Tlr2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Tlr2
Description: toll-like receptor 2
Alias: Ly105, toll-like receptor 2
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4
    Masahiro Yamamoto
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nature 420:324-9. 2002
  2. ncbi A mechanism for neurodegeneration induced by group B streptococci through activation of the TLR2/MyD88 pathway in microglia
    Seija Lehnardt
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 177:583-92. 2006
  3. ncbi Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 regulate inflammation, gliosis, and myelin sparing after spinal cord injury
    Kristina A Kigerl
    Integrated Biomedical Science Graduate Program, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    J Neurochem 102:37-50. 2007
  4. doi Toll-like receptor 2 ligands on the staphylococcal cell wall downregulate superantigen-induced T cell activation and prevent toxic shock syndrome
    Thu A Chau
    FOCIS Centre for Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapeutics, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Med 15:641-8. 2009
  5. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004
  6. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
  7. pmc Pivotal role for neuronal Toll-like receptors in ischemic brain injury and functional deficits
    Sung Chun Tang
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13798-803. 2007
  8. ncbi Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8
    Florian Heil
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Science 303:1526-9. 2004
  9. pmc The matrix component biglycan is proinflammatory and signals through Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in macrophages
    Liliana Schaefer
    Department of Medicine D, Interdisciplinary Center of Clinical Research, Muenster, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
    J Clin Invest 115:2223-33. 2005
  10. ncbi Hepatitis C core and nonstructural 3 proteins trigger toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathways and inflammatory activation
    Angela Dolganiuc
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:1513-24. 2004

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications209 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4
    Masahiro Yamamoto
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nature 420:324-9. 2002
    ..genes and the maturation of dendritic cells is observed in these mice; they also show defective response to TLR2 ligands, but not to stimuli that activate TLR3, TLR7 or TLR9...
  2. ncbi A mechanism for neurodegeneration induced by group B streptococci through activation of the TLR2/MyD88 pathway in microglia
    Seija Lehnardt
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 177:583-92. 2006
    ..proteinaceous factor from GBS (GBS-F) induce neuronal apoptosis via the activation of murine microglia through a TLR2-dependent and MyD88-dependent pathway in vitro...
  3. ncbi Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 regulate inflammation, gliosis, and myelin sparing after spinal cord injury
    Kristina A Kigerl
    Integrated Biomedical Science Graduate Program, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    J Neurochem 102:37-50. 2007
    ..Recent data suggest that non-pathogenic molecules released by trauma also can trigger inflammation via TLR2 and TLR4...
  4. doi Toll-like receptor 2 ligands on the staphylococcal cell wall downregulate superantigen-induced T cell activation and prevent toxic shock syndrome
    Thu A Chau
    FOCIS Centre for Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapeutics, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Med 15:641-8. 2009
    ....
  5. ncbi Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 118:229-41. 2004
    ..These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions...
  6. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
    ..Furthermore, stimulation of quiescent microglia with various TLR agonists, including LPS (TLR4), peptidoglycan (TLR2), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (TLR3), CpG DNA (TLR9), and infection with viable Theiler's murine ..
  7. pmc Pivotal role for neuronal Toll-like receptors in ischemic brain injury and functional deficits
    Sung Chun Tang
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13798-803. 2007
    ..We now report that neurons express several TLRs, and that the levels of TLR2 and -4 are increased in neurons in response to IFN-gamma stimulation and energy deprivation...
  8. ncbi Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8
    Florian Heil
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Science 303:1526-9. 2004
    ..These data suggest that ssRNA represents a physiological ligand for TLR7 and TLR8...
  9. pmc The matrix component biglycan is proinflammatory and signals through Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in macrophages
    Liliana Schaefer
    Department of Medicine D, Interdisciplinary Center of Clinical Research, Muenster, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
    J Clin Invest 115:2223-33. 2005
    ..Here we show that biglycan acts in macrophages as an endogenous ligand of TLR4 and TLR2, which mediate innate immunity, leading to rapid activation of p38, ERK, and NF-kappaB and thereby stimulating the ..
  10. ncbi Hepatitis C core and nonstructural 3 proteins trigger toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathways and inflammatory activation
    Angela Dolganiuc
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:1513-24. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLRs in innate immune cell activation by core and NS3 proteins...
  11. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 controls mucosal inflammation by regulating epithelial barrier function
    E Cario
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Essen and Medical School University of Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1359-74. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the functional relevance of TLR2 to control tight junction (TJ)-associated intestinal epithelial barrier integrity to balance mucosal homeostasis ..
  12. pmc Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2
    Benjamin N Gantner
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, 98103, USA
    J Exp Med 197:1107-17. 2003
    ..The data demonstrate that collaborative recognition of distinct microbial components by different classes of innate immune receptors is crucial in orchestrating inflammatory responses...
  13. ncbi Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
    Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
    ..To investigate in vivo roles of TLR2, we generated TLR2-deficient mice...
  14. pmc Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis
    Evelyn A Kurt-Jones
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, 364 Plantation Street, Lazare Research Building, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1315-20. 2004
    ..Here, we demonstrate that TLR2 mediates the inflammatory cytokine response to HSV-1 by using both transfected cell lines and knockout mice...
  15. pmc Syk kinase is required for collaborative cytokine production induced through Dectin-1 and Toll-like receptors
    Kevin M Dennehy
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Clinical Laboratory Sciences Division of Immunology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Immunol 38:500-6. 2008
    ..fungal beta-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, which collaborates through an undefined mechanism with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to induce optimal cytokine responses in macrophages...
