Tlr9

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tlr9
Description: toll-like receptor 9
Alias: toll-like receptor 9
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Immunity 23:19-28. 2005
  2. ncbi A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
    H Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita
    Nature 408:740-5. 2000
  3. pmc The ectodomain of Toll-like receptor 9 is cleaved to generate a functional receptor
    Sarah E Ewald
    Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 405 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    Nature 456:658-62. 2008
  4. pmc TLR9 regulates Th1 responses and cooperates with TLR2 in mediating optimal resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Andre Bafica
    Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1715-24. 2005
  5. ncbi The Unc93b1 mutation 3d disrupts exogenous antigen presentation and signaling via Toll-like receptors 3, 7 and 9
    Koichi Tabeta
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:156-64. 2006
  6. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE
    Jane Tian
    Inflammation and Autoimmune Group, Research Department, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:487-96. 2007
  7. ncbi Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway
    Hiroaki Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Immunol 3:196-200. 2002
  8. pmc Toll-like receptor 9-mediated recognition of Herpes simplex virus-2 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Jennifer Lund
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 198:513-20. 2003
  9. ncbi TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome
    Eicke Latz
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building 308, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:190-8. 2004
  10. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 mediates innate immune activation by the malaria pigment hemozoin
    Cevayir Coban
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency JST, Osaka, Japan
    J Exp Med 201:19-25. 2005

Detail Information

Publications183 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response
    Hiroki Kato
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Immunity 23:19-28. 2005
    ..In contrast, plasmacytoid DCs, which produce large amounts of IFN-alpha, use the TLR system rather than RIG-I for viral detection. Taken together, RIG-I and the TLR system exert antiviral responses in a cell type-specific manner...
  2. ncbi A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
    H Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita
    Nature 408:740-5. 2000
    ..Here we show that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9. TLR9-deficient (TLR9-/-) mice did not show any response to CpG DNA, including proliferation of splenocytes, ..
  3. pmc The ectodomain of Toll-like receptor 9 is cleaved to generate a functional receptor
    Sarah E Ewald
    Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 405 Life Sciences Addition, Berkeley, California 94720 3200, USA
    Nature 456:658-62. 2008
    ..The localization of TLR9 and TLR7 to intracellular compartments seems to have a role in facilitating responses to viral nucleic acids while ..
  4. pmc TLR9 regulates Th1 responses and cooperates with TLR2 in mediating optimal resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Andre Bafica
    Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1715-24. 2005
    ..with TLR2, a receptor known to be triggered by several major mycobacterial ligands, we analyzed the resistance of TLR9(-/-) as well as TLR2/9 double knockout mice to aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  5. ncbi The Unc93b1 mutation 3d disrupts exogenous antigen presentation and signaling via Toll-like receptors 3, 7 and 9
    Koichi Tabeta
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:156-64. 2006
    ..Innate responses to nucleic acids and exogenous antigen presentation, which both initiate in endosomes, thus seem to depend on an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, which suggests communication between these organellar systems...
  6. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE
    Jane Tian
    Inflammation and Autoimmune Group, Research Department, MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:487-96. 2007
    ..Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) by DNA is important in the activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells...
  7. ncbi Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway
    Hiroaki Hemmi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Immunol 3:196-200. 2002
    ..Imidazoquinoline-induced signaling events were also abolished in both MyD88- and TLR7-deficient mice...
  8. pmc Toll-like receptor 9-mediated recognition of Herpes simplex virus-2 by plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Jennifer Lund
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 198:513-20. 2003
    ..These experiments revealed a clear requirement for TLR9 in this process...
  9. ncbi TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome
    Eicke Latz
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building 308, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:190-8. 2004
    Microbial DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have found that TLR9 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages...
  10. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 mediates innate immune activation by the malaria pigment hemozoin
    Cevayir Coban
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency JST, Osaka, Japan
    J Exp Med 201:19-25. 2005
    ..Such responses were severely impaired in TLR9-/- and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-/-, but not in TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, or Toll/interleukin 1 receptor ..
  11. ncbi Toll-like receptor 7 and TLR9 dictate autoantibody specificity and have opposing inflammatory and regulatory roles in a murine model of lupus
    Sean R Christensen
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Immunity 25:417-28. 2006
    ..b>TLR9 and TLR7 also had dramatic effects on clinical disease in lupus-prone mice...
  12. doi Cathepsin K-dependent toll-like receptor 9 signaling revealed in experimental arthritis
    Masataka Asagiri
    Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    Science 319:624-7. 2008
    ..These results suggest that cathepsin K plays an important role in the immune system and may serve as a valid therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases...
