Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Stat1
Description: signal transducer and activator of transcription 1
Alias: 2010005J02Rik, AA408197, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1
Publications171 found, 100 shown here
- Targeted disruption of the Stat1 gene in mice reveals unexpected physiologic specificity in the JAK-STAT signaling pathwayM A Meraz
Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Cell 84:431-42. 1996..Here we report the generation and characterization of mice deficient in STAT1. STAT1-deficient mice show no overt developmental abnormalities, but display a complete lack of responsiveness to ..
- Phosphorylation of the Stat1 transactivation domain is required for full-fledged IFN-gamma-dependent innate immunityLouisa Varinou
Max F Perutz Laboratories, University Departments at the Vienna Biocenter, Department of Microbiology and Genetics, University of Vienna, Dr Bohr Gasse 9 4, A1030 Vienna, Austria
Immunity 19:793-802. 2003b>Stat1 is phosphorylated on serine 727 within its transactivating domain (TAD) in response to interferons or other immunological signals. We generated gene-targeted mutant mice expressing a serine727-alanine mutant of Stat1...
- Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineagesLaurie E Harrington
Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
Nat Immunol 6:1123-32. 2005..IL-23 induced naive precursor cells to differentiate into T(H)-17 cells independently of the transcription factors STAT1, T-bet, STAT4 and STAT6...
- Gr-1+CD115+ immature myeloid suppressor cells mediate the development of tumor-induced T regulatory cells and T-cell anergy in tumor-bearing hostBo Huang
Departments of Gene and Cell Medicine and General Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
Cancer Res 66:1123-31. 2006..Our data provide evidence that Gr-1(+)CD115(+) MSC can mediate the development of Treg in tumor-bearing mice and show a novel immune suppressive mechanism by which MSCs can suppress antitumor responses...
- Pathogenesis and immune response of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a STAT-1 knockout mouse modelDennis A Bente
Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada
J Virol 84:11089-100. 2010..This new mouse model exhibits key features of fatal human CCHF, proves useful for the testing of therapeutic strategies, and can be used to study virus attenuation...
- Type I interferon inhibits interleukin-1 production and inflammasome activationGreta Guarda
Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
Immunity 34:213-23. 2011..Type I IFN signaling, via the STAT1 transcription factor, repressed the activity of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes, thereby suppressing caspase-1-..
- A novel role for STAT1 in regulating murine erythropoiesis: deletion of STAT1 results in overall reduction of erythroid progenitors and alters their distributionAdrienne Halupa
Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Blood 105:552-61. 2005..EPO activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT3, and STAT5a/b transcription factors in erythroid cell lines...
- Cytokine-induced hepatic apoptosis is dependent on FGL2/fibroleukin: the role of Sp1/Sp3 and STAT1/PU.1 composite cis elementsMingfeng Liu
Multi Organ Transplant Program, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
J Immunol 176:7028-38. 2006..The induction of fgl2 by IFN-gamma in macrophages involved a STAT1-dependent pathway, involving the composite cis elements Sp1/Sp3 and GAS/PU.1...
- IFN-beta increases listeriolysin O-induced membrane permeabilization and death of macrophagesHeather Zwaferink
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Vienna Biocenter, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
J Immunol 180:4116-23. 2008..This activity of IFN-beta required Stat1. Perturbation of the plasma membrane by LLO resulted in activation of the p38MAPK pathway...
- The role of antigenic peptide in CD4+ T helper phenotype development in a T cell receptor transgenic modelToshiki Tamura
Division of Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan
Int Immunol 16:1691-9. 2004..Furthermore, naive CD4+ T cells from STAT1 deficient P25 TCR-Tg also differentiate into Th1 cells upon Peptide-25 stimulation...
- Distinct requirements for IFNs and STAT1 in NK cell functionC K Lee
Department of Pathology, Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, NY 10016, USA
J Immunol 165:3571-7. 2000NK cell functions were examined in mice with a targeted mutation of the STAT1 gene, an essential mediator of IFN signaling...
- Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-alpha beta, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infectionKhuong B Nguyen
Deparment of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
J Immunol 169:4279-87. 2002..IL-12/STAT4 was critical for NK cell IFN-gamma expression, whereas IFN-alphabeta/STAT1 were required for induction of cytotoxicity...
- Aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates Stat1 activation and participates in the development of Th17 cellsAkihiro Kimura
Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Osaka University Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, 1 3, Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:9721-6. 2008..We were able to demonstrate that Ahr interacts with Stat1 and Stat5, which negatively regulate Th17 development...
