Sst

Summary

Gene Symbol: Sst
Description: somatostatin
Alias: SOM, SRIF, Smst, somatostatin, preprosomatostatin
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas
    Patrick Collombat
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 132:2969-80. 2005
  2. ncbi Stabilization of beta-catenin impacts pancreas growth
    Patrick W Heiser
    Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 133:2023-32. 2006
  3. ncbi Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells
    Catherine S Lee
    Department of Genetics and Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, CRB 560 Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Dev Biol 278:484-95. 2005
  4. pmc Genetic identification of a novel NeuroD1 function in the early differentiation of islet alpha, PP and epsilon cells
    CHRISTINA S CHAO
    University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Department, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Dev Biol 312:523-32. 2007
  5. pmc Islet-1 is required for the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the endocrine pancreas
    Aiping Du
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Diabetes 58:2059-69. 2009
  6. pmc Differential effects of BMP signaling on parvalbumin and somatostatin interneuron differentiation
    Abhishek Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Development 136:2633-42. 2009
  7. ncbi MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse
    Francis C Lynn
    Diabetes Center, Hormone Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143 0534, USA
    Diabetes 56:2938-45. 2007
  8. pmc Striatal alterations of secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin peptides in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson disease
    Anna Nilsson
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Medical Mass Spectrometry, Uppsala University, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:1094-104. 2009
  9. doi Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a novel pancreatic-islet cell adhesion molecule that mediates nerve-islet cell interactions
    Yu Ichiro Koma
    Division of Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Gastroenterology 134:1544-54. 2008
  10. ncbi Genetic analysis reveals that PAX6 is required for normal transcription of pancreatic hormone genes and islet development
    M Sander
    Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0534, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1662-73. 1997

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications132 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas
    Patrick Collombat
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 132:2969-80. 2005
    ..alpha- and beta-cells occurs in the endocrine pancreas, concomitantly with a virtually exclusive generation of somatostatin-producing cells...
  2. ncbi Stabilization of beta-catenin impacts pancreas growth
    Patrick W Heiser
    Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 133:2023-32. 2006
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a previously unappreciated temporal/spatial role for beta-catenin signaling in the regulation of pancreas organ growth...
  3. ncbi Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells
    Catherine S Lee
    Department of Genetics and Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 415 Curie Boulevard, CRB 560 Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Dev Biol 278:484-95. 2005
    ..By marker gene analysis, we show that the expression of the alpha-cell transcription factors Arx, Pax6, and Brn4 does not require Foxa2 in the transcriptional hierarchy governing alpha-cell differentiation...
  4. pmc Genetic identification of a novel NeuroD1 function in the early differentiation of islet alpha, PP and epsilon cells
    CHRISTINA S CHAO
    University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Department, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Dev Biol 312:523-32. 2007
    ..Furthermore, this study reveals a previously unappreciated early function of NeuroD1 in regulating the specification of alpha, PP and epsilon cells...
  5. pmc Islet-1 is required for the maturation, proliferation, and survival of the endocrine pancreas
    Aiping Du
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Diabetes 58:2059-69. 2009
    ....
  6. pmc Differential effects of BMP signaling on parvalbumin and somatostatin interneuron differentiation
    Abhishek Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Development 136:2633-42. 2009
    Several different populations of interneurons in the murine cortex, including somatostatin (SST)- or parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells, are born in the ventral ganglionic eminences during mid-gestation and then migrate tangentially to the ..
  7. ncbi MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse
    Francis C Lynn
    Diabetes Center, Hormone Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143 0534, USA
    Diabetes 56:2938-45. 2007
    ..We tested the hypothesis that microRNAs (miRNAs), which limit gene expression through posttranscriptional silencing, modulate the gene expression cascades involved in pancreas development...
  8. pmc Striatal alterations of secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin peptides in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson disease
    Anna Nilsson
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Medical Mass Spectrometry, Uppsala University, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Cell Proteomics 8:1094-104. 2009
    ..Several of these peptides originated from the same precursor such as secretogranin-1, somatostatin, prodynorphin, and cholecystokinin...
  9. doi Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a novel pancreatic-islet cell adhesion molecule that mediates nerve-islet cell interactions
    Yu Ichiro Koma
    Division of Pathology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Gastroenterology 134:1544-54. 2008
    ..An immunohistochemical screen showed that CADM1 is expressed in pancreatic islets. Here, we determined the cell types expressing CADM1 and examined its role in nerve-islet cell interactions...