  13. ncbi Recognition of cytosolic DNA activates an IRF3-dependent innate immune response
    Daniel B Stetson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Immunity 24:93-103. 2006
    ..Viral RNA is detected by both endosomal, TLR-dependent and cytosolic, RIG-I/MDA5-dependent pathways. TLR9 is the only known sensor of foreign DNA; it is unknown whether innate immune recognition of DNA exists in the ..
  14. pmc Bifurcation of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by adaptor protein 3
    Miwa Sasai
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 329:1530-4. 2010
    ..Recognition of viral nucleic acids by TLR9 requires its cleavage in the endolysosomal compartment...
  15. pmc Stimulator of IFN gene is critical for induction of IFN-beta during Chlamydia muridarum infection
    Daniel Prantner
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    J Immunol 184:2551-60. 2010
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that mouse macrophages lacking TLR3, TRIF, TLR7, or TLR9 individually or both TLR4 and MyD88, still induce IFN-beta equivalent to wild type controls, leading to the ..
  16. ncbi Herpes simplex virus type 1 activates murine natural interferon-producing cells through toll-like receptor 9
    Anne Krug
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Blood 103:1433-7. 2004
    ..of type 1 IFN in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro is mediated by the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/MyD88 pathway...
  17. ncbi Production of interferons by dendritic cells, plasmacytoid cells, natural killer cells, and interferon-producing killer dendritic cells
    David Vremec
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Blood 109:1165-73. 2007
    ..However, IKDCs, which efficiently produced IFN-gamma and showed immediate cytotoxicity on NK target cells, did not produce IFN-alpha under these conditions...
  18. pmc The interaction between the ER membrane protein UNC93B and TLR3, 7, and 9 is crucial for TLR signaling
    Melanie M Brinkmann
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142
    J Cell Biol 177:265-75. 2007
    ..Further, by expressing chimeric TLRs, we show that TLR3 and 9 bind to UNC93B via their transmembrane domains. We propose that a physical association between UNC93B and TLRs in the ER is essential for proper TLR signaling...
  19. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 inhibition reduces mortality in polymicrobial sepsis
    George Plitas
    Hepatobiliary Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Exp Med 205:1277-83. 2008
    ..We demonstrate a critical role of TLR9 in the dysregulated immune response and death associated with sepsis...
  20. ncbi TLR9-dependent recognition of MCMV by IPC and DC generates coordinated cytokine responses that activate antiviral NK cell function
    Anne Krug
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Immunity 21:107-19. 2004
    ..Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mediates IPC recognition of some of these viruses in vitro. However, whether TLR9-induced activation of IPC is necessary for an effective antiviral response in vivo is not clear...
  21. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 controls anti-DNA autoantibody production in murine lupus
    Sean R Christensen
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Exp Med 202:321-31. 2005
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a receptor for CpG DNA, has been implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells in vitro, but its role in ..
  22. pmc Group A streptococcus activates type I interferon production and MyD88-dependent signaling without involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9
    Nina Gratz
    Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 283:19879-87. 2008
    ..pyogenes) does not require TLR2, a receptor implicated in sensing of Gram-positive bacteria, or TLR4 and TLR9. Redundant engagement of either of these TLR molecules was excluded by using TLR2/4/9 triple-deficient macrophages...
  23. doi The TLR-independent DNA recognition pathway in murine macrophages: Ligand features and molecular signature
    Evren Karayel
    Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Eur J Immunol 39:1929-36. 2009
    ..poly(dAdT) are qualitatively indistinguishable and differ from the CpG-containing oligonucleotides triggering the TLR9 pathway...
  24. doi The interaction between DC and Plasmodium berghei/chabaudi-infected erythrocytes in mice involves direct cell-to-cell contact, internalization and TLR
    Elsa Seixas
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
    Eur J Immunol 39:1850-63. 2009
    ..not only requires direct cell-to-cell contact and internalization of infected RBC by DC but also involves TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 and signaling via NF-kappaB; however, TLR involvement in survival to Plasmodium infection was found to be ..
  25. pmc Cooperative interactions between TLR4 and TLR9 regulate interleukin 23 and 17 production in a murine model of gram negative bacterial pneumonia
    Urvashi Bhan
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9896. 2010
    ..In this study, we investigated independent and cooperative functions of TLR4 and TLR9 in microbial clearance and systemic dissemination during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia...
  26. pmc The role of DNA sensing and innate immune receptor TLR9 in otitis media
    Anke Leichtle
    Department of Surgery Otolaryngology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Innate Immun 18:3-13. 2012
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of innate immune responses, and TLR9 specifically recognizes the unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs in bacterial DNA...
