Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Mapk1
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Alias: 9030612K14Rik, AA407128, AU018647, C78273, ERK, Erk2, MAPK2, PRKM2, Prkm1, p41mapk, p42mapk, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, ERK-2, ERT1, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 2, MAP kinase isoform p42, MAPK 1, MAPK 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, mitogen-activated protein kinase 2, p42-MAPK
Publications213 found, 100 shown here
- Essential role for ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental developmentNaoya Hatano
Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Japan
Genes Cells 8:847-56. 2003Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) has been implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. However, its role in vivo remains to be determined.
- Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein bypasses replicative senescence in primary cells through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 activationAna Artero-Castro
Pathology Department, Fundació Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d Hebron, Passeig Vall d Hebron 119 129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Mol Cell Biol 29:1855-68. 2009..Interestingly, CIRP mRNA and protein were upregulated in a subgroup of cancer patients, a finding that may be of relevance for cancer research...
- Oxidized LDL and lysophosphatidylcholine stimulate plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression through reactive oxygen species generation and ERK1/2 activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytesAkihiko Kuniyasu
Deparment of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
Biochim Biophys Acta 1811:153-62. 2011..These data demonstrate that the uptake of OxLDL and, in particular, its lipid component LPC into adipocytes triggers aberrant ROS-mediated PAI-1 expression, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome...
- Reciprocal CD40 signals through p38MAPK and ERK-1/2 induce counteracting immune responsesRam Kumar Mathur
National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
Nat Med 10:540-4. 2004..Here we show that weak CD40 signals induce extracellular stress-related kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2)-dependent IL-10 expression, whereas stronger signals induce p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-..
- Lfc and Tctex-1 regulate the genesis of neurons from cortical precursor cellsAndrée Gauthier-Fisher
Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nat Neurosci 12:735-44. 2009..Moreover, Lfc and Tctex-1 were required to determine the orientation of mitotic precursor cell divisions in vivo. Thus, Lfc and Tctex-1 interact to regulate cortical neurogenesis, potentially by regulating mitotic spindle orientation...
- LFA-1 regulates CD8+ T cell activation via T cell receptor-mediated and LFA-1-mediated Erk1/2 signal pathwaysDan Li
Section of Transplantation Immunology, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Biol Chem 284:21001-10. 2009..We demonstrated that the function of LFA-1 is to enhance TCR signaling through the immunological synapse and deliver distinct signals in CD8+ T cell activation...
- GLP-1 mediates antiapoptotic effect by phosphorylating Bad through a beta-arrestin 1-mediated ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic beta-cellsJulie Quoyer
INSERM, U661, Equipe Avenir, CNRS, UMR5203, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, Université Montpellier I and II, 34094 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
J Biol Chem 285:1989-2002. 2010..Such signaling mechanism may serve as a prototype to generate new therapeutic GLP-1R ligands...
- Activation of spinal extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 is associated with the development of visceral hyperalgesia of the bladderH Henry Lai
Department of Surgery, Division of Urologic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Pain 152:2117-24. 2011Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 in dorsal horn neurons is important for the development of somatic hypersensitivity and spinal central sensitization after peripheral inflammation...
- The role of erk1 and erk2 in multiple stages of T cell developmentApril M Fischer
Division of Biological Sciences, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0377, USA
Immunity 23:431-43. 2005..In this report, we present an analysis of mice with targeted deletions in Erk1 and Erk2 to assess the relationship between Erk activity and cell-cycle progression, thymocyte development, and lineage ..
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 is necessary for mesoderm differentiationYao Yao
Department of Biology, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, 130 Waverly Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12759-64. 2003..Exon 2 of erk2 was deleted by homologous recombination and resulted in embryonic lethality at embryonic day 6.5...
- Brain-derived erythropoietin protects from focal cerebral ischemia by dual activation of ERK-1/-2 and Akt pathwaysErtugrul Kilic
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich USZ, Zurich, Switzerland
FASEB J 19:2026-8. 2005..Histochemical studies revealed that Epo induced an activation of JAK-2, ERK-1/-2, and Akt pathways in the ischemic brain...
- Differential dependence of stretch and shear stress signaling on caveolin-1 in the vascular wallSebastian Albinsson
Vascular Physiology Group, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC D12, Lund SE 221 84, Sweden
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 294:C271-9. 2008..In conclusion, caveolin 1 contributes to low basal ERK1/2 and Akt activity and is required for Akt-dependent signals in response to shear stress (flow) but is not essential for trophic effects of stretch (pressure) in the vascular wall...