  10. ncbi Genetic analysis reveals that PAX6 is required for normal transcription of pancreatic hormone genes and islet development
    M Sander
    Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0534, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1662-73. 1997
    ..Biochemical studies identify wild-type PAX6 protein as the transcription factor that binds to a common element in the glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin promoters, and show that PAX6 transactivates the glucagon and insulin promoters.
  11. ncbi The murine Otp homeobox gene plays an essential role in the specification of neuronal cell lineages in the developing hypothalamus
    W Wang
    Brookdale Center for Developmental and Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029 6574, USA
    Dev Biol 227:432-49. 2000
    ..The Otp null hypothalamus fails to secrete neuropeptides somatostatin, arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in an ..
  12. ncbi Sim2 contributes to neuroendocrine hormone gene expression in the anterior hypothalamus
    Eleni Goshu
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 18:1251-62. 2004
    ..PVN and supraoptic nuclei contain five major cell types: oxytocin-, vasopressin-, CRH-, somatostatin-, and TRH-secreting neurons...
  13. ncbi Structure, chromosomal locus, and promoter analysis of the gene encoding the mouse helix-loop-helix factor HES-1. Negative autoregulation through the multiple N box elements
    K Takebayashi
    Institute for Immunology, Kyoto University Faculty of Medicine, Japan
    J Biol Chem 269:5150-6. 1994
    ..Furthermore, when the N box sequences are disrupted, this negative regulation is severely impaired. These results raise the possibility that HES-1 gene expression may be negatively autoregulated through the N box sequences...
  14. ncbi Laminin-1 promotes differentiation of fetal mouse pancreatic beta-cells
    F X Jiang
    Autoimmunity and Transplantation Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Diabetes 48:722-30. 1999
    ..by 60-fold without an increase in the total cell number; glucagon-positive cell number was unchanged, and somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide-positive cells were not detected...
  15. pmc Somatostatin is required for masculinization of growth hormone-regulated hepatic gene expression but not of somatic growth
    M J Low
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Clin Invest 107:1571-80. 2001
    ..Because periventricular hypothalamic somatostatin (SST) expression is greater in males than in females, we generated knockout (Smst(-/-)) mice to investigate ..
  16. ncbi Coordinated regulation of gene expression by Brn3a in developing sensory ganglia
    S Raisa Eng
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, and the VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
    Development 131:3859-70. 2004
    ....
  17. ncbi The effect of neurogenin3 deficiency on pancreatic gene expression in embryonic mice
    Andreas Petri
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Novo Nordisk A S, DK 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark
    J Mol Endocrinol 37:301-16. 2006
    ..Co-labelling established that Irx1 and Irx2 mRNA is located to glucagon-, but not insulin- or somatostatin-producing cells in mice and chicken...
  18. doi Expression of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse amygdalar complex
    Maria Angeles Real
    Department of Cell Biology, Genetics and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 513:335-48. 2009
    Recent developmental studies indicate that distinct neuronal subpopulations in the amygdala, including somatostatin (SOM)-containing neurons, originate from progenitor domains in the anterior entopeduncular area, thus suggesting a ..
  19. ncbi Embryogenesis of the murine endocrine pancreas; early expression of pancreatic polypeptide gene
    P L Herrera
    Institute of Histology and Embryology, University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland
    Development 113:1257-65. 1991
    ..Insulin-containing cells appear in dorsal buds at E 11.5, and one to two days later in ventral buds. Somatostatin-containing cells are detectable from E 13.5 in both dorsal and ventral buds...
  20. ncbi Developmental biology of the pancreas
    J M Slack
    Department of Zoology, Oxford University, UK
    Development 121:1569-80. 1995
    ....
  21. pmc IPF1, a homeodomain-containing transactivator of the insulin gene
    H Ohlsson
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umea, Sweden
    EMBO J 12:4251-9. 1993
    ..The pattern of IPF1 expression and its ability to stimulate insulin gene transcription suggest that IPF1 functions both in the regionalization of the primitive gut endoderm and in the maturation of the pancreatic beta-cell...
  22. ncbi Expression of peptide YY in all four islet cell types in the developing mouse pancreas suggests a common peptide YY-producing progenitor
    B H Upchurch
    Division of Gastroenterology, New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, MA
    Development 120:245-52. 1994
    The islets of Langerhans contain four distinct endocrine cell types producing the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide...
  23. ncbi The Pax4 gene is essential for differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells in the mammalian pancreas
    B Sosa-Pineda
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 386:399-402. 1997
    ..four endocrine cell types found in the adult pancreas-(alpha, beta, delta and PP-synthesize glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively...