- Macrophage-specific up-regulation of apolipoprotein E gene expression by STAT1 is achieved via long range genomic interactionsVioleta Georgeta Trusca
Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology, Nicolae Simionescu, Romanian Academy, Bucharest 050568, Romania
J Biol Chem 286:13891-904. 2011..12-myristate 13-acetate-induced differentiation of macrophages is accompanied by a robust induction of apoE and STAT1 expression. In macrophages (but not in hepatocytes), STAT1 up-regulated apoE gene expression via ME.2...
- Generation of mice with a conditional Stat1 null alleleBarbara Wallner
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinarplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria
Transgenic Res 21:217-24. 2012..Signaling upon stimulation by IFN type I, II and III is mediated by the Jak-Stat pathway. STAT1 is activated by all three IFN receptor complexes and absence of STAT1 from mice increases their susceptibility to ..
- Absence of Stat1 in donor CD4⁺ T cells promotes the expansion of Tregs and reduces graft-versus-host disease in miceHuihui Ma
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, Hematologic Malignancies Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 1863, USA
J Clin Invest 121:2554-69. 2011b>STAT1 is the main signal transducer for type I and II IFNs and plays a central role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses...
- The carboxyl-terminal activation domain of the STAT-1 transcription factor enhances ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytesAnastasis Stephanou
Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK
FASEB J 16:1841-3. 2002..These studies demonstrate that the C-terminal transactivation domain of STAT-1 is necessary and sufficient for I/R injury-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes...
- Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced antiviral transcription factor (STAT-1 and NF-kappa B) complexes by antibody-dependent enhancement of macrophage infection by Ross River virusSurendran Mahalingam
Division of Molecular Biosciences, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13819-24. 2002..This evidence demonstrates that RRV can potently disrupt the activation of specific antiviral pathways via ADE infection pathways, and may suggest a significant mechanism in the infection and pathogenesis of other ADE viruses...
- Regulation of IFN-gamma production by B effector 1 cells: essential roles for T-bet and the IFN-gamma receptorDavid P Harris
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
J Immunol 174:6781-90. 2005..although T-bet up-regulation in developing B effector 1 (Be1) cells is controlled by IFN-gammaR-mediated signals, STAT1-deficient B cells up-regulate T-bet and produce IFN-gamma, indicating that additional transcriptional activators ..
- Interferon-sensitive response element (ISRE) is mainly responsible for IFN-alpha-induced upregulation of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in macrophagesHae Yun Cho
Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614 735, Republic of Korea
Biochim Biophys Acta 1779:811-9. 2008..assay and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that interferon-sensitive responsive element (ISRE) and STAT1 and STAT2 are primarily responsible for the constitutive expression of PD-1, as well as for the IFN-alpha-mediated ..
- IFN-beta inhibits dendritic cell migration through STAT-1-mediated transcriptional suppression of CCR7 and matrix metalloproteinase 9Jui Hung Yen
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
J Immunol 184:3478-86. 2010..The suppression of mature DC migration through negative regulation of CCR7 and MMP-9 expression represents a novel mechanism for the therapeutic effect of IFN-beta...
- STAT1 affects lymphocyte survival and proliferation partially independent of its role downstream of IFN-gammaC K Lee
Department of Pathology, Kaplan Cancer Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
J Immunol 164:1286-92. 2000Lymphocytes derived from mice deficient in STAT1 showed reduced apoptosis and enhanced proliferation in vitro...
- FGF signaling inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and regulates bone development through the STAT-1 pathwayM Sahni
Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
Genes Dev 13:1361-6. 1999..We propose that STAT-1 mediated down regulation of chondrocyte proliferation by FGF signaling is an homeostatic mechanism which ensures harmonious bone development and morphogenesis...
- Promotion of alpha/beta interferon induction during in vivo viral infection through alpha/beta interferon receptor/STAT1 system-dependent and -independent pathwaysLene Malmgaard
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
J Virol 76:4520-5. 2002..The studies presented here evaluated the requirements for functional IFN receptors and the IFN signaling molecule STAT1 in IFN-alpha/beta induction during infections of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)...
- Increased serine phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 by oncogenic Ras transfectionJi Hyun Song
Department of Biological Science and Institute for Basic Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
Mol Cells 13:322-6. 2002Interferon (IFN)-gamma induces the activation of a signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and regulates the growth response of diverse cell types...
- STAT1 signaling regulates tumor-associated macrophage-mediated T cell deletionSergei Kusmartsev
H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
J Immunol 174:4880-91. 2005..Using the analysis of STAT activity in combination with STAT knockout mice, we have determined that STAT1, but not STAT3 or STAT6, was responsible for TAM-suppressive activity.
- Gamma interferon suppresses erythropoiesis via interleukin-15Isis K Mullarky
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York, USA
Infect Immun 75:2630-3. 2007..These findings identified new therapeutic targets for anemia...