- Neurofibromatosis-1 regulates neuronal and glial cell differentiation from neuroglial progenitors in vivo by both cAMP- and Ras-dependent mechanismsBalazs Hegedus
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Cell Stem Cell 1:443-57. 2007..Together, these findings demonstrate that neurofibromin is required for normal glial and neuronal development involving separable Ras-dependent and cAMP-dependent mechanisms...
- Sphingosine 1-phosphate regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 in embryonic stem cellsAlayna Rodgers
Cell Biology Group, SIPBS, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR, United Kingdom
Stem Cells Dev 18:1319-30. 2009..We have investigated the role of S1P in regulating ERK-1/2 signaling in mouse ES cells...
- An early response transcription factor, Egr-1, enhances insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes with chronic hyperinsulinismNing Shen
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center and the Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210061, China
J Biol Chem 286:14508-15. 2011..In this report, we found that chronic exposure to hyperinsulinism caused persistent Erk/MAPK activity in adipocytes and enhanced insulin resistance in an Egr-1-dependent manner...
- Dopamine D1 receptors regulate protein synthesis-dependent long-term recognition memory via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the prefrontal cortexTaku Nagai
Laboratory of Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
Learn Mem 14:117-25. 2007..An inhibitor of ERK kinase impaired long-term recognition memory 24 h after the training although short-term memory tested 1 h after ..
- MCP-1-dependent signaling in CCR2(-/-) aortic smooth muscle cellsAlison D Schecter
The Cardiovascular Institute, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
J Leukoc Biol 75:1079-85. 2004..This alternative receptor may be important in mediating some of the effects of MCP-1 in atherosclerotic arteries and in other inflammatory processes...
- Endothelin-1 inhibits adipogenesis: role of phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2Indranil Bhattacharya
Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
FEBS Lett 580:5765-71. 2006..We suggest that treatment with ET-1 and EGF together induce a more potent anti-adipogenic response, involving increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation and biphasic attenuation of Akt phosphorylation...
- Silibinin suppresses growth of human prostate carcinoma PC-3 orthotopic xenograft via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription signalingRana P Singh
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, 4200 East Ninth Street, Box C238, Denver, CO 80262, USA
Clin Cancer Res 15:613-21. 2009..Herein, we studied the efficacy and associated mechanisms of silibinin against orthotopically growing advanced human prostate carcinoma PC-3 tumors...
- CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1Ewa Kilanczyk
Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, 3 Pasteur Street, 02 093 Warsaw, Poland
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 380:54-9. 2009....
- Berberine differentially modulates the activities of ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK to suppress Th17 and Th1 T cell differentiation in type 1 diabetic miceGuoliang Cui
Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 319 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China
J Biol Chem 284:28420-9. 2009..This study revealed a novel role of ERK in Th17 differentiation through down-regulation of STAT3 phosphorylation and RORgamma t expression.
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat accelerates Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Kaposin A-mediated tumorigenesis of transformed fibroblasts in vitro as well as in nude and immunocompetent miceXiuying Chen
Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China
Neoplasia 11:1272-84. 2009....
- Angiotensin II-induced MMP-2 activity and MMP-14 and basigin protein expression are mediated via the angiotensin II receptor type 1-mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 pathway in retinal pigment epithelium: implications for age-related macular degenerationMarianne Pons
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
Am J Pathol 178:2665-81. 2011..It was observed that Ang II stimulates phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in RPE cells and ERK/p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mice...
- The interaction between caveolin-1 and Rho-GTPases promotes metastasis by controlling the expression of alpha5-integrin and the activation of Src, Ras and ErkE Arpaia
The Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Oncogene 31:884-96. 2012..of Src and the activation of its downstream targets FAK, Pyk2, Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were also impaired...
- Neurofibromatosis-1 heterozygosity impairs CNS neuronal morphology in a cAMP/PKA/ROCK-dependent mannerJacquelyn A Brown
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Mol Cell Neurosci 49:13-22. 2012....
- PRL-1 protein promotes ERK1/2 and RhoA protein activation through a non-canonical interaction with the Src homology 3 domain of p115 Rho GTPase-activating proteinYunpeng Bai
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
J Biol Chem 286:42316-24. 2011..Furthermore, PRL-1 binding activates RhoA signaling by inhibiting the catalytic activity of p115 RhoGAP. The results demonstrate that PRL-1 binding to p115 RhoGAP provides a coordinated mechanism underlying ERK1/2 and RhoA activation...
- Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibition-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemiaKyung Tae Noh
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam do 626 870, South Korea
J Biol Chem 287:14226-33. 2012..This finding suggests that IL-10 hyperexpression resulting from GSK-3 inhibition-induced ERK activation could be a new therapeutic pathway for endotoxemia.
- Arsenite-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 is mediated by Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 but not mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1Zhiwei He
Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin 55912, USA
J Biol Chem 278:10588-93. 2003....
- Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) promotes cell migration Involvement of a specific C1P receptorMaria H Granado
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P O Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
Cell Signal 21:405-12. 2009....
- Ras subcellular localization defines extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 substrate specificity through distinct utilization of scaffold proteinsBerta Casar
Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas IDICAN Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, 39011 Cantabria, Spain
Mol Cell Biol 29:1338-53. 2009Subcellular localization influences the nature of Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signals by unknown mechanisms...
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent pathways are essential for CD8+ T cell-mediated airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammationHiroshi Ohnishi
Division of Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:249-57. 2009..Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is important in activation and cytokine production from many cell types.
- LH-induced neuregulin 1 (NRG1) type III transcripts control granulosa cell differentiation and oocyte maturationNoritaka Noma
Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
Mol Endocrinol 25:104-16. 2011..The NRG1 pathway has two roles: one is to enhance AREG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells, and the other is to regulate oocyte maturation by a cumulus cell-dependent mechanism...
- Chemokine CXCL12 uses CXCR4 and a signaling core formed by bifunctional Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) proteins to control chemotaxis and survival simultaneously in mature dendritiCristina Delgado-Martín
Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28040 Madrid, Spain
J Biol Chem 286:37222-36. 2011..Finally, the data obtained also show that CXCR4 uses a signaling signature that is different from that used by CCR7 to control similar functions...
- Dimethyl fumarate inhibits dendritic cell maturation via nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) signalingHaiyan Peng
Neuroscience Graduate Studies Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
J Biol Chem 287:28017-26. 2012..Taken together, these studies indicate that by suppression of both NF-κB and ERK1/2-MSK1 signaling, DMF inhibits maturation of DCs and subsequently Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation...
- H2O2-dependent activation of GCLC-ARE4 reporter occurs by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways without oxidation of cellular glutathione or thioredoxin-1Young Mi Go
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
J Biol Chem 279:5837-45. 2004..Thus, "redox signaling" resulting in kinase signaling pathways is distinct from "oxidative stress," and is mediated by discrete, localized redox circuitry...
- Sprouty1 is a critical regulator of GDNF/RET-mediated kidney inductionM Albert Basson
Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York, USA
Dev Cell 8:229-39. 2005..These results demonstrate the importance of negative feedback regulation of RTK signaling during kidney induction and suggest that failures in feedback control may underlie some human congenital kidney malformations...
- A beta 1 integrin signaling pathway involving Src-family kinases, Cbl and PI-3 kinase is required for macrophage spreading and migrationF Meng
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco 94143 0100, USA
EMBO J 17:4391-403. 1998..These data provide a molecular description for the role of Src-family kinases Hck, Fgr and Lyn in beta 1-integrin signal transduction in macrophages...
- Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated by MAPK and SAPK2/p38, and may mediate activation of CREBM Deak
MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Departments of Biochemistry, Anatomy and Physiology, University of Dundee, Scotland
EMBO J 17:4426-41. 1998..MSK1 is activated in vitro by MAPK2/ERK2 or SAPK2/p38...
- Phosphate-dependent regulation of MGP in osteoblasts: role of ERK1/2 and Fra-1Marion Julien
INSERM, U 791, Laboratoire d Ingénierie des Tissus Ostéo Articulaires et Dentaires, Groupe Physiopathologie des Tissus Squelettiques et Ingénierie du Cartilage, Nantes, France
J Bone Miner Res 24:1856-68. 2009..These data show, for the first time, that Pi regulates MGP expression in osteoblasts through the ERK1/2-Fra-1 pathway...
- ERK 1/2 signaling pathway is involved in nicotine-mediated neuroprotection in spinal cord neuronsMichal Toborek
Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
J Cell Biochem 100:279-92. 2007..Results of the present study indicate that the ERK1/2 pathway is involved in anti-apoptotic effects of nicotine in spinal cord neurons and may be involved in therapeutic effects of nicotine in spinal cord trauma...