  24. ncbi Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells
    L Sussel
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 125:2213-21. 1998
    ..1. We propose that Nkx2.2 is required for the final differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, and in its absence, beta cells are trapped in an incompletely differentiated state...
  25. pmc The bHLH protein PTF1-p48 is essential for the formation of the exocrine and the correct spatial organization of the endocrine pancreas
    A Krapp
    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Genes Dev 12:3752-63. 1998
    ....
  26. ncbi Selective agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in mice lacking homeobox gene Hlxb9
    H Li
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umea, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Nat Genet 23:67-70. 1999
    ..Thus, dorsally Hlxb9 is required for specifying the gut epithelium to a pancreatic fate and ventrally for ensuring proper endocrine cell differentiation...
  27. ncbi Pancreas dorsal lobe agenesis and abnormal islets of Langerhans in Hlxb9-deficient mice
    K A Harrison
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Genet 23:71-5. 1999
    ..Hlxb9-/- beta-cells express low levels of the glucose transporter Glut2 and homeodomain factor Nkx 6-1. Thus, Hlxb9 is key to normal pancreas development and function...
  28. pmc Progressive impairment of developing neuroendocrine cell lineages in the hypothalamus of mice lacking the Orthopedia gene
    D Acampora
    International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, Consiglio Nationale delle Ricerche CNR, 80125 Naples, Italy
    Genes Dev 13:2787-800. 1999
    ....
  29. pmc neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas
    G Gradwohl
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Louis Pasteur, F 67404 Illkirch, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1607-11. 2000
    ..Thus, ngn3 is required for the specification of a common precursor for the four pancreatic endocrine cell types...
  30. ncbi Persistent expression of HNF6 in islet endocrine cells causes disrupted islet architecture and loss of beta cell function
    M Gannon
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2175, USA
    Development 127:2883-95. 2000
    ....
  31. ncbi Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas
    M Sander
    Hormone Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0534, USA
    Development 127:5533-40. 2000
    ..Together, these experiments reveal two independently controlled pathways for beta-cell differentiation, and place Nkx6.1 downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell differentiation...
  32. ncbi Distinct cortical migrations from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences
    S A Anderson
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Development 128:353-63. 2001
    ..In addition, by comparing the phenotypes of mouse mutants with differential effects on MGE and LGE migration, we provide evidence that the MGE and LGE may give rise to different subtypes of cortical interneurons...
  33. ncbi Cell migration from the ganglionic eminences is required for the development of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons
    S J Pleasure
    Neurodevelopmental Disorders Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 28:727-40. 2000
    ..Loss of hippocampal interneurons does not appear to have major effects on the early development of hippocampal projection neurons nor on the pathfinding of afferrent tracts...
  34. ncbi Impairment in motor learning of somatostatin null mutant mice
    T Zeyda
    Unit on Molecular Genetics, Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Res 906:107-14. 2001
    b>Somatostatin was first identified as a hypothalamic factor which inhibits the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary (somatotropin release inhibitory factor, SRIF)...
  35. ncbi Stage-specific control of neuronal migration by somatostatin
    Elina Yacubova
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA
    Nature 415:77-81. 2002
    Developing neurons transiently express somatostatin and its receptors, but little is known about their function at these early stages...
  36. pmc Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium
    Marjorie Jenny
    INSERM U381, 3 avenue Moliere, 67200, Strasbourg, France
    EMBO J 21:6338-47. 2002
    ..In contrast, in the glandular stomach, the differentiation of the gastrin- (G cells) and somatostatin (D cells)-secreting cells is impaired whereas serotonin- (enterochromaffin EC cells), histamine- (..
  37. ncbi Characterisation of [125I]-Tyr0DTrp8-somatostatin binding in sst1- to sst4- and SRIF-gene-invalidated mouse brain
    Catherine Videau
    U 549 INSERM IFR Broca Sainte Anne, 2 ter rue d Alesia, 75014 Paris, France
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 367:562-71. 2003
    Five somatostatin receptors (sst) have been cloned and mRNAs for the first four (sst1-4) are expressed in many brain regions...
  38. ncbi CXCR4 regulates interneuron migration in the developing neocortex
    Ralf K Stumm
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Otto von Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 23:5123-30. 2003
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that SDF-1, which is highly expressed in the embryonic leptomeninx, selectively regulates migration and layer-specific integration of CXCR4-expressing interneurons during neocortical development...
  39. pmc Opposing actions of Arx and Pax4 in endocrine pancreas development
    Patrick Collombat
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Genes Dev 17:2591-603. 2003
    ..We propose that the antagonistic functions of Arx and Pax4 for proper islet cell specification are related to the pancreatic levels of the respective transcripts...