- Immune response in Stat2 knockout miceC Park
Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10021, USA
Immunity 13:795-804. 2000Type I IFNs induce gene expression through Stat1 and Stat2, which can in turn associate either to form Stat1 homodimers or the transcription factor ISGF-3. Stat1 homodimers also transduce signals for IFN-gamma...
- Production of type I IFN sensitizes macrophages to cell death induced by Listeria monocytogenesSilvia Stockinger
Vienna Biocenter and University of Vienna, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Austria
J Immunol 169:6522-9. 2002..Signaling through a pathway involving the type I IFN receptor and Stat1 sensitized macrophages to L...
- Dendritic cell maturation requires STAT1 and is under feedback regulation by suppressors of cytokine signalingSharon H Jackson
Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 172:2307-15. 2004..In contrast, STAT1 signaling is most robust in mDCs and is not inhibited by the up-regulated SOCS proteins, indicating that STAT1 and ..
- Modulation of STAT1 protein levels: a mechanism shaping CD8 T-cell responses in vivoM Pilar Gil
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Blood 107:987-93. 2006..The cytokines mediate profound antiproliferative effects. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-dependent signaling pathways are required for inhibition of proliferation, and viral ..
- Murine norovirus 1 infection is associated with histopathological changes in immunocompetent hosts, but clinical disease is prevented by STAT1-dependent interferon responsesShannon M Mumphrey
Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA
J Virol 81:3251-63. 2007..replicates and rapidly disseminates to various tissues in immunocompetent mice and that infection is restricted by STAT1-dependent interferon responses at the levels of viral replication and virus dissemination...
- STAT1 is essential for antimicrobial effector function but dispensable for gamma interferon production during Toxoplasma gondii infectionL Cristina Gavrilescu
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Infect Immun 72:1257-64. 2004..Intracellular signaling intermediate STAT1 mediates many effects of IFN-gamma and is implicated in activation of T-bet, a master regulator of Th1 ..
- 5' upstream sequences of MyD88, an IL-6 primary response gene in M1 cells: detection of functional IRF-1 and Stat factors binding sitesS Harroch
Department of Molecular Genetics and Virology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Nucleic Acids Res 23:3539-46. 1995..IRF1, an activator of transcription, is also induced to bind to this sequence at later times. A model of persistent activation of MyD88 gene through these two types of factors is proposed...
- Differential regulation of constitutive major histocompatibility complex class I expression in T and B lymphocytesC K Lee
Department of Pathology and Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
J Exp Med 190:1451-64. 1999..Surprisingly, an IFN-independent requirement for STAT1 was also found, specifically in T lymphocytes, where MHC class I expression was not fully accounted for by IFN ..
- Defective keratocyte apoptosis in response to epithelial injury in stat 1 null miceR R Mohan
The Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98195 6485, USA
Exp Eye Res 70:485-91. 2000....
- The identification and characterization of a STAT 1 binding site in the PPARgamma2 promoterJ C Hogan
Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, 508 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:484-92. 2001..These results and our previous work suggest that cytokine induced STAT 1 homodimers modulate the transcriptional repression of PPARgamma2 in adipocytes...
- Caspase-11 gene expression in response to lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma requires nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1Reinout Schauvliege
Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Unit of Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, Belgium
J Biol Chem 277:41624-30. 2002..In the case of interferon-gamma stimulation, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 binding to the caspase-11 promoter could be shown to be required for caspase-11 expression.
- A regulatory role for suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 in T(h) polarization in vivoMinoru Fujimoto
Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Int Immunol 14:1343-50. 2002..Crossing of SOCS-1(-/-) mice on an IFN-gamma(-/-), STAT1(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) background revealed that the fatal disease of SOCS-1(-/-) mice is also dependent on IFN-gamma/..
- STAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of antimicrobial effector mechanisms, but not in the development of Th1-type responses during toxoplasmosisLinda A Lieberman
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3800 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Immunol 172:457-63. 2004The production of IFN-gamma by T cells and the ability of this cytokine to activate the transcription factor STAT1 are implicated in the activation of antimicrobial mechanisms required for resistance to intracellular pathogens...
- IFN-gamma-induced SOCS-1 regulates STAT6-dependent eotaxin production triggered by IL-4 and TNF-alphaTakeshi Sato
Division of Immunoregulation, Section of Disease Control, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 314:468-75. 2004..its inhibitory effect on both STAT6-phosphorylation and eotaxin production in MEF obtained from deficient mice in STAT1, a key molecule of IFN-gamma signaling...
- STAT1 regulates lipopolysaccharide- and TNF-alpha-dependent expression of transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and low molecular mass polypeptide 2 genes in macrophages by distinct mechanismsLaura Marques
Macrophage Biology Group, Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona, Barcelona Science Park, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
J Immunol 173:1103-10. 2004..Our experiments using gel shift analysis and Abs indicated that STAT1 binds to the GAS box in nuclear extracts from LPS-treated macrophages...
