Prf1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Prf1
Description: perforin 1 (pore forming protein)
Alias: Pfn, Pfp, Prf-1, perforin-1, cytolysin, lymphocyte pore-forming protein, pore forming protein
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi TRAIL identifies immature natural killer cells in newborn mice and adult mouse liver
    Kazuyoshi Takeda
    Department of Immunology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bukyou ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Blood 105:2082-9. 2005
  2. ncbi Perforin/Fas-ligand double deficiency is associated with macrophage expansion and severe pancreatitis
    J Spielman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    J Immunol 161:7063-70. 1998
  3. pmc Ectopic T-cell specificity and absence of perforin and granzyme B alleviate neural damage in oligodendrocyte mutant mice
    Antje Kroner
    Department of Neurology, Section of Developmental Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Am J Pathol 176:549-55. 2010
  4. ncbi Cutting edge: granzymes A and B are not essential for perforin-mediated tumor rejection
    Mark J Smyth
    Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 171:515-8. 2003
  5. ncbi Acquisition of murine NK cell cytotoxicity requires the translation of a pre-existing pool of granzyme B and perforin mRNAs
    Todd A Fehniger
    Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Immunity 26:798-811. 2007
  6. pmc Genomic organization of the mouse pore-forming protein (perforin) gene and localization to chromosome 10. Similarities to and differences from C9
    J A Trapani
    Laboratory of Human Immunogenetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021
    J Exp Med 171:545-57. 1990
  7. ncbi Fas and perforin pathways as major mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    D Kagi
    Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 265:528-30. 1994
  8. ncbi Cytolytic T-cell cytotoxicity is mediated through perforin and Fas lytic pathways
    B Lowin
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nature 370:650-2. 1994
  9. pmc Immune function in mice lacking the perforin gene
    C M Walsh
    Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:10854-8. 1994
  10. ncbi Two distinct pathways of specific killing revealed by perforin mutant cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    H Kojima
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Immunity 1:357-64. 1994

Research Grants

  1. The regulation of tumor immunity by NKT cells
    Mark Smyth; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. FLOW CYTOMETRY INSTRUMENT
    ZUHAIR BALLAS; Fiscal Year: 2001
  3. Immunobiology of Chlamydia
    Raymond Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. KILLER CELLS AND ALCOHOL
    ZUHAIR BALLAS; Fiscal Year: 2008
  5. Immune cell dynamics during central nervous system viral infection
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2008
  6. Cellular Immunity to Chlamydua at the Epithelial Interface
    RAYMOND MORRIS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. Early T cell checkpoint violation in NOD mice
    Mary A Yui; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. T cell Interactions in the CNS During Viral Persistence
    Dorian McGavern; Fiscal Year: 2005
  9. B Cell Expansion After Dendritic Cell Immunization
    Michael Jordan; Fiscal Year: 2004
  10. In Situ Analysis of Hepatitis B virus-specific T cells
    Dorian McGavern; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications160 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi TRAIL identifies immature natural killer cells in newborn mice and adult mouse liver
    Kazuyoshi Takeda
    Department of Immunology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bukyou ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Blood 105:2082-9. 2005
    ..This study is the first to describe the concomitant maturation of NK cell effector function with surface phenotype in vivo and implies an important defense role for NK cell TRAIL in the developing immune system...
  2. ncbi Perforin/Fas-ligand double deficiency is associated with macrophage expansion and severe pancreatitis
    J Spielman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    J Immunol 161:7063-70. 1998
    ..These studies demonstrate a novel role for perforin in homeostatic regulation of the immune response...
  3. pmc Ectopic T-cell specificity and absence of perforin and granzyme B alleviate neural damage in oligodendrocyte mutant mice
    Antje Kroner
    Department of Neurology, Section of Developmental Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Am J Pathol 176:549-55. 2010
    ..These findings have high relevance with regard to our understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders primarily caused by genetically mediated oligodendropathy...
  4. ncbi Cutting edge: granzymes A and B are not essential for perforin-mediated tumor rejection
    Mark J Smyth
    Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 171:515-8. 2003
    ....
  5. ncbi Acquisition of murine NK cell cytotoxicity requires the translation of a pre-existing pool of granzyme B and perforin mRNAs
    Todd A Fehniger
    Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Immunity 26:798-811. 2007
    ..These data suggest that resting murine NK cells are minimally cytotoxic because of a block in perforin and granzyme B mRNA translation that is released by NK cell activation...
  6. pmc Genomic organization of the mouse pore-forming protein (perforin) gene and localization to chromosome 10. Similarities to and differences from C9
    J A Trapani
    Laboratory of Human Immunogenetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021
    J Exp Med 171:545-57. 1990
    Genomic clones encompassing the entire coding region of the mouse lymphocyte pore-forming protein gene (Pfp) have been isolated and used to determine its intron-exon organization...
