Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il4
Description: interleukin 4
Alias: BSF-1, Il-4, interleukin-4, B-cell IgG differentiation factor, B-cell growth factor 1, B-cell stimulatory factor 1, IGG1 induction factor, lymphocyte stimulatory factor 1
Publications215 found, 100 shown here
- T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigensArielle Glatman Zaretsky
Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Exp Med 206:991-9. 2009..The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5(-) PD-1(-) IL-4/GFP(+) CD4(+) T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo...
- Analysis of type 2 immunity in vivo with a bicistronic IL-4 reporterM Mohrs
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
Immunity 15:303-11. 2001..Transferred EGFP(+) CD4(+) T cells from infected animals conferred protection against Nippostrongylus to immunodeficient mice. These mice will provide a valuable reagent for assessing immunity in vivo...
- Generation and analysis of interleukin-4 deficient miceR Kuhn
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Germany
Science 254:707-10. 1991..Thus, some but not all of the in vitro properties of IL-4 are critical for the physiology of the immune system in vivo...
- Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsionPadraic G Fallon
Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
J Exp Med 203:1105-16. 2006..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
- An IL-13 inhibitor blocks the development of hepatic fibrosis during a T-helper type 2-dominated inflammatory responseM G Chiaramonte
Schistosomiasis Immunology and Pathology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Clin Invest 104:777-85. 1999..Thus, our findings provide evidence that IL-13 inhibitors may be of general therapeutic benefit in preventing damaging tissue fibrosis resulting from Th2-dominated inflammatory responses...
- Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signallingK Takeda
Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan
Nature 380:627-30. 1996..These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses...
- Phenotypic and physiologic characterization of transgenic mice expressing interleukin 4 in the lung: lymphocytic and eosinophilic inflammation without airway hyperreactivityJ A Rankin
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Connecticut Health Care System, West Haven 06516, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7821-5. 1996....
- IL-13, IL-4Ralpha, and Stat6 are required for the expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensisJ F Urban
United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
Immunity 8:255-64. 1998..Additional observations made in the course of these experiments demonstrate that Stat6 signaling is not required for IL-4 enhancement of IgG1 production and actually inhibits IL-4-induction of mucosal mastocytosis...
- CD80+Gr-1+ myeloid cells inhibit development of antifungal Th1 immunity in mice with candidiasisAntonella Mencacci
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Science, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
J Immunol 169:3180-90. 2002..These data indicate that alternatively activated PMN expressing CD80 may adversely affect Th1-dependent resistance in fungal infections...
- IL-1 family members and STAT activators induce cytokine production by Th2, Th17, and Th1 cellsLiying Guo
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13463-8. 2009....
- Cyclooxygenase-2 in mucosal DC mediates induction of regulatory T cells in the intestine through suppression of IL-4F Broere
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Mucosal Immunol 2:254-64. 2009..These data provide crucial insights into the mechanisms driving de novo Tr-cell induction and tolerance in the intestine...
- Alternative activation of macrophages by IL-4 impairs phagocytosis of pathogens but potentiates microbial-induced signalling and cytokine secretionAudrey Varin
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Blood 115:353-62. 2010..These findings are relevant to host defense in mixed infections within a Th2 microenvironment and shed light on immunologic functions associated with alternative priming and full activation of macrophages...
- Interleukin-4 but not interleukin-10 protects against spontaneous and recurrent type 1 diabetes by activated CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T-cellsQing Sheng Mi
Autoimmunity Diabetes Group, Robarts Research Institute, 1400 Western Road, London, Ontario N6G 2V4, Canada
Diabetes 53:1303-10. 2004..Our data identify an important role for IL-4 in the protection against type 1 diabetes by activated iNKT cells, and these findings have important implications for cytokine-based therapy of type 1 diabetes and islet transplantation...
- Schistosome-derived omega-1 drives Th2 polarization by suppressing protein synthesis following internalization by the mannose receptorBart Everts
Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, Netherlands
J Exp Med 209:1753-67, S1. 2012..These experiments reveal an unrecognized pathway involving MR and interference with protein synthesis that conditions DCs for Th2 priming...
- Enhanced pulmonary histopathology induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge of formalin-inactivated RSV-immunized BALB/c mice is abrogated by depletion of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10M Connors
Respiratory Viruses Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
J Virol 68:5321-5. 1994..It is possible that this process played a role in enhanced disease observed in infants and children immunized with FI-RSV...
- CNS-derived interleukin-4 is essential for the regulation of autoimmune inflammation and induces a state of alternative activation in microglial cellsEugene D Ponomarev
BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 2178, USA
J Neurosci 27:10714-21. 2007..Macrophages that have undergone alternative activation have been shown to be important in tissue repair; thus, our results suggest a new role for microglial cells in the regulation of inflammation in the CNS...
- Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cellsM H Kaplan
Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Immunity 4:313-9. 1996..These results demonstrate that, despite the existence of multiple signaling pathways activated by IL-4, Stat6 is essential for mediating responses to IL-4 lymphocytes...
