Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il21r
Description: interleukin 21 receptor
Alias: NILR, interleukin-21 receptor, IL-21 receptor, IL-21R, LR-beta, NR8, lymphocyte receptor beta, novel cytokine receptor 8, novel interleukin receptor
- IL-21 limits NK cell responses and promotes antigen-specific T cell activation: a mediator of the transition from innate to adaptive immunityMarion T Kasaian
Genetics Institute, Wyeth Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
Immunity 16:559-69. 2002..These observations suggest that IL-21 promotes the transition between innate and adaptive immunity...
- Distinct activation signals determine whether IL-21 induces B cell costimulation, growth arrest, or Bim-dependent apoptosisHaoli Jin
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
J Immunol 173:657-65. 2004..We favor a model in which IL-21 promotes B cell maturation during a productive T cell-dependent B cell response, while favoring growth arrest and apoptosis for nonspecifically or inappropriately activated B cells...
- Development and characterization of IL-21-producing CD4+ T cellsAkira Suto
Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 260 8670 Japan
J Exp Med 205:1369-79. 2008....
- A positive feedback loop of IL-21 signaling provoked by homeostatic CD4+CD25- T cell expansion is essential for the development of arthritis in autoimmune K/BxN miceEunkyeong Jang
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
J Immunol 182:4649-56. 2009..Our findings suggest that effective targeting of IL-21-mediated processes may be useful in treating autoimmune arthritis...
- Altered effector CD4+ T cell function in IL-21R-/- CD4+ T cell-mediated graft-versus-host diseaseIekuni Oh
Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
J Immunol 185:1920-6. 2010..Thus, the attenuated GVHD might be caused by an impairment of effector T cell differentiation itself, rather than by an increase in regulatory T cells and suppression of effector T cells...
- IL-21 acts directly on B cells to regulate Bcl-6 expression and germinal center responsesMichelle A Linterman
John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
J Exp Med 207:353-63. 2010..In contrast to the requirement for IL-21 in the follicular response to sheep red blood cells, a purely extrafollicular antibody response to Salmonella dominated by IgG2a was intact in the absence of IL-21...
- A fundamental role for interleukin-21 in the generation of T follicular helper cellsAlexis Vogelzang
Department of Immunology, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
Immunity 29:127-37. 2008..This study reveals a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in the formation of the GC and isotype switching through a CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic requirement for IL-21...
- IL-21 limits peripheral lymphocyte numbers through T cell homeostatic mechanismsShrimati Datta
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 3:e3118. 2008..IL-21, a member of the common gamma-chain utilizing family of cytokines, participates in immune and inflammatory processes. In addition, the cytokine has been linked to autoimmunity in humans and rodents...
- IL-21 signaling is critical for the development of type I diabetes in the NOD mouseRosanne Spolski
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 7B05, Bethesda, MD 20892 1674, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14028-33. 2008..To determine the role of IL-21 in diabetes, Il21r-knockout (KO) mice were backcrossed to NOD mice...
- Interleukin-21 is required for the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD miceAndrew P R Sutherland
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Diabetes 58:1144-55. 2009..The aim of this study was to investigate a causal role for IL-21 in type 1 diabetes...
- IL-21 mediates suppressive effects via its induction of IL-10Rosanne Spolski
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 182:2859-67. 2009..Overall, our data indicate that IL-21 regulates immune responses at least in part by inducing IL-10 and reveal unanticipated immunosuppressive actions for this cytokine...
- IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infectionHeidi Elsaesser
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics and University of California, Los Angeles UCLA AIDS Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Science 324:1569-72. 2009..Thus, IL-21 specifically sustains CD8+ T cell effector activity and provides a mechanism of CD4+ T cell help during chronic viral infection...
- A vital role for interleukin-21 in the control of a chronic viral infectionJohn S Yi
Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
Science 324:1572-6. 2009..Thus, IL-21 serves as a critical helper factor that shapes the functional quality of antiviral CD8+ T cells and is required for viral control...
- IL-21R on T cells is critical for sustained functionality and control of chronic viral infectionAnja Fröhlich
Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Science 324:1576-80. 2009Chronic viral infection is often associated with the dysfunction of virus-specific T cells. Our studies using Il21r-deficient (Il21r-/-) mice now suggest that interleukin-21 (IL-21) is critical for the long-term maintenance and ..
- Cutting edge: IL-27 induces the transcription factor c-Maf, cytokine IL-21, and the costimulatory receptor ICOS that coordinately act together to promote differentiation of IL-10-producing Tr1 cellsCaroline Pot
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 183:797-801. 2009..ICOS further promotes IL-27-driven Tr1 cells. Each of those elements is essential, because loss of c-Maf, IL-21-signaling, or ICOS decreases the frequency of IL-27-induced differentiation of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells...