  40. pmc Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development
    Catherine L Prado
    Department of Pediatrics, Barbara Davis Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2924-9. 2004
    ..2 and Pax4 are required to specify or maintain differentiation of the beta cell fate. This finding also suggests that there is a genetic component underlying the balance between insulin and ghrelin in regulating glucose metabolism...
  41. ncbi Mice lacking Dlx1 show subtype-specific loss of interneurons, reduced inhibition and epilepsy
    Inma Cobos
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1059-68. 2005
    ..This reduction preferentially affects calretinin(+) (bipolar cells) and somatostatin(+) subtypes (for example, bitufted cells), whereas parvalbumin(+) subpopulations (basket cells and chandelier ..
  42. ncbi Sonic hedgehog maintains the identity of cortical interneuron progenitors in the ventral telencephalon
    Qing Xu
    Department of Psychiatry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 132:4987-98. 2005
    ..cortex at postnatal day 12, in which there is a dramatic reduction in cell profiles that express somatostatin or parvalbumin...
  43. pmc Targeted deletion of a cis-regulatory region reveals differential gene dosage requirements for Pdx1 in foregut organ differentiation and pancreas formation
    Yoshio Fujitani
    Vanderbilt Program in Developmental Biology and Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2175, USA
    Genes Dev 20:253-66. 2006
    ....
  44. ncbi MafB: an activator of the glucagon gene expressed in developing islet alpha- and beta-cells
    Isabella Artner
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Diabetes 55:297-304. 2006
    ..These results indicate that MafB is not only important to islet alpha-cell function but may also be involved in regulating genes required in both endocrine alpha- and beta-cell differentiation...
  45. ncbi Compensatory changes in the hippocampus of somatostatin knockout mice: upregulation of somatostatin receptor 2 and its function in the control of bursting activity and synaptic transmission
    Maurizio Cammalleri
    Department of Physiology and Biochemistry G Moruzzi, University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 23:2404-22. 2006
    b>Somatostatin-14 (SRIF) co-localizes with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the hippocampus and regulates neuronal excitability...
  46. ncbi Cellular patterns of transcription factor expression in developing cortical interneurons
    Inma Cobos
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 2611, USA
    Cereb Cortex 16:i82-8. 2006
    ..This study is a first step to define the combinatorial codes of transcription factors that participate in regulating the specification and function of cortical interneuron subtypes...
  47. pmc GABA excitation in mouse hilar neuropeptide Y neurons
    Li ying Fu
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Physiol 579:445-64. 2007
    ..mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of neurons that colocalized neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SST), and GABA for whole-cell, perforated, and cell-attached recording in 240 neurons...
  48. pmc SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool
    Philip A Seymour
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1865-70. 2007
    ..These findings will be of major significance for the development of in vitro protocols for cell replacement therapies...
  49. ncbi Lhx6 activity is required for the normal migration and specification of cortical interneuron subtypes
    Petros Liodis
    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 27:3078-89. 2007
    ..classify cortical interneurons are the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calretinin and the neuropeptide somatostatin, which in rodents identify mostly nonoverlapping interneuron subpopulations...
  50. ncbi The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells
    Shelley B Nelson
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California at Irvine, 4203 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Development 134:2491-500. 2007
    ..2 in endocrine differentiation are a consequence of their divergent spatiotemporal expression domains rather than their biochemical activities and implies that both Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess alpha- and beta-cell-specifying activities...
  51. ncbi Gender-dependent role of endogenous somatostatin in regulating growth hormone-axis function in mice
    Raul M Luque
    Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research and Development Division, M P 151, West Side, 820 South Damen Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Endocrinology 148:5998-6006. 2007
    It has been previously reported that male and female somatostatin (SST) knockout mice (Sst-/-) release more GH, compared with Sst+/+ mice, due to enhanced GH-secretory vesicle release...
  52. pmc Loss of Myt1 function partially compromises endocrine islet cell differentiation and pancreatic physiological function in the mouse
    Sui Wang
    Program in Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 465 21st Avenue South, Room 4128, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Mech Dev 124:898-910. 2007
    ..The consequences of Myt1 inactivation in the developing pancreas could be masked by activation of its paralogs, Myt1l and Myt3. These findings suggest Myt1 is involved in proper endocrine differentiation and function...
  53. pmc Histogenetic compartments of the mouse centromedial and extended amygdala based on gene expression patterns during development
    Margarita García-López
    Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 506:46-74. 2008
    ..Our study provides a molecular and morphological foundation for understanding the complex embryonic origins and adult organization of the centromedial and extended amygdala...