  27. doi TLR9-dependent induction of intestinal alpha-defensins by Toxoplasma gondii
    David M Foureau
    Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    J Immunol 184:7022-9. 2010
    ..In vivo ligation of TLR9 by synthetic agonists leads to PC degranulation, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains uncertain...
  28. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis
    Daniel Rachmilewitz
    Division of Medicine, Shaare Zedak Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
    Gastroenterology 126:520-8. 2004
    ..We tested whether the attenuation of experimental colitis by live probiotic bacteria is due to their immunostimulatory DNA, whether toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is required, and whether nonviable probiotics are effective...
  29. ncbi Intracellular localization of Toll-like receptor 9 prevents recognition of self DNA but facilitates access to viral DNA
    Gregory M Barton
    Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8011, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:49-56. 2006
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense infection by detecting molecular structures of microbial origin. TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 recognize nucleic acids and are localized to intracellular compartments where they normally respond to viral nucleic ..
  30. pmc Important role for Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against meningococcal sepsis
    Hong Sjölinder
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, P O Box 582, Uppsala, Sweden
    Infect Immun 76:5421-8. 2008
    ..While TLR4 has been suggested to play an important role in early containment of infection, the roles of TLR2 and TLR9 in meningococcal disease are not well described...
  31. pmc RNA-associated autoantigens activate B cells by combined B cell antigen receptor/Toll-like receptor 7 engagement
    Christina M Lau
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, MA 02118, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1171-7. 2005
    ..As further evidence that TLRs play a key role in autoantibody responses in SLE, we found that autoimmune-prone mice, lacking the TLR adaptor protein MyD88, had markedly reduced chromatin, Sm, and rheumatoid factor autoantibody titers...
  32. ncbi Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells
    Jongdae Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0663, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 8:1327-36. 2006
    ..b>TLR9 activation through apical and basolateral surface domains have distinct transcriptional responses, evident by NF-..
  33. pmc Conventional DCs reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via IL-10 secretion
    Zubin M Bamboat
    Hepatopancreatobiliary Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center MSKCC, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:559-69. 2010
    ..In vitro, we identified hepatocyte DNA as an endogenous ligand to TLR9 that promoted cDCs to secrete IL-10. In vivo, cDC production of IL-10 required TLR9 and reduced liver injury...
  34. pmc The nucleosome (histone-DNA complex) is the TLR9-specific immunostimulatory component of Plasmodium falciparum that activates DCs
    Nagaraj M Gowda
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e20398. 2011
    ..the schizont-released products, merozoites are the predominant components that activate dendritic cells (DCs) by TLR9-specific recognition to induce the maturation of cells and to produce proinflammatory cytokines...
  35. pmc Herpes simplex virus type-1 induces IFN-alpha production via Toll-like receptor 9-dependent and -independent pathways
    Hubertus Hochrein
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11416-21. 2004
    ..source of IFN-alpha, and whether the production of IFN-alpha in response to HSV-1 depended on Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)...
  36. pmc Toll-like receptor 9-induced type I IFN protects mice from experimental colitis
    Kyoko Katakura
    Department of Medicine, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093 0663, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:695-702. 2005
    ..In this study we observed that administration of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists suppressed the severity of experimental colitis in RAG1-/- but not in SCID mice...
  37. ncbi Interaction between conventional dendritic cells and natural killer cells is integral to the activation of effective antiviral immunity
    Christopher E Andoniou
    Immunology and Virology Program, Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Western Australia, Crowley 6009, Western Australia, Australia
    Nat Immunol 6:1011-9. 2005
    ..Notably, adoptive transfer of MCMV-activated CD11b(+) DCs resulted in improved control of MCMV infection, indicating that these cells participate in controlling viral replication in vivo...
  38. doi Activation of myeloid dendritic cells by deoxynucleic acids from Cordyceps sinensis via a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway
    Gang Xiao
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Mycology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8575, Japan
    Cell Immunol 263:241-50. 2010
    ..sinensis DNA activated NF-kappaB in HEK293T cells transfected with the TLR9 gene. Finally, a confocal microscopic analysis showed that C...
  39. pmc Importance of Toll-like receptor 9 in host defense against M1T1 group A Streptococcus infections
    Annelies S Zinkernagel
    Division of Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, Calif, USA annelies zinkernagel usz ch
    J Innate Immun 4:213-8. 2012
    ..The intracellular pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) promotes macrophage hypoxia-inducible factor-1α levels, oxidative burst and nitric oxide production in response ..
  40. pmc Leucine-rich repeat 11 of Toll-like receptor 9 can tightly bind to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides, and the positively charged residues are critical for the high affinity
    Xichun Pan
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Third Military Medical University, 400038 Chongqing, China
    J Biol Chem 287:30596-609. 2012
    b>TLR9 is a receptor for sensing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN). The extracellular domain (ECD) of human TLR9 (hTLR9) is composed of 25 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) contributing to the binding of CpG ODN...
