Smo

Summary

Gene Symbol: Smo
Description: smoothened, frizzled class receptor
Alias: E130215L21Rik, Smoh, bnb, smoothened, smoothened homolog, bent body
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc Tamoxifen-inducible gene deletion reveals a distinct cell type associated with trabecular bone, and direct regulation of PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology by Ihh in growth region cartilage
    Matthew J Hilton
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Dev Biol 308:93-105. 2007
  2. pmc Hedgehog signaling overrides p53-mediated tumor suppression by activating Mdm2
    Yoshinori Abe
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211 8533, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4838-43. 2008
  3. pmc Hedgehog signaling is required for effective regeneration of exocrine pancreas
    Volker Fendrich
    Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Gastroenterology 135:621-31. 2008
  4. pmc Gli2 trafficking links Hedgehog-dependent activation of Smoothened in the primary cilium to transcriptional activation in the nucleus
    Jynho Kim
    Department of Developmental Biology, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21666-71. 2009
  5. ncbi The tumour-suppressor gene patched encodes a candidate receptor for Sonic hedgehog
    D M Stone
    Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 384:129-34. 1996
  6. pmc A phenotype-based screen for embryonic lethal mutations in the mouse
    A Kasarskis
    Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the Sloan Kettering Division, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7485-90. 1998
  7. ncbi Sonic hedgehog signaling is essential for hair development
    B St-Jacques
    Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Curr Biol 8:1058-68. 1998
  8. ncbi Genetic manipulation of hedgehog signaling in the endochondral skeleton reveals a direct role in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation
    F Long
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 128:5099-108. 2001
  9. ncbi Mouse Dispatched homolog1 is required for long-range, but not juxtacrine, Hh signaling
    Tamara Caspary
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Curr Biol 12:1628-32. 2002
  10. pmc A direct requirement for Hedgehog signaling for normal specification of all ventral progenitor domains in the presumptive mammalian spinal cord
    Mark Wijgerde
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 16:2849-64. 2002

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

  • Stacey K Ogden
  • R Gebhardt
  • N A Dyment
  • Guangnan Li
  • K Iyama
  • Saikat Mukhopadhyay
  • Stephane D Vincent
  • Christine Dierks
  • Leigh Coultas
  • K Koebernick
  • Martine N Manuel
  • LAURA E LILLIEN
  • Fanxin Long
  • Jeremy S Duncan
  • Hongwei Yu
  • Carlos R Morales
  • Tina Jaskoll
  • N Spassky
  • G D Dakubo
  • Andrew P McMahon
  • Kathryn V Anderson
  • Rajat Rohatgi
  • Polloneal Jymmiel R Ocbina
  • Ljiljana Milenkovic
  • Karel F Liem
  • Jonathan T Eggenschwiler
  • Jin Jiang
  • Chi chung Hui
  • Matthew P Scott
  • Christopher W Wilson
  • Pao Tien Chuang
  • Matthew M Goddeeris
  • Qing Xu
  • Francesca Balordi
  • Eiki Koyama
  • Yongbin Chen
  • Kelvin King Lo Law
  • Mu He
  • Gord Fishell
  • Tamara Caspary
  • Xiaoyun Zhang
  • Juhee Jeong
  • Cortney M Bouldin
  • Amel Gritli-Linde
  • Miao Hsueh Chen
  • Jynho Kim
  • Danwei Huangfu
  • Rong Mo
  • James K Chen
  • Baolin Wang
  • Alexandra L Joyner
  • Yun Zhao
  • Alison R Meloni
  • Kory J Lavine
  • Anette Szczepny
  • Benjamin L Allen
  • Abdeljabar El Andaloussi
  • Philip A Beachy
  • Maurizio Pacifici
  • Blanche Young
  • Sandra Blaess
  • JoMichelle D Corrales
  • Frederic Charron
  • Veena Singla
  • He Huang
  • Daniel Nedelcu
  • Karolin V Dorn
  • Zhimin Lao
  • Brian T Keady
  • Patricia T Yam
  • Kasey J Christopher
  • Joyoti Dey
  • Cuiping Yang
  • Dongsheng Gu
  • Christopher L Cooper
  • Toyoaki Tenzen
  • Tama Evron
  • Rebecca M Harman
  • Kwon Sik Park
  • Christine E Larkins
  • Miquel Tuson
  • Shigeru Makino
  • Vijitha Puviindran
  • Qicong Hu
  • Lanying Zhao
  • Rony Nehmé
  • Silvia Buonamici
  • Frédéric Varnat
  • James Briscoe
  • Christopher Boehlke

Detail Information

Publications128 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Tamoxifen-inducible gene deletion reveals a distinct cell type associated with trabecular bone, and direct regulation of PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology by Ihh in growth region cartilage
    Matthew J Hilton
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Dev Biol 308:93-105. 2007
    ..Previous efforts to delineate direct effects of Ihh on chondrocytes by Col2-Cre-mediated ablation of Smoothened (Smo, encoding a transmembrane protein indispensable for Ihh signaling) has been only partially successful, due ..