- Interleukin 4 potently enhances murine macrophage mannose receptor activity: a marker of alternative immunologic macrophage activationM Stein
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, United Kingdom
J Exp Med 176:287-92. 1992..b>Interleukin 4 (IL-4), a Th-2 lymphocyte product, upregulates major histocompatibility class II antigen expression but ..
- Endogenous IL-4 is necessary for effective drug therapy against visceral leishmaniasisJ Alexander
Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, GB
Eur J Immunol 30:2935-43. 2000..These results demonstrate that IL-4 has an important role in effective anti-leishmanial chemotherapy which seems to be related to modulation of IFN-gamma production...
- IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska
Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow United Kingdom
J Immunol 181:4780-90. 2008..Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4...
- Cutting edge: early IL-4 production governs the requirement for IL-27-WSX-1 signaling in the development of protective Th1 cytokine responses following Leishmania major infectionDavid Artis
Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Immunol 172:4672-5. 2004..major. Thus, the requirement for WSX-1 signaling in Th type 1 cell differentiation is restricted to conditions in which IL-4 is produced...
- Role of CXCR5 and CCR7 in follicular Th cell positioning and appearance of a programmed cell death gene-1high germinal center-associated subpopulationNicole M Haynes
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Immunol 179:5099-108. 2007....
- IL-13 overexpression predisposes to anaphylaxis following antigen sensitizationP G Fallon
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
J Immunol 166:2712-6. 2001..The systemic regulation of this response makes these mice an important resource for studying atopic responses...
- Nonredundant roles for CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells and conventional CD4+ T cells in the induction of immunoglobulin E antibodies in response to interleukin 18 treatment of miceTomohiro Yoshimoto
Department of Immunology and Medical Zoology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663 8501, Japan
J Exp Med 197:997-1005. 2003..These findings indicate that NKT cells might be the major source of IL-4 in response to IL-18 administration and that conventional CD4+ T cells demonstrate their helper function in the presence of NKT cells...
- CRTH2 plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of Cry j 1-induced pollinosis in miceRie Nomiya
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
J Immunol 180:5680-8. 2008..These results suggest that the PGD(2)-CRTH2 interaction is elevated following sensitization and plays a proinflammatory role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in mice...
- IL-4 and TGF-beta 1 counterbalance one another while regulating mast cell homeostasisMatthew R Macey
Virginia Commonwealth University, Biology Department, Box 842012, Richmond, VA 23284 2012, USA
J Immunol 184:4688-95. 2010..Dysregulation of this balance may impact allergic disease and be amenable to targeted therapy...
- The enhancer HS2 critically regulates GATA-3-mediated Il4 transcription in T(H)2 cellsShinya Tanaka
Laboratory for Signal Network, Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Yokohama, Japan
Nat Immunol 12:77-85. 2011..Here we identify the DNase I-hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) element located in the second intron of the interleukin 4 locus (Il4) as a critical enhancer strictly controlled by GATA-3 binding...
- Blockade of B7-H1 (programmed death ligand 1) enhances humoral immunity by positively regulating the generation of T follicular helper cellsEmily Hams
Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James s Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 8, Ireland
J Immunol 186:5648-55. 2011..This finding has direct implications for investigations examining the feasibility of therapeutically manipulating this pathway and reveals new insights into the regulation of the humoral immune response...
- Coexpression of CD49b and LAG-3 identifies human and mouse T regulatory type 1 cellsNicola Gagliani
San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy HSR TIGET, Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
Nat Med 19:739-46. 2013..The use of these markers makes it feasible to track Tr1 cells in vivo and purify Tr1 cells for cell therapy to induce or restore tolerance in subjects with immune-mediated diseases...
- Interleukin-4 biases differentiation of B cells from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice and restrains their fratricide: role of Fas ligand down-regulation and MHC class II-transactivator up-regulationE V Acosta Rodriguez
Inmunologia, Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Haya de la Torre Medina Allende, Cordoba 5000, Argentina
J Leukoc Biol 73:127-36. 2003..Accordingly, a marked up-regulation of the "FasL gene repressor" class II transactivator was observed, suggesting that this would be one mechanism underlying the IL-4-mediated FasL down-regulation...
- Pulmonary tuberculosis in BALB/c mice with non-functional IL-4 genes: changes in the inflammatory effects of TNF-alpha and in the regulation of fibrosisRogelio Hernandez-Pando
Experimental Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico
Eur J Immunol 34:174-83. 2004..In conclusion, the findings suggest that IL-4 has modestly detrimental effects on the antibacterial efficacy of the Th1 response, and larger effects on the toxicity of TNF-alpha, and on fibrosis...
- Remission of CVB3-induced viral myocarditis by in vivo Th2 polarization via hydrodynamics-based interleukin-4 gene transferZhenggang Jiang
Department of Immunology, Institute for Immunobiology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China
J Gene Med 10:918-29. 2008..In the present study, interleukin (IL)-4 was over-expressed by hydrodynamics-based gene transfection (HGT) to induce the in vivo Th2 bias and evaluate the influence of Th polarization on the pathogenesis of CVB3-myocaditis...
- IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cellsValerie Dardalhon
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Nat Immunol 9:1347-55. 2008..Thus IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells lack suppressive function and constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation...
- Unique and overlapping gene expression patterns driven by IL-4 and IL-13 in the mouse lungChristina C Lewis
Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:795-804.e8. 2009..Although these 2 cytokines share signaling components, the molecular mechanisms by which they mediate different phases of the allergic asthmatic response remain elusive...
- IL-4 is proangiogenic in the lung under hypoxic conditionsKazuyo Yamaji-Kegan
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Immunol 182:5469-76. 2009..In conclusion, IL-4 has proangiogenic properties in the lung under hypoxic conditions via the VEGF pathway, and this is independent of the STAT6 pathway...
- Role of IL-4 in aversion induced by food allergy in miceLuana Pereira Antunes Dourado
Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Cell Immunol 262:62-8. 2010..These results indicate that production of IL-4 and specific IgE/IgG1 antibodies correlate with aversion to antigen induced by food allergy in mice...
- Regulation of learning and memory by meningeal immunity: a key role for IL-4Noel C Derecki
Department of Neuroscience, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
J Exp Med 207:1067-80. 2010..These findings might lead to the development of new immune-based therapies for cognitive impairment associated with immune decline...
- Germinal center T follicular helper cell IL-4 production is dependent on signaling lymphocytic activation molecule receptor (CD150)Isharat Yusuf
Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Immunol 185:190-202. 2010..These data illustrate complexities of SAP-dependent SLAM family receptor signaling, revealing a prominent role for SLAM receptor ligation in IL-4 production by GC CD4 T cells but not in T(FH) cell and GC T(FH) cell differentiation...
- IL-4/STAT6 immune axis regulates peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivityRoberto R Ricardo-Gonzalez
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22617-22. 2010....
- Natural IgE production in the absence of MHC Class II cognate helpKathy D McCoy
Institute of Experimental Immunology, Department of Pathology, Universitatsspital, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Immunity 24:329-39. 2006..The pathway of spontaneous IgE production is not inhibited by regulatory T cells and increases with age to constitute significant serum concentrations, even in naive animals...
- Lyn kinase controls basophil GATA-3 transcription factor expression and induction of Th2 cell differentiationNicolas Charles
Laboratory of Immune Cell Signaling, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Immunity 30:533-43. 2009..Our findings demonstrate that basophil-expressed Lyn kinase exerts regulatory control on Th2 cell differentiation and function...
- A critical role for IL-13 in resistance to intestinal nematode infectionA J Bancroft
School of Biological Science, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
J Immunol 160:3453-61. 1998..The IL-13 KO mouse had a separate phenotype to that of the IL-4 KO mouse, suggesting that both IL-4 and IL-13 play important yet different roles in mediating immunity to intestinal helminths...
- Differential functions of IL-4 receptor types I and II for dendritic cell maturation and IL-12 production and their dependency on GM-CSFManfred B Lutz
Department of Dermatology and Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
J Immunol 169:3574-80. 2002....
- CD200 ligand receptor interaction modulates microglial activation in vivo and in vitro: a role for IL-4Anthony Lyons
Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Physiology Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
J Neurosci 27:8309-13. 2007..Our findings provide the first demonstration of a role for IL-4 in modulating CD200 expression and suggest a mechanism for regulation of microglial activation in the intact CNS under inflammatory conditions...
- IL-10 and the dangers of immune polarization: excessive type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses induce distinct forms of lethal immunopathology in murine schistosomiasisK F Hoffmann
Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 164:6406-16. 2000....
- Differential regulation of IL-4Ralpha expression by antigen versus cytokine stimulation characterizes Th2 progression in vivoGeorgia Perona-Wright
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
J Immunol 184:615-23. 2010..Together these data reveal a tightly controlled program of changing IL-4 responsiveness that characterizes the initiation, amplification, and restriction of a Th2 response in vivo...
- Gastrointestinal nematode expulsion in IL-4 knockout mice is IL-13 dependentA J Bancroft
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, GB
Eur J Immunol 30:2083-91. 2000..muris from the gut. Moreover, the present data highlight the functional importance of gender and background strain in interpretation of studies using gene-targeted animals...
- IL-4-dependent effector phase in autoimmune exocrinopathy as defined by the NOD.IL-4-gene knockout mouse model of Sjögren's syndromeJ B Brayer
Department of Oral Biology, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Scand J Immunol 54:133-40. 2001..IL-4-/- mice to express detectable anti-M3R autoantibodies, the precise mechanism of how IL-4 influences the development of autoimmune xerostomia remains speculative...
- Interleukin-13 mediates airways hyperreactivity through the IL-4 receptor-alpha chain and STAT-6 independently of IL-5 and eotaxinM Yang
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 25:522-30. 2001..Furthermore, IL-13-induced AHR, eosinophilia, and mucus production are critically dependent on the IL-4Ralpha chain and STAT-6...