- Stimulation of macrophage TNFalpha production by orthopaedic wear particles requires activation of the ERK1/2/Egr-1 and NF-kappaB pathways but is independent of p38 and JNKMichelle A Beidelschies
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Cell Physiol 217:652-66. 2008....
- Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits high glucose-mediated ERK1/2 action in endothelium through induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-3Angela M Whetzel
Cardiovascular Research Center, Univ of Virginia, P O Box 801394, 415 Lane Rd, MR5 Rm G123, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296:C339-45. 2009..Thus, one mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of S1P in diabetic EC is inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation through induction of MKP-3 expression via the S1P-S1P(1) receptor axis...
- Sorafenib inhibits ERK1/2 and MCL-1(L) phosphorylation levels resulting in caspase-independent cell death in malignant pleural mesotheliomaSharyn I Katz
Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Cell Cycle Regulation, Department of Medicine Hematology Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Cancer Biol Ther 8:2406-16. 2009..We document single agent activity of sorafenib against MPM, unravel novel effects of sorafenib on anti-apoptotic signaling mediators, and suggest the combination of sorafenib plus TRAIL as possible therapy for clinical testing in MPM...
- Cannabinoid receptor 1 regulates ERK and GSK-3β-dependent glucocorticoid inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in murine MC3T3-E1 cellsRe Wen Wu
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Koahsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Bone 49:1255-63. 2011..CB1 signaling regulated JNK, ERK, GSK-3β, and Akt activation as well as Runx2 and IGF-I expression...
- Hyperoxia induces Egr-1 expression through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathwayNicole Jones
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Cell Physiol 196:326-33. 2003..The contribution of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK and PI3-kinase pathways to the activation of Egr-1 in response to hyperoxia was examined...
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 is required for the induction of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated epileptiform dischargesWangfa Zhao
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA
J Neurosci 24:76-84. 2004..We examined the possible role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) because these kinases can be activated by group I mGluRs, and their activation may regulate gene expression and ..
- Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lungWeiguo Shu
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Dev Biol 283:226-39. 2005..Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical upstream regulator of proximal-distal patterning in the lung, in part, through regulation of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling...
- Sequential actions of ERK1/2 on the AP-1 transcription factor allow temporal integration of metabolic signals in pancreatic beta cellsDominique A Glauser
Fondation pour Recherches Medicales, University of Geneva, Switzerland
FASEB J 21:3240-9. 2007..This ERK1/2-AP-1 module can function as a temporal integrator converting metabolic stimuli of different durations into differential transcriptional outputs...
- Angiotensin-(1-7) enhances angiotensin II induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cellsWencheng Nie
Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, PR China
Mol Immunol 46:355-61. 2009..In conclusion, Ang II stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation via AT2 receptor in mouse DC, Ang-(1-7) enhances this effect. Generation of Ang-(1-7) by DC could thereby counteract on the pro-inflammatory function of locally generated Ang II...
- Anthrax lethal toxin impairs CD1d-mediated antigen presentation by targeting the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathwayMasood A Khan
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 950 W Walnut St, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5181, USA
Infect Immun 78:1859-63. 2010..These results suggest that Bacillus anthracis has the ability to evade the host's innate immune system by reducing CD1d-mediated antigen presentation through targeting the ERK1/2 pathway...
- Fibulin-1 is required during cardiac ventricular morphogenesis for versican cleavage, suppression of ErbB2 and Erk1/2 activation, and to attenuate trabecular cardiomyocyte proliferationMarion A Cooley
Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 2204, USA
Dev Dyn 241:303-14. 2012..Here we investigated the involvement of fibulin-1 in ADAMTS1-mediated cleavage of versican in vitro, and the involvement of fibulin-1 in versican cleavage in ventricular morphogenesis...
- Tubedown-1 in remodeling of the developing vitreal vasculature in vivo and regulation of capillary outgrowth in vitroH Paradis
Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s NF, A1B 3V6, Canada
Dev Biol 249:140-55. 2002..Our results also suggest that tbdn-1 may participate with TGF-beta2 in regulating normal development of the vitreal vasculature...
- Stat5 regulates cellular iron uptake of erythroid cells via IRP-2 and TfR-1Marc A Kerenyi
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Blood 112:3878-88. 2008..Both genes were demonstrated to be direct transcriptional targets of Stat5. This establishes an unexpected mechanistic link between EpoR/Jak/Stat signaling and iron metabolism, processes absolutely essential for erythropoiesis and life...