- IL-21 blockade reduces graft-versus-host disease mortality by supporting inducible T regulatory cell generationChristoph Bucher
University of Minnesota Cancer Center and Department of Pediatrics, Division of BMT, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Blood 114:5375-84. 2009..Together, these data indicate that IL-21 suppresses inducible Treg conversion and further suggest that IL-21 blockade is an attractive strategy to reduce GVHD-induced injury...
- Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte functionJ Parrish-Novak
Department of Functional Cloning, ZymoGenetics, Inc, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA
Nature 408:57-63. 2000....
- IL-21 regulates germinal center B cell differentiation and proliferation through a B cell-intrinsic mechanismDimitra Zotos
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville 3052, Australia
J Exp Med 207:365-78. 2010..The absence of IL-21 or IL-21 receptor does not abrogate the appearance of T cells in GCs or the appearance of CD4 T cells with a follicular helper phenotype. IL-21 thus controls fate choices of GC B cells directly...
- Cutting edge: IL-21 and TLR signaling regulate germinal center responses in a B cell-intrinsic mannerJuliana Bessa
Cytos Biotechnology, Wagistrasse 25, Schlieren 8952, Switzerland
J Immunol 184:4615-9. 2010..Hence, IL-21 acts directly on B cells and cooperates with TLR signaling for optimal B cell responses...
- IL-21 receptor is critical for the development of memory B cell responsesAndrew L Rankin
Inflammation and Immunology, Pfizer Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
J Immunol 186:667-74. 2011..KO mice, and consequently, secondary IgG Ab responses to NP hapten conjugated to chicken γ globulin were significantly impaired. These results identify the IL-21 pathway as a critical component of the memory B cell response...
- Intrinsic IL-21 signaling is critical for CD8 T cell survival and memory formation in response to vaccinia viral infectionPatricia Novy
Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
J Immunol 186:2729-38. 2011..These results identify a critical role for intrinsic IL-21 signaling in CD8 T cell responses to an acute viral infection in vivo and may help design effective vaccine strategies...
- Interleukin-21 is critically required in autoimmune and allogeneic responses to islet tissue in murine modelsHelen M McGuire
Department of Immunology, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
Diabetes 60:867-75. 2011..In addition, we assessed the role of IL-21 responsiveness in islet allograft rejection in mouse animal models...
- Key role for IL-21 in experimental autoimmune uveitisLu Wang
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9542-7. 2011..Furthermore, Il21r(-/-) mice were more resistant to EAU development than wild-type mice, and adoptive transfer of Il21r(-/-) T cells ..
- Abrogation of donor T-cell IL-21 signaling leads to tissue-specific modulation of immunity and separation of GVHD from GVLAlan M Hanash
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
Blood 118:446-55. 2011..IL-21 is thus an exciting target for therapeutic intervention and improvement of clinical transplantation outcomes...
- IL-21 inhibits T cell IL-2 production and impairs Treg homeostasisKesley Attridge
Medical Research Council Centre for Immune Regulation, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK
Blood 119:4656-64. 2012..The data also suggest a new paradigm whereby cytokines can promote immunity by inhibiting IL-2...
- Interleukin-21 is a critical cytokine for the generation of virus-specific long-lived plasma cellsMohammed Ata Ur Rasheed
Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
J Virol 87:7737-46. 2013..Taken together, our results highlight the importance of IL-21 in humoral immunity to viruses...
- Cutting edge: IL-21 is not essential for Th17 differentiation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisJonathan M Coquet
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
J Immunol 180:7097-101. 2008..Thus, our results challenge the notion that IL-21 is a key factor in driving Th17 immunity and disease...
- The common gamma chain (gamma c) is a required signaling component of the IL-21 receptor and supports IL-21-induced cell proliferation via JAK3Tania Habib
Division of Hematology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Biochemistry 41:8725-31. 2002....
- A critical role for IL-21 in regulating immunoglobulin productionKatsutoshi Ozaki
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1674, USA
Science 298:1630-4. 2002..This suggests that these gammac-dependent cytokines may be those whose inactivation is primarily responsible for the B cell defect in humans with XSCID...
- Synergy of IL-21 and IL-15 in regulating CD8+ T cell expansion and functionRong Zeng
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Exp Med 201:139-48. 2005..Thus, our studies reveal that IL-21 potently regulates CD8+ T cell expansion and effector function, primarily in a synergistic context with IL-15...