  2. pmc Hedgehog signaling overrides p53-mediated tumor suppression by activating Mdm2
    Yoshinori Abe
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211 8533, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4838-43. 2008
    ..Here, we show that constitutively activated mutants of Smoothened (Smo), a transducer of the Hh signaling pathway, inhibit the accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53...
  3. pmc Hedgehog signaling is required for effective regeneration of exocrine pancreas
    Volker Fendrich
    Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Gastroenterology 135:621-31. 2008
    ..Given the known role of Hh signaling in exocrine pancreatic cancer, these findings may provide a mechanistic link between injury-induced activation of pancreatic progenitors and subsequent pancreatic neoplasia...
  4. pmc Gli2 trafficking links Hedgehog-dependent activation of Smoothened in the primary cilium to transcriptional activation in the nucleus
    Jynho Kim
    Department of Developmental Biology, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21666-71. 2009
    ..Hh) protein signal has been shown to alter ciliary localization of the mammalian Hh receptor components Smoothened (Smo) and Patched (Ptc), and mutations that disrupt the structure and function of the cilium also disrupt Hh-..
  5. ncbi The tumour-suppressor gene patched encodes a candidate receptor for Sonic hedgehog
    D M Stone
    Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Nature 384:129-34. 1996
    ..We show that Ptc can form a physical complex with a newly cloned vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila protein Smoothened (vSmo), and that vSmo is coexpressed with vPtc in many tissues but does not bind Shh directly...
  6. pmc A phenotype-based screen for embryonic lethal mutations in the mouse
    A Kasarskis
    Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the Sloan Kettering Division, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7485-90. 1998
    ..Two mutations produce novel early phenotypes and map to regions of the genome not previously implicated in embryonic patterning...
  7. ncbi Sonic hedgehog signaling is essential for hair development
    B St-Jacques
    Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Curr Biol 8:1058-68. 1998
    ..To address the role of Shh in the hair follicle, we have examined Shh null mutant mice...
  8. ncbi Genetic manipulation of hedgehog signaling in the endochondral skeleton reveals a direct role in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation
    F Long
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 128:5099-108. 2001
    ..b>Smoothened (Smo) is a transmembrane protein that transduces all Hh signals...
  9. ncbi Mouse Dispatched homolog1 is required for long-range, but not juxtacrine, Hh signaling
    Tamara Caspary
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Curr Biol 12:1628-32. 2002
    ..We positionally cloned the genes responsible for two of the mutant phenotypes, smoothened and dispatched, which are homologs of Drosophila Hh pathway components...
  10. pmc A direct requirement for Hedgehog signaling for normal specification of all ventral progenitor domains in the presumptive mammalian spinal cord
    Mark Wijgerde
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 16:2849-64. 2002
    ..b>Smoothened (Smo) is essential for all Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, and genetic inactivation of Smo cells autonomously blocks ..
  11. ncbi The morphogen sonic hedgehog is an axonal chemoattractant that collaborates with netrin-1 in midline axon guidance
    Frederic Charron
    Department of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 113:11-23. 2003
    ..Cyclopamine-mediated inhibition of the Shh signaling mediator Smoothened (Smo) or conditional inactivation of Smo in commissural neurons indicate that Smo activity is important for the ..
  12. ncbi Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches
    Robert Machold
    Developmental Genetics Program and Department of Cell Biology, The Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuron 39:937-50. 2003
    ..the telencephalon from early neurogenesis, we examined conditional null alleles of both the Sonic hedgehog and Smoothened genes...
  13. pmc Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia
    Juhee Jeong
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 18:937-51. 2004
    ..Further, our analysis of Shh-Fox gene regulatory interactions leads us to propose that Fox genes mediate the action of Shh in facial development...
  14. ncbi Temporal requirement for hedgehog signaling in ventral telencephalic patterning
    Marc Fuccillo
    Developmental Genetics Program and the Department of Cell Biology, The Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 131:5031-40. 2004
    ..brain by embryonic day 9 of development, using a FoxG1(Cre) driver line to mediate the removal of a conditional smoothened null allele...
  15. pmc Cilia and Hedgehog responsiveness in the mouse
    Danwei Huangfu
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11325-30. 2005
    ..The phenotypes of the IFT mutants, however, are not identical to mutants that lack Smoothened (Smo), an essential activator of the Hh pathway...