  54. ncbi Ghrelin is a novel target of Pax4 in endocrine progenitors of the pancreas and duodenum
    Qian Wang
    Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Dev Dyn 237:51-61. 2008
    ..have a severe gastrointestinal endocrine deficiency: they lack most pancreatic cells that produce insulin or somatostatin and various duodenal endocrine cell types...
  55. pmc pdx-1 function is specifically required in embryonic beta cells to generate appropriate numbers of endocrine cell types and maintain glucose homeostasis
    Maureen Gannon
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Dev Biol 314:406-17. 2008
    ..islets showed a dramatic reduction in the number of insulin(+) cells and an increase in both glucagon(+) and somatostatin(+) cells...
  56. doi Mash1 is required for neuroendocrine cell development in the glandular stomach
    Hiroshi Kokubu
    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Genes Cells 13:41-51. 2008
    ..which is known to regulate formation of subsets of gastric neuroendocrine cells (gastrin-, glucagon- and somatostatin-producing cells), is expressed normally in the Mash1-null stomach...
  57. pmc Preferential reduction of beta cells derived from Pax6-MafB pathway in MafB deficient mice
    Wataru Nishimura
    Section of Islet Transplantation and Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, USA
    Dev Biol 314:443-56. 2008
    ..Thus, Pax6 acts upstream of MafB, which in turn may trigger the expression of insulin and regulate the PDX-1 and MafA expression required for beta-cell maturation...
  58. doi Null mutant mouse models of somatostatin and cortistatin, and their receptors
    T Zeyda
    John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 286:18-25. 2008
    b>Somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibitory factor, SRIF) and the related cortistatin (CST) are multifunctional peptide molecules attributed with neurohormone, neurotransmitter/modulator, and autocrine/paracrine actions...
  59. pmc A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation
    Philip A Seymour
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Dev Biol 323:19-30. 2008
    ..Our findings therefore suggest that defective endocrine specification might underlie the pancreatic phenotype of individuals with CD...
  60. pmc Somatostatin secreted by islet delta-cells fulfills multiple roles as a paracrine regulator of islet function
    Astrid C Hauge-Evans
    Beta Cell Development and Function Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King s College London, London, UK
    Diabetes 58:403-11. 2009
    b>Somatostatin (SST) is secreted by islet delta-cells and by extraislet neuroendocrine cells...
  61. doi Three human ARX mutations cause the lissencephaly-like and mental retardation with epilepsy-like pleiotropic phenotypes in mice
    Kunio Kitamura
    Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan
    Hum Mol Genet 18:3708-24. 2009
    ....
  62. pmc Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors
    Renaud Desgraz
    Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Development 136:3567-74. 2009
    ..We propose a model whereby Ngn3(+) cells are monotypic (i.e. unipotent) precursors, and use this paradigm to refocus ideas on how cell number and type must be regulated in building complete islets of Langerhans...
  63. pmc Emx1-lineage progenitors differentially contribute to neural diversity in the striatum and amygdala
    Laura A Cocas
    Center for Neuroscience Research, Children s Research Institute, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    J Neurosci 29:15933-46. 2009
    ..Thus, both the timing of neurogenesis and differential combinatorial gene expression appear to be key determinants of striatal versus amygdala fate decisions of Emx1-lineage cells...
  64. pmc Rfx6 is an Ngn3-dependent winged helix transcription factor required for pancreatic islet cell development
    Josselin Soyer
    Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cell Biology IGBMC, INSERM U 964, CNRS UMR7104, University of Strasbourg, Illkirch, France
    Development 137:203-12. 2010
    ..studies in zebrafish revealed that rfx6 is required for the differentiation of glucagon-, ghrelin- and somatostatin-expressing cells, which, in the absence of rfx6, are blocked at the progenitor stage...
  65. pmc Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans
    Stuart B Smith
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nature 463:775-80. 2010
    ..These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes...
  66. pmc Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates
    Qing Xu
    Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue New York, NY 10065, USA
    Neuron 65:328-40. 2010
    ..cerebral cortex regulate cortical functions through the actions of distinct subgroups that express parvalbumin, somatostatin, or calretinin. The genesis of the first two subgroups requires the expression of NKX2...
  67. doi Somatostatin interneurons delineate the inner part of the external plexiform layer in the mouse main olfactory bulb
    Gabriel Lepousez
    Inserm UMR 894, Center for Psychiatry and Neurosciences, F 75014 Paris, France
    J Comp Neurol 518:1976-94. 2010
    Neuropeptides play a major role in the modulation of information processing in neural networks. Somatostatin, one of the most concentrated neuropeptides in the brain, is found in many sensory systems including the olfactory pathway...