  41. ncbi Central role of MyD88-dependent dendritic cell maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production to control Brucella abortus infection
    Gilson Costa Macedo
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais, Brazil
    J Immunol 180:1080-7. 2008
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrated the role played by TLR9 during virulent B. abortus infection. TLR9 KO-infected mice showed 1 log Brucella CFU higher than wild-type mice...
  42. ncbi Deoxynucleic acids from Cryptococcus neoformans activate myeloid dendritic cells via a TLR9-dependent pathway
    Kiwamu Nakamura
    Department of Infection Control and Laboratory Diagnostics, Internal Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
    J Immunol 180:4067-74. 2008
    ..Activation of BM-DCs by cryptococcal DNA was almost completely abrogated in TLR9 gene-disrupted (TLR9(-/-)) mice and MyD88(-/-) mice, similar to that by CpG-ODN...
  43. pmc Critical role of toll-like receptor 9 in morphine and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced apoptosis in mice
    Lin Chen
    Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9205. 2010
    ..Although it is established that opioid and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are both public health problems, the mechanisms by which they affect lung functions remain elusive...
  44. ncbi Cellular activation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity against group B streptococcus involve parallel myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling pathways
    Philipp Henneke
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    J Immunol 169:3970-7. 2002
    ..We conclude that the inflammatory, bactericidal, and phagocytic responses to GBS occur via parallel but independent processes...
  45. pmc Toll-like receptor 9-dependent and -independent dendritic cell activation by chromatin-immunoglobulin G complexes
    Melissa W Boulé
    Renal Section, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, EBRC 5th Floor, 650 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Exp Med 199:1631-40. 2004
    ..pathway involves dual engagement of the Fc receptor FcgammaRIII and Toll-like receptor (TLR)9, whereas the other is TLR9 independent...
  46. pmc TLR9 regulates the mycobacteria-elicited pulmonary granulomatous immune response in mice through DC-derived Notch ligand delta-like 4
    Toshihiro Ito
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:33-46. 2009
    b>TLR9 activation is important for the maintenance of mycobacteria-elicited pulmonary granulomatous responses, hallmarks of protective immune responses following mycobacterial infection...
  47. ncbi TLR9-dependent activation of dendritic cells by DNA from Leishmania major favors Th1 cell development and the resolution of lesions
    Faihaa Hkima Abou Fakher
    Unité des Réponses Précoces aux Parasites et Immunopathologie, Département de Parasitologie et Mycologie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Immunol 182:1386-96. 2009
    ..Using genetically resistant C57BL/6 mice deficient in either TLR2, 4, or 9, we show in this study that only TLR9-deficient mice are more susceptible to infection with Leishmania major...
  48. pmc Flexibility of mouse classical and plasmacytoid-derived dendritic cells in directing T helper type 1 and 2 cell development: dependency on antigen dose and differential toll-like receptor ligation
    Andre Boonstra
    Division of Immunoregulation, The National Institute for Medical Research NIMR, NW7 1AA London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 197:101-9. 2003
    ..The responsiveness of plasmacytoid pDCs to CpG correlated with high TLR9 expression similarly to human plasmacytoid pDCs...
  49. ncbi Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 9 expression is not required for CpG DNA-aided cross-presentation of DNA-conjugated antigens but essential for cross-priming of CD8 T cells
    Antje Heit
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    J Immunol 170:2802-5. 2003
    ..Although CpG DNA-aided cross-presentation is not altered in TLR9-deficient cells, TLR9 is required for maturation of APC allowing cross-priming, as resulting in CTL function...
  50. pmc Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 plays an essential role for Toll-like receptor (TLR)7- and TLR9-mediated interferon-{alpha} induction
    Satoshi Uematsu
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Exp Med 201:915-23. 2005
    ..Among TLR family members, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 induce interferon (IFN)-alpha in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs)...
  51. ncbi The induction of a type 1 immune response following a Trypanosoma brucei infection is MyD88 dependent
    Michael B Drennan
    Immunology of Infectious Disease Medical Research Council University of Cape Town Unit, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Health Science Faculty, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Immunol 175:2501-9. 2005
    ..Analysis of several TLR-deficient mice revealed a partial requirement for TLR9 in the production of IFN-gamma and VSG-specific IgG2a Ab levels during T. brucei infections...
  52. pmc Innate immunity mediated by TLR9 modulates pathogenicity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis
    Marco Prinz
    Institute of Neuropathology, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    J Clin Invest 116:456-64. 2006
    ..Surprisingly, this protection is partly due to engagement of the CpG receptor TLR9. Restricting the MyD88 or TLR9 mutation to host radio-resistant cells, including the cells within the CNS, revealed ..