  7. ncbi Fas and perforin pathways as major mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    D Kagi
    Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 265:528-30. 1994
    ..All cytotoxicity observed was due to either of these mechanisms, and no third mechanism was detected. Thus, the perforin- and Fas-based mechanisms may account for all T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in short-term in vitro assays...
  8. ncbi Cytolytic T-cell cytotoxicity is mediated through perforin and Fas lytic pathways
    B Lowin
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Nature 370:650-2. 1994
    ..Thus, two complementary, specific cytotoxic mechanisms are functional in CTLs, one based on the secretion of lytic proteins and one which depends on cell-surface ligand-receptor interaction...
  9. pmc Immune function in mice lacking the perforin gene
    C M Walsh
    Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:10854-8. 1994
    ..We conclude that perforin-less -/- mice retain and express the Fas lytic pathway as expressed in vitro but that this pathway is insufficient to clear an LCMV infection in vivo...
  10. ncbi Two distinct pathways of specific killing revealed by perforin mutant cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    H Kojima
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Immunity 1:357-64. 1994
    ..These data not only confirmed the primary role of perforin but simultaneously revealed a major contribution of a perforin-independent Fas-mediated pathway in antigen-specific cytolysis...
  11. ncbi Perforin: structure and function
    C C Liu
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Cell Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Immunol Today 16:194-201. 1995
    ..Here Chau-Ching Liu, Craig M. Walsh and John Ding-E Young briefly outline certain biochemical and molecular features of perforin, and discuss the still-evolving issues concerning the relevance of perforin and Fas in cell killing...
  12. pmc A null mutation in the perforin gene impairs cytolytic T lymphocyte- and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    B Lowin
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:11571-5. 1994
    ..We conclude that perforin is a crucial effector molecule in T cell- and NK cell-mediated cytolysis. However, alternative perforin-independent lytic mechanisms also exist...
  13. ncbi Cytotoxicity mediated by T cells and natural killer cells is greatly impaired in perforin-deficient mice
    D Kagi
    Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 369:31-7. 1994
    ..The mice fail to clear lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and they eliminate fibrosarcoma tumour cells with reduced efficiency. Perforin is therefore a key effector molecule for T-cell- and natural killer-cell-mediated cytolysis...
  14. pmc The role of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in acute GVHD after MHC-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice
    M B Baker
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33101, USA
    J Exp Med 183:2645-56. 1996
    ..In addition, perforin-mediated anti-recipient cytotoxicity appears to play an important role in the kinetics of GVHD pathophysiology, but is not required for GVHD-associated tissue damage...
  15. pmc Decreased tumor surveillance in perforin-deficient mice
    M E van den Broek
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 184:1781-90. 1996
    ....
  16. pmc Distinct organ-dependent mechanisms for the control of murine cytomegalovirus infection by natural killer cells
    C H Tay
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA
    J Virol 71:267-75. 1997
    ..These results may explain why the Cmv-lr locus, which maps closely to genes regulating NK cell cytotoxic function, confers an NK cell-dependent resistance to MCMV infection in the spleen but not in the liver...
  17. pmc Reduced incidence and delayed onset of diabetes in perforin-deficient nonobese diabetic mice
    D Kagi
    Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto M5G2M9, Canada
    J Exp Med 186:989-97. 1997
    ..However, in the absence of perforin chronic inflammation of the islets can lead to diabetogenic beta cell loss by less efficient secondary effector mechanisms...
  18. pmc Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis: perforin exacerbates disease, but plays no detectable role in virus clearance
    J R Gebhard
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Am J Pathol 153:417-28. 1998
    ..Thus, the chemokine pathway offers a second route of intervention to diminish myocarditis and its sequelae, while permitting the host to eradicate the virus...
  19. ncbi Perforin-dependent neurologic injury in a viral model of multiple sclerosis
    P D Murray
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Neurosci 18:7306-14. 1998
    ..These studies implicate perforin release by CD8(+) T cells as a potential mechanism by which neurologic deficits are induced after demyelination...
  20. pmc Cytotoxicity is mandatory for CD8(+) T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity
    J Kehren
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U503, Faculte Laennec, F 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    J Exp Med 189:779-86. 1999
    ..Thus, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, commonly implicated in the host defence against tumors and viral infections, could also mediate harmful delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions...
  21. ncbi Perforin is a major contributor to NK cell control of tumor metastasis
    M J Smyth
    Cellular Immunity Laboratory, Austin Research Institute, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 162:6658-62. 1999
    ..Depletion of NK subsets resulted in greater numbers of metastases than observed in perforin-deficient mice, suggesting that perforin-independent effector functions of NK cells may also contribute to protection from tumor metastasis...
  22. pmc Differential tumor surveillance by natural killer (NK) and NKT cells
    M J Smyth
    Cellular Cytotoxicity Laboratory, Austin Research Institute, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, 3084 Victoria, Australia
    J Exp Med 191:661-8. 2000
    ..This is the first description of an antitumor function for NKT cells in the absence of exogenously administered potent stimulators such as IL-12 or alpha-galactosylceramide...