- Re-examination of the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in the regulation of toll-like receptor signalingSebastien Gingras
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
J Biol Chem 279:54702-7. 2004..We conclude that previous reports linking SOCS1 to TLR signaling are most likely due to effects on IFN-alpha/beta receptor signaling...
- Role of tyrosine 441 of interferon-gamma receptor subunit 1 in SOCS-1-mediated attenuation of STAT1 activationYulan Qing
Department of Molecular Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
J Biol Chem 280:1849-53. 2005..Here we show that Tyr(441) is required to attenuate STAT1 activation in response to IFNgamma...
- Immune activation of type I IFNs by Listeria monocytogenes occurs independently of TLR4, TLR2, and receptor interacting protein 2 but involves TNFR-associated NF kappa B kinase-binding kinase 1Ryan M O'Connell
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, CA 90095, USA
J Immunol 174:1602-7. 2005..Additionally, we provide evidence that both the LM- and TLR-dependent pathways converge at TBK1 to activate type I IFNs, highlighting the central role of this molecule in modulating type I IFNs in host defense and disease...
- Disruption of the gamma-interferon signaling pathway at the level of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 prevents immune destruction of beta-cellsConny A Gysemans
LEGENDO, UZ Gasthuisberg O and N, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Diabetes 54:2396-403. 2005..05). In conclusion, the present results indicate that STAT-1 is a crucial transcription factor in the process of IFN-gamma-mediated beta-cell death and the subsequent development of immune-mediated diabetes...
- Susceptibility of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1-deficient mice to pulmonary fibrogenesisDianne M Walters
CIIT Centers for Health Research, P O Box 12137, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Am J Pathol 167:1221-9. 2005..We postulated that lung fibrosis characterized by excessive proliferation of lung fibroblasts would be enhanced in Stat1-deficient (Stat1-/-) mice...
- Hypoxic repression of STAT1 and its downstream genes by a pVHL/HIF-1 target DEC1/STRA13S V Ivanov
Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Oncogene 26:802-12. 2007..Here, we pursue STRA13 involvement in the JAK/STAT pathway by studying its role in STAT1 expression...
- Interleukin 27 limits autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing the development of interleukin 17-producing T cellsMarcel Batten
Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Nat Immunol 7:929-36. 2006..This suppressive activity was dependent on the transcription factor STAT1 and was independent of interferon-gamma. Finally, IL-27 suppressed IL-6-mediated T cell proliferation...
- Opposing actions of Stat1 and Stat6 on IL-13-induced up-regulation of early growth response-1 and platelet-derived growth factor ligands in pulmonary fibroblastsJennifer L Ingram
CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
J Immunol 177:4141-8. 2006..PDGF-A and PDGF-C mRNA levels through a dual intracellular cascade that requires coactivation of Stat6 and Stat1 to impact transcriptional regulation of the early growth response (Egr)-1 gene, which then drives PDGF expression...
- Distinct characteristics of murine STAT4 activation in response to IL-12 and IFN-alphaLisa S Berenson
Department of Pathology and Center for Immunology, Washington University of School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Immunol 177:5195-203. 2006..Furthermore, loss of STAT1 increases IFN-alpha-induced STAT4 phosphorylation, but does not generate levels of STAT4 activation or IFN-gamma ..
- Distinct modes of action applied by transcription factors STAT1 and IRF1 to initiate transcription of the IFN-gamma-inducible gbp2 geneKatrin Ramsauer
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Vienna, A1030 Vienna, Austria
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2849-54. 2007A subgroup of genes induced by IFN-gamma requires both STAT1 and IRF1 for transcriptional activation. Using WT, stat1(-/-), or irf1(-/-) cells, we analyzed the changes induced by IFN-gamma in gbp2 promoter chromatin...
- Instruction of naive CD4+ T-cell fate to T-bet expression and T helper 1 development: roles of T-cell receptor-mediated signalsHaruyuki Ariga
Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Immunology 122:210-21. 2007....
- High basal STAT4 balanced by STAT1 induction to control type 1 interferon effects in natural killer cellsTakuya Miyagi
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
J Exp Med 204:2383-96. 2007The best-characterized type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling pathway depends on signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2. The cytokines can, however, conditionally activate all STATs...
- Signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 is critical for apoptosis in macrophages subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress in vitro and in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in vivoWah Seng Lim
Department of Medicine, Columbia University, 630 W 168th St, New York, NY 10032, USA
Circulation 117:940-51. 2008....
- Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effMari Hamalainen
The Immunopharmacology Research Group, University of Tampere, Medical School and Tampere University Hospital, Research Unit, Tampere 33014, Finland
Mediators Inflamm 2007:45673. 2007..Genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein also inhibited the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1), another important transcription factor for iNOS...