- Increased spinal dynorphin levels and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and c-Fos immunoreactivity after surgery under remifentanil anesthesia in miceAna Campillo
Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Universitari del Mar, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Passeig Maritim 25 29, E 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Mol Pharmacol 77:185-94. 2010..This in turn would result in long-lasting increased levels of dynorphin that, in our model, could participate in the persistence of pain but not in the manifestation of first pain...
- Neuregulin 1 sustains the gene regulatory network in both trabecular and nontrabecular myocardiumDonna Lai
Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Lowy Packer Building, 405 Liverpool St, Darlinghurst 2010, Australia
Circ Res 107:715-27. 2010..In development, the membrane-tethered signaling ligand Neuregulin (Nrg)1, expressed in endocardium, is essential for ventricular morphogenesis. In adults, Nrg1 protects against heart failure and can induce cardiomyocytes to divide...
- Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 differentially regulate apoptosis by opposing effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2W W Lei
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
Cell Death Dis 1:e44. 2010..Taken together, our data demonstrate that HDAC1 and 2 reciprocally affect cell viability by differential regulation of ERK1/2; these observations provide insight into the roles and potential mechanisms of HDAC1 and 2 in apoptosis...
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and regulates the HIV-1 Vif proteinX Yang
Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Biol Chem 273:29879-87. 1998..These results suggest that MAPK plays a direct role in regulating HIV-1 replication and infectivity by phosphorylating Vif and identify a novel mechanism for activation of HIV-1 replication by mitogens and other extracellular stimuli...
- Selective inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases by zinc accounts for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent oxidative neuronal cell deathYeung Ho
Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 7041 BST 3, 3501 Fifth Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Mol Pharmacol 74:1141-51. 2008..rat immature cortical neurons causes a delayed, sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, which is required for cell death...
- Fast regulation of AP-1 activity through interaction of lamin A/C, ERK1/2, and c-Fos at the nuclear envelopeJosé María González
Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology and Therapy, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, Valencia, Spain
J Cell Biol 183:653-66. 2008..Thus, NE-bound ERK1/2 functions as a molecular switch for rapid mitogen-dependent AP-1 activation through phosphorylation-induced release of preexisting c-Fos from its inhibitory interaction with lamin A/C...
- Tumor necrosis factor alpha rapidly activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in a MAPK kinase kinase-dependent, c-Raf-1-independent fashion in mouse macrophagesB W Winston
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO 80206
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1614-8. 1995..In this study, we investigated the upstream kinases that mediate the activation of the 42-kDa MAPK p42mapk/erk2 following crosslinking of CD120a in mouse macrophages...
- Prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway promotes DNA synthesis in primary hepatocytes from p21Cip-1/WAF1-null mice, but not in hepatocytes from p16INK4a-null miceK L Auer
Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
Biochem J 336:551-60. 1998..Our results also suggest that RhoA function can modulate DNA synthesis in primary hepatocytes via the expression of p21Cip-1/WAF1 and p27Kip-1...
- The PreS2 activator MHBs(t) of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic miceEberhard Hildt
Department of Virus Research, Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
EMBO J 21:525-35. 2002..MHBs(t) triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBs(t)-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB...
- Circulating CXCR4-positive stem/progenitor cells compete for SDF-1-positive niches in bone marrow, muscle and neural tissues: an alternative hypothesis to stem cell plasticityAnna Pituch-Noworolska
Polish American Children s Hospital, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 41:13-21. 2003....
- Inhibition of MEK/ERK 1/2 pathway reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 expression in focal cerebral ischemiaZhi qiu Wang
Crosby Neurosurgical Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Brain Res 996:55-66. 2004..Our previous study showed that extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) were activated during focal cerebral ischemia in mice [J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20 (2000) 1320]...
- An extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1- and 2-dependent program of chromatin trafficking of c-Fos and Fra-1 is required for cyclin D1 expression during cell cycle reentryPeter M Burch
Department of Pathology, Vermont Cancer Center, HSRF 328, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 89 Beaumont Ave, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
Mol Cell Biol 24:4696-709. 2004..Our data indicate that termination of nuclear ERK1,2 signaling is required for an exchange of Fra-1 for c-Fos on chromatin and initiation of cyclin D1 expression at the G(0)-to-G(1) transition of the cell cycle...
- Both nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of the dual specificity phosphatase MKP-3 and its ability to anchor MAP kinase in the cytoplasm are mediated by a conserved nuclear export signalMaria Karlsson
Cancer Research UK Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Biomedical Research Centre, Level 5, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 279:41882-91. 2004..mediates the binding of MKP-3 to MAP kinase, we show that mutations of the kinase interaction motif which abrogate ERK2 binding do not affect MKP-3 localization...