  68. doi A neuronal migratory pathway crossing from diencephalon to telencephalon populates amygdala nuclei
    Fernando García-Moreno
    Instituto Cajal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Laboratory of Telencephalic Development, Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology Department, Madrid, Spain
    Nat Neurosci 13:680-9. 2010
    ..The diencephalic transcription factor OTP was necessary for this migratory behavior...
  69. pmc MafA and MafB regulate genes critical to beta-cells in a unique temporal manner
    Isabella Artner
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Diabetes 59:2530-9. 2010
    ..Our aim was to define the functional relationship between these closely related activators to the β-cell...
  70. pmc The Cdk4-E2f1 pathway regulates early pancreas development by targeting Pdx1+ progenitors and Ngn3+ endocrine precursors
    So Yoon Kim
    Regenerative Biology Section, Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 138:1903-12. 2011
    ....
  71. pmc Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression
    Teresa L Mastracci
    Department of Genetics and Development, Russ Berrie Medical Pavilion, Columbia University, 1150 St Nicholas Ave, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Biol 359:1-11. 2011
    ..2 becomes essential for the repression of somatostatin gene expression. Interestingly, the dysregulation of ghrelin and somatostatin expression in the Nkx2...
  72. pmc Arx and Nkx2.2 compound deficiency redirects pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell differentiation to a somatostatin/ghrelin co-expressing cell lineage
    Simon Kordowich
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, Gottingen, Germany
    BMC Dev Biol 11:52. 2011
    ..2-deficient pancreata. Hence in order to precise the functional link between both factors we performed a comparative analysis of Nkx2.2/Arx single- and double-mutants but also of Pax6-deficient animals...
  73. pmc Cortistatin is not a somatostatin analogue but stimulates prolactin release and inhibits GH and ACTH in a gender-dependent fashion: potential role of ghrelin
    Jose Cordoba-Chacon
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Cordoba, Spain
    Endocrinology 152:4800-12. 2011
    Cortistatin (CST) and somatostatin (SST) evolve from a common ancestral gene and share remarkable structural, pharmacological, and functional homologies...
  74. doi Regulation of neuronal input transformations by tunable dendritic inhibition
    Matthew Lovett-Barron
    Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Neurosci 15:423-30, S1-3. 2012
    ..These results provide evidence for a division of labor in cortical circuits, where distinct computational functions are implemented by subtypes of local inhibitory neurons...
  75. pmc Arx is required for normal enteroendocrine cell development in mice and humans
    Aiping Du
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, USA
    Dev Biol 365:175-88. 2012
    ..cell types including gastrin-, glucagon/GLP-1-, CCK-, secretin-producing cell populations and an increase of somatostatin-expressing cells...
  76. pmc Inhibition of inhibition in visual cortex: the logic of connections between molecularly distinct interneurons
    Carsten K Pfeffer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 16:1068-76. 2013
    ..In contrast, somatostatin-expressing interneurons avoid inhibiting one another yet strongly inhibit all other populations...
  77. pmc Pancreas-specific Cre driver lines and considerations for their prudent use
    Mark A Magnuson
    Center for Stem Cell Biology and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Cell Metab 18:9-20. 2013
    ..We also discuss preferred strategies for achieving high-fidelity driver lines and remind investigators of the continuing need for caution when interpreting results obtained from any Cre/LoxP-based experiment performed in mice. ..
  78. ncbi The role of Brn4/Pou3f4 and Pax6 in forming the pancreatic glucagon cell identity
    R Scott Heller
    Department of Developmental Biology, Hagedorn Research Institute, DK 2820 Gentofte, Denmark
    Dev Biol 268:123-34. 2004
    ..At a later time point, E19, no Brn4 co-localization is observed with insulin or somatostatin but a rare pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-producing cell can be found, while Pax6 is found in all endocrine cells...
  79. ncbi NKX6 transcription factor activity is required for alpha- and beta-cell development in the pancreas
    Korinna D Henseleit
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California at Irvine, 4203 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Development 132:3139-49. 2005
    ..We demonstrate that expression of Myt1 depends on overall Nkx6 gene dose, and therefore identify Myt1 as a possible downstream target of Nkx6 genes in the endocrine differentiation pathway...
  80. pmc Cooperative transcriptional regulation of the essential pancreatic islet gene NeuroD1 (beta2) by Nkx2.2 and neurogenin 3
    Keith R Anderson
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:31236-48. 2009
    ..Collectively, these findings further define the conserved regulatory networks involved in islet beta cell formation and function...