- Bacterial endotoxin induces the release of high mobility group box 1 via the IFN-beta signaling pathwayJu Hyun Kim
Department of Pathology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
J Immunol 182:2458-66. 2009..Our results suggest that HMGB1 release in sepsis is dependent on the IFN-beta signaling axis; thus, therapeutic agents that selectively inhibit IFN-beta signaling could be beneficial in the treatment of sepsis...
- Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in T cells plays an indispensable role in immunity to Leishmania major by mediating Th1 cell homing to the site of infectionJoseph Barbi
Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
FASEB J 23:3990-9. 2009The signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling pathway mediates the biological functions of IFN-gamma...
- Estrogen regulates transcription factors STAT-1 and NF-kappaB to promote inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory responsesRujuan Dai
Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
J Immunol 183:6998-7005. 2009..Together, our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism of estrogen-mediated promotion of inflammatory responses, which involves posttranslational modification of STAT-1 and NF-kappaB proteins...
- Targeted disruption of the mouse Stat1 gene results in compromised innate immunity to viral diseaseJ E Durbin
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA
Cell 84:443-50. 1996The STAT1 transcription factor is activated in response to many cytokines and growth factors. To study the requirement for STAT1 in vivo, we disrupted the Stat1 gene in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in mice...
- Preassociation of STAT1 with STAT2 and STAT3 in separate signalling complexes prior to cytokine stimulationL F Stancato
Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA
J Biol Chem 271:4134-7. 1996..unstimulated HeLa cells are ruptured in hypotonic buffer without salt or detergent, immunoadsorption of either STAT1 or STAT2 from the resulting cytosol yields coimmunoadsorption of the other STAT protein...
- STATs and gene regulationJ E Darnell
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 277:1630-5. 1997..The discovery of a STAT in Drosophila, and most recently in Dictyostelium discoideum, implies an ancient evolutionary origin for this dual-function set of proteins...
- Cutting edge: differentiation of antitumor CTL in vivo requires host expression of Stat1F Fallarino
Department of Pathology, Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology Oncology, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
J Immunol 163:4109-13. 1999..To this end, Stat1-deficient mice were employed as tumor recipients...
- Type I IFN modulates innate and specific antiviral immunityJ E Durbin
Departments of Pathology and Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cell Biology, and Pathology and Heidelberger Division of Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
J Immunol 164:4220-8. 2000..These results reveal an unexpected role for type I IFN in coordinating the host response to viral infection and controlling inflammation in the absence of a direct effect on virus replication...
- STAT family of transcription factors in cytokine-mediated biological responsesK Takeda
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, and CREST of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 11:199-207. 2000..Biological roles of each STAT family protein have now been elucidated through studies of gene targeted mice. Stat1 knockout mice are defective in interferon-mediated functions...
- Serine phosphorylation of STATsT Decker
Vienna Biocenter, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Dr Bohr Gasse 9, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
Oncogene 19:2628-37. 2000..The biochemical and biological consequences of STAT serine phosphorylation are discussed. Oncogene (2000)...
- Requirement for STAT1 in LPS-induced gene expression in macrophagesY Ohmori
Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA
J Leukoc Biol 69:598-604. 2001This study examines the role of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated gene expression both in vitro and in vivo...
- IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicityV Shankaran
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Nature 410:1107-11. 2001..However, this process also leads to the immunoselection of tumour cells that are more capable of surviving in an immunocompetent host, which explains the apparent paradox of tumour formation in immunologically intact individuals...
- SOCS-1/SSI-1-deficient NKT cells participate in severe hepatitis through dysregulated cross-talk inhibition of IFN-gamma and IL-4 signaling in vivoT Naka
Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka Graduate School of Medicine, Suita City, Osaka, Japan
Immunity 14:535-45. 2001..However, elimination of the STAT1 or STAT6 gene or deletion of NKT cells substantially prevented severe hepatitis in SOCS-1-deficient mice, while ..
- Biologic consequences of Stat1-independent IFN signalingM P Gil
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6680-5. 2001Although Stat1 is required for many IFN-dependent responses, recent work has shown that IFNgamma functions independently of Stat1 to affect the growth of tumor cells or immortalized fibroblasts...
- The role of IFN in respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesisJoan E Durbin
Children s Research Institute, Children s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
J Immunol 168:2944-52. 2002..we demonstrate a similar pattern of enhanced disease severity following primary RSV infection of IFN-nonresponsive STAT1(-/-) mice...
- Requirement of Ca2+ and CaMKII for Stat1 Ser-727 phosphorylation in response to IFN-gammaJayasree S Nair
Department of Pathology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:5971-6. 2002In response to IFN-gamma, the latent cytoplasmic protein signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (Stat1) becomes phosphorylated on Y701, dimerizes, and accumulates in the nucleus to activate transcription of IFN-gamma-..
