggests a role for whirlin in actin filament dynamics and stereocilia development
    Mette M Mogensen
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 64:496-508. 2007
    ..Here we provide further characterisation of the stereocilia of the whirler mouse mutant...
  35. ncbi WHIRLER MICE: A RECESSIVE BEHAVIOR MUTATION IN LINKAGE GROUP VIII
    P W Lane
    J Hered 54:263-6. 1963
  36. pmc Vestibular dysfunction in the epistatic circler mouse is caused by phenotypic interaction of one recessive gene and three modifier genes
    Kim Cryns
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, B 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
    Genome Res 12:613-7. 2002
    ..Genetic mapping made it possible to localize the Ecs-gene to chromosome 14 and the Ecl-genes to chromosome 3, 4, and 13. This study illustrates the feasibility of identifying genes for multifactorial traits in mice...
  37. ncbi A deletion on chromosome 4 cosegregates with the whirler deafness mutation: exclusion of Orm1 as a candidate
    A J Paige
    MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mouse Genome Centre, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RD, UK
    Mamm Genome 11:51-7. 2000
    b>Whirler (wi) mice display profound deafness and a head-tossing and circling phenotype, showing an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The wi mutation has been shown to map close to the Orm gene cluster on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 4...
  38. ncbi Linkage analysis of the whirler deafness gene on mouse chromosome 4
    J Fleming
    MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    Genomics 21:42-8. 1994
    The whirler mouse harbors an autosomal recessive mutation on mouse chromosome 4 that causes deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the adult that is manifested as head-bobbing and circling behavior...
  39. pmc Molecular genetics of the brown (b)-locus region of mouse chromosome 4. II. Complementation analyses of lethal brown deletions
    E M Rinchik
    Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831 8077
    Genetics 137:855-65. 1994
    ..Specifically, the pseudodominance tests identified deletions that include the proximally mapping whirler (wi) and the distally mapping depilated (dep) genes, thereby bracketing these loci defined by visible ..
  40. pmc Molecular genetics of the brown (b)-locus region of mouse chromosome 4. I. Origin and molecular mapping of radiation- and chemical-induced lethal brown deletions
    E M Rinchik
    Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee 37831 8077
    Genetics 137:845-54. 1994
    ..The resulting deletion map provides a framework on which to build future molecular-genetic and biological analyses of this region of mouse chromosome 4...
  41. ncbi Metabolic and endocrine differences between the mutation whirler and normal female mice
    A M Sackler
    J Exp Zool 164:133-40. 1967
  42. ncbi Genetic mapping of the whirler mutation
    M J Rogers
    MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University Park, Nottingham, UK
    Mamm Genome 10:513-9. 1999
    The whirler (wi) mutation on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 4 results in an autosomal recessive neuroepithelial deafness and vestibular dysfunction exhibited as a characteristic shaker-waltzer behavior (deafness, circling, and head-bobbing)...