  16. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 suppresses immunity against Candida albicans through induction of IL-10 and regulatory T cells
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 172:3712-8. 2004
    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 play a pivotal role in recognition of Candida albicans. We demonstrate that TLR2(-/-) mice are more resistant to disseminated Candida infection, and this is associated with increased chemotaxis and ..
  17. ncbi Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan
    Dianhua Jiang
    Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Med 11:1173-9. 2005
    ..Here we report that hyaluronan degradation products require MyD88 and both Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and TLR2 in vitro and in vivo to initiate inflammatory responses in acute lung injury...
  18. ncbi Toll-like receptors modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Asya Rolls
    Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    Nat Cell Biol 9:1081-8. 2007
    ..We show that TLR2 and TLR4 are found on adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and have distinct and opposing functions in NPC ..
  19. ncbi Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4-mediated pathogen recognition in resistance to airborne infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Norbert Reiling
    Division of Molecular Infection Biology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
    J Immunol 169:3480-4. 2002
    ..tuberculosis infection has remained unexplored in vivo. To address this issue, we infected mice defective in CD14, TLR2, or TLR4 with M. tuberculosis by aerosol...
  20. ncbi The role of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 185:1483-9. 2002
    ..and IL-1beta production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly inhibited by blocking anti-TLR2 antibodies in vitro. In conclusion, TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to C...
  21. ncbi The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo
    Silvia Bellocchio
    Microbiology Section, Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
    J Immunol 172:3059-69. 2004
    ..of the MyD88 adapter may occur through signaling by distinct members of the IL-1R/TLR superfamily, including IL-1R, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, with the proportional role of the individual receptors varying depending on fungal species, fungal ..
  22. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency delays pneumococcal phagocytosis and impairs oxidative killing by granulocytes
    Maryse Letiembre
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, University Hospital, Hebelstrasse 20, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland
    Infect Immun 73:8397-401. 2005
    ..and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae was compared in blood-derived wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-deficient (TLR2-/-) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)...
  23. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T cells
    Roger P M Sutmuller
    Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Invest 116:485-94. 2006
    ..We have recently shown the CD4CD25 Treg subset in TLR2 mice to be significantly reduced in number compared with WT littermate control mice, indicating a link between ..
  24. pmc Mannose-binding lectin enhances Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 signaling from the phagosome
    W K Eddie Ip
    Laboratory of Developmental Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Exp Med 205:169-81. 2008
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that this cooperation occurs within the phagosome, emphasizing the importance of engulfment in providing the appropriate cellular environment to facilitate the synergy between these defense pathways...
  25. pmc Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in induction of cell-mediated immunity and resistance to Brucella abortus infection in mice
    Marco A Campos
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Infect Immun 72:176-86. 2004
    ..CHO reporter cell lines transfected with CD14 and TLRs showed that B. abortus triggers both TLR2 and TLR4...
  26. ncbi TLR2 mediates neuroinflammation and neuronal damage
    Olaf Hoffmann
    Department of Neurology, Center for Anatomy, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    J Immunol 178:6476-81. 2007
    ..In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, binding of bacterial lipopeptides to TLR2 is currently regarded as an important mechanism...
  27. ncbi Cutting edge: Immune stimulation by neisserial porins is toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88 dependent
    Paola Massari
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Immunol 168:1533-7. 2002
    ..on MyD88 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 expression, as demonstrated by a lack of a response by B cells from MyD88 or TLR2 knockout mice to the porins...
  28. ncbi MyD88 mediates neutrophil recruitment initiated by IL-1R but not TLR2 activation in immunity against Staphylococcus aureus
    Lloyd S Miller
    Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 52 121 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Immunity 24:79-91. 2006
    MyD88 is an important signaling adaptor for both TLR and IL-1R family members. Here, we evaluated the role of TLR2/MyD88 and IL-1R/MyD88 signaling in host defense against S...
  29. pmc Regulation of chemokine receptor by Toll-like receptor 2 is critical to neutrophil migration and resistance to polymicrobial sepsis
    Jose C Alves-Filho
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049 900 Ribeirao Preto, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4018-23. 2009
    ..Here we identify a key role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the regulation of neutrophil migration and resistance during polymicrobial sepsis...
  30. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis because of reduced bacterial clearing and enhanced inflammation
    Hakim Echchannaoui
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Research, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 186:798-806. 2002
    Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) mediates host responses to gram-positive bacterial wall components. TLR2 function was investigated in a murine Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis model in wild-type (wt) and TLR2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) mice...
  31. ncbi A critical role of toll-like receptor 2 in nerve injury-induced spinal cord glial cell activation and pain hypersensitivity
    DongHoon Kim
    Program in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Dental Research Institute, BK21, and Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 749, Korea
    J Biol Chem 282:14975-83. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate that toll-like receptor 2 contributes to the nerve injury-induced spinal cord glial cell activation and subsequent pain hypersensitivity...
  32. pmc TLR-mediated stimulation of APC: Distinct cytokine responses of B cells and dendritic cells
    Tom A Barr
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:3040-53. 2007
    ..IL-10 was elicited by T-dependent activation or stimulation through TLR2, 4 or 9. This pattern of cytokine expression contrasts with that elicited from dendritic cells...