  53. ncbi The transmembrane domain directs TLR9 to intracellular compartments that contain TLR3
    Emi Kajita
    Department of Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343:578-84. 2006
    ..their conserved primary structures, some TLRs that detect pathogen-derived nucleic acids (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9) are retained in the cytoplasm...
  54. ncbi IkappaB kinase-alpha is critical for interferon-alpha production induced by Toll-like receptors 7 and 9
    Katsuaki Hoshino
    Laboratory for Host Defense, RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, Suehiro cho 1 7 22, Tsurumi ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230 0045, Japan
    Nature 440:949-53. 2006
    ..Furthermore, IKK-alpha associated with and phosphorylated IRF-7. Our results identify a role for IKK-alpha in TLR7/9 signalling, and highlight IKK-alpha as a potential target for manipulating TLR-induced IFN-alpha production...
  55. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9 acts at an early stage in host defence against pneumococcal infection
    Barbara Albiger
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels Väg 18, SE 171 82 Solna, Sweden
    Cell Microbiol 9:633-44. 2007
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) induces an inflammatory response by recognition of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, mainly present in prokaryotic DNA...
  56. pmc Dual recognition of herpes simplex viruses by TLR2 and TLR9 in dendritic cells
    Ayuko Sato
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17343-8. 2006
    ..Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) have been reported to engage both the surface TLR2 and intracellular TLR9 in conventional DCs...
  57. pmc TLR2 synergizes with both TLR4 and TLR9 for induction of the MyD88-dependent splenic cytokine and chemokine response to Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Katherine S Lee
    Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Cell Immunol 245:103-10. 2007
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of TLR2, TLR4, and/or TLR9 in mediating this response...
  58. pmc Inflammatory arthritis can be reined in by CpG-induced DC-NK cell cross talk
    Hsin Jung Wu
    Section on Immunology and Immunogenetics, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1911-22. 2007
    ..These findings highlight potential applications of CpG-ODNs and downstream molecules as antiinflammatory agents...
  59. pmc A protein associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (PRAT4A) is required for TLR-dependent immune responses
    Koichiro Takahashi
    Division of Infectious Genetics, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
    J Exp Med 204:2963-76. 2007
    ..and PRAT4A knockdown inhibited trafficking of TLR1 and TLR4 to the cell surface and ligand-induced trafficking of TLR9 to lysosomes. Other cell-surface molecules were expressed normally on immunocytes from PRAT4A-/- mice...
  60. pmc Chloroquine and inhibition of Toll-like receptor 9 protect from sepsis-induced acute kidney injury
    Hideo Yasuda
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294:F1050-8. 2008
    ..An oligodeoxynucleotide inhibitor (H154) of TLR9 and TLR9-deficient mice mirror the actions of chloroquine in all functional parameters that we tested...
  61. ncbi Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi
    Daniella C Bartholomeu
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    J Immunol 181:1333-44. 2008
    b>TLR9 is critical in parasite recognition and host resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, no information is available regarding nucleotide sequences and cellular events involved on T...
  62. doi Critical role for asparagine endopeptidase in endocytic Toll-like receptor signaling in dendritic cells
    Fernando E Sepulveda
    Institut Curie, U932, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75005 Paris, France
    Immunity 31:737-48. 2009
    Intracellular Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, and TLR9 localize in endosomes and recognize single-stranded RNA and nucleotides from viruses and bacteria...
  63. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9-independent aggravation of glomerulonephritis in a novel model of SLE
    Philipp Yu
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich, Trogerstrasse 4a, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Int Immunol 18:1211-9. 2006
    ..However, the contribution of the toll-like receptor (TLR) system of innate immunity receptors and, in particular, TLR9 to this B cell-mediated autoimmune process remains controversial...
  64. pmc TLR9 engagement on CD4 T lymphocytes represses gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis through activation of checkpoint kinase response elements
    Liqin Zheng
    Stanley S Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 533 Bolivar Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Blood 111:2704-13. 2008
    ..Previously, we demonstrated that administration of TLR9 ligand into mice decreased activation- and serum deprivation-induced cell death in T cells...
  65. doi TANK-binding kinase-1 delineates innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines
    Ken J Ishii
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency JST
    Nature 451:725-9. 2008
    ..occurred even in the absence of innate immune signalling through a well known CpG DNA sensor-Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DAI, which was recently reported as a potential B-form DNA sensor)...
  66. doi Containment of aerogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice does not require MyD88 adaptor function for TLR2, -4 and -9
    Christoph Holscher
    Junior Research Group Molecular Infection Biology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 38:680-94. 2008
    ..Rather, MyD88, but not TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, is critical for triggering macrophage effector mechanisms central to anti-mycobacterial defense.