  16. ncbi Vertebrate Smoothened functions at the primary cilium
    Kevin C Corbit
    Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nature 437:1018-21. 2005
    ..Here we show that mammalian Smoothened (Smo), a seven-transmembrane protein essential for Hh signalling, is expressed on the primary cilium...
  17. ncbi Loss of the retrograde motor for IFT disrupts localization of Smo to cilia and prevents the expression of both activator and repressor functions of Gli
    Scott R May
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Dev Biol 287:378-89. 2005
    ..The initial part of this process is accomplished by Shh acting through Patched (Ptc) to regulate Smoothened (Smo) activity...
  18. ncbi Mouse Rab23 regulates hedgehog signaling from smoothened to Gli proteins
    Jonathan T Eggenschwiler
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Dev Biol 290:1-12. 2006
    ..Although the membrane proteins Patched and Smoothened change subcellular localization in response to Shh, double mutant analysis demonstrates that Rab23 does not work ..
  19. ncbi GLI3-dependent transcriptional repression of Gli1, Gli2 and kidney patterning genes disrupts renal morphogenesis
    Ming Chang Hu
    Program in Developmental Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    Development 133:569-78. 2006
    Truncating mutations in Gli3, an intracellular effector in the SHH-SMO-GLI signaling pathway, cause renal aplasia/dysplasia in humans and mice. Yet, the pathogenic mechanisms are undefined...
  20. ncbi Divergence of hedgehog signal transduction mechanism between Drosophila and mammals
    Markku Varjosalo
    Molecular and Cancer Biology Program, Biomedicum, University of Helsinki and Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, P O Box 63, Helsinki FIN 00014, Finland
    Dev Cell 10:177-86. 2006
    ..In Drosophila, the kinesin-like protein Costal2 (Cos2), which associates directly with the Hh receptor component Smoothened (Smo), is essential for suppression of the transcriptional activity of Ci in the absence of ligand...
  21. ncbi The level of sonic hedgehog signaling regulates the complexity of cerebellar foliation
    JoMichelle D Corrales
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:1811-21. 2006
    ..By progressively lowering signaling by removing Gli1 and Gli2 or the Shh receptor smoothened, we found the extent of foliation is gradually reduced, and that this correlates with a decrease in the duration ..
  22. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates Gli activator and repressor functions with spatial and temporal precision in the mid/hindbrain region
    Sandra Blaess
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:1799-809. 2006
    ..Thus, the precise spatial and temporal regulation of Gli2A and Gli3R by Shh is instrumental in coordinating mid/hindbrain development in three dimensions...
  23. ncbi Isl1 is upstream of sonic hedgehog in a pathway required for cardiac morphogenesis
    Lizhu Lin
    Skaggs School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Dev Biol 295:756-63. 2006
    ..Shh signals through the unique activating receptor smoothened (Smo). To investigate the role of hedgehog signaling in the isl1 domain, we ablated smo utilizing isl1-cre...
  24. pmc Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by Smoothened
    Natalia A Riobo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6084, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12607-12. 2006
    The mechanisms by which the activation of Smoothened (Smo), a protein essential to the actions of the Hedgehog family of secreted proteins, is translated into signals that converge on the Gli transcription factors are not fully understood...
  25. pmc Smoothened signal transduction is promoted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
    Alison R Meloni
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:7550-60. 2006
    ..In this pathway, the seven-transmembrane (7TM) signaling protein Smoothened regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation through activation of the transcription factor Gli...
  26. ncbi Expression of hedgehog signalling components in adult mouse testis
    Anette Szczepny
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Dev Dyn 235:3063-70. 2006
    ..The mRNAs encoding key effectors of Hh signalling, Ptc2, Smo, and Fu, are also most apparent in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and to a lower extent in round spermatids...
  27. ncbi Hedgehog signaling in the subventricular zone is required for both the maintenance of stem cells and the migration of newborn neurons
    Francesca Balordi
    Smilow Neuroscience Program and the Department of Cell Biology, Smilow Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurosci 27:5936-47. 2007
    ..These results suggest that Hedgehog signaling is required for the maintenance of the B and C cell populations and indirectly for the migration of the neurons that are generated from the adult stem cell niche...
  28. ncbi Patched1 regulates hedgehog signaling at the primary cilium
    Rajat Rohatgi
    Departments of Developmental Biology, Genetics, and Bioengineering and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 317:372-6. 2007
    ..Ptc1 localized to cilia and inhibited Smoothened (Smo) by preventing its accumulation within cilia...
  29. pmc FGF9 and SHH regulate mesenchymal Vegfa expression and development of the pulmonary capillary network
    Andrew C White
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 134:3743-52. 2007
    ..These data suggest a molecular mechanism through which FGF9 and SHH signaling coordinately control the growth and patterning of the lung capillary plexus, and regulate the temporal and spatial expression of Vegfa...