- T-bet is a STAT1-induced regulator of IL-12R expression in naïve CD4+ T cellsMaryam Afkarian
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8118, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Nat Immunol 3:549-57. 2002..type 1 (T(H)1) cell development involves interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) signaling through signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling through STAT4 activation...
- Identification of a nuclear Stat1 protein tyrosine phosphataseJohanna ten Hoeve
Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
Mol Cell Biol 22:5662-8. 2002Upon interferon (IFN) stimulation, Stat1 becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and translocates into the nucleus, where it binds to DNA to activate transcription...
- The function of gamma interferon-inducible GTP-binding protein IGTP in host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii is Stat1 dependent and requires expression in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cellular compartmentsCarmen M Collazo
Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Infect Immun 70:6933-9. 2002..gondii-induced IGTP expression in vivo and IFN-gamma-driven synthesis of the protein in vitro are dependent on Stat1. Consistent with this observation, Stat1-deficient animals succumbed to T...
- STAT1-dependent innate immunity to a Norwalk-like virusStephanie M Karst
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Science 299:1575-8. 2003..Analysis of Murine Norovirus 1 infection revealed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-dependent innate immunity, but not T and B cell-dependent adaptive immunity, is essential ..
- Phosphorylation of the Stat1 transactivating domain is required for the response to type I interferonsAndreas Pilz
Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Vienna Biocenter, Vienna, Austria
EMBO Rep 4:368-73. 2003Stat1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) regulates transcription in response to the type I interferons IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, either in its dimerized form or as a subunit of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (..
- Central role for type I interferons and Tyk2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shockMarina Karaghiosoff
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Veterinary University of Vienna, A 1210 Vienna, Austria
Nat Immunol 4:471-7. 2003..IFN-beta-null but not STAT1-null mice were also resistant to high dose LPS treatment...
- Dysregulated Sonic hedgehog signaling and medulloblastoma consequent to IFN-alpha-stimulated STAT2-independent production of IFN-gamma in the brainJianping Wang
The Scripps Research Institute, SP315, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Clin Invest 112:535-43. 2003..signal via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway with activation of STAT1 and STAT2...
- STAT-1 interacts with p53 to enhance DNA damage-induced apoptosisPaul A Townsend
Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 279:5811-20. 2004..Therefore, in addition to negatively regulating Mdm2, STAT-1 also acts as a coactivator for p53. Hence STAT-1 is another member of a growing family of protein partners able to modulate the p53-activated apoptotic pathway...
- Local activation of STAT-1 and STAT-3 in the inflamed synovium during zymosan-induced arthritis: exacerbation of joint inflammation in STAT-1 gene-knockout miceAlfons S K de Hooge
University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Arthritis Rheum 50:2014-23. 2004..The present study was undertaken to investigate synovial STAT-1 and STAT-3 activation in an experimental animal model of arthritis...
- The role of Tyk2, Stat1 and Stat4 in LPS-induced endotoxin signalsKenjirou Kamezaki
First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Int Immunol 16:1173-9. 2004Mice lacking Tyk2, Stat1 or Stat4, which are members of the Jak-Stat signaling cascade, were resistant to LPS-induced endotoxin shock...
- Loss of T-bet, but not STAT1, prevents the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisEstelle Bettelli
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Exp Med 200:79-87. 2004..Here we compare the role of T-bet and STAT1 in the initiation and regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease initiated by Th1 ..
- Resolution of primary severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection requires Stat1Robert J Hogan
Department of Homeland Security, Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL, USA
J Virol 78:11416-21. 2004..Animals resistant to the effects of interferons by virtue of a deficiency in Stat1 demonstrated a markedly different course following intranasal inhalation of SARS CoV, one characterized by ..
- Interferon-gamma induced medulloblastoma in the developing cerebellumWensheng Lin
Jack Miller Center for Peripheral Neuropathy, Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
J Neurosci 24:10074-83. 2004..with increased expression of SHH, and SHH induction and tumorigenesis are dependent on signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)...
- STAT-1 facilitates the ATM activated checkpoint pathway following DNA damagePaul A Townsend
Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
J Cell Sci 118:1629-39. 2005..These results imply that STAT-1 plays a crucial role in the DNA-damage-response by regulating the expression of 53BP1 and MDC1, factors known to be important for mediating ATM-dependent checkpoint pathways...
- A positive autoregulatory loop of Jak-STAT signaling controls the onset of astrogliogenesisFei He
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA
Nat Neurosci 8:616-25. 2005..As such, activated STAT1/3 and STAT-mediated transcription are negligible at early, neurogenic stages, when neurogenic factors are highly ..