  67. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 regulates the lung macrophage phenotype and host immunity in murine pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila
    Urvashi Bhan
    University of Michigan Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
    Infect Immun 76:2895-904. 2008
    Experiments were performed to determine the contribution of TLR9 to the generation of protective immunity against the intracellular respiratory bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila...
  68. doi HMGB proteins function as universal sentinels for nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses
    Hideyuki Yanai
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Nature 462:99-103. 2009
    ..The absence of HMGBs also severely impairs the activation of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 by their cognate nucleic acids...
  69. doi Coactivation of Syk kinase and MyD88 adaptor protein pathways by bacteria promotes regulatory properties of neutrophils
    Xiaoming Zhang
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Régulation Immunitaire et Vaccinologie, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Immunity 31:761-71. 2009
    ..During a chronic infection, neutrophil depletion promoted inflammation and decreased the mycobacterial burden. Therefore, neutrophils can have a previously unsuspected regulatory role during acute and chronic microbial infections...
  70. pmc DNA binding to proteolytically activated TLR9 is sequence-independent and enhanced by DNA curvature
    Yue Li
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
    EMBO J 31:919-31. 2012
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes microbial DNA in endolysosomal compartments. The ectodomain of TLR9 must be proteolytically cleaved by endosomal proteases to produce the active receptor capable of inducing an innate immune signal...
  71. pmc Fungal chitin dampens inflammation through IL-10 induction mediated by NOD2 and TLR9 activation
    Jeanette Wagener
    Aberdeen Fungal Group, School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 10:e1004050. 2014
    ..We identified NOD2, TLR9 and the mannose receptor as essential fungal chitin-recognition receptors for the induction of this response...
  72. pmc Human TLR9 confers responsiveness to bacterial DNA via species-specific CpG motif recognition
    S Bauer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9237-42. 2001
    ..Here, we show that human TLR9 (hTLR9) expression in human immune cells correlates with responsiveness to bacterial deoxycytidylate-phosphate-..
  73. ncbi Severe impairment of interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signalling in mice lacking IRAK-4
    Nobutaka Suzuki
    Amgen Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 620 University Avenue, Suite 706, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C1, Canada
    Nature 416:750-6. 2002
    ..In addition, animals lacking IRAK-4 are severely impaired in their responses to viral and bacterial challenges. Our results indicate that IRAK-4 has an essential role in innate immunity...
  74. ncbi Differential involvement of IFN-beta in Toll-like receptor-stimulated dendritic cell activation
    Katsuaki Hoshino
    Department of Host Defense and Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Int Immunol 14:1225-31. 2002
    ..Similar to the LPS response, TLR9 signaling can also induce expression of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and up-regulation of CD40...
  75. ncbi Direct evidence that toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) functionally binds plasmid DNA by specific cytosine-phosphate-guanine motif recognition
    Sylvie Cornelie
    INSERM U547, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 59019 Lille Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:15124-9. 2004
    ..to activate the mammalian immune system, and this activation is thought to depend on the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling pathway...
  76. ncbi Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8
    Florian Heil
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Science 303:1526-9. 2004
    ..These data suggest that ssRNA represents a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8...
  77. pmc Toll-like receptors 9 and 3 as essential components of innate immune defense against mouse cytomegalovirus infection
    Koichi Tabeta
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3516-21. 2004
    ..CpG-ODN unresponsive phenotype that results from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced missense mutation in the Tlr9 gene (Tlr9(CpG1))...
  78. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
    ..various TLR agonists, including LPS (TLR4), peptidoglycan (TLR2), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3), CpG DNA (TLR9), and infection with viable Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, activated the cells to up-regulate unique ..
  79. ncbi Cutting edge: species-specific TLR9-mediated recognition of CpG and non-CpG phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides
    Tara L Roberts
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Cooperative Research Centre for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    J Immunol 174:605-8. 2005
    ..These species differences presumably reflect sequence differences in TLR9, the CpG DNA receptor...
  80. ncbi Dendritic cells and NK cells stimulate bystander T cell activation in response to TLR agonists through secretion of IFN-alpha beta and IFN-gamma
    Arun T Kamath
    The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research, Compton, Newbury, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:767-76. 2005
    ..The results delineate a pathway involving innate immune mediators through which TLR agonists trigger bystander activation of T cells...
  81. pmc Involvement of the Toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway in the induction of innate immunity by baculovirus
    Takayuki Abe
    Research Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Virol 79:2847-58. 2005
    ..Here we show that AcNPV activates immune cells via the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway...