  23. ncbi Murine cytomegalovirus replication in salivary glands is controlled by both perforin and granzymes during acute infection
    L Riera
    Department of Public Health and Microbiology, Medical School, Torino, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 30:1350-5. 2000
    ....
  24. ncbi Regulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell homeostasis by perforin and interferon-gamma
    V P Badovinac
    Department of Microbiology and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Science 290:1354-8. 2000
    ..Thus, perforin and IFN-gamma regulate distinct elements of CD8+ T cell homeostasis independently of their role as antimicrobial effector molecules...
  25. ncbi Perforin and interferon-gamma activities independently control tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis
    S E Street
    Cancer Immunology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Victoria, Australia
    Blood 97:192-7. 2001
    Perforin (pfp) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) together in C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mouse strains provided optimal protection in 3 separate tumor models controlled by innate immunity...
  26. ncbi Fas ligand (CD95L) protects neurons against perforin-mediated T lymphocyte cytotoxicity
    I Medana
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18 A, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Immunol 167:674-81. 2001
    ..5 h, reflecting perforin-dependent cell lysis. FasL seems to protect neurons by blocking degranulation of CTLs, since CD3-induced release of cytotoxic granules was reduced by coapplication of Fas-specific Abs or rFasL...
  27. pmc Concerted action of the FasL/Fas and perforin/granzyme A and B pathways is mandatory for the development of early viral hepatitis but not for recovery from viral infection
    S Balkow
    Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, 79108 Freiburg, Universitat Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 75:8781-91. 2001
    ....
  28. ncbi Increased susceptibility to tumor initiation and metastasis in TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-deficient mice
    Erika Cretney
    Cancer Immunology Program, Sir Donald and Lady Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, A Beckett Street, East Melbourne, 8006 Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 168:1356-61. 2002
    ..TRAIL gene-targeted mice were also more sensitive to the chemical carcinogen methylcholanthrene. These results substantiated TRAIL as an important natural effector molecule used in the host defense against transformed cells...
  29. pmc Suppression of lymphoma and epithelial malignancies effected by interferon gamma
    Shayna E A Street
    Cancer Immunology Program, Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, East Melbourne, Victoria 8006, Australia
    J Exp Med 196:129-34. 2002
    ..we describe spontaneous tumor development in gene-targeted mice lacking interferon (IFN)-gamma and/or perforin (pfp), or the immunoregulatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
  30. ncbi Inflammation in atherosclerosis: lesion formation in LDL receptor-deficient mice with perforin and Lyst(beige) mutations
    Natalie K Schiller
    Scripps Research Institute, Department of Immunology, La Jolla, Calif, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 22:1341-6. 2002
    ..cytolysis in atherosclerosis, we generated C57Bl/6 double-mutant mice by crossing LDLr-/- mice with NK cell-defective Lyst(beige) mice (creating beige,LDLr-/- mice) and with perforin-deficient mice (creating Pfp-/-,LDLr-/- mice).
  31. pmc Molecular anatomy of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell engagement and synapse formation in vivo
    Dorian B McGavern
    Division of Virology, Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:918-25. 2002
    ..In addition, we have established an in vivo approach for assessing the intricacies of antigen-specific T cell activation, migration, engagement, memory and other defining elements of adaptive immunity...
  32. ncbi Perforin-dependent brain-infiltrating cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis
    Josianne Nitcheu
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 511, Immunobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire des Infections Parasitaires, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 91 Boulevard de l Hopital, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France
    J Immunol 170:2221-8. 2003
    ..We found that, in contrast to ECM-susceptible C57BL6 mice, perforin-deficient (PFP-KO) mice were resistant to ECM in the absence of brain lesions, whereas cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes ..
  33. ncbi Viral infection results in massive CD8+ T cell expansion and mortality in vaccinated perforin-deficient mice
    Vladimir P Badovinac
    Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Immunity 18:463-74. 2003
    ..Thus, perforin was essential for resistance to secondary LCMV infection, and, in the absence of perforin, vaccination resulted in lethal disease mediated by dysregulated CD8(+) T cell expansion and cytokine production...
  34. ncbi IL-21 activates both innate and adaptive immunity to generate potent antitumor responses that require perforin but are independent of IFN-gamma
    Hak Ling Ma
    Wyeth Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
    J Immunol 171:608-15. 2003
    ..We conclude that IL-21 immunotherapy warrants clinical evaluation as a potential treatment for cancer...
  35. ncbi IL-21 induces the functional maturation of murine NK cells
    Jason Brady
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 172:2048-58. 2004
    ..These developmental changes suggested that IL-21 functions to induce the terminal differentiation of mouse NK cells, resulting in heightened NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and immune surveillance...