  30. ncbi Hedgehog regulates smoothened activity by inducing a conformational switch
    Yun Zhao
    Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Nature 450:252-8. 2007
    Hedgehog (HH) morphogen is essential for metazoan development. The seven-transmembrane protein smoothened (SMO) transduces the HH signal across the plasma membrane, but how SMO is activated remains poorly understood...
  31. pmc THM1 negatively modulates mouse sonic hedgehog signal transduction and affects retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia
    Pamela V Tran
    Genetics Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, New Research Building, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Genet 40:403-10. 2008
    ..In contrast to previously described IFT mutants, Smoothened and full-length glioblastoma (GLI) proteins localize to aln-mutant cilia...
  32. pmc Intraflagellar transport, cilia, and mammalian Hedgehog signaling: analysis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts
    Polloneal Jymmiel R Ocbina
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Dev Dyn 237:2030-8. 2008
    ..Exposure to Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ligand or expression of an activated allele of Smo, SmoA1, activates an Hh reporter in wild-type MEFs, but not in MEFs derived from embryos that lack IFT172 or the ..
  33. pmc Beta-arrestin-mediated localization of smoothened to the primary cilium
    Jeffrey J Kovacs
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Science 320:1777-81. 2008
    beta-Arrestins have important roles in the regulation of seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs). Smoothened (Smo) is a 7TMR that mediates effects of Hedgehog on developmental processes and whose dysregulation may cause tumorigenesis...
  34. pmc Hedgehog signaling to distinct cell types differentially regulates coronary artery and vein development
    Kory J Lavine
    Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 135:3161-71. 2008
    ..Finally, we present evidence suggesting that coronary arteries and veins may be derived from distinct lineages...
  35. pmc Progenitor cell proliferation in the retina is dependent on Notch-independent Sonic hedgehog/Hes1 activity
    Dana S Wall
    Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Cell Biol 184:101-12. 2009
    ..This paper is the first demonstration of the mechanistic and functional link between Shh, Gli, and Hes1 in the regulation of progenitor cell behavior...
  36. pmc Hedgehog signal transduction by Smoothened: pharmacologic evidence for a 2-step activation process
    Rajat Rohatgi
    Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3196-201. 2009
    ..Damage to Hh transduction machinery can lead to birth defects and cancer. The transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) relays the Hh signal and is an important drug target in cancer...
  37. pmc Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway
    Victoria L Patterson
    Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxon, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 18:1719-39. 2009
    ..We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically downstream of Shh and Smoothened (Smo) in neural tube patterning and exhibits a genetic interaction with Gli3 in limb development...
  38. pmc Smoothened adopts multiple active and inactive conformations capable of trafficking to the primary cilium
    Christopher W Wilson
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e5182. 2009
    Activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling requires the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily...
  39. pmc Converse conformational control of smoothened activity by structurally related small molecules
    Hongbo Yang
    College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    J Biol Chem 284:20876-84. 2009
    The seven-pass transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) is an essential component of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that is critically involved in normal animal development as well as pathological malignancies...
  40. pmc sonic hedgehog is required in pulmonary endoderm for atrial septation
    Andrew D Hoffmann
    Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Development 136:1761-70. 2009
    ..These data suggest a model in which respiratory endoderm patterns the morphogenesis of cardiac structural components required for efficient cardiopulmonary circulation...
  41. doi The kinesin protein Kif7 is a critical regulator of Gli transcription factors in mammalian hedgehog signaling
    Helen Oi Lam Cheung
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Sci Signal 2:ra29. 2009
    ..Thus, Kif7 is a missing component of the mammalian Hh signaling machinery, implying a greater commonality between the Drosophila and mammalian system than the prevailing view suggests...
  42. pmc Mouse Kif7/Costal2 is a cilia-associated protein that regulates Sonic hedgehog signaling
    Karel F Liem
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13377-82. 2009
    ..of Drosophila Costal2 (Cos2), is a cilia-associated protein that regulates signaling from the membrane protein Smoothened (Smo) to Gli transcription factors...
  43. pmc Cilium-independent regulation of Gli protein function by Sufu in Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved
    Miao Hsueh Chen
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1910-28. 2009
    ..In contrast, fly Smo is unable to translocate to the primary cilium and activate the mammalian Hh pathway...
  44. pmc Lateral transport of Smoothened from the plasma membrane to the membrane of the cilium
    Ljiljana Milenkovic
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:365-74. 2009
    ..A major challenge in the field is to understand protein trafficking to cilia. The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway protein Smoothened (Smo), a 7-pass transmembrane protein, moves to cilia when a ligand is received...