  82. ncbi Requirement for TLR9 in the immunomodulatory activity of Propionibacterium acnes
    Christoph Kalis
    Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Immunol 174:4295-300. 2005
    ..We show in this study that TLR9 is crucial in generating the characteristic effects of killed P...
  83. pmc Molecular determinants of crosstalk between nuclear receptors and toll-like receptors
    Sumito Ogawa
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Cell 122:707-21. 2005
    ..inflammatory response genes by disrupting p65/interferon regulatory factor (IRF) complexes required for TLR4- or TLR9-dependent, but not TLR3-dependent, transcriptional activation...
  84. ncbi Th1-like cytokine induction by heat-killed Brucella abortus is dependent on triggering of TLR9
    Li Yun Huang
    Division of Hematology, Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 175:3964-70. 2005
    ..evidence, for the first time, that bacterial DNA in the context of heat-killed Brucella abortus (HKBA) engages TLR9 in dendritic cells (DC), resulting in a Th1-like cytokine response...
  85. pmc Nucleic acids of mammalian origin can act as endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptors and may promote systemic lupus erythematosus
    Franck J Barrat
    Dynavax Technologies Corporation, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1131-9. 2005
    ..These ODNs include inhibitors of TLR9, inhibitors of TLR7 but not TLR9, and sequences that inhibit both TLR7 and TLR9...
  86. ncbi Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan
    Dianhua Jiang
    Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 11:1173-9. 2005
    ..Hyaluronan-TLR2 and hyaluronan-TLR4 interactions provide signals that initiate inflammatory responses, maintain epithelial cell integrity and promote recovery from acute lung injury...
  87. ncbi MyD88-dependent and -independent murine cytomegalovirus sensing for IFN-alpha release and initiation of immune responses in vivo
    Thomas Delale
    Schering Plough, Laboratory for Immunological Research, Dardilly, France
    J Immunol 175:6723-32. 2005
    ..Upon murine CMV (MCMV) infection, both MyD88-/- and TLR9-/- mice were more susceptible and presented increased viral loads compared with C57BL/6, TLR2-/-, TLR3-/-, or TLR4-/..
  88. ncbi CpG motif-independent activation of TLR9 upon endosomal translocation of "natural" phosphodiester DNA
    Kei Yasuda
    Institut für Med Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munchen, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 36:431-6. 2006
    Endosomally translocated host (self) DNA activates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), while extracellular self-DNA does not...
  89. pmc TLR9/MyD88 signaling is required for class switching to pathogenic IgG2a and 2b autoantibodies in SLE
    Marc Ehlers
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 203:553-61. 2006
    ..switching of anti-self B cells to IgG1 is not perturbed and generation of nonautoreactive IgG2a and 2b antibodies is not impaired in TLR9-deficient mice. Thus, the TLR9 pathway is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in SLE.
  90. ncbi Cutting edge: TLR9 and TLR2 signaling together account for MyD88-dependent control of parasitemia in Trypanosoma cruzi infection
    Andre Bafica
    Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 177:3515-9. 2006
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that DNA from T. cruzi stimulates cytokine production by APCs in a TLR9-dependent manner and synergizes with parasite-derived GPI anchor, a TLR2 agonist, in the induction of cytokines by ..
  91. ncbi Pathological role of Toll-like receptor signaling in cerebral malaria
    Cevayir Coban
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Int Immunol 19:67-79. 2007
    ..Further studies using mice lacking various TLRs suggest that TLR2 and TLR9, but not TLR4, 5 and 7, were involved in CM...
  92. pmc Murine cerebral malaria development is independent of toll-like receptor signaling
    Dieudonnée Togbe
    Molecular Immunology and Embryology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and University of Orleans, Transgenose Institute, Orleans, France
    Am J Pathol 170:1640-8. 2007
    ..Using Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in mice as a model of CM, we report here that TLR9-deficient mice are not protected from CM...
  93. ncbi TLR9 signaling is essential for the innate NK cell response in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Jan Liese
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Clinic of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 37:3424-34. 2007
    ..Here, we show that TLR9 was required for the induction of IL-12 in bone marrow-derived DC by intact L. major parasites or L...
  94. pmc Toll-like receptor 9: a new target of ischemic preconditioning in the brain
    Susan L Stevens
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28:1040-7. 2008
    ..Here, we report the first evidence that another TLR, TLR9, can induce neuroprotection...
  95. doi Bacterial DNA induces myocardial inflammation and reduces cardiomyocyte contractility: role of toll-like receptor 9
    Pascal Knuefermann
    Department for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, Bonn 53105, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 78:26-35. 2008
    ..e. toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, significantly contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Little is known regarding TLR9 and its pathogenic ligand bacterial DNA in the myocardium...