  33. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 mediates CNS injury in focal cerebral ischemia
    Seija Lehnardt
    Center for Anatomy, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 190:28-33. 2007
    ..We show here that TLR2-deficient mice develop a decreased CNS injury compared to wild type mice in a model of focal cerebral ischemia...
  34. pmc Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide contains multiple lipid A species that functionally interact with both toll-like receptors 2 and 4
    Richard P Darveau
    Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Health Sciences Center, Box 357444, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Infect Immun 72:5041-51. 2004
    ..gingivalis is unusual in that different studies have reported that it can be an agonist for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) as well as an antagonist or agonist for TLR4. In this report it is shown that P...
  35. ncbi TLR2 and MyD88 contribute to Lactobacillus casei extract-induced focal coronary arteritis in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease
    Margalit E Rosenkranz
    Pediatric Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    Circulation 112:2966-73. 2005
    ....
  36. pmc Yellow fever vaccine YF-17D activates multiple dendritic cell subsets via TLR2, 7, 8, and 9 to stimulate polyvalent immunity
    Troy Querec
    Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Exp Med 203:413-24. 2006
    ..control the Th1/Th2 balance; thus, whilst MyD88-deficient mice show a profound impairment of Th1 cytokines, TLR2-deficient mice show greatly enhanced Th1 and Tc1 responses to YF-17D...
  37. ncbi Differential recognition of TLR-dependent microbial ligands in human bronchial epithelial cells
    Anja K Mayer
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Immunol 178:3134-42. 2007
    ..Although it was observed that TLR2 ligands dependent on heterodimeric signaling either with TLR1 or TLR6 were functional, other ligands like ..
  38. pmc The Triacylated ATP Binding Cluster Transporter Substrate-binding Lipoprotein of Staphylococcus aureus Functions as a Native Ligand for Toll-like Receptor 2
    Kenji Kurokawa
    National Research Laboratory of Defense Proteins, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609 735, Korea
    J Biol Chem 284:8406-11. 2009
    ..in addition to native lipoproteins derived from both Gram-negative bacteria and mycoplasmas, are known to activate TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2)...
  39. pmc Murine toll-like receptor 2 activation induces type I interferon responses from endolysosomal compartments
    Nicole Dietrich
    Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e10250. 2010
    ..The TLR2 subfamily of TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR6) form heterodimers with each other and are thus able to recognize a broad range ..
  40. pmc Herpes simplex virus immediate-early ICP0 protein inhibits Toll-like receptor 2-dependent inflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling
    Allison L van Lint
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 84:10802-11. 2010
    ..Our studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation by HSV results in NF-κB activation with concomitant inflammatory cytokine production and that TLR2 ..
  41. doi Streptococcus pneumoniae stimulates a STING- and IFN regulatory factor 3-dependent type I IFN production in macrophages, which regulates RANTES production in macrophages, cocultured alveolar epithelial cells, and mouse lungs
    Uwe Koppe
    Department of Internal Medicine Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Charite University Medicine Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Immunol 188:811-7. 2012
    ..In conclusion, we identified an immune sensing pathway detecting S. pneumoniae that triggers a type I IFN response and positively regulates RANTES production...
  42. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 is required for control of pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis
    Meenakshi Malik
    Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, MC151, ME205B, Albany, NY 12208 3479, USA
    Infect Immun 74:3657-62. 2006
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) deficiency enhances murine susceptibility to infection by Francisella tularensis as indicated by accelerated mortality, higher bacterial burden, and greater histopathology...
  43. pmc Toll-like receptor 2-mediated signaling requirements for Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain infection of murine macrophages
    Leah E Cole
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, 660 West Redwood Street, Room 324, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Infect Immun 75:4127-37. 2007
    ..live vaccine strain (LVS) elicited strong, dose-dependent NF-kappaB reporter activity in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-expressing HEK293T cells and proinflammatory gene expression in primary murine macrophages...
  44. pmc Role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in pulmonary inflammation and injury induced by pneumolysin in mice
    Mark C Dessing
    Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e7993. 2009
    ..The primary objective of the present study was to determine the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in lung inflammation induced by intrapulmonary delivery of PLN.
  45. doi TLR-2-activated B cells suppress Helicobacter-induced preneoplastic gastric immunopathology by inducing T regulatory-1 cells
    Ayca Sayi
    Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, Zurich 8057, Switzerland
    J Immunol 186:878-90. 2011
    ....
  46. pmc Macrophages exposed continuously to lipopolysaccharide and other agonists that act via toll-like receptors exhibit a sustained and additive activation state
    D A Hume
    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Q4072, Australia
    BMC Immunol 2:11. 2001
    ..In this paper we examine whether the signal from Toll-like receptors [TLRs] is sustained for as long as the ligand is present, and whether responses to different TLR agonists are additive...
  47. ncbi Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins
    Osamu Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
    J Immunol 169:10-4. 2002
    ..b>TLR2 is essential for the signaling of a variety of PAMPs, including bacterial lipoprotein/lipopeptides, peptidoglycan, ..
  48. ncbi Toll-like receptor 4 mediates mitochondrial DNA damage and biogenic responses after heat-inactivated E. coli
    Hagir B Suliman
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    FASEB J 19:1531-3. 2005
    ..In wild-type (Wt) mice injected with heat-inactivated E. coli, hepatic TLR4 and TLR2 proteins were up-regulated with TLR-dependent increases in transcript levels for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), ..