  45. pmc Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates
    Qing Xu
    Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue New York, NY 10065, USA
    Neuron 65:328-40. 2010
    ..In this paper, we report that mosaic elimination in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of Smo, a key effector of SHH signaling, reveals that MGE progenitors retain a remarkable degree of plasticity during the ..
  46. doi Stability study of the human G-protein coupled receptor, Smoothened
    Rony Nehmé
    Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6543, Parc Valrose, F 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1798:1100-10. 2010
    b>Smoothened is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family responsible for the transduction of the Hedgehog signal to the intracellular effectors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway...
  47. doi Differential role of Rab proteins in ciliary trafficking: Rab23 regulates smoothened levels
    Christopher Boehlke
    Renal Unit, University Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, Freiburg 79106, Germany
    J Cell Sci 123:1460-7. 2010
    ..compared the effect of Rab8, Rab5 and Rab23 on the ciliary transport of the HH-associated transmembrane receptor Smoothened, the microtubular tip protein EB1, and the receptor protein Kim1...
  48. pmc A septin diffusion barrier at the base of the primary cilium maintains ciliary membrane protein distribution
    Qicong Hu
    Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 329:436-9. 2010
    ..Thus, SEPT2 is part of a diffusion barrier at the base of the ciliary membrane and is essential for retaining receptor-signaling pathways in the primary cilium...
  49. pmc Complex interactions between genes controlling trafficking in primary cilia
    Polloneal Jymmiel R Ocbina
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Genet 43:547-53. 2011
    ....
  50. pmc Sonic Hedgehog dependent phosphorylation by CK1α and GRK2 is required for ciliary accumulation and activation of smoothened
    Yongbin Chen
    Department of Developmental Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 9:e1001083. 2011
    ..Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the GPCR-like protein Smoothened (Smo), but how vertebrate Smo is activated remains poorly understood...
  51. pmc Arl13b regulates ciliogenesis and the dynamic localization of Shh signaling proteins
    Christine E Larkins
    Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 22:4694-703. 2011
    ..Significantly, we found Smoothened (Smo) is enriched in Arl13b-null cilia regardless of Shh pathway stimulation, indicating Arl13b regulates the ..
  52. pmc Protein kinase A acts at the basal body of the primary cilium to prevent Gli2 activation and ventralization of the mouse neural tube
    Miquel Tuson
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Development 138:4921-30. 2011
    ..The data show that PKA does not affect cilia length or trafficking of smoothened (Smo) in the cilium...
  53. pmc IFT25 links the signal-dependent movement of Hedgehog components to intraflagellar transport
    Brian T Keady
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Dev Cell 22:940-51. 2012
    ..IFT25 have defects in the signal-dependent transport of multiple Hedgehog components including Patched-1, Smoothened, and Gli2, and fail to activate the pathway upon stimulation...
  54. pmc The IFT-A complex regulates Shh signaling through cilia structure and membrane protein trafficking
    Karel F Liem
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Cell Biol 197:789-800. 2012
    ..In contrast, the membrane proteins Arl13b, ACIII, and Smo failed to localize to primary cilia in the absence of IFT-A...
  55. pmc A Smoothened-Evc2 complex transduces the Hedgehog signal at primary cilia
    Karolin V Dorn
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Dev Cell 23:823-35. 2012
    Vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is initiated at primary cilia by the ligand-triggered accumulation of Smoothened (Smo) in the ciliary membrane. The underlying biochemical mechanisms remain unknown...
  56. pmc Antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu define graded intracellular Gli activities in Hedgehog signaling
    Kelvin King Lo Law
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e50193. 2012
    ....
  57. doi The ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 negatively regulates the Sonic hedgehog pathway via cAMP signaling
    Saikat Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Research Oncology, Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Cell 152:210-23. 2013
    ..Conversely, Shh signaling directs Gpr161 to be internalized from cilia, preventing its activity. Thus, Gpr161 defines a morphogenetic pathway coupling protein kinase A activation to Shh signaling during neural tube development...
  58. ncbi Smoothened mutants reveal redundant roles for Shh and Ihh signaling including regulation of L/R symmetry by the mouse node
    X M Zhang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 106:781-92. 2001
    Genetic analyses in Drosophila have demonstrated that the multipass membrane protein Smoothened (Smo) is essential for all Hedgehog signaling...
  59. ncbi Shh signaling within the dental epithelium is necessary for cell proliferation, growth and polarization
    Amel Gritli-Linde
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Sweden
    Development 129:5323-37. 2002
    ..and extend our understanding of Shh's actions in odontogenesis, we have used the Cre-loxP system to remove Smoothened (Smo) activity in the dental epithelium...
  60. doi Notochord-derived Shh concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body in neural target cells and forms a dynamic gradient during neural patterning
    Chester E Chamberlain
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 135:1097-106. 2008
    ..This study, in which we directly observe, measure, localize and modify notochord-derived Shh ligand in the context of neural patterning, provides several new insights into mechanisms of Shh morphogen action...