  36. pmc Innate immune surveillance of spontaneous B cell lymphomas by natural killer cells and gammadelta T cells
    Shayna E A Street
    Cancer Immunology Program, Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre Peter Mac, 8006, Victoria, Australia
    J Exp Med 199:879-84. 2004
    ..These results reflect a critical role for NK cells and gammadeltaTCR+ T cells in innate immune surveillance of B cell lymphomas, mediated by as yet undetermined pathway(s) of tumor recognition...
  37. ncbi An animal model of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): CD8+ T cells and interferon gamma are essential for the disorder
    Michael B Jordan
    Integrated Department of Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, USA
    Blood 104:735-43. 2004
    ..These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of HLH, and provide new targets for specific therapeutic intervention in this fatal disorder...
  38. ncbi Analysis of regulatory CD8 T cells in Qa-1-deficient mice
    Dan Hu
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:516-23. 2004
    ..These findings delineate a Qa-1-dependent T cell-T cell inhibitory interaction that prevents the pathogenic expansion of autoreactive CD4 T cell populations and consequent autoimmune disease...
  39. pmc Apoptotic pathways are selectively activated by granzyme A and/or granzyme B in CTL-mediated target cell lysis
    Julian Pardo
    Departmento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad de Zaragoza, E 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
    J Cell Biol 167:457-68. 2004
    ..The ability of gzmA and gzmB to induce multiple independent cell death pathways may be the hosts response to circumvent evasion strategies of pathogens and tumors...
  40. pmc Natural killer cells utilize both perforin and gamma interferon to regulate murine cytomegalovirus infection in the spleen and liver
    Joy Loh
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:661-7. 2005
    ..of the acute phase of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection and have been reported to utilize perforin (Pfp)- and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-dependent effector mechanisms in an organ-specific manner to regulate MCMV ..
  41. ncbi NK cell-mediated immunopathology during an acute viral infection of the CNS
    Mohammed Alsharifi
    Division of Immunology and Genetics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    Eur J Immunol 36:887-96. 2006
    ..This is the first study illustrating an NK cell-mediated immunopathological outcome to an acute viral infection...
  42. ncbi CD4 T cell-mediated protection from lethal influenza: perforin and antibody-mediated mechanisms give a one-two punch
    Deborah M Brown
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    J Immunol 177:2888-98. 2006
    ..Primed CD4 cells also acquired perforin (Pfn)-mediated cytolytic activity during effector generation, suggesting a second mechanism used by CD4 cells to confer ..
  43. ncbi Cytotoxic T-cells from T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice destroy beta-cells via the perforin and Fas pathways
    Nadine L Dudek
    St Vincent s Institute, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia
    Diabetes 55:2412-8. 2006
    ..Therefore, NOD8.3 T-cells use both perforin and Fas pathways to kill beta-cells and the surprising blockade of NOD8.3 T-cell-mediated beta-cell death by SOCS-1 overexpression may be due in part to reduced target cell recognition...
  44. pmc Absence of perforin expression confers axonal protection despite demyelination
    Charles L Howe
    Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 25:354-9. 2007
    ..We conclude that perforin-dependent effector cells such as cytotoxic T cells, gammadelta T cells, and natural killer cells may play a role in axon damage that is dependent upon but separable from demyelination...
  45. pmc Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway
    Linrong Lu
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunity 26:593-604. 2007
    ....
  46. ncbi Granzyme B is expressed in mouse mast cells in vivo and in vitro and causes delayed cell death independent of perforin
    J Pardo
    Metschnikoff Laboratory, Max Planck Institut for Immunbiology, Stubeweg 51, Freiburg, Germany
    Cell Death Differ 14:1768-79. 2007
    ..The data suggest that activated mast cells contribute, via secreted gzmB, to cell death, increased vascular permeability, leukocyte extravasation and subsequent inflammatory processes in affected tissues...
  47. pmc Regulation of CD8+ regulatory T cells: Interruption of the NKG2A-Qa-1 interaction allows robust suppressive activity and resolution of autoimmune disease
    Linrong Lu
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19420-5. 2008
    ..Further analysis revealed that genetic disruption of the Qa-1-CD94/NKG2A interaction unleashes robust CD8 Treg cell activity that completely abolishes development of EAE...
  48. pmc West Nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct antiviral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection
    James D Brien
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Immunol 181:8568-75. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate the role of direct effector function of Ag-specific CD4 T cells in preventing severe WNV disease...
  49. pmc Perforin-expressing cytotoxic cells contribute to chronic cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi infection
    Jaline Coutinho Silverio
    Laboratório de Biologia das Interações, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Int J Exp Pathol 91:72-86. 2010
    ..cruzi strain. This protocol led to acute phase survival in both wild-type and perforin null (pfp(-/-)) mice lineages...