- Keratins modulate c-Flip/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 antiapoptotic signaling in simple epithelial cellsStéphane Gilbert
Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie et Département de médecine, Universite Laval, and Centre de Recherche de L Hôtel Dieu de Québec, Quebec G1R 2J6, Canada
Mol Cell Biol 24:7072-81. 2004..This points to a new regulatory role of simple epithelium keratins in the c-Flip/ERK1/2 antiapoptotic signaling pathway...
- Distinct stimulus-specific histone modifications at hsp70 chromatin targeted by the transcription factor heat shock factor-1Stuart Thomson
Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
Mol Cell 15:585-94. 2004..We establish here that histone modifications at inducible genes are not simply a reflection of transcriptional activity, but are strictly dependent on the stimulus used for induction...
- Essential role of B-Raf in ERK activation during extraembryonic developmentGergana Galabova-Kovacs
Max F Perutz Laboratories, Vienna Biocenter, Dr Bohr Gasse 9, 1030 Vienna, Austria
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1325-30. 2006..studied as activators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) module in regulated and deregulated proliferation...
- Differential role played by the MEK/ERK/EGR-1 pathway in orthopoxviruses vaccinia and cowpox biologyPatrícia N G Silva
Grupo de Transdução de Sinal, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270 901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Biochem J 398:83-95. 2006..product, throughout their entire replication cycles, via the requirement of MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase]/ERK pathway...
- Discs-large homolog 1 regulates smooth muscle orientation in the mouse ureterZhen X Mahoney
Department of Internal Medicine, Renal Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19872-7. 2006..Our results suggest that (i) besides its well documented role in regulating epithelial polarity, Dlgh1 also regulates smooth muscle orientation, and (ii) human DLG1 mutations may contribute to hereditary forms of hydronephrosis...
- Statins activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophagesMiyuki Yano
Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Honjo, Kumamoto, Japan
Circ Res 100:1442-51. 2007..Statins induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation...
- ERK1/2-p90RSK-mediated phosphorylation of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1. A role in ischemic neuronal deathJing Luo
Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, USA
J Biol Chem 282:28274-84. 2007..These changes in NHE1 kinetics were absent when MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) was inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126...
- Upregulation of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 contributes to angiogenesis defects in the placenta of alpha 2B-adrenoceptor deficient miceVerena Muthig
Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 25, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
Circ Res 101:682-91. 2007....
- Ceramide 1-phosphate stimulates macrophage proliferation through activation of the PI3-kinase/PKB, JNK and ERK1/2 pathwaysPatricia Gangoiti
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, P O Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
Cell Signal 20:726-36. 2008..It can be concluded that C1P stimulates macrophage proliferation through activation of the PI3-K/PKB, ERK and JNK pathways, and that GSK-3beta, c-Myc, cyclin D1, and NF-kappaB are important downstream effectors in this ..
- Homocysteine inhibits proliferation of neuronal precursors in the mouse adult brain by impairing the basic fibroblast growth factor signaling cascade and reducing extracellular regulated kinase 1/2-dependent cyclin E expressionLuis G Rabaneda
Area de Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, Spain
FASEB J 22:3823-35. 2008....
- STAT-3 and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation are critical for T-cell alloactivation and graft-versus-host diseaseSydney X Lu
Department of Medicine and Immunology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
Blood 112:5254-8. 2008..This suggests that phospho-specific flow cytometry is useful for the identification of promising drug targets, and ERK1/2 and STAT-3 phosphorylation in alloactivated T cells may be important for GVHD...
- Heat shock protein gp96 interacts with protein phosphatase 5 and controls toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in post-hypoxic kidney cellsSanae Ben Mkaddem
INSERM U773, Centre de Recherche Biomedicale Bichat Beaujon CRB3, UFR de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, site Bichat, BP 416, F 75870 Paris Cedex 18, France
J Biol Chem 284:12541-9. 2009..Here we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 is activated in both intact kidneys and cultured renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs) from wildtype and Tlr4 ..
- MAPK3/1 (ERK1/2) in ovarian granulosa cells are essential for female fertilityHeng Yu Fan
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Science 324:938-41. 2009..Thus, ERK1/2 and C/EBPbeta constitute an in vivo LH-regulated signaling pathway that controls ovulation- and luteinization-related events...