  49. pmc Rab5 activation by Toll-like receptor 2 is required for Trypanosoma cruzi internalization and replication in macrophages
    Elena Maganto-Garcia
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC UAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Traffic 9:1299-315. 2008
    ..Moreover, using macrophages from knockout mice, we found that activation of Rab5, fusion of early endosomes and phagocytosis induced by T. cruzi infection involved Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 but were independent of TLR4 receptors...
  50. doi Signalling through TLR2/MyD88 induces differentiation of murine bone marrow stem and progenitor cells to functional phagocytes in response to Candida albicans
    Alberto Yáñez
    Departamento de Microbiologia y Ecologia, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain
    Cell Microbiol 12:114-28. 2010
    ..In this work, we have found that this process is mainly mediated by TLR2, and that expanding cells express myeloid and not lymphoid markers...
  51. ncbi Induction of cross-tolerance by lipopolysaccharide and highly purified lipoteichoic acid via different Toll-like receptors independent of paracrine mediators
    M D Lehner
    Biochemical Pharmacology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    J Immunol 166:5161-7. 2001
    ..also inhibits responses to the other stimulus ("cross-tolerance"), suggesting that signaling pathways shared by TLR2 and TLR4 are impaired during tolerance...
  52. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 plays a role in the early inflammatory response to murine pneumococcal pneumonia but does not contribute to antibacterial defense
    Sylvia Knapp
    Laboratory of Experimental Internal Medicine, Department of Pathology, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 172:3132-8. 2004
    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are crucial pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity. The importance of TLR2 in host defense against Gram-positive bacteria has been suggested by the fact that this receptor recognizes major Gram-positive ..
  53. ncbi NOD2 is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated T helper type 1 responses
    Tomohiro Watanabe
    Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10 Room 11N238, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:800-8. 2004
    ..Thus, CARD15 mutations may lead to disease by causing excessive T(H)1 responses...
  54. pmc Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein links innate immune cell activation with adaptive immunity via a Toll-like receptor-4-dependent mechanism
    Marcus D Saemann
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Clin Invest 115:468-75. 2005
    ..marrow-derived macrophages from TLR4- and MyD88-deficient mice were nonresponsive to THP in contrast to those from TLR2- and TLR9-deficient mice. In vivo THP-driven TNF-alpha production was evident in WT but not in Tlr4-/- mice...
  55. ncbi TLRs regulate the gatekeeping functions of the intestinal follicle-associated epithelium
    Sophie Chabot
    Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, GI Cell Biology Laboratory, Children s Hospital Boston and Harvard Digestive Diseases Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 176:4275-83. 2006
    ..We show that TLR2 is expressed in both FAE and villus epithelium, but TLR2 activation by peptidoglycan or Pam(3)Cys injected into the ..
  56. ncbi TLR2 engagement on CD8 T cells lowers the threshold for optimal antigen-induced T cell activation
    Anne Cottalorda
    Laboratory of Homéostasie Lymphocytaire, INSERM, U503, IFR Biosciences Lyon Gerland, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France
    Eur J Immunol 36:1684-93. 2006
    ..Here, we report that murine T cells express TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, TLR7 and TLR9 mRNA...
  57. pmc A critical role for direct TLR2-MyD88 signaling in CD8 T-cell clonal expansion and memory formation following vaccinia viral infection
    Michael Quigley
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Blood 113:2256-64. 2009
    ..In this study, we showed that direct TLR2-myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88) signaling in CD8 T cells was also required for their efficient clonal ..
  58. pmc Exacerbation of murine ileitis by Toll-like receptor 4 mediated sensing of lipopolysaccharide from commensal Escherichia coli
    M M Heimesaat
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Dorotheenstr 96, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Gut 56:941-8. 2007
    ..In the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute murine ileitis following peroral Toxoplasma gondii infection, commensal Escherichia coli accumulate at inflamed mucosal sites and aggravate small intestinal immunopathology...
  59. doi TLR2 - promiscuous or specific? A critical re-evaluation of a receptor expressing apparent broad specificity
    Ulrich Zahringer
    Division of Immunochemistry, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Parkallee 1 40, 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:205-24. 2008
    Of all pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in innate immunity, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes the structurally broadest range of different bacterial compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
  60. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 controls the gamma interferon response to Francisella tularensis by mouse liver lymphocytes
    Kee Jong Hong
    Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5338-45. 2007
    ..tularensis challenge, only DC secreted large quantities of IL-12p70. DC from both IL-12p35-deficient and TLR2-deficient mice failed to produce IL-12p70 and did not costimulate liver lymphocytes for IFN-gamma production in ..
  61. doi Lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus mediate inflammation by TLR2 and iron-dependent growth in vivo
    Mathias Schmaler
    Department of Biomedicine, Division Infection Biology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    J Immunol 182:7110-8. 2009
    Lipoproteins (Lpp) are ligands of TLR2 and signal by the adaptor MyD88. As part of the bacterial cell envelope, Lpp are mainly involved in nutrient acquisition for Staphylococcus aureus. The impact of Lpp on TLR2-MyD88 activation for S...