- IL-21 receptor signaling is integral to the development of Th2 effector responses in vivoAnja Fröhlich
Institute of Integrative Biology, Molecular Biomedicine, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Blood 109:2023-31. 2007..Overall, our data show IL-21 plays a crucial role in supporting polarized Th2 responses in vivo, while appearing superfluous for Th1 and Th17 responses...
- IL-21 has a pathogenic role in a lupus-prone mouse model and its blockade with IL-21R.Fc reduces disease progressionDeborah Herber
Inflammation, Wyeth Research, 200 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
J Immunol 178:3822-30. 2007..From a clinical standpoint, these results suggest that blocking IL-21 in systemic lupus erythematosus patients may represent a promising novel therapeutic approach...
- IL-6 programs T(H)-17 cell differentiation by promoting sequential engagement of the IL-21 and IL-23 pathwaysLiang Zhou
The Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine of the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
Nat Immunol 8:967-74. 2007..IL-6 therefore orchestrates a series of 'downstream' cytokine-dependent signaling pathways that, in concert with TGF-beta, amplify RORgammat-dependent differentiation of T(H)-17 cells...
- IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory T(H)17 cellsThomas Korn
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 448:484-7. 2007..We show that an IL-2 cytokine family member, IL-21, cooperates with TGF-beta to induce T(H)17 cells in naive Il6-/- T cells and that IL-21-receptor-deficient T cells are defective in generating a T(H)17 response...
- IL-21 and IL-21R are not required for development of Th17 cells and autoimmunity in vivoIvo Sonderegger
Institute of Integrative Biology, Molecular Biomedicine, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Eur J Immunol 38:1833-8. 2008..CD4 T cells, their recruitment to inflamed organs, and the development of autoimmune disease was not affected in il21R(-/-) and il21(-/-) mice in models of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced autoimmune encephalitis and ..
- Cloning of a type I cytokine receptor most related to the IL-2 receptor beta chainK Ozaki
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1674, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:11439-44. 2000We have identified a type I cytokine receptor, which we have termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), that is most related to the IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2Rbeta) and physically adjacent to the IL-4 receptor alpha chain gene on ..
- Improved Treatment of Breast Cancer with Anti-HER2 Therapy Requires Interleukin-21 Signaling in CD8+ T CellsDeepak Mittal
Immunology in Cancer and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia
Cancer Res 76:264-74. 2016..of trastuzumab benefit on distant disease-free survival was higher for increasing expression of the IL21 receptor (IL21R). Therefore, we investigated a possible role for IL21 signaling in promoting HER2 mAb therapeutic efficacy...
- Interleukin-21-Producing CD4(+) T Cells Promote Type 2 Immunity to House Dust MitesJonathan M Coquet
VIB Inflammation Research Center IRC, Gent University, Zwijnaarde 9052B, Belgium Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology MTC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden Electronic address
Immunity 43:318-30. 2015..b>Il21r(-/-) mice developed reduced type 2 responses and the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) enhanced Th2 cell function in a cell-..
- Interleukin-21 receptor signalling is important for innate immune protection against HSV-2 infectionsSine K Kratholm
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
PLoS ONE 8:e81790. 2013..Collectively our data demonstrate the novel finding that the IL-21R plays a critical role in regulating innate immune responses against HSV-2 infection. ..
- IL-21 is a double-edged sword in the systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease of BXSB.Yaa miceCaroline G McPhee
The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609
J Immunol 191:4581-8. 2013..These results indicate that IL-21 has both disease-promoting and disease-suppressive effects in the autoimmune disease of BXSB.Yaa mice. ..
- Excessive Th1 responses due to the absence of TGF-β signaling cause autoimmune diabetes and dysregulated Treg cell homeostasisHarumichi Ishigame
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6961-6. 2013..These results indicate that autocrine/paracrine TGF-β signaling in diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells, but not Treg cells, is essential for controlling T1D development...
- The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacts with c-Maf to promote the differentiation of type 1 regulatory T cells induced by IL-27Lionel Apetoh
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Nat Immunol 11:854-61. 2010..Manipulating AhR signaling could therefore be beneficial in the resolution of excessive inflammatory responses...
- The cytokines IL-21 and GM-CSF have opposing regulatory roles in the apoptosis of conventional dendritic cellsChi Keung Wan
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and the Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1674, USA
Immunity 38:514-27. 2013..CD4+ T cells caused more severe colitis with increased DCs and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T cells in Il21r(-/-)Rag2(-/-) mice (which lack T cells and have IL-21-unresponsive DCs) than in Rag2(-/-) mice...
- IL-21 is an antitolerogenic cytokine of the late-phase alloimmune responseAlessandra Petrelli
Transplantation Research Center, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Diabetes 60:3223-34. 2011..Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to affect Treg/Teff balance. However, the mechanism by which IL-21 orchestrates alloimmune response and interplays with Tregs is still unclear...