  50. doi Cytotoxic CD8+ T cell-neuron interactions: perforin-dependent electrical silencing precedes but is not causally linked to neuronal cell death
    Sven G Meuth
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 29:15397-409. 2009
    ..Thus, electrical silencing is an immediate consequence of MHC I-restricted interaction of CD8(+) T cells with neurons. This mechanism is clearly perforin-dependent and precedes, but is not causally linked, to neuronal cell death...
  51. pmc Perforin-independent extracellular granzyme B activity contributes to abdominal aortic aneurysm
    Ciara M Chamberlain
    James Hogg Research Laboratories, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6Z 1Y6
    Am J Pathol 176:1038-49. 2010
    ....
  52. pmc Mechanisms of spatial and temporal development of autoimmune vitiligo in tyrosinase-specific TCR transgenic mice
    Randal K Gregg
    Carter Immunology Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    J Immunol 184:1909-17. 2010
    ..Genetic ablation of CXCR3 or IFN-gamma also resulted in scarce CD8 T cell infiltration into the skin. Our results identify unexpected complexity in vitiligo development and point toward possible therapeutic interventions...
  53. pmc Tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eradicate large established melanoma after transfer into lymphopenic hosts
    Sergio A Quezada
    Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 207:637-50. 2010
    ....
  54. pmc Absence of mouse 2B4 promotes NK cell-mediated killing of activated CD8+ T cells, leading to prolonged viral persistence and altered pathogenesis
    Stephen N Waggoner
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:1925-38. 2010
    ..These results illustrate the importance of NK cell self-tolerance to activated CD8+ T cells and demonstrate how an apparent T cell-associated persistent infection can actually be regulated by NK cells...
  55. doi NK cell regulation of CD4 T cell-mediated graft-versus-host disease
    Magali Noval Rivas
    Institute for Medical Immunology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies, Belgium
    J Immunol 184:6790-8. 2010
    ..These results highlight the potential role played by NK cells in controlling the Ag-specific CD4+ T cells responsible for chronic GVHD...
  56. doi The structural basis for membrane binding and pore formation by lymphocyte perforin
    Ruby H P Law
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 468:447-51. 2010
    ..molecule, comprising an amino-terminal membrane attack complex perforin-like (MACPF)/cholesterol dependent cytolysin (CDC) domain followed by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain that, together with the extreme carboxy-..
  57. pmc Mouse granzyme K has pro-inflammatory potential
    L T Joeckel
    Metschnikoff Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
    Cell Death Differ 18:1112-9. 2011
    ..Together with the finding that IL-1Ra (Anakinra) treatment inhibits virus elimination but not generation of cytotoxic Tc cells in wt mice, the data suggest that Tc cells control LCMV through non-cytotoxic processes that involve gzmK...
  58. pmc Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection
    Ashlesh K Murthy
    South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA
    Infect Immun 79:2928-35. 2011
    ..These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae...
  59. pmc Perforin is a critical physiologic regulator of T-cell activation
    Jennifer E Lykens
    Division of Immunobiology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Blood 118:618-26. 2011
    ..We conclude that perforin-dependent cytotoxicity has an immunoregulatory role that is distinguishable from its pathogen clearance function and limits T-cell activation in the physiologic context by suppressing antigen presentation...
  60. pmc CD8+ T-cells expressing interferon gamma or perforin play antagonistic roles in heart injury in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited cardiomyopathy
    Jaline Coutinho Silverio
    Laboratório de Biologia das Interações, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002645. 2012
    ..In T. cruzi infection, most of the CD8(+) T-cells segregated into IFNγ(+) perforin (Pfn)(neg) or IFNγ(neg)Pfn(+) cell populations. Colonization of the cardiac tissue by anti-T...
  61. doi Cytotoxic and proinflammatory CD8+ T lymphocytes promote development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in apoE-deficient mice
    Tin Kyaw
    Vascular Biology and Atherosclerosis Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Victoria, Australia
    Circulation 127:1028-39. 2013
    ..Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes represent up to 50% of leukocytes in advanced human plaques and dominate early immune responses in mouse lesions, yet their role in atherosclerosis also remains unresolved...
  62. pmc The perforin pore facilitates the delivery of cationic cargos
    Sarah E Stewart
    From the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    J Biol Chem 289:9172-81. 2014
    ..We propose that this facilitated diffusion is due to conserved features of oligomerized MACPF proteins, which may include an anionic lumen. ..
  63. pmc In vitro- and ex vivo-derived cytolytic leukocytes from granzyme A x B double knockout mice are defective in granule-mediated apoptosis but not lysis of target cells
    M M Simon
    Max Planck Institut für Immunbiology, Freiburg, Germany
    J Exp Med 186:1781-6. 1997
    ..This suggests that gzmA and B are critical for Tc/NK granule- mediated nucleolysis, with gzmB being the main contributor, while target cell lysis is due solely to perforin and independent of both proteases...