  81. ncbi Mouse R-cadherin: expression during the organogenesis of pancreas and gastrointestinal tract
    A Sjodin
    Department of Microbiology, University of Umea, Sweden
    Exp Cell Res 221:413-25. 1995
    ..The subcellular localization in these tissues is on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. The potential function of R-cadherin, in particular its role in pancreas development, is discussed...
  82. ncbi Organization of the embryonic and early postnatal murine hippocampus. I. Immunocytochemical characterization of neuronal populations in the subplate and marginal zone
    E Soriano
    Unit of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 342:571-95. 1994
    ..It is suggested that these early maturing neurons may have a role in the targeting of hippocampal afferents, as subplate cells do in the developing neocortex...
  83. ncbi Mouse chromosomal location of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins C/EBP beta (Cebpb), C/EBP delta (Cebpd), and CRP1 (Cebpe)
    N A Jenkins
    ABL Basic Research Program, NCI Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    Genomics 28:333-6. 1995
    ..Here, we show that Cebpb maps to mouse chromosome 2, Cebpd to chromosome 16, and Cebpe to chromosome 14. The assignment of Cebpd to chromosome 16 identifies a new region of homology between mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 8...
  84. pmc Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factors: new members of the FGF family implicated in nervous system development
    P M Smallwood
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:9850-7. 1996
    ..Each FHF is expressed in the developing and adult nervous systems, suggesting a role for this branch of the FGF family in nervous system development and function...
  85. ncbi Expression of homeobox genes, including an insulin promoting factor, in the murine yolk sac at the time of hematopoietic initiation
    K E McGrath
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA
    Mol Reprod Dev 48:145-53. 1997
    ..However, other pancreatic products, such as glucagon, somatostatin, and carboxypeptidase A, are not expressed in the YS...
  86. ncbi Regional and cellular patterns of reelin mRNA expression in the forebrain of the developing and adult mouse
    S Alcantara
    Department of Animal and Plant Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
    J Neurosci 18:7779-99. 1998
    ..restricted to subsets of GABAergic interneurons that co-expressed calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin. This complex pattern of cellular and regional expression is consistent with Reelin having multiple roles in ..
  87. ncbi Heightened seizure severity in somatostatin knockout mice
    Paul S Buckmaster
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, R102 Edwards Building, MC 5330, Stanford, CA 94305 5330, USA
    Epilepsy Res 48:43-56. 2002
    ..To determine if loss of the peptide somatostatin contributes to epileptic seizures we examined kainate-evoked seizures and kindling in somatostatin knockout ..
  88. ncbi Somatostatin is expressed in the murine thymus and enhances thymocyte development
    Katerina Solomou
    Department of Immunology, Division of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, GB
    Eur J Immunol 32:1550-9. 2002
    ..b>Somatostatin (SOM) is a neuropeptide, mainly produced in the brain, that binds to five different receptors (SSTR)...
  89. pmc Developmental abnormalities of neuronal structure and function in prenatal mice lacking the prader-willi syndrome gene necdin
    Silvia Pagliardini
    Department of Physiology, Centre of Neuroscience, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2S2, Canada
    Am J Pathol 167:175-91. 2005
    ....
  90. ncbi Cloning and analysis of Nkx6.3 during CNS and gastrointestinal development
    Tomas Alanentalo
    Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, UCMM, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:162-70. 2006
    ..2 both in the CNS and in the gut. Transient Nkx6.2 expression was also detected in the developing pancreas. However, analysis of Nkx6.2(-/-) mice did not display any obvious aberrations of pancreatic or stomach development...
  91. doi IL-9/IL-9 receptor signaling selectively protects cortical neurons against developmental apoptosis
    R H Fontaine
    INSERM, U676, Paris, France
    Cell Death Differ 15:1542-52. 2008
    ..Together, these data suggest that IL-9/IL-9 receptor signaling pathway represents a novel endogenous antiapoptotic mechanism for cortical neurons by controlling JAK/STAT and Bax levels...
  92. pmc Transcription factor Glis3, a novel critical player in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell development and insulin gene expression
    Hong Soon Kang
    Cell Biology Section, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T W Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:6366-79. 2009
    ..In addition, we provide evidence that Glis3 regulates insulin gene expression through two Glis-binding sites in its proximal promoter, indicating that Glis3 also regulates beta-cell function...
  93. doi Genetic evidence of the programming of beta cell mass and function by glucocorticoids in mice
    B Valtat
    INSERM UMR S 872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 15 rue de l Ecole de Medecine, 75006 Paris, France
    Diabetologia 54:350-9. 2011
    ..Our aim was to further dissect the role of glucocorticoids on beta cell development and function in mice...