- Protection from fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced fibrosis in IL-13-deficient, but not IL-4-deficient, mice results from impaired collagen synthesis by fibroblastsJill E Kolodsick
Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
J Immunol 172:4068-76. 2004..Thus, IL-13 mediates its profibrotic actions through direct effects on fibroblast production of extracellular matrix...
- Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 regulates inflammatory bowel disease in which both IFNgamma and IL-4 are involvedTakatoshi Chinen
Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Gastroenterology 130:373-88. 2006..However, the role of SOCS1 in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has not been clarified. To determine the role of SOCS1 in colitis, we generated SOCS1/T-cell receptor alpha (TCRalpha) double knockout (DKO) mice...
- Mast cell IL-4 expression is regulated by Ikaros and influences encephalitogenic Th1 responses in EAEGregory D Gregory
Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 3010, USA
J Clin Invest 116:1327-36. 2006..Independent of the activation mode, MCs from Th1-prone C57BL/6 mice exhibited a more robust Il4 response than did the Th2-prone strain Balb/c...
- Decreased neuronal CD200 expression in IL-4-deficient mice results in increased neuroinflammation in response to lipopolysaccharideAnthony Lyons
Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
Brain Behav Immun 23:1020-7. 2009..These findings suggest that the neuromodulatory effect of IL-4, and in particular its capacity to maintain microglia in a quiescent state, may result from its ability to upregulate CD200 expression on neurons...
- IL-4 induces cathepsin protease activity in tumor-associated macrophages to promote cancer growth and invasionVasilena Gocheva
Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
Genes Dev 24:241-55. 2010..Together, these data establish IL-4 as an important regulator, and cathepsin proteases as critical mediators, of the cancer-promoting functions of TAMs...
- Allergen-induced airway inflammation and bronchial responsiveness in wild-type and interleukin-4-deficient miceG Brusselle
Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital Ghent, Belgium
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 12:254-9. 1995..In conclusion, these data indicate that repeated allergen exposure in sensitized mice induces airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and that IL-4 plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of both phenomena...
- PU.1 and GATA: components of a mast cell-specific interleukin 4 intronic enhancerG Henkel
Department of Microbiology Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:7737-41. 1994b>Interleukin 4 (IL-4), a critical immunoregulatory cytokine, is produced by a subset of T lymphocytes and cells of the mast cell/basophil lineage...
- IL-4 secreted from individual naive CD4+ T cells acts in an autocrine manner to induce Th2 differentiationNancy Noben-Trauth
Department of Immunology, The George Washington University, Washington 20037, USA
Eur J Immunol 32:1428-33. 2002..Thus, each founder cell or one or more of its early daughters can produce sufficient IL-4 to drive Th2 differentiation. This indicates that autocrine IL-4 production by naive CD4 T cells can drive the appearance of Th2 cells...
- Cutaneous immunization rapidly activates liver invariant Valpha14 NKT cells stimulating B-1 B cells to initiate T cell recruitment for elicitation of contact sensitivityRegis A Campos
Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520 8013, USA
J Exp Med 198:1785-96. 2003....
- Immune regulation of protease-activated receptor-1 expression in murine small intestine during Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infectionAiping Zhao
Department of Medicine and the Mucosal Biology Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
J Immunol 175:2563-9. 2005..N. brasiliensis-induced changes in PAR-1 function and expression were seen in IL-4-deficient mice, but not in IL-13- or STAT6-deficient mice, indicating the dependence of IL-13 on the STAT6 signaling pathway independent of IL-4...
- FGFR-1 regulates angiogenesis through cytokines interleukin-4 and pleiotrophinPeetra U Magnusson
Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, The Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden
Blood 110:4214-22. 2007..We conclude that FGFR-1 negatively regulates endothelial cell function by altering the balance of modulatory cytokines...
- A new mechanism for inhalational priming: IL-4 bypasses innate immune signalsAnna M Dittrich
Department for Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
J Immunol 181:7307-15. 2008..Our findings bring new mechanistic knowledge to the phenomenon of polysensitization and primary sensitization in asthma...
- IL4 blockade of inducible regulatory T cell differentiation: the role of Th2 cells, Gata3 and PU.1Suzana Hadjur
Lymphocyte Development Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK
Immunol Lett 122:37-43. 2009..transcription factor Foxp3, but iTreg differentiation is blocked by high concentrations of the Th2 cytokine IL4. However, whether IL4 can antagonise Foxp3 induction in more physiological settings remains to be addressed...
- ECM1 controls T(H)2 cell egress from lymph nodes through re-expression of S1P(1)Zhenhu Li
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
Nat Immunol 12:178-85. 2011..Our data identify a previously unknown function of ECM1 in regulating T(H)2 cell migration through control of KLF2 and S1P(1) expression...
- Interleukin 4 induces the apoptosis of mouse microglial cells by a caspase-dependent mechanismJavier A Soria
Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología CONICET, Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA, Argentina
Neurobiol Dis 43:616-24. 2011..Our observations demonstrate a novel function of IL-4 in regulating the survival of microglial cells, which may have important significance in reduction of undesired inflammatory responses in the CNS...