  64. pmc Demyelinated axons and motor function are protected by genetic deletion of perforin in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis
    Chandra Deb
    Departments of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:1037-48. 2009
    ..These results suggest that perforin is a key mediator of axon injury and lend additional support to the hypothesis that CD8 T cells are primarily responsible for axon damage in multiple sclerosis...
  65. ncbi Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis is chronic/relapsing in perforin knockout mice, but monophasic in Fas- and Fas ligand-deficient lpr and gld mice
    U Malipiero
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur J Immunol 27:3151-60. 1997
    ..Unlike oligodendrocytes, astrocytes were killed by FasL in vitro. It remains to be established whether this latter finding explains the different disease course of lpr and gld mice compared to wild-type and perforin knockout mice...
  66. ncbi Perforin protects against autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice
    S L Peng
    Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    J Immunol 160:652-60. 1998
    ....
  67. ncbi Perforin-dependent cytolytic responses in beta2-microglobulin-deficient mice
    M J Smyth
    Cellular Cytotoxicity Laboratory, The Austin Research Institute, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria, 3084, Australia
    Cell Immunol 196:51-9. 1999
    ..Dependence on perforin function was demonstrated for the cytotoxicity of these effectors in vitro and for the ability of these effectors to reject a variety of tumors in vivo...
  68. pmc Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes
    A Mullbacher
    Division of Immunology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13950-5. 1999
    ..These results establish that both gzmA and gzmB are indispensable effector molecules acting in concert with perforin in granule exocytosis-mediated host defense against natural viral pathogens...
  69. ncbi Perforin and granzymes have distinct roles in defensive immunity and immunopathology
    Serani L H van Dommelen
    Immunology and Virology Program, Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia
    Immunity 25:835-48. 2006
    ..Here we showed that perforin (Prf1) and granzymes (Gzms) have distinct roles in defensive immunity and immunopathology in a well-established model of ..
  70. pmc Natural killer cells act as rheostats modulating antiviral T cells
    Stephen N Waggoner
    Department of Pathology and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    Nature 481:394-8. 2011
    ..Thus, NK cells can act as rheostats, regulating CD4 T-cell-mediated support for the antiviral CD8 T cells that control viral pathogenesis and persistence...
  71. doi B-cells and IL-4 promote methylcholanthrene-induced carcinogenesis but there is no evidence for a role of T/NKT-cells and their effector molecules (Fas-ligand, TNF-α, perforin)
    Thomas Kammertoens
    Institut fur Immunologie, Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
    Int J Cancer 131:1499-508. 2012
    ....
  72. pmc Densely granulated murine NK cells eradicate large solid tumors
    Rebecca B Liu
    Committee on Immunology, Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Cancer Res 72:1964-74. 2012
    ..These results indicate that IL-15 released at the cancer site induces highly activated NK cells that lead to eradication of large solid tumors...
  73. pmc Platelets induce apoptosis during sepsis in a contact-dependent manner that is inhibited by GPIIb/IIIa blockade
    Matthew Sharron
    Division of Critical Care Medicine, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e41549. 2012
    ..We previously reported an acute sepsis-induced cytotoxic platelet phenotype expressing serine protease granzyme B. We now aim to define the site(s) of and mechanism(s) by which platelet granzyme B induces end-organ apoptosis in sepsis...
  74. pmc 2,3,7,8-TCDD enhances the sensitivity of mice to concanavalin A immune-mediated liver injury
    Aaron M Fullerton
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, 1129 Farm Lane, Room 215, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 266:317-27. 2013
    ..In summary, exposure to TCDD increased NKT cell activation and exacerbated immune-mediated liver injury induced by Con A through a mechanism involving IFNγ and FasL expression...
  75. pmc Programmed death 1 protects from fatal circulatory failure during systemic virus infection of mice
    Helge Frebel
    Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 209:2485-99. 2012
    ....
  76. pmc Mouse tumor vasculature expresses NKG2D ligands and can be targeted by chimeric NKG2D-modified T cells
    Tong Zhang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    J Immunol 190:2455-63. 2013
    ..The in vivo antiangiogenesis effects mediated by chNKG2D-bearing T cells at the tumor site were dependent on IFN-γ and perforin. These results provide a novel mechanism for NKG2D-based targeting of solid tumors...
  77. ncbi Deficiency of merosin in dystrophic dy mice and genetic linkage of laminin M chain gene to dy locus
    Y Sunada
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242
    J Biol Chem 269:13729-32. 1994
    ....
  78. ncbi Regulation of perforin gene expression in a T cell hybrid with inducible cytolytic activity
    J A Garcia-Sanz
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami, School of Medicine
    Eur J Immunol 23:1877-83. 1993
    ..In addition, we confirm the existence of two types of mouse perforin mRNA that differ in their 5' untranslated regions, and show evidence that both mRNA are translated in vivo with similar efficiencies...