  62. ncbi Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of B cells and macrophages by polysaccharide isolated from cell culture of Acanthopanax senticosus
    S B Han
    Biopotency Evaluation Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, 52 Oundong, Yusong, Taejon 305 333, South Korea
    Int Immunopharmacol 3:1301-12. 2003
    ..of ASP on B cells and macrophages were significantly reduced by treating the cells with antibodies to TLR4 and TLR2 prior to ASP, suggesting that both of them are the possible receptors of ASP...
  63. ncbi Dectin-1 and TLRs permit macrophages to distinguish between different Aspergillus fumigatus cellular states
    Geoffrey M Gersuk
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    J Immunol 176:3717-24. 2006
    ..Dectin-1 binding to germ tubes augments, but is not required for, TLR2-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion...
  64. ncbi Differential involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in host survival during pulmonary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae
    Nuria Rodriguez
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 36:1145-55. 2006
    The relevance of TLR2 and TLR4 for recognizing Chlamydia pneumoniae in vivo during pulmonary infection and to survive the infection was explored. We found that early immune responses triggered by C...
  65. doi Trif is not required for immune complex glomerulonephritis: dying cells activate mesangial cells via Tlr2/Myd88 rather than Tlr3/Trif
    Julia Lichtnekert
    Medizinische Poliklinik, Klinikum der Universität Innenstadt, Pettenkoferstr 8a, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296:F867-74. 2009
    ..Because Tlr2-deficient mice were recently found to have attenuated nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN), we hypothesized that ..
  66. pmc Distinct roles for MyD88 and Toll-like receptor 2 during Leishmania braziliensis infection in mice
    Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1070, USA
    Infect Immun 77:2948-56. 2009
    ..To address this issue, we generated bone marrow-derived DCs from MyD88(-/-) and TLR2(-/-) mice and examined their responsiveness to parasite infection...
  67. doi Recipient Toll-like receptors contribute to chronic graft dysfunction by both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling
    Shijun Wang
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, German Cancer Research Center, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dis Model Mech 3:92-103. 2010
    ..Potential endogenous renal TLR ligands, specifically for TLR2 and TLR4, have now been detected by a significant upregulation of glucose regulated protein (GRP)-94, fibrinogen, ..
  68. doi Preconditioning by toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 reduces CXCL1-dependent leukocyte recruitment in murine myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Jan Mersmann
    Clinic of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine, and Pain Management, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Crit Care Med 38:903-9. 2010
    ..To test whether preconditioning with a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 agonist protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion by interfering with chemokine CXCL1 release from cardiomyocytes...
  69. pmc TLR2 mediates recognition of live Staphylococcus epidermidis and clearance of bacteremia
    Tobias Strunk
    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    PLoS ONE 5:e10111. 2010
    ..SE-derived soluble components engage TLR2; but additional signaling pathways have also been implicated, and TLR2 can play complex, at times detrimental, ..
  70. pmc TLR2 activation inhibits embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation
    Eitan Okun
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurochem 114:462-74. 2010
    ..To address the possibility that TLR2 heterodimer activation could affect progenitor cells in the developing brain, we analyzed the expression of TLR2 ..
  71. ncbi Mycobacterial infection in TLR2 and TLR6 knockout mice
    Isamu Sugawara
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Kiyose, Tokyo 204 0022, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 47:327-36. 2003
    To investigate the role of TLR in the development of murine tuberculosis in vivo, TLR2 and TLR6 knockout (KO) mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by placing them in the exposure chamber of an airborne infection apparatus...
  72. ncbi Potent inhibition of macrophage responses to IFN-gamma by live virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is independent of mature mycobacterial lipoproteins but dependent on TLR2
    Niaz Banaiee
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Immunol 176:3019-27. 2006
    ..tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein inhibits induction of selected IFN-gamma-responsive genes through a TLR2-dependent pathway, whereas peptidoglycan inhibits responses to IFN-gamma by a TLR2-independent pathway...
  73. ncbi Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein inhibits IFN-gamma-induced chromatin remodeling of MHC2TA by TLR2 and MAPK signaling
    Meghan E Pennini
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Immunol 176:4323-30. 2006
    ..Mtb 19-kDa lipoprotein did not inhibit histone acetylation in TLR2(-/-) macrophages...
  74. ncbi Limited contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 to the host response to a fungal infectious pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans
    Kiwamu Nakamura
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 47:148-54. 2006
    ..Both TLR2 knockout (KO) and TLR4KO mice produced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-12p40 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ..
  75. ncbi Innate immune response to Francisella tularensis is mediated by TLR2 and caspase-1 activation
    Hanfen Li
    Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 80:766-73. 2006
    ..Using cells derived from TLR2-deficient mice and in vitro transfection assays, we demonstrated that this response was mediated by TLR2 and did ..
  76. ncbi Acylation determines the toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent positive versus TLR2-, mannose receptor-, and SIGNR1-independent negative regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by mycobacterial lipomannan
    Emilie Doz
    Orleans University and CNRS, Molecular Immunology and Embryology, UMR6218, 45071 Orleans, France
    J Biol Chem 282:26014-25. 2007
    ..BCG LM was shown both to induce macrophage activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages through a ..
  77. pmc Both TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the effective immune response in Staphylococcus aureus-induced experimental murine brain abscess
    Werner Stenzel
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, D 50931 Köln, Germany
    Am J Pathol 172:132-45. 2008
    ..Lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides are specifically recognized by TLR2 and TLR4, respectively...