- Compartmentalizing VEGF-induced ERK2/1 signaling in placental artery endothelial cell caveolae: a paradoxical role of caveolin-1 in placental angiogenesis in vitroWu Xiang Liao
Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
Mol Endocrinol 23:1428-44. 2009..Treatment with VEGF stimulated both time- and dose-dependent activation of ERK2/1 in oFPAE cells...
- ERK phosphorylation potentiates Elk-1-mediated ternary complex formation and transactivationH Gille
Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Spemann Laboratories, Freiburg, Germany
EMBO J 14:951-62. 1995..closely related to p62TCF in function, is a nuclear target of two members of the MAP kinase family, ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylation of Elk-1 increases the yield of ternary complex in vitro...
- MKP-1 (3CH134), an immediate early gene product, is a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates MAP kinase in vivoH Sun
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724 2208
Cell 75:487-93. 1993..factor-inducible gene, 3CH134, encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates and inactivates p42MAPK both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 3CH134 protein dephosphorylates both T183 and Y185 in p42MAPK...
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activates topoisomerase IIalpha through a mechanism independent of phosphorylationP S Shapiro
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
Mol Cell Biol 19:3551-60. 1999The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, regulate cellular responses by mediating extracellular growth signals toward cytoplasmic and nuclear targets...
- Essential role of p38alpha MAP kinase in placental but not embryonic cardiovascular developmentR H Adams
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
Mol Cell 6:109-16. 2000..Our results indicate that p38alpha is required for placental organogenesis but is not essential for other aspects of mammalian embryonic development...
- Role of TCR-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the regulation of early IL-4 expression in naive CD4+ T cellsPatricia J Jorritsma
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
J Immunol 170:2427-34. 2003Although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation influences IL-4 production in various experimental systems, its role during Th differentiation is unclear...
- Differential expression and/or activation of P38MAPK, erk1/2, and jnk during the initiation and progression of prostate cancerAarti R Uzgare
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Prostate 55:128-39. 2003....
- An essential function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk2 in mouse trophoblast developmentMarc K Saba-El-Leil
Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal and Department of Pharmacology, Universite de Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7
EMBO Rep 4:964-8. 2003The closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival...
- Phosphorylation-dependent paxillin-ERK association mediates hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated epithelial morphogenesisShuta Ishibe
Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Mol Cell 12:1275-85. 2003..In the present study we demonstrate that HGF stimulates the localization of ERK to sites of cell-matrix interactions and that this is mediated by the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent ..
- Epidermal growth factor activates m-calpain (calpain II), at least in part, by extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated phosphorylationA Glading
Departments of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
Mol Cell Biol 24:2499-512. 2004..we demonstrated that m-calpain activation by growth factors requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK); this enables tail deadhesion and allows productive motility...
- MEK1-ERK2 signaling pathway protects myocardium from ischemic injury in vivoDaniel J Lips
Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University, and Heart Lung Center Utrecht, Maastricht and Utrecht, Netherlands
Circulation 109:1938-41. 2004..Specifically, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been associated with cardioprotection, likely through antagonism of apoptotic regulatory pathways...
- Mouse model of Noonan syndrome reveals cell type- and gene dosage-dependent effects of Ptpn11 mutationToshiyuki Araki
Cancer Biology Program, Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, NRB1038, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nat Med 10:849-57. 2004..Their endocardial cushions have increased Erk activation, but Erk hyperactivation is cell and pathway specific...
- Paxillin serves as an ERK-regulated scaffold for coordinating FAK and Rac activation in epithelial morphogenesisShuta Ishibe
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Mol Cell 16:257-67. 2004..In the present study we demonstrate that activated ERK phosphorylates paxillin on serine 83 and that mutation of this site eliminates HGF-stimulated increased association ..
- The dual-specificity protein phosphatase DUSP9/MKP-4 is essential for placental function but is not required for normal embryonic developmentGraham R Christie
Cancer Research UK Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Biomedical Research Centre, Level 5, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, United Kingdom
Mol Cell Biol 25:8323-33. 2005....
- ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases affect Ras-dependent cell signaling differentiallyChiara Vantaggiato
Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele and Università Vita Salute San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy
J Biol 5:14. 2006..A currently accepted model maintains that ERK1 and ERK2 are regulated similarly and contribute to intracellular signaling by phosphorylating a largely common subset of ..