- 8-Oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 deficiency modifies allergic airway inflammation by regulating STAT6 and IL-4 in cells and in miceGuoping Li
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58203 9037, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 52:392-401. 2012..OGG-1 may affect the levels of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines during asthmatic conditions. OGG-1 deficiency negatively regulates allergen-induced airway inflammatory response...
- In vivo expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma in the fetal murine thymusJ Deman
Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy, University of Liege, Belgium
Immunology 89:152-7. 1996..This supports the hypothesis that cytokines play a rote in T-cell lymphopoiesis...
- Down-regulation of caveolin-1, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling, in acute allergen-induced airway remodelingClaude Jourdan Le Saux
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA
J Biol Chem 283:5760-8. 2008..This study demonstrates a previously unknown modulation of TGF-beta signaling by IL-4, via cav1, suggesting novel therapeutic targets for controlling the effects of TGF-beta and thereby ameliorating pathological airway remodeling...
- IFN-alpha/beta signaling is required for polarization of cytokine responses toward a protective type 1 pattern during experimental cryptococcosisCarmelo Biondo
Dipartimento di Patologia e Microbiologia Sperimentale, Universita degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Italy
J Immunol 181:566-73. 2008..neoformans. Our data demonstrate that type I IFN signaling is required for polarization of cytokine responses toward a protective type I pattern during cryptococcal infection...
- Apoptotic cells activate NKT cells through T cell Ig-like mucin-like-1 resulting in airway hyperreactivityHyun Hee Lee
Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 185:5225-35. 2010..Furthermore, these results provide evidence for a novel innate pathway that results in airway hyperreactivity and may help to explain how TIM-1 and NKT cells regulate asthma...
- IL-4 treatment of small splenic B cells induces costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2R M Stack
Committee on Developmental Biology, University of Chicago, IL 60637
J Immunol 152:5723-33. 1994..Additionally, these findings support our previous findings that an alternative ligand for CD28 and CTLA4 is important in providing costimulation...
- The role of IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in the immune suppression induced by ultraviolet radiationJ M Rivas
Department of Immunology, University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center Houston 77030
J Leukoc Biol 56:769-75. 1994..Because anti-IL-4 and anti-IL-10 did not block the activity of the UV Ts that regulate contact hypersensitivity, their effects appear to be mediated by a different mechanism...
- Sharing of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor gamma chain between receptors for IL-2 and IL-4M Kondo
Department of Microbiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
Science 262:1874-7. 1993..These results suggest that the IL-2 receptor gamma chain is functionally involved in the IL-4 receptor complex...
- IL-4-regulated enteropathy in an intestinal nematode infectionC E Lawrence
Division of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, GB
Eur J Immunol 28:2672-84. 1998....
- Differential effects of the absence of interferon-gamma and IL-4 in acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in miceW J Murphy
SAIC Frederick, Division of Basic Science, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
J Clin Invest 102:1742-8. 1998..These results therefore indicate, with regard to the TH1/ TH2 cytokine paradigm, the absence of a TH1-type cytokine can be deleterious in acute GVHD, whereas absence of a TH2 cytokine can be protective...
- Reduced IL-4-, lipopolysaccharide-, and IFN-gamma-induced MHC class II expression in mice lacking class II transactivator due to targeted deletion of the GTP-binding domainY Itoh-Lindstrom
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
J Immunol 163:2425-31. 1999..These findings demonstrate a requirement for CIITA in IFN-gamma-, IL-4-, and endotoxin-induced MHC class II expression as well as the possibility of rare CIITA-independent MHC class II expression...
- Th2 responses induced by epicutaneous or inhalational protein exposure are differentially dependent on IL-4C A Herrick
Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
J Clin Invest 105:765-75. 2000..These data demonstrate a marked difference in the IL-4 dependence of Th2 responses generated at two anatomic sites of natural allergen encounter and identify the skin as a particularly potent site for Th2 sensitization...
- The progression of chronic tuberculosis in the mouse does not require the participation of B lymphocytes or interleukin-4J Turner
Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Exp Gerontol 36:537-45. 2001....
- Interleukin-4-mediated protection of primary B cells from apoptosis through Stat6-dependent up-regulation of Bcl-xLAndrea L Wurster
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Biol Chem 277:27169-75. 2002..Although it is well established that interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a potent anti-apoptotic cytokine for B lymphocytes, little is known about the IL-4-induced molecular ..
- In TH2 cells the Il4 gene has a series of accessibility states associated with distinctive probabilities of IL-4 productionLiying Guo
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Cancer Genetics Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10623-8. 2002..Among six TH2 clones prepared from homozygous or heterozygous mice in which Gfp replaced the first exon of Il4, a range of patterns of CpG methylation in the Il4/Il13 locus was observed correlating with the degree of ..
- Basal chromatin modification at the IL-4 gene in helper T cellsJane L Grogan
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0654, USA
J Immunol 171:6672-9. 2003..Hyperacetylation of nonexpressed genes may serve to mark lineage-specific loci for rapid expression and further modification...
- Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 collude in vaccine failure for novel exacerbatory antigens in murine Leishmania major infectionMark T M Roberts
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust MRC Building, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Rd, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United Kingdom
Infect Immun 73:7620-8. 2005..major, while having an intrinsic capacity to exacerbate disease in the context of otherwise T helper 1-promoting DNA vaccine delivery, can be rendered protective by the removal of functional IL-10...
- Morphine induces CD4+ T cell IL-4 expression through an adenylyl cyclase mechanism independent of the protein kinase A pathwaySabita Roy
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
J Immunol 175:6361-7. 2005..We also demonstrate that chronic morphine treatment increases anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-induced IL-4 promoter activity and IL-4 immunoprotein expression through a p38 MAPK-dependent, but protein kinase A- and Erk1/Erk2-independent, mechanism...
- Role of interleukin-4 and prostaglandin E2 in Leishmania amazonensis infection of BALB/c miceElisalva T Guimarães
Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz, FIOCRUZ, Rua Waldemar Falcao 121, 40296 710 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Microbes Infect 8:1219-26. 2006..The lesions of indomethacin-treated groups contained mostly macrophages without vacuoles and small or absent necrotic areas. These results indicate that IL-4 and PGE(2) are susceptibility factors to L. amazonensis infection...
- The corneal response to infection with Staphylococcus aureus in the absence of interleukin-4Nerida Cole
Institute for Eye Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Immunol Cell Biol 85:333-7. 2007..This information may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies potentially improving the prognosis for infection of this unique avascular site...
- The progression of inflammation parallels the dermal angiogenesis in a keratin 14 IL-4-transgenic model of atopic dermatitisLin Chen
Department of Dermatology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
Microcirculation 15:49-64. 2008..In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-gamma may play important roles in upregulation of VEGF-A, along with other pro-angiogenic factors, to induce dermal microvascular angiogenesis...
- Murine IL-4 is able to signal via chimeric human IL-4Ralpha/mouse gamma-chain receptorElmarie Myburgh
University of Cape Town, Health Science Faculty, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Division Immunology, Cape Town, South Africa
Mol Immunol 45:1327-36. 2008..brasiliensis infections. Together, these data demonstrate that mIL-4 triggered the hIL-4Ralpha/mgammac chimeric receptor in vivo...
- PTP1B is a negative regulator of interleukin 4-induced STAT6 signalingXiaoQing Lu
Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
Blood 112:4098-108. 2008..complexes with phosphorylated STAT6 in a cellular context and endogenous PTP1B and STAT6 interacted in an interleukin 4 (IL-4)-inducible manner. We delineate a new negative regulatory loop of IL-4-JAK-STAT6 signaling...
- Impaired apoptotic cell clearance in CGD due to altered macrophage programming is reversed by phosphatidylserine-dependent production of IL-4Ruby F Fernandez-Boyanapalli
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA
Blood 113:2047-55. 2009..Alternative activation with interleukin 4 (IL-4) normalized CGD macrophage efferocytosis, whereas classical activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus ..
- Host natural killer T cells induce an interleukin-4-dependent expansion of donor CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells that protects against graft-versus-host diseaseAsha B Pillai
Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 38105, USA
Blood 113:4458-67. 2009....
- Ovalbumin-induced plasma interleukin-4 levels are reduced in ceramide kinase-deficient DO11.10 RAG1-/- miceSatoru Niwa
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Brunnerstrasse 59, A 1235 Vienna, Austria
Lipids Health Dis 9:1. 2010..However, the importance of CERK to TH2 cell biology will have to be investigated further because in a model of asthma, which is TH2-cell driven, Cerk-/- mice responded like wild-type animals...
- IL-4 directs both CD4 and CD8 T cells to produce Th2 cytokines in vitro, but only CD4 T cells produce these cytokines in response to alum-precipitated protein in vivoKarine Serre
MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, The IBR, School of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
Mol Immunol 47:1914-22. 2010....
- IFN-gamma inhibits IL-4-induced type 2 cytokine expression by CD8 T cells in vivo and modulates the anti-tumor responseSimon H Apte
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
J Immunol 185:998-1004. 2010..These findings may explain the anomalies in the reported functional phenotype of type 2 polarized CD8 T cells...
- Sustained IL-4 exposure leads to a novel pathway for hemophagocytosis, inflammation, and tissue macrophage accumulationJoshua D Milner
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Blood 116:2476-83. 2010..These data describe a novel pathophysiologic pathway for erythrophagocytosis in the context of tissue macrophage accumulation and inflammation involving elevations in IL-4 and alternative macrophage activation...
- Neutralization of IL-4 reverses the nonresponsiveness of CD4+ T cells to regulatory T-cell induction in non-responder mouse strainsJun Wang
Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Mol Immunol 48:137-46. 2010....
- Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELMalpha) increases lung inflammation and activates pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells via an IL-4-dependent mechanismKazuyo Yamaji-Kegan
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Immunol 185:5539-48. 2010..These findings suggest that IL-4 signaling may play a significant role in HIMF-induced lung inflammation and vascular remodeling...