  61. pmc Selective translocation of intracellular Smoothened to the primary cilium in response to Hedgehog pathway modulation
    Yu Wang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2623-8. 2009
    b>Smoothened (Smo), a 7-pass transmembrane protein, is essential for transduction of a Hedgehog (Hh) signal across the cell membrane...
  62. pmc MASTR: a technique for mosaic mutant analysis with spatial and temporal control of recombination using conditional floxed alleles in mice
    Zhimin Lao
    Developmental Biology Department, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell Rep 2:386-96. 2012
    ..when neural progenitors require FGFR1 for viability and that granule cell precursors differentiate rapidly when SMO is lost...
  63. doi 14-3-3 proteins regulate a cell-intrinsic switch from sonic hedgehog-mediated commissural axon attraction to repulsion after midline crossing
    Patricia T Yam
    Molecular Biology of Neural Development, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
    Neuron 76:735-49. 2012
    ..Therefore, we identify a 14-3-3 protein-dependent mechanism for a cell-intrinsic temporal switch in the polarity of axon turning responses...
  64. pmc Oxysterol binding to the extracellular domain of Smoothened in Hedgehog signaling
    Daniel Nedelcu
    1 Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 2
    Nat Chem Biol 9:557-64. 2013
    Oxysterols bind the seven-transmembrane protein Smo (Smo) and potently activate vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a pathway essential in embryonic development, adult stem cell maintenance and cancer...
  65. pmc Non-cell-autonomous hedgehog signaling promotes murine B lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic progenitors
    Christopher L Cooper
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and Institute for Cell Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Blood 119:5438-48. 2012
    ..In the present study, using conditional deletion of the pathway activator gene Smo, we found that cell-autonomous Hh signaling is dispensable for B-cell development, B-lymphoid repopulation of the ..
  66. pmc Forward genetics uncovers Transmembrane protein 107 as a novel factor required for ciliogenesis and Sonic hedgehog signaling
    Kasey J Christopher
    Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Dev Biol 368:382-92. 2012
    ..Together, these studies identify a previously unknown regulator of ciliogenesis and provide insight into how ciliary factors affect Shh signaling and cilia biogenesis in distinct tissues...
  67. pmc A distinct Smoothened mutation causes severe cerebellar developmental defects and medulloblastoma in a novel transgenic mouse model
    Joyoti Dey
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 32:4104-15. 2012
    ..The proto-oncogene Smoothened (Smo) is a key transducer of the Shh pathway...
  68. pmc Smoothened transduces Hedgehog signal by forming a complex with Evc/Evc2
    Cuiping Yang
    Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32 Jiaochang Donglu, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China
    Cell Res 22:1593-604. 2012
    ..The Hh signal is transduced by Smoothened (Smo), a seven-transmembrane protein related to G protein coupled receptors...
  69. pmc A role for transcription factor STAT3 signaling in oncogene smoothened-driven carcinogenesis
    Dongsheng Gu
    Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry Molecular Biology and Pharmacology Toxicology, The Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46074, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:38356-66. 2012
    ..We discovered that skin tumors derived from epidermal expression of oncogenic Smo, SmoM2, have elevated levels of IL-11, IL-11Rα, and STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr(705)...
  70. pmc Specific requirement of Gli transcription factors in Hedgehog-mediated intestinal development
    He Huang
    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:17589-96. 2013
    ..However, Gli2 activation is able to fully rescue the Smoothened (Smo)-null intestinal phenotype, suggesting that the Gli2 transcription factor is the main effector for Hh ..
  71. ncbi Cloning of a mouse smoothened cDNA and expression patterns of hedgehog signalling molecules during chondrogenesis and cartilage differentiation in clonal mouse EC cells, ATDC5
    H Akiyama
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 235:142-7. 1997
    ..hh) family proteins appear to use the conserved targets in their signalling pathway including Patched (Ptc), Smoothened (Smo), and Gli...
  72. ncbi Chromosomal localization of the human and murine orthologues of the Drosophila smoothened gene
    A Chidambaram
    Intramural Research Support Program, SAIC Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, 21702, USA
    Genomics 53:416-7. 1998
  73. ncbi The SIL gene is required for mouse embryonic axial development and left-right specification
    S Izraeli
    Genetics Department, Medicine Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20889 5105, USA
    Nature 399:691-4. 1999
    ....
  74. ncbi Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton
    Fanxin Long
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 131:1309-18. 2004
    ..to determine whether Ihh is directly required for osteoblast differentiation, we have genetically manipulated smoothened (Smo), which encodes a transmembrane protein that is essential for transducing all Hedgehog (Hh) signals...