- An FGF response pathway that mediates hepatic gene induction in embryonic endoderm cellsAmelie Calmont
Cell and Developmental Biology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA
Dev Cell 11:339-48. 2006..The finding of separate pathways for endoderm tissue specification and growth provides insights for guiding cellular regeneration and stem cell differentiation...
- Cortical migration defects in mice expressing A-RAF from the B-RAF locusGuadalupe Camarero
Institut fur Medizinische Strahlenkunde und Zellforschung, Bayerische Julius Maximilians Universität, Versbacher Str 5, D 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
Mol Cell Biol 26:7103-15. 2006..Our data reveal that B-RAF is an important mediator of neuronal survival, migration, and dendrite formation and that A-RAF cannot fully compensate for these functions...
- Dusp6 (Mkp3) is a negative feedback regulator of FGF-stimulated ERK signaling during mouse developmentChaoying Li
Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, 15 N 2030 E RM 2100, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5330, USA
Development 134:167-76. 2007..FGFRs) are required for transcription of Dusp6, which encodes MKP3, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-specific MKP...
- Raf kinase signaling functions in sensory neuron differentiation and axon growth in vivoJian Zhong
Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7250, USA
Nat Neurosci 10:598-607. 2007..Targeting of B-Raf, but not C-Raf, markedly attenuated baseline phosphorylation of Erk in neural tissues and led to growth retardation...
- Differential effects of beta-arrestins on the internalization, desensitization and ERK1/2 activation downstream of protease activated receptor-2P Kumar
Div of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293:C346-57. 2007..Together, these data suggest distinct temporal and functional roles for beta-arrestins in PAR-2 signaling, desensitization, and internalization...
- Multiple dose-dependent roles for Sox2 in the patterning and differentiation of anterior foregut endodermJianwen Que
Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Development 134:2521-31. 2007..These findings suggest that Sox2 plays a second role in establishing the boundary between the keratinized, squamous esophagus/forestomach and glandular hindstomach...
- Mediating ERK 1/2 signaling rescues congenital heart defects in a mouse model of Noonan syndromeTomoki Nakamura
Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, The Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Division of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
J Clin Invest 117:2123-32. 2007....
- MCP-1, TISSUE FACTOR, AND VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLEALISON SCHECTER; Fiscal Year: 2002..The receptor will be expressed in COS cells to study the properties of the new receptor in mammalian cells and, in particular, to examine its coupling to TF induction. ..
- PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INITIATION IN ANIMAL CELLSBansidhar Datta; Fiscal Year: 2002..This research is expected to provide valuable information regarding the mechanism of protein synthesis initiation in normal, cancerous, and virus- infected animal cells. ..
- ASBESTOS AND NO2 IN ENVIRONMENTAL LUNG DISEASENicholas Heintz; Fiscal Year: 2001..Dissection of the role of cell cycle and survival regulators in proliferative and apoptotic responses to the combined effects of asbestos and N02 may lead to new biomarkers for exposure of the human lung to chemical mixtures. ..
- CONDITIONAL MUTAGENESIS OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORSAnne Moon; Fiscal Year: 2002..Ultimately, this knowledge will help us to understand how alterations in those pathways, whether genetic or environmental, result in congenital malformations in infants and children. ..
- Mechanical disruption of caveolin signaling complexesTHOMAS BURKHOLDER; Fiscal Year: 2002..This will clarify our understanding of how mechanical signals result in muscle growth and may provide a foundation from which to treat the muscular dystrophies. ..
- Neuregulin-2 and the formation of neuromuscular synapsesMendell Rimer; Fiscal Year: 2006..Results from the proposed research are expected to yield new insights into the molecular mechanisms that control neurotransmitter receptor density at the NMJ, which may bear on such control at synapses in the brain. ..
- PPARGamma in Sepsis-Induced ImmunosuppressionRaju Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- HIV, Chemokine Receptors, and Vascular Smooth MuscleALISON SCHECTER; Fiscal Year: 2007..Furthermore, given that HIV patients appear to have accelerated atherosclerosis, these studies will provide potential mechanism(s) responsible for HIV-associated vasculopathies. ..
- Mutagenesis of Tbx3: a model of ulnar-mammary syndromeAnne M Moon; Fiscal Year: 2010..The flexible model system we propose will be a valuable tool for developmental studies of many organs and lead to a deeper understanding of the genetic and molecular bases of congenital anomalies in humans. ..
- Tat-mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunctionMichal Toborek; Fiscal Year: 2009..In a broader aspect, this proposal will contribute to better knowledge of how injury to brain endothelium can contribute to the development of neuroAIDS. ..