- PU.1 expression delineates heterogeneity in primary Th2 cellsHua Chen Chang
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
Immunity 22:693-703. 2005..Thus, the expression of PU.1 in subsets of Th2 cells establishes a defined cytokine profile and contributes towards establishing the spectrum of cytokine production observed in Th2 populations...
- Anti-CD3 and nasal proinsulin combination therapy enhances remission from recent-onset autoimmune diabetes by inducing TregsDamien Bresson
Department of Developmental Immunology 3, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, California 92121, USA
J Clin Invest 116:1371-81. 2006..Since Tregs act site-specifically, this strategy should also be expected to reduce the potential for systemic side effects...
- A pivotal role for interleukin-4 in atorvastatin-associated neuroprotection in rat brainRachael M Clarke
Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Physiology Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
J Biol Chem 283:1808-17. 2008..We propose that the primary effect of atorvastatin is to increase IL-4, which antagonizes the effects of IFNgamma, the associated increase in microglial activation, and the subsequent cascade of events...
- Involvement of the Jak-3 Janus kinase in signalling by interleukins 2 and 4 in lymphoid and myeloid cellsB A Witthuhn
Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105
Nature 370:153-7. 1994..Jak-3 activation requires the serine-rich, membrane-proximal domain of the interleukin-2 receptor beta-chain, but does not require the acidic domain that is required for association and activation of Src family kinases...
- Interleukin-4 causes delayed virus clearance in influenza virus-infected miceT M Moran
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA
J Virol 70:5230-5. 1996..More importantly, the treatment of mice with IL-4 resulted in an extremely significant delay in virus clearance. Thus, IL-4 can inhibit both primary and secondary antiviral immune responses...
- In interleukin-4-deficient mice, alum not only generates T helper 1 responses equivalent to freund's complete adjuvant, but continues to induce T helper 2 cytokine productionJ M Brewer
Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
Eur J Immunol 26:2062-6. 1996..However, although production of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 was totally inhibited in IL-4-deficient mice inoculated with FCA/OVA, there was no significant difference in IL-5 production between the two strains when alum was used as adjuvant...
- Heavy Metal-Induced AutoimmunityDWIGHT KONO; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- PATHOGENESIS OF MURINE SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUSDWIGHT KONO; Fiscal Year: 2009..Identification of the susceptibility genes and elucidation of their roles in the induction of lupus should provide significant insights into the etiopathogenesis of genetically-determined autoimmune diseases. ..
- Cell Cycle Inhibition in Systemic AutoimmunityDWIGHT KONO; Fiscal Year: 2009..These studies should yield important new insights into the significance and role of p21 in systemic autoimmunity and in host response to foreign antigens. ..
- Surfactant-Protein Innate Immunity in an Asthma ModelAngela Haczku; Fiscal Year: 2008..The potential opportunity to interfere with allergic sensitization by SP-D treatment bears high clinical significance. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- IMMUNE ESCAPE MECHANISMS IN LEISHMANASISImtiaz Khan; Fiscal Year: 2006..These studies have implications for the development of therapies and vaccines directed toward Leishmania infections as well as the mechanisms that regulate Th1/Th2 cytokine development in vivo. ..
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease in TCR-Mutant MiceAtul Bhan; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] ..
- Regulation of Inflammation by Somatostatin via SSTR 2David Elliott; Fiscal Year: 2006..The results of these studies will provide rationale for novel therapeutic treatment of IBD and other inflammatory diseases. ..
- Role of T cells in self-limited mucosal infectionsLynn Bry; Fiscal Year: 2006..This training provides a necessary step in the candidate's goal to become an independent researcher investigating questions in mucosal immunology and host-microbial cross-talk in intestinal environments. ..
- Quercetin Treatment of Airway InflammationMARC HERSHENSON; Fiscal Year: 2006..This project examines the value of quercetin, a plant pigment, in preventing airway inflammation in mouse models of disease. This work may lead to new treatments for asthma, cystic fibrosis or chronic bronchitis. ..
- Genetic Linkage Analysis of Liver Disease in MiceJAMES GORHAM; Fiscal Year: 2006..This will have important implications for understanding the genetic basis of autoimmune hepatitis, and of hepatocellular damage in the settings of HCV infection. ..
- Natural Killer Cell Mediated Control of Vaccinia VirusAnthony French; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed work will occur under the mentorship of Dr. Wayne Yokoyama a recognized pioneer in the NK cell field who has successfully trained numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Role of Galectin-4 in ColitisAtsushi Mizoguchi; Fiscal Year: 2008..These studies will not only enhance understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of IBD but also provide important information to develop new therapeutic approaches for human IBD. ..
- Regulation of Inflammation in Asthma by Fas LigandAngela Haczku; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, in order to help support the hypothesis that pro-apoptotic FasL activity characterized in human airway cells is truly physiologic, we will perform challenge studies in mice under FasL neutralizing conditions. ..
- T CELL CONTROL OF AIRWAY MUCUS PRODUCTIONLauren Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2009..AIM II. Determine the mechanism of IFN-g inhibition of eosinophilia and its relationship to the reciprocal induction of neutrophilia. AIM III. Determine how IFN-g regulates the number of Th2 cells in the respiratory tract. ..