  78. ncbi Lipoteichoic acid-induced lung inflammation depends on TLR2 and the concerted action of TLR4 and the platelet-activating factor receptor
    Sylvia Knapp
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 180:3478-84. 2008
    ..In vitro data indicate roles for TLR2, platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR), CD14, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) in cellular responsiveness to LTA, ..
  79. pmc Group A streptococcus activates type I interferon production and MyD88-dependent signaling without involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9
    Nina Gratz
    Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Biol Chem 283:19879-87. 2008
    ..the extracellular Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) does not require TLR2, a receptor implicated in sensing of Gram-positive bacteria, or TLR4 and TLR9...
  80. pmc PGLYRP-2 and Nod2 are both required for peptidoglycan-induced arthritis and local inflammation
    Sukumar Saha
    Indiana University School of Medicine Northwest, Gary, IN 46408, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:137-50. 2009
    ..Our results demonstrate that PGRPs, Nod2, and TLR4, representing three different types of pattern-recognition molecules, play interdependent in vivo roles in local inflammation...
  81. doi Chitin is a size-dependent regulator of macrophage TNF and IL-10 production
    Carla A Da Silva
    Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    J Immunol 182:3573-82. 2009
    ..The effects of intermediate-sized chitin were mediated by pathways that involve TLR2, dectin-1, and NF-kappaB...
  82. pmc Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in acute focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice
    Fang Hua
    Department of Surgery, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
    Brain Res 1262:100-8. 2009
    ..This study was to investigate the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in acute focal cerebral I/R injury...
  83. ncbi Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
    Int Immunol 13:933-40. 2001
    Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) trigger immune responses via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and their immunostimulatory properties are attributed to the presence of a lipoylated N-terminus...
  84. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells
    Haiying Liu
    Division of Immunology, Infection, and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7048-53. 2006
    ..Synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) Pam3Cys-SK4 is a TLR2 agonist that is capable of modulating T cell immune responses...
  85. ncbi Codominance of TLR2-dependent and TLR2-independent modulation of MHC class II in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in vivo
    Eleanor Z Kincaid
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Immunol 179:3187-95. 2007
    ..tuberculosis cell envelope, acting as agonists for TLR2, inhibit IFN-gamma induction of MHC class II. In addition, M...
  86. doi Innate immune responses in murine pleural mesothelial cells: Toll-like receptor-2 dependent induction of beta-defensin-2 by staphylococcal peptidoglycan
    Tajamul Hussain
    Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, HSC Room M452, College of Medicine, Univ of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L461-70. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that PMCs may contribute to host innate immune defense upon exposure to gram-positive bacteria or their products within the pleural space by upregulating TLR-2 and mBD-2 expression...
  87. pmc Phagosomal retention of Francisella tularensis results in TIRAP/Mal-independent TLR2 signaling
    Leah E Cole
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 87:275-81. 2010
    b>TLR2 plays a central role in the activation of innate immunity in response to Ft, the causative agent of tularemia...
  88. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates IFN-gamma synthesis through MyD88-dependent, TLR2- and TLR4-independent induction of IL-18 release
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 173:1477-82. 2004
    ..pneumoniae was mediated through TLR2-dependent pathways. In contrast, C...
  89. pmc Enhancement of macrophage stimulation by lipoteichoic acid and the costimulant hemoglobin is dependent on Toll-like receptors 2 and 4
    Kathleen H Cox
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 800 Madison Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
    Infect Immun 75:2638-41. 2007
    Macrophage stimulation by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and hemoglobin (Hb) requires Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and -4). There are two distinct temporal phases of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production...
  90. pmc Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung requires the recognition of either lipopolysaccharide or flagellin
    Reuben Ramphal
    Unité de Défense Innée et Inflammation, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Immunol 181:586-92. 2008
    ..We previously demonstrated that TLR2,4-/- mice were not hypersusceptible to infection by a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain...
  91. doi Endogenous ligands for TLR2 and TLR4 are not involved in renal injury following ureteric obstruction
    Paramit Chowdhury
    Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, King s College London, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    Nephron Exp Nephrol 115:e122-30. 2010
    ..Those described for TLR2 and TLR4 include molecules released following tissue injury including heat shock proteins and matrix proteins...
  92. ncbi Cutting edge: TLR2-deficient and MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus infection
    O Takeuchi
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Osaka, Japan
    J Immunol 165:5392-6. 2000
    ..We previously showed that TLR2 recognizes Gram-positive bacterial components whereas TLR4 recognizes LPS, a component of Gram-negative bacteria...
  93. ncbi Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide activates cells through a TLR2-dependent mechanism
    C Werts
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nat Immunol 2:346-52. 2001
    ..both these leptospiral outer membrane constituents activate macrophages through CD14 and the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
  94. pmc Hemagglutinin protein of wild-type measles virus activates toll-like receptor 2 signaling
    Karen Bieback
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, D 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Virol 76:8729-36. 2002
    ..We report that wild-type measles virus but not vaccine strains activate cells via both human and murine TLR2, and this is a property of the hemagglutinin (H) protein...
  95. pmc Yersinia V-antigen exploits toll-like receptor 2 and CD14 for interleukin 10-mediated immunosuppression
    Andreas Sing
    Max von Pettenkofer Institut fur Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Pettenkoferstrasse 9a, Germany
    J Exp Med 196:1017-24. 2002
    ..Here we report that recombinant LcrV signals in a CD14- and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent fashion leading to immunosuppression by interleukin 10 induction...