  79. ncbi Genetic mapping of gene encoding the farnesoid receptor, Fxr, to mouse Chromosome 10
    C A Kozak
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    Mamm Genome 7:164-5. 1996
  80. ncbi Perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells provide immunity to Listeria monocytogenes by a mechanism that is independent of CD95 and IFN-gamma but requires TNF-alpha
    D W White
    Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Immunol 160:898-905. 1998
    ..These results indicate that single Ag-specific CD8+ T cells derived from PO mice can mediate antilisterial immunity by a mechanism that is independent of CD95 or IFN-gamma, but requires TNF-alpha...
  81. ncbi Cutting edge: perforin down-regulates CD4 and CD8 T cell-mediated immune responses to a transplanted organ
    Anirban Bose
    Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Immunol 170:1611-4. 2003
    ..In contrast, perforin did not influence T cell proliferation. Therefore, perforin is an essential immunoregulatory molecule that may be required for the induction of transplantation tolerance...
  82. ncbi The role of TNF-TNFR2 interactions in generation of CTL responses and clearance of hepatic adenovirus infection
    Michel I Kafrouni
    Department of Internal Medicine, Divison of Digestive and Liver Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75390 9151, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 74:564-71. 2003
    ..These findings indicate that TNF/TNFR2 interactions facilitate generation of FasL-dependent CTL effector pathways that play an important role in in vivo antiviral-immune responses in the liver...
  83. ncbi Prolonged production of TNF-alpha exacerbates illness during respiratory syncytial virus infection
    John A Rutigliano
    Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 173:3408-17. 2004
    ..In addition, the revelation that TNF-alpha is the principal mediator of RSV-induced illness means that administration of TNF receptor antagonists, in combination with antiviral therapy, may be an effective method to treat RSV infections...
  84. pmc Perforin deficiency attenuates collagen-induced arthritis
    Kristin Bauer
    Institute of Immunology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Arthritis Res Ther 7:R877-84. 2005
    ..In this study we examined the role of perforin (pfp), a key molecule of the cytotoxic death pathway that is expressed mainly in CD8+ T cells, for the pathogenesis of ..
  85. ncbi IL-21 enhances tumor rejection through a NKG2D-dependent mechanism
    Rayna Takaki
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program and The Cancer Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Immunol 175:2167-73. 2005
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that IL-21 therapy may work optimally against tumors that can elicit a NKG2D-mediated immune response...
  86. ncbi Solid tumors "melt" from the inside after successful CD8 T cell attack
    Ulrike Blohm
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Department of Immunology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 36:468-77. 2006
    ..Thus, our data also imply that adoptive transfer of tumor-specific CD8 T cells might synergize with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in the elimination of solid tumors in vivo...
  87. pmc Up-regulation of Fas (CD95) expression in tumour cells in vivo
    Naama Peshes-Yaloz
    Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Immunology 120:502-11. 2007
    ..Our model is that host lymphoid cells in response to a tumour increase NO synthesis, which in turn causes enhanced Fas expression in the tumour...
  88. pmc 2B4 inhibits NK-cell fratricide
    Ruth T Taniguchi
    University of Chicago Department of Pathology, Committee on Immunology, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Blood 110:2020-3. 2007
    ..We show that in the absence of 2B4 signaling, activated NK cells have defective cytotoxicity and proliferation because of fratricide and not due to the absence of a 2B4-dependent activation signal...
  89. pmc IFN-gamma-producing dendritic cells are important for priming of gut intraepithelial lymphocyte response against intracellular parasitic infection
    Magali M Moretto
    Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Immunol 179:2485-92. 2007
    ..To our knowledge, this report is the first demonstrating a role for IFN-gamma-producing DC from Peyer's patches in the development of Ag-specific IEL population and their trafficking to the gut epithelium...
  90. pmc Preemptive HMG-CoA reductase inhibition provides graft-versus-host disease protection by Th-2 polarization while sparing graft-versus-leukemia activity
    Robert Zeiser
    Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Blood 110:4588-98. 2007
    ....
  91. ncbi Cytotoxic T lymphocytes overcome Bcl-2 inhibition: target cells contribute to their own demise
    Ing Swie Goping
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Blood 111:2142-51. 2008
    ..This ensures that CTLs can eliminate those target cells that have compromised apoptotic potential due to overexpression of Bcl-2...
  92. doi Interleukin-15/interleukin-15R alpha complexes promote destruction of established tumors by reviving tumor-resident CD8+ T cells
    Mathieu Epardaud
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 68:2972-83. 2008
    ....
  93. pmc Transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from infected dendritic cells to natural killer cells
    Catrine M Persson
    Department of Medicine, Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, F59, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Infect Immun 77:970-6. 2009
    ..These results suggest that rapid transfer of T. gondii from infected DC to effector NK cells may contribute to the parasite's sequestration and shielding from immune recognition shortly after infection...