- Role for innate IFNs in determining respiratory syncytial virus immunopathologyTeresa R Johnson
Columbus Children s Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, 43205, USA
J Immunol 174:7234-41. 2005..Previously we had observed enhanced, eosinophilic lung pathology during primary infection of IFN-deficient STAT1(-/-) mice that are incapable of generating Th1 CD4(+) cells...
- Critical roles for both STAT1-dependent and STAT1-independent pathways in the control of primary dengue virus infection in miceSujan Shresta
Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
J Immunol 175:3946-54. 2005..In this study, using STAT1(-/-) mice bearing two different mutant stat1 alleles in the 129/Sv/Ev background, we demonstrate that IFNR-..
- Stat1-dependent synergistic activation of T-bet for IgG2a production during early stage of B cell activationWeifeng Xu
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Immunol 175:7419-24. 2005..Furthermore, we demonstrate that the synergistic activation of T-bet is dependent on Stat1 and that Stat1 is required for the IgG2a germline transcription and the production of IgG2a in response to the ..
- Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for functional activation of disulfide-containing constitutively active STAT mutantsForrester J Liddle
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Biochemistry 45:5599-605. 2006..Constitutively active forms of STAT1 and STAT3 (STAT1C and STAT3C) have been developed to determine the effects of STAT activation in isolation from ..
- Analysis of the MCMV resistome by ENU mutagenesisKarine Crozat
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Mamm Genome 17:398-406. 2006..Domino corresponds to a point mutation that alters the DNA binding domain of STAT1, leading to a defect of STAT1 activation...
- STAT1 acts as a tumor promoter for leukemia developmentBoris Kovacic
Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna MUW, Vienna A 1090, Austria
Cancer Cell 10:77-87. 2006The tumor suppressor STAT1 is considered a key regulator of the surveillance of developing tumors. Here, we describe an unexpected tumor-promoting role for STAT1 in leukemia...
- Dendritic-cell maturation alters intracellular signaling networks, enabling differential effects of IFN-alpha/beta on antigen cross-presentationRandy S Longman
Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
Blood 109:1113-22. 2007..Despite equivalent IFNAR expression, immature conventional DCs (cDCs) activate STAT1 in response to IFN-alpha/beta, whereas exposure of mature DCs to IFN-alpha/beta results in signaling via STAT4...
- IFN-stimulated gene 15 functions as a critical antiviral molecule against influenza, herpes, and Sindbis virusesDeborah J Lenschow
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1371-6. 2007..The demonstration of ISG15 as a novel antiviral molecule with activity against both RNA and DNA viruses provides a target for the development of therapies against important human pathogens...
- Suppression of autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system by interleukin 10 secreted by interleukin 27-stimulated T cellsDenise C Fitzgerald
Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
Nat Immunol 8:1372-9. 2007..Our data show that IL-27-induced production of IL-10 by effector T cells contributes to the immunomodulatory function of IL-27...
- Minimal role for STAT1 in interleukin-6 signaling and actions in the murine brainElisenda Sanz
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Glia 56:190-9. 2008..The binding of IL-6 to its receptor (IL6R) triggers gp130-mediated activation of STAT1 and STAT3 as well as SHP2 phosphatase and ERK1/2...
- Stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by beta interferon increases necrotic death of macrophages upon Listeria monocytogenes infectionHeather Zwaferink
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Vienna, Dr Bohr Gasse 9 4, A1030 Vienna, Austria
Infect Immun 76:1649-56. 2008..Based on morphology, the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, and a lack of dependence on caspase 1, we characterize the type of cell death occurring and show that infected macrophages die by interferon-upregulated necrosis...
- CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal diseaseSzu Ting Chen
Department and Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
Nature 453:672-6. 2008..as well as subcutaneous and vital-organ haemorrhaging, and reduce the mortality of DV infection by about 50% in STAT1-deficient mice...
- IFN-gamma and STAT1 arrest monocyte migration and modulate RAC/CDC42 pathwaysYang Hu
Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Immunol 180:8057-65. 2008..Inhibition was dependent on STAT1 and downstream genes, whereas STAT3 promoted migration...
- Recruitment of Stat1 to chromatin is required for interferon-induced serine phosphorylation of Stat1 transactivation domainIwona Sadzak
Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Dr Bohr Gasse 9, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8944-9. 2008The transcription factor Stat1 plays an essential role in responses to interferons (IFNs). Activation of Stat1 is achieved by phosphorylation on Y701 that is followed by nuclear accumulation...
- Structural correlates of rapid cortical plasticityMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2010..Such information is critical for explaining pathologies of cortical development, and for suggesting strategies for treatment. ..