- Rhinovirus and COPD exacerbationsMARC HERSHENSON; Fiscal Year: 2009..Understanding viral-induced exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will lead to improvements in the treatment of this disease, thereby increasing survival and quality of life for patients. ..
- Analyzing and modulating immunoregulatory defects in autoimmune disease.Michele M Kosiewicz; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Multipotent lung mesenchymal cells in neonatal lung injuryMarc B Hershenson; Fiscal Year: 2010..Understanding the role of multipotent lung mesenchymal cells in the pathogenesis of BPD will lead to improvements in the treatment of this disease. ..
- Crimson - i2b2 integration for high-throughput, scalable sample collectionLynn Bry; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Direct IL-4 and IL-13 effects on pulmonary smooth muscle in allergic airway diseaFRED DOUGLASS FINKELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010..Proposed studies with a mouse model in which airway hyperresponsiveness is induced solely by direct IL-4 and IL-13 effects on smooth muscle should help to elucidate these mechanisms and may reveal new approaches for asthma therapy. ..
- Requirements for regulatory T cell developmentMICHELE KOSIEWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2003..These experiments may determine the requirements for regulatory T cell development, and thereby, identify pathways that can be therapeutically manipulated to prevent and/or treat autoimmune diseases. ..
- A novel inbred mouse model of autoimmune hepatitisJAMES GORHAM; Fiscal Year: 2002..The proposal seeks to understand mechanisms that regulate the development of inflammation in the liver, so as to gain insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of AIH and other hepatic inflammatory diseases. ..
- CAPACITATIVE CALCIUM ENTRY DEFECT IN IMMUNE DEFICIENCYAnjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2002..Deletion mapping using spectral karyotyping and microsatellite markers will be used to further narrow down the chromosomal region involved in the defect and candidate genes in this region will be evaluated. ..
- LEISHMANIA INFECTION IN BALB/C IL4 NEG AND IL4R NEG MICENancy Noben Trauth; Fiscal Year: 2002..major parasites and will offer alternative theories to the Th1/Th2 paradigm in general. These studies also will lead to new interpretations of the action of anti-IL-4 treatment in vivo. ..
- IMMUNOMODULATORY STRATEGIES IN AUTOIMMUNE GASTRITISMICHELE KOSIEWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2002..This strategy may be used in conjunction with TGFbeta-treated APCs to successfully treat established autoimmune disease. ..
- TH2-MEDIATED INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN THE SKIN AND LUNGCHRISTINA HERRICK; Fiscal Year: 2002..My goal is to continue basic science investigation of atopic skin disease as a junior faculty member in the Department of Dermatology at Yale School of Medicine. ..
- SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLE HYPERPLASIAMARC HERSHENSON; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- IL4R AND IMMUNITY TO GI NEMATODE PARASITESFred Finkelman; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- CYTOKINE REGULATION OF A MOUSE MODEL OF ASTHMAFred Finkelman; Fiscal Year: 2003..By clarifying the mechanisms by which cytokines induce pulmonary inflammation and airway responsiveness, the proposed studies will provide information important for rational therapy for asthma. ..
- Mechanisms of liver disease in a mouse model of AIHJAMES GORHAM; Fiscal Year: 2006..The final aim is to analyze the genetics, mechanisms, and specificity of hepatic BALB/c-TGF-b1(-/-) effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes. ..
- Sex-based differences in regulatory T cell responsesMICHELE KOSIEWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2004..The results of these studies will provide important information that can lead to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune disease. ..
- CMV RETINITIS AND VIRAL RESISTANCEDOUGLAS JABS; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- RAC 1 SIGNALING PATHWAY IN AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLEMARC HERSHENSON; Fiscal Year: 2002..These studies may shed light on parallel mechanisms that may operate in asthma, and lead to therapeutic interventions. ..
- Role of arginine deficiency in pathogenesis of lupusMinoru Satoh; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Manipulation of T cell tolerance with small organic mol*Anjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2005..The hope is that the 'information obtained from this pilot R21 proposal will eventually be extended to whole animal models of transplant and tumour rejection, allergy and autoimmune disease. ..
- Protective role of cross-reactive anti-enteric antibodyLynn Bry; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Analysis of Viral Resistance in CMV RetinitisDOUGLAS JABS; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Cellular targets of IL-4 and IL-13 in worm expulsionFred Finkelman; Fiscal Year: 2007..It should also be useful for the intelligent prediction of risks associated with agents that inhibit allergic inflammation. ..
- Role of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Allergic ResponseFred Finkelman; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- REGULATION OF IL4 PRODUCTION IN VIVOFred Finkelman; Fiscal Year: 2002..The results of these experiments will provide a better understanding of how IL-4 responses are regulated in vivo; this understanding will enhance the ability to control disorders that are regulated by IL-4. ..
- Th2 responses in the cutaneous environmentChristina A Herrick; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- OCULAR IMMUNOPATHOLOGY IN AUTOIMMUNE MODELSDOUGLAS JABS; Fiscal Year: 2001....