  75. pmc Late gestational lung hypoplasia in a mouse model of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
    Hongwei Yu
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Medical Genetics, Medical University of South Carolina, STR 541, 114 Doughty Street, Charleston, SC 29403, USA
    BMC Dev Biol 4:1. 2004
    ..Although they have a number of biochemical and structural abnormalities, one cause of death is from apparent respiratory failure due to developmental pulmonary abnormalities...
  76. ncbi Sonic hedgehog signaling plays an essential role during embryonic salivary gland epithelial branching morphogenesis
    T Jaskoll
    Laboratory for Developmental Genetics, USC, Los Angeles, California 90089 0641, USA
    Dev Dyn 229:722-32. 2004
    ..we first determined the spatiotemporal distribution of Shh; two transmembrane proteins, patched 1 (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo), which act as a negative or a positive regulator of the Shh signal, respectively; and the Gli 3 ..
  77. ncbi The LIM homeobox gene, L3/Lhx8, is necessary for proper development of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons
    Tetsuji Mori
    Department of Cell Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima City, Fukushima, 960 1295 Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 19:3129-41. 2004
    ..Neurotransmitter phenotypes other than cholinergic in the basal forebrain appeared intact. From these results, we suggested that L3/Lhx8 has a pivotal and specific role in the development and/or maintenance of BFCNs...
  78. ncbi Expression patterns of Hedgehog signalling pathway members during mouse palate development
    Ritva Rice
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Floor 28 Guy s Tower, St Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:206-12. 2006
    ..b>Smoothened and transcriptional effectors Gli1-3, and Hh regulator Gas1 are expressed widely in the palatal mesenchyme...
  79. ncbi Hedgehog signaling controls thymocyte progenitor homeostasis and differentiation in the thymus
    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi
    Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:418-26. 2006
    ..has suggested involvement of hedgehog (Hh) signaling in T cell differentiation through its signal transducer smoothened (Smo)...
  80. ncbi The primary cilium as the cell's antenna: signaling at a sensory organelle
    Veena Singla
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, and Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0525, USA
    Science 313:629-33. 2006
    ....
  81. ncbi Independent regulation of skeletal growth by Ihh and IGF signaling
    Fanxin Long
    Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Dev Biol 298:327-33. 2006
    ..Here, we report that disruption of both IGF and Ihh signaling resulted in additive reduction in the size of the embryonic skeleton. Thus, IGF and Ihh signaling appear to control the growth of the skeleton in parallel pathways...
  82. ncbi Indian and sonic hedgehogs regulate synchondrosis growth plate and cranial base development and function
    Blanche Young
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19017, USA
    Dev Biol 299:272-82. 2006
    ..The cranial base appears to be a skeletal structure in which growth and ossification patterns along its antero-posterior axis are orchestrated by both Ihh and Shh...
  83. ncbi Independent requirements for Hedgehog signaling by both the anterior heart field and neural crest cells for outflow tract development
    Matthew M Goddeeris
    Departments of Cell Biology and Pediatrics, Neonatal Perinatal Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Development 134:1593-604. 2007
    ..Disruption of any of these steps can result in a single OFT phenotype...
  84. pmc The Hedgehog-binding proteins Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to positively regulate Shh signaling during mouse development
    Benjamin L Allen
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1244-57. 2007
    ....
  85. ncbi Mosaic removal of hedgehog signaling in the adult SVZ reveals that the residual wild-type stem cells have a limited capacity for self-renewal
    Francesca Balordi
    Smilow Neuroscience Program and the Department of Cell Biology, Smilow Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurosci 27:14248-59. 2007
    The Smoothened gene is necessary for cells to transduce hedgehog signaling...
  86. pmc Primary cilia are required for cerebellar development and Shh-dependent expansion of progenitor pool
    N Spassky
    Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, IFR des Neurosciences, INSERM U711, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, Paris, F 75013, France
    Dev Biol 317:246-59. 2008
    ..A similar phenotype is observed when Smoothened (Smo), an essential transducer of Shh signaling, is removed from the same population of GCPs...
  87. pmc Ventral specification and perturbed boundary formation in the mouse midbrain in the absence of Hedgehog signaling
    Jennifer L Fogel
    Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 0248, USA
    Dev Dyn 237:1359-72. 2008
    ..We examined the midbrains of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and smoothened (Smo) mutant mice where HH signaling is respectively attenuated and eliminated...
  88. doi Indian hedgehog signals independently of PTHrP to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy
    Kinglun Kingston Mak
    Genetic Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 49 Convent Drive, MSC 4472, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 135:1947-56. 2008
    ..Conversely, when Hh signaling was blocked by cyclopamine or by removing Smoothened (Smo), a positive regulator of Hh signaling, chondrocyte hypertrophy was delayed in the PTHrP(-/-) embryo...