- Cortical Plasticity: Inputs, Networks and BehaviorMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Early Immune Mechanisms of RSV PathogenesisALBERT SENFT; Fiscal Year: 2007..In the long term, these studies will improve our understanding of the immune regulation and the pathogenesis of RSV infection, and may lead to novel therapies for RSV-induced airway disease. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- ACTIVITY DEPENDENT MECHANISMS OF VISUAL DEVELOPMENTMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2002..Such approaches are crucial to understanding the complex cellular mechanisms that underlie the development and refinement of connections during pattern formation. ..
- Mutagenic analysis of LPS responsesBruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006..In the case of mutations that abolish LPS tolerance, we will attempt to determine the net impact on host resistance to infection. ..
- COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ASTHMA AND ALLERGY CLINICAL RESEARCHChristian Schindler; Fiscal Year: 2005..The Scientific Core will provide technical expertise and assistance in murine models of asthma and allergic immune responses. The Administrative Core will assist in organizing the Center?s activities. ..
- Novel genes underlying connectivity in the visual cortexMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Molecular and functional mechanisms underlying binocular visionMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2010..The planned experiments promise to elucidate the mechanisms by which Ten_m3 expression affects the development of binocular vision, and thus to provide a novel basis for the design of therapies for visual dysfunction. ..
- FLUORESCENCE-ACTIVATED CELL SORTERChristian Schindler; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- DYNAMIC INTEGRATION IN SOMATOSENSORY CORTEXMriganka Sur; Fiscal Year: 2004..Information from these experiments will be important for understanding the integration of multiple inputs in sensory cortex, and more generally for understanding cortical mechanisrns of object detection and discrimination. ..
- IFN-Is at the interface of Innate and Adapative ImmunityChristian W Schindler; Fiscal Year: 2010..Characterization of the ability of IFN-alpha to rapidly induce genes led to the identification of Stat1 and Stat2, the first two STAT transcription factors...
- Interleukin 12 in inflammatory neurological diseasesIain Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2007..Finally, the results from these studies could lay the conceptual foundations for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to ameliorate CNS diseases of immunoinflammatory origin in which IL-12 is implicated. ..
- KUPFFER CELLS AND CHEMICAL TOXICITYDebra Laskin; Fiscal Year: 2009..Mechanistic insights derived from these studies may suggest new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen. ..
- Therapeutic Strategies for Environmental Lung DiseasesJames Bonner; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Eicosanoid regulation of experimental Lyme arthritisCharles R Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010..This information will further our understanding of how inflammation is regulated and allow the design of more effective anti-inflammatory treatments. ..
- CNS Pathobiology of IFN-inducible non-ELR CXC ChemokinesIain Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2008..The results from our studies will fill in large gaps in our current knowledge and provide important new information as to the CNS pathobiology of the IFN-gamma-inducible non-ELR CXC chemokines. ..
- Recruitment of memory CD8+ T cells to the lung airwaysJACOB KOHLMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- DNA methylation in Neuronal and Glial DifferentiationGuoping Fan; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed study may provide fundamental insights into the role of DNA methylation in neural development as well as the disease mechanism underlying certain mental retardation disorders. ..
- TLR4 as an LPS sendor and susceptibility locusBruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2007..The new mutations that are found--and those that have already been found in preliminary efforts--will be isolated by positional cloning. ..
- A Novel Genetic Therapy for Herpes KeratitisJOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2006..An ex vivo model of HSV-1 reactivation in explanted mouse trigeminal ganglia is proposed as an efficient means for determining effective strategies for the delay or inhibition of reactivation. ..
- IMMUNOLOGICAL DISEASE MECHANISMSSankar Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2006..These accomplishments more than fulfill the promises made in our initial application to establish an NlAlD training program in immunology. In the next five years we expect to consolidate and expand on these gains. ..
- Forward Genetic Analysis of the Innate Immune Contribution to MCMV ResistanceBruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- IL-6 IN HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 OCULAR REACTIVATIONJOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2002..Novel and specific viral mutants will be constructed based on the results of HSV-DNA binding and transient expression assays. ..
- Innate immunity and experimental Lyme arthritisCharles Brown; Fiscal Year: 2007..As such these studies; may have important implications not only for Lyme disease, but for other inflammatory diseases as well. ..
- Genes that Mediate Tolerance to the Placental AllograftBruce Beutler; Fiscal Year: 2006..Fourth, circumvention of the toleragenic mechanism might be used to prevent normal gestation, leading to termination of pregnancy within a few days following implantation of the blastocyst. ..
- IL3,IL5, and GM-CSF Signaling and AsthmaChristian Schindler; Fiscal Year: 2004..Specifically we propose to: 1. Further characterize StIP1. 2. Functionally characterize the STAT four-bundle-helix. 3. Explore the role of Stat5 signal decay in primary leukocytes. ..
- IFN-ALPHA AND HIV GP120 IN NEUROAIDS STUDIESIain Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2004....