  96. ncbi Cooperation between toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in the brain of mice challenged with cell wall components derived from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
    Nathalie Laflamme
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, Quebec, Canada
    Eur J Immunol 33:1127-38. 2003
    In this study we investigated whether induction of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) amplifies the effect of a cell wall component derived from gram-positive bacteria, namely peptidoglycan (PGN)...
  97. ncbi Candida albicans phospholipomannan is sensed through toll-like receptors
    Thierry Jouault
    Laboratoire de Mycologie Fondamentale et Appliquée, Inserm EMI0360, Universite de Lille II, Lille, France
    J Infect Dis 188:165-72. 2003
    ..Deletion of the TLR2 gene completely abolished the cell response. Surface expression of PLM is a phylogenic trait of C...
  98. pmc Toll-like receptor 2-deficient mice succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Michael B Drennan
    Department of Immunology, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Pathol 164:49-57. 2004
    ..tuberculosis infection. After aerosol infection with either 100 or 500 live mycobacteria, TLR2-deficient mice display reduced bacterial clearance, a defective granulomatous response, and develop chronic ..
  99. ncbi Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines and host resistance to acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice lacking functional myeloid differentiation factor 88
    Marco A Campos
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, and School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    J Immunol 172:1711-8. 2004
    ..Here, we evaluated the impact of TLR2 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) deficiencies in host resistance to infection with T. cruzi...
  100. ncbi Saturated fatty acid activates but polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 dimerized with Toll-like receptor 6 or 1
    Joo Y Lee
    Western Human Nutrition Research Center, The Agricultural Research Service United States Department of Agriculture, and Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:16971-9. 2004
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 agonists from bacterial origin require acylated saturated fatty acids in their molecules...
  101. ncbi Expression of functional TLR4 confers proinflammatory responsiveness to Trypanosoma cruzi glycoinositolphospholipids and higher resistance to infection with T. cruzi
    Ana Carolina Oliveira
    Instituto de Microbiologia Prof Paulo de Goes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Immunol 173:5688-96. 2004
    ..In contrast, in TLR2 knockout mice, neutrophil chemoattraction did not differ significantly from that seen in wild-type controls...

Research Grants43

  1. Macrophage defense againt M. tuberculosis
    Jennifer Wang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Role of cockroach proteases in airway inflammation
    Kristen Page; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, we will investigate the role of endogenous TNF alpha in the airways using a TNF alpha neutralizing antibody and TNF alpha knockout mice. ..
  3. Innate immune responses in lymphatic filariasis
    AMY HISE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Heat Shock Proteins and Helicobacter Pylori Pathogenesis
    Evelyn Kurt Jones; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Specifically, we will use in vitro and in vivo approaches to investigate the role of heat shock proteins in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis and development of tumors. ..
  5. Forward Genetic Analysis of the Innate Immune Contribution to MCMV Resistance
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. KERATINOCYTE GALVANOTAXIS AND WOUND HEALING
    Rivkah Isseroff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Immunological Basis for H. Pylori-Related Malignancies
    Marygorret Obonyo; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Under this award, the candidate will be able to develop this work into a productive project that will gain independent funding. ..
  8. Mutagenic analysis of LPS responses
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the case of mutations that abolish LPS tolerance, we will attempt to determine the net impact on host resistance to infection. ..
  9. TLR4 as an LPS sendor and susceptibility locus
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The new mutations that are found--and those that have already been found in preliminary efforts--will be isolated by positional cloning. ..
  10. Cross-Priming Mechanisms Induced by Microbial Products
    Sandip Datta; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  11. P. gingivalis lipid A species modulation of endothelial cell gene activation prog
    Richard Darveau; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..gingivalis interactions with TLR4 or other novel LPS receptors. Furthermore, the microarray analysis results will be made public by deposition at the European Bioinformatics Institute Array Express database. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. MECHANISMS OF NOVEL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIONS OF SLPI
    Aihao Ding; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. FORMATION AND SURVIVAL OF RED BLOOD CELLS
    Ernest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Should these point mutations fail to alter gene transcription, a search will be made for other potential mutations in linkage disequilibrium with the known -5,-8 and -24 polymorphisms, by sequencing upstream through the promotor. ..
  14. Hepatitis C Virus, Alcohol and Host Defense
    Gyongyi Szabo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Based on our preliminary results, we propose that the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), mediates cellular activation by HCV core and NS3 proteins...
  15. Investigation of Nod2: Implications for Uveitis
    Holly Rosenzweig; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Together, these studies will provide valuable new information on how Nod2 is involved in autoimmunity and the pathogeneis of uveitis. ..
  16. Toll Receptors in Atherosclerosis
    Linda Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We discovered that TLR2-mediated inflammation influences disease progression in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice...
  17. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I
    Linda Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We propose that core lipid reduction by triglyceride hydrolysis and remodeling by PLTP and CETP release lipid-poor apoAI from HDL to facilitate efflux from Mphi foam cells within atherosclerotic lesions. ..
  18. Ethanols role in mediation of monocyte suppression
    Gyongyi Szabo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Investigation of the modulation of IL-10 and IL-12 by alcohol in dendritic cell function may identify biomarkers of alcohol-induced immune depression and reveal potential targets for therapy. ..