  94. pmc Influence and timing of arrival of murine neural crest on pancreatic beta cell development and maturation
    Jennifer L Plank
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Dev Biol 349:321-30. 2011
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that the neural crest is a critical regulator of beta cell development on two levels: by negatively regulating beta cell proliferation and by promoting beta cell maturation...
  95. ncbi E-cadherin expression in a particular subset of sensory neurons
    K Shimamura
    Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Japan
    Dev Biol 152:242-54. 1992
    ..the spinal cord, which was identified as part of lamina II by double-staining for E-cadherin and substance P or somatostatin. This E-cadherin expressing area of the spinal cord extended to part of the trigeminal nucleus in the medulla...
  96. ncbi The alpha 2 chain of type 1 collagen does not map to mouse chromosome 16 but maps close to the Met proto-oncogene on mouse chromosome 6
    N G Irving
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, St Mary s Hospital Medical School, London, UK
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 50:121-2. 1989
    ....
  97. ncbi Genetic mapping and analysis of somatostatin expression in Snell dwarf mice
    B F O'Hara
    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Brain Res 464:283-92. 1988
    Mice homozygous for the gene dwarf (dw) have elevated levels of somatostatin (SS) in extra-hypothalamic brain regions...
  98. ncbi Murine heparin cofactor II: purification, cDNA sequence, expression, and gene structure
    G S Zhang
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110
    Biochemistry 33:3632-42. 1994
    ..Our results indicate that HCII is more highly conserved than the human and murine homologues of other serpins such as alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin...
  99. ncbi The gene for murine CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (Ctpct) is located on mouse chromosome 16
    M S Rutherford
    Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38101
    Genomics 18:698-701. 1993
    ..These data place the Ctpct gene on mouse chromosome 16 between the Smst and Stf-1 genes.
  100. ncbi The functional genes for protein synthesis initiation factor 4AI and 4AII map to mouse chromosomes 11 and 16
    P J Nielsen
    Max Planck Institut für Immunobiologie, Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany
    Mamm Genome 4:185-6. 1993
  101. ncbi Growth hormone physiology in health and disease: insights using genetic and transgenic models
    L A Frohman
    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago 60612, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 9:233-6. 1996

Research Grants16

  1. Substance P in pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS
    Prema Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Orexinergic Pathways in Central Autonomic Control
    WILLIS SAMSON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Expression profiling of human islets
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  4. GLUCOKINASE GENE EXPRESSION IN PANCREATIC BETA CELL
    Mark Magnuson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In Aim 3 we will determine the role of alternate RNA processing the insulin receptor in modulating both GK gene transcription and subcellular localization in the pancreatic beta cell. ..
  5. INSULIN RECEPTOR RELATED AND THE KIDNEY
    Carlton Bates; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..After being subjected to systemic alkalosis, IRR-null mouse kidneys will be examined to determine if the intercalated cells have appropriately altered their morphology and intracellular distribution of proton transporters. ..
  6. FUNCTION OF A GROWTH INDUCED GENE IN LIVER REGENERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  7. Operant Responding in Opioid-Deficient Mice
    Malcolm Low; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of neurocysticercosis
    Prema Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Another neuropeptide, somatostatin, stimulates Th2 cytokine production and impairs granuloma formation...
  9. Nutrition, Early Development and Glucose Metabolism
    Patricia Vuguin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE BETA-CELL
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The new resources generated through this project will be made available to the NIDDK-funded biotechnology centers and the diabetes research community at large. ..
  12. Liver Biology, Development and Disease
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Foxm 1b endocrine pancreas growth and regeneration
    Maureen Gannon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A thorough understanding of Foxml regulation of 3 cell mass may lead to strategies for maintaining 3 cell mass and enhancing 3 cell proliferation in diabetics. ..
  14. Neurochemistry/physiology of proopiomelancortin neurons
    Malcolm Low; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The techniques involved are aggregation chimera formation and Cre recombinase mediated reactivation of POMC expression from a neuron-specific and reversibly silenced POMC allele. ..
  15. HNF6 Function in the Pancreatic Endocrine Lineage
    Maureen A Gannon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e. is HNF6 needed only at early stages of endocrine specification, or is it required continuously during embryogenesis for terminal differentiation and acquisition of mature function. ..
  16. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PROLACTIN RELEASING PEPTIDES
    Willis K Samson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, these studies will provide further insight into the coordinated hormonal and autonomic responses to stress. ..