  94. pmc CD8 T cell-initiated vascular endothelial growth factor expression promotes central nervous system vascular permeability under neuroinflammatory conditions
    Georgette L Suidan
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
    J Immunol 184:1031-40. 2010
    ....
  95. pmc IL-23 suppresses innate immune response independently of IL-17A during carcinogenesis and metastasis
    Michele W L Teng
    Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8328-33. 2010
    ..Overall, these data indicate the general role that IL-23 plays in suppressing natural or cytokine-induced innate immunity, promoting tumor development and metastases independently of IL-17A...
  96. pmc In vivo administration of hypomethylating agents mitigate graft-versus-host disease without sacrificing graft-versus-leukemia
    Jaebok Choi
    Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Blood 116:129-39. 2010
    ..Their suppressor function is dependent on direct contact, partially dependent on perforin 1 (Prf1), but independent of granzyme B (GzmB), and surprisingly, Foxp3...
  97. pmc Antigen-specific cytotoxicity by invariant NKT cells in vivo is CD95/CD178-dependent and is correlated with antigenic potency
    Gerhard Wingender
    Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Immunol 185:2721-9. 2010
    ..Therefore, unlike NK cells, which rely mostly on perforin/granzyme-mediated mechanisms, the Ag-specific cytotoxicity of iNKT cells in vivo is largely restricted to the CD95/CD178 pathway...
  98. doi Administration of alpha-galactosylceramide impairs the survival of dendritic cell subpopulations in vivo
    Helen M A Simkins
    Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand
    J Leukoc Biol 89:753-62. 2011
    ..Thus, iNKT cells regulate the survival of CD8(+) DCs through a mechanism that does not appear to involve direct cell killing...
  99. ncbi Molecular genetic markers spanning mouse chromosome 10
    C A Kozak
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Genomics 8:519-24. 1990
    ..genes involved in oncogenesis (Gli, Myb, Tra-1), proviral integration (Emv-25), and immune responses (Ifg, Ifgr, Pfp). The linkage map spans much of the chromosome and covers a region of the mouse genome with few molecular markers...
  100. ncbi Relative perforin- and Fas-mediated lysis in T1 and T2 CD8 effector populations
    L L Carter
    Department of Molecular Pathology, University of California San Diego Cancer Center, La Jolla 92093, USA
    J Immunol 155:1028-31. 1995
    ..Th1 cells have recently been shown to be regulated by Fas and we speculate that Fas-mediated mechanisms are involved in the regulation of both Th1 and T1 populations of T cells...
  101. ncbi Acute hepatotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A in mice depends on T cells and TNF
    J Schumann
    Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    J Immunol 161:5745-54. 1998
    ..These results demonstrate that PEA induces liver damage not only by protein synthesis inhibition but also by TNF- and perforin-dependent, Fas-independent, apoptotic signals...

Research Grants12

  1. The regulation of tumor immunity by NKT cells
    Mark Smyth; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal focuses clearly on a pivotal immune control mechanism that will influence many current and future immunotherapies. ..
  2. FLOW CYTOMETRY INSTRUMENT
    ZUHAIR BALLAS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Immunobiology of Chlamydia
    Raymond Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3) To determine the effect of adoptive transfer of mucosal CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes on the natural course of MoPn genital tract infections. ..
  4. KILLER CELLS AND ALCOHOL
    ZUHAIR BALLAS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Preliminary data prompted the hypothesis that ETOH blunts the enhanced NK activity induced by CpG ODN [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Immune cell dynamics during central nervous system viral infection
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Cellular Immunity to Chlamydua at the Epithelial Interface
    RAYMOND MORRIS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Defining what protective T cells look like, and how they function, will be critical for designing and assessing future Chlamydia candidate vaccines. ..
  7. Early T cell checkpoint violation in NOD mice
    Mary A Yui; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Identifying genes and pathways affectingT cells, which predispose NOD mice to T1D will help in the understanding of immune deviations that can lead to disease in humans. ..
  8. T cell Interactions in the CNS During Viral Persistence
    Dorian McGavern; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The main objective of this research is to define the immunologic parameters that contribute to viral clearance versus persistence in the CNS and foster approaches that tip the balance in favor of clearance. ..
  9. B Cell Expansion After Dendritic Cell Immunization
    Michael Jordan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..My near term career path will involve ongoing basic research and study in order to improve my ultimate scientific productivity. ..
  10. In Situ Analysis of Hepatitis B virus-specific T cells
    Dorian McGavern; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The main objective of this research is to more precisely define the contribution of HBV-specific CTL to viral clearance and pathogenesis by providing the first comprehensive analysis of these cells in situ. ..
  11. Development of Cellular Assays of Dengue Virus Infection
    Priscilla Yang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These inhibitors can be used to study how dengue virus interacts with its host, and they may also be useful in developing therapies for the treatment of dengue virus infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..