  89. doi Expansion of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemic stem cells is dependent on Hedgehog pathway activation
    Christine Dierks
    Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Cancer Cell 14:238-49. 2008
    ..In this study, we identified Smo as a drug target in Bcr-Abl-positive LSCs...
  90. pmc GLI1 is regulated through Smoothened-independent mechanisms in neoplastic pancreatic ducts and mediates PDAC cell survival and transformation
    Olivier Nolan-Stevaux
    Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Genes Dev 23:24-36. 2009
    ..carcinogenesis by genetically ablating the canonical bottleneck of hedgehog signaling, the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), in the pancreatic epithelium of PDAC-susceptible mice...
  91. pmc Hedgehog signalling is essential for maintenance of cancer stem cells in myeloid leukaemia
    Chen Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 458:776-9. 2009
    ..Here we show that the loss of Smoothened (Smo), an essential component of the Hh pathway, impairs haematopoietic stem cell renewal and decreases ..
  92. pmc Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions controlling palatal outgrowth
    Yu Lan
    Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Development 136:1387-96. 2009
    ..Using Cre/loxP-mediated tissue-specific inactivation of the smoothened (Smo) gene in the developing palatal mesenchyme, we show that the epithelially expressed Shh signals directly to ..
  93. doi Expression of Patched-1 and Smoothened in testicular meiotic and post-meiotic cells
    Carlos R Morales
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Microsc Res Tech 72:809-15. 2009
    ..spermatogenesis of the prototypic member of the family, Ptc1, which acts to suppress hedgehog signaling through Smoothened (Smo). Here, we have examined the expression of Ptc1, Smo, and Dhh in mouse and rat seminiferous epithelium...
  94. pmc Hedgehog signaling is dispensable for adult hematopoietic stem cell function
    Jie Gao
    Department of Pathology and NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell Stem Cell 4:548-58. 2009
    ..Surprisingly, our studies demonstrate that conditional Smoothened (Smo) deletion or overactivation has no significant effects on adult HSC self-renewal and function...
  95. doi Sonic hedgehog is involved in formation of the ventral optic cup by limiting Bmp4 expression to the dorsal domain
    Lanying Zhao
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Yoshida, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, Japan
    Mech Dev 127:62-72. 2010
    ..To examine the roles of Shh signaling in optic cup formation and optic stalk development, we utilized the Smoothened (Smo) conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line...
  96. doi Hedgehog pathway activity is required for the lethality and intestinal phenotypes of mice with hyperactive Wnt signaling
    Frédéric Varnat
    University of Geneva Medical School, Department Genetic Medicine and Development, Geneva, Switzerland
    Mech Dev 127:73-81. 2010
    ..Using conditional KO models, we show that inhibition of the function of the critical Hh mediator Smoothened (Smo) rescues the lethality and intestinal phenotypes of loss of Apc...
  97. pmc The transcription factor Foxg1 regulates the competence of telencephalic cells to adopt subpallial fates in mice
    Martine Manuel
    Genes and Development Group, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK
    Development 137:487-97. 2010
    ..These findings indicate that, in addition to regulating the production of ventralising signals, Foxg1 acts cell-autonomously in the telencephalon to ensure that cells develop the competence to adopt ventral identities...
  98. pmc Cyclic expression of lhx2 regulates hair formation
    Gunilla Törnqvist
    Umeå Center for Molecular Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000904. 2010
    ....
  99. doi Reduced signaling through the hedgehog pathway in the uterine stroma causes deferred implantation and embryonic loss
    Rebecca M Harman
    Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Reproduction 141:665-74. 2011
    ..of the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway in implantation was studied in mice in which the HH signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), was conditionally deleted in the stromal compartment of the uterus, using CRE recombinase expressed ..
  100. pmc Growth Arrest Specific 8 (Gas8) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) cooperate in the control of Smoothened signaling
    Tama Evron
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:27676-86. 2011
    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-like molecule Smoothened (Smo) undergoes dynamic intracellular trafficking modulated by the microtubule associated kinase GRK2 and recruitment of β-arrestin...
  101. pmc A crucial requirement for Hedgehog signaling in small cell lung cancer
    Kwon Sik Park
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    Nat Med 17:1504-8. 2011
    ..Constitutive activation of the Hedgehog signaling molecule Smoothened (Smo) promoted the clonogenicity of human SCLC in vitro and the initiation and progression of mouse SCLC in vivo...

Research Grants2

  1. Regulation of Progenenitor Cell Maturation in the Cortex
    Laura Lillien; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The targets of Akt- 1 that mediate maturation and/or self-renewal will be addressed in aim 3. ..
  2. Eda/Edar Regulation of Embryonic SMG Development
    Tina Jaskoll; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....