  96. ncbi Malaria parasites require TLR9 signaling for immune evasion by activating regulatory T cells
    Hajime Hisaeda
    Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Japan
    J Immunol 180:2496-503. 2008
    ..However, little is known about how these parasites activate Tregs. We herein show that TLR9 signaling to dendritic cells (DCs) is crucial for activation of Tregs...
  97. doi Bruton's tyrosine kinase separately regulates NFkappaB p65RelA activation and cytokine interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12 production in TLR9-stimulated B Cells
    Koon Guan Lee
    Laboratory of Immunology, Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, Singapore
    J Biol Chem 283:11189-98. 2008
    ..here that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a critical component in B cell receptor signaling, is also involved in TLR9 signaling in B cells...
  98. doi UNC93B1 delivers nucleotide-sensing toll-like receptors to endolysosomes
    You Me Kim
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 452:234-8. 2008
    ..UNC93B1, essential for signalling of TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 in both humans and mice, physically interacts with these TLRs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  99. pmc Toll-like receptor 9-dependent immune activation by unmethylated CpG motifs in Aspergillus fumigatus DNA
    Zaida G Ramirez-Ortiz
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Infect Immun 76:2123-9. 2008
    ..Previous studies found that following challenge with A. fumigatus, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) knockout mice survived longer than wild-type mice. However, the mechanism responsible was not defined...
  100. doi The DNA sugar backbone 2' deoxyribose determines toll-like receptor 9 activation
    Tobias Haas
    Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstrasse 30, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    Immunity 28:315-23. 2008
    CpG motifs within phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA drive Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation, but the rules governing recognition of natural phosphodiester (PD) DNA are less understood...
  101. ncbi Cutting edge: Overlapping functions of TLR7 and TLR9 for innate defense against a herpesvirus infection
    Nicolas Zucchini
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille Cedex 09, France
    J Immunol 180:5799-803. 2008
    ..In this study we show that TLR7 and TLR9 exert redundant functions for IFN-alpha/beta, IL-12p40, and TNF-alpha production by pDCs in vivo during MCMV ..

Research Grants13

  1. Gut Dendritic Cells and Allergic Sensitization
    M Berin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results from these experiments will provide a better understanding of how a normally tolerogenic response to a food protein deviates toward allergic sensitization. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. Thrombus resolution is CXC chemokine dependent
    Peter Henke; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Vein wall remodeling after DVT is matrix metalloproteinase dependent
    Peter Henke; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal will provide important mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of post-phelbitic syndrome with real potential translation to decreasing the morbidity from this under-acknowledged disease. ..
  4. Macrophage defense againt M. tuberculosis
    Jennifer Wang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Experiments will determine whether anti-mycobacterial responses are activated thorugh TLR9, the only receptor known to be activated by CpG-ODN...
  5. PATHOGENESIS OF MURINE SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
    DWIGHT KONO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Identification of the susceptibility genes and elucidation of their roles in the induction of lupus should provide significant insights into the etiopathogenesis of genetically-determined autoimmune diseases. ..
  6. Anti-Tumor Autoimmunity by lymphopenia T cell Expansion
    Roberto Baccala; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The results will define the role of homeostatic T cell proliferation in tumor autoimmunity, and provide new approaches to the treatment of cancer. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. Immunological Basis for H. Pylori-Related Malignancies
    Marygorret Obonyo; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Under this award, the candidate will be able to develop this work into a productive project that will gain independent funding. ..
  8. Cell Cycle Inhibition in Systemic Autoimmunity
    DWIGHT KONO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies should yield important new insights into the significance and role of p21 in systemic autoimmunity and in host response to foreign antigens. ..
  9. ROLE OF PKD IN LEUKOCYTE ACTIVATION BY CPG DNA
    Ae Kyung Yi; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This proposed study would enhance our understanding of how CpG motifs in bacterial DNA break immune tolerance and contribute to chrome inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as arthritis. ..
  10. TLR/BCR Synergy in an Autoreactive B Cell Activation
    Ann Marshak Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..a mechanism that involves sequential engagement of the BCR located on the plasma membrane and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) located in an internal compartment...
  11. Heavy Metal-Induced Autoimmunity
    DWIGHT KONO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  12. Induction of immunological paralysis by CpG DNA
    Ae Kyung Yi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..promoter region and will determine whether CpG DNA suppresses IRAK1 expression through an endosomal pH-sensitive TLR9/MyD88-dependent pathway. We will make various mutant RAW264...
  13. B1B lymphocytes generate T cell-independent memory
    KISHORE ALUGUPALLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the basis for the longevity of the Tl protective responses conferred by B1b cells will provide novel approaches to generate effective vaccines against pathogens expressing Tl antigens. ..