  19. B1B lymphocytes generate T cell-independent memory
    KISHORE ALUGUPALLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the basis for the longevity of the Tl protective responses conferred by B1b cells will provide novel approaches to generate effective vaccines against pathogens expressing Tl antigens. ..
  20. Mycoplasma Superantigen & RA MHC Susceptibility Alleles
    BARRY COLE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..arthritidis in these "humanized" mice and determine strategies to overcome the effect of the superantigen MAM in initiating disease pathogenesis by modification of the cytokine milieu. ..
  21. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF CHLAMYDIAL VIRULENCE
    CATHERINE O CONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, we anticipate identifying at least one MoPn gene that contributes to the virulence of this strain. ..
  22. Pharmacology of 4F Cytochrome P450's (Supplement)
    ROY SOBERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Luciferase reporter constructs, DNase I footprinting, EMSA, and mutagenesis will identify promoter elements determining the expression of CYP4F3 in hematopoetic and liver cells. ..
  23. Competition Among Bacterial Resiratory Pathogens
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Future strategies to decrease disease burden by reducing carriage could result from a greater understanding of interactions between species. ..
  24. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY INDUCED BY FUSION CELLS VACCINATION
    Jianlin Gong; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..3). To assess the effectiveness of fusion cell vaccines in the prevention and treatment of spontaneous breast carcinoma in transgenic mice. ..
  25. Interaction of HSV-1 LAT Gene & Dendritic Cells Function
    Lbachir BenMohamed; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..a)Determine if LAT modulates cytokine and chemokine secretion by DC and chemokine-receptor expression on DC, all of which are involved in migratory activity of DC. (b)Determine if LAT changes the observed migratory activity of DC. ..
  26. Studies on Macrophage Resistance to Anthrax Lethal Toxin
    Molly Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Successful completion of these studies will yield a fundamental understanding of mechanisms of macrophage resistance to LT. ..
  27. HOST DEFENSE AGAINST INTRACELLULAR INFECTION OF THE LUNG
    Shawn Skerrett; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This aim will test the hypothesis that bacterial dot/icm genes direct macrophage uptake of L. pneumophila by a pathway that results in diminished cellular activation in comparison bacteria deficient in these loci. ..
  28. LBP/CD14 interactions with bacterial components
    Richard Darveau; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will provide further insight into how the innate host defense system recognizes and responds to different bacteria, a key component of both oral health and disease. ..
  29. A Mouse Model of Gaucher Disease
    Ernest Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In particular, electron microscopy and light microscopy will be used to attempt to demonstrate the development of Gaucher cells in the chimeric mice. ..
  30. HOST IMMUNOREGULATION OF ANTILEISHMANIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..And Aim 3: Characterize immunostimulation in AmB's efficacy, and in recrudescent infection following AmB therapy, pinpoint the likely cytokine-driven T cell mechanism which prevents post-treatment relapse. ..
  31. Mechanisms of Alcohol Mediated Organ and Tissue Damage
    Gyongyi Szabo; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..3. Increase the involvement of young investigators in the study of alcohol research. 4. Provide an educational forum to participants. ..
  32. ASM Conf. on Beneficial Microbial Symbionts in Animals
    Richard Darveau; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is an intellectually stimulating subject that attracts pioneering graduate students and post-doctoral fellows who will benefit from participation in a focused and dynamic conference; ..
  33. Atherosclerosis in Beige(Lyst) Mutant
    Linda Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The power of comparing LDLr- /-bg with LDLr-/- mice will allow us to focus on those cellular activities that are physiologically relevant and participate in vivo in a very complex and still poorly understood disease process. ..
  34. Genes that Mediate Tolerance to the Placental Allograft
    Bruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Fourth, circumvention of the toleragenic mechanism might be used to prevent normal gestation, leading to termination of pregnancy within a few days following implantation of the blastocyst. ..
  35. Host Immunoregulation of Response to Antileishmanial Chemotherapy
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Functional role of Angiopoietin-2 in diabetic heart
    Jian xiong Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Toll-like Receptors and the Innate Immune Response
    THOMAS HAWN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The aims of this proposal are to examine the effects of TLR2 in MTh and Leishmania major mouse infection models and to characterize TLR-dependent inflammatory signaling ..
  38. BACTERIAL PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE AND PATHOGENESIS
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 3 will determine the effects of the immune response to ChoP on colonization, where our findings demonstrate that expression of ChoP is most important to pathogenesis. ..
  39. TLR5 and Pulmonary Innate Immunity
    THOMAS HAWN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The immunogenetic models derived from these studies will illuminate the molecular basis of why individuals have different susceptibility to flagellated bacterial infections and hopefully culminate in novel insights for future therapies. ..
  40. Oral Commensal Bacterial Modulation of the Periodontal Innate Host Response
    RICHARD PETERS DARVEAU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..n Specific Aim 3 changes in gingival epithelial cell TLR2 and TLR4 expression levels that may alter commensal homeostasis with the host will be determined...
  41. Identification of E. histolytica virulence factors
    Molly Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Successful completion of these studies will yield a fundamental understanding of amebic proteins that interact with the E. histolytica GalNAc lectin and their role in pathogenicity. ..
  42. MYCOPLASMA SUPERANTIGEN MAM IN DISEASE AND AUTOIMMUNITY
    Hong Hua Mu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Specifically the investigator shall define the role played by SAg-induced cytokines and protection against disease using the MAM vaccines described earlier. ..