- Invariant natural killer T cells direct B cell responses to cognate lipid antigen in an IL-21-dependent mannerIrah L King
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York, USA
Nat Immunol 13:44-50. 2011..Thus, cognate iNKT cell help for lipid-specific B cells induces a unique signature that is a hybrid of classic T cell-dependent and T cell-independent type 2 B cell responses...
- IL-21R expression on CD8+ T cells promotes CD8+ T cell activation in coxsackievirus B3 induced myocarditisWei Liu
The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, 150001, China
Exp Mol Pathol 92:327-33. 2012..These data demonstrate that IL-21 signaling directly in the CD8+ cell population is required for CVB3-induced myocarditis...
- IL-21 promotes the pathologic immune response to pneumovirus infectionRosanne Spolski
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 188:1924-32. 2012..We found that PVM-infected mice expressed IL-21 in lung CD4(+) T cells. Following infection, Il21r(-/-) mice exhibited less lung infiltration by neutrophils than did wild-type (WT) mice and correspondingly had ..
- Galectin-1 triggers an immunoregulatory signature in Th cells functionally defined by IL-10 expressionFiliberto Cedeno-Laurent
Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 188:3127-37. 2012..Collectively, these findings show how Gal-1 functions as a major glycome determinant regulating Th cell development, inflammation, and tumor immunity...
- Interleukin-21 receptor-mediated signals control autoreactive T cell infiltration in pancreatic isletsTom L Van Belle
Type 1 Diabetes Center, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Immunity 36:1060-72. 2012..antigen, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, and CD86 was provided to autoreactive effector cells in Il21r(-/-) mice, impairing CD4(+) T cell activation, CD40:CD40L interactions, and pancreatic infiltration by ..
- IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanismsVinh Nguyen
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Immunol 189:1081-93. 2012....
- Th17 cells induce ectopic lymphoid follicles in central nervous system tissue inflammationAnneli Peters
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Immunity 35:986-96. 2011..Thus, Th17 cells are uniquely endowed to induce tissue inflammation, characterized by ectopic lymphoid follicles within the target organ...
- Regulatory B cells control T-cell autoimmunity through IL-21-dependent cognate interactionsAyumi Yoshizaki
Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Nature 491:264-8. 2012..The ex vivo expansion and reinfusion of autologous B10 cells may provide a novel and effective in vivo treatment for severe autoimmune diseases that are resistant to current therapies...
- IL-21 is pivotal in determining age-dependent effectiveness of immune responses in a mouse model of human hepatitis BJean Publicover
Department of Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA
J Clin Invest 121:1154-62. 2011..These findings carry implications for therapeutic augmentation of immune responses to HBV and potentially other persistent liver viruses...
- STAT3 is a negative regulator of granulopoiesis but is not required for G-CSF-dependent differentiationChien Kuo Lee
Department of Pathology, Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, 10016, USA
Immunity 17:63-72. 2002....
- T-cell help permits memory CD8(+) T-cell inflation during cytomegalovirus latencySenta M Walton
Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Eur J Immunol 41:2248-59. 2011..Thus, CD8(+) T-cell inflation during latent CMV infection is strongly dependent on CD4(+) T-cell helper functions, which can partially be compensated by ongoing lytic viral replication in the absence of CD4(+) T cells...
- Facultative role for T cells in extrafollicular Toll-like receptor-dependent autoreactive B-cell responses in vivoRebecca A Sweet
Department of Immunobiology and Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7932-7. 2011....
- A subset of interleukin-21+ chemokine receptor CCR9+ T helper cells target accessory organs of the digestive system in autoimmunityHelen M McGuire
Department of Immunology, The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
Immunity 34:602-15. 2011..Thus, CCR9+ Th cells are a subset of IL-21-producing T helper cells that influence regional specification of autoimmune diseases that affect accessory organs of the digestive system...
- B and T lymphocyte attenuator suppresses IL-21 production from follicular Th cells and subsequent humoral immune responsesDaisuke Kashiwakuma
Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
J Immunol 185:2730-6. 2010..These results suggest that BTLA signaling suppresses IL-21 production from Tfh cells and subsequent Tfh cell-mediated IgG responses...
- IL-2 and IL-21 confer opposing differentiation programs to CD8+ T cells for adoptive immunotherapyChristian S Hinrichs
National Cancer Institute, Surgery Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1502, USA
Blood 111:5326-33. 2008..Thus, the efficacy of CD8(+) T cells for adoptive immunotherapy can be influenced by opposing differentiation programs conferred by IL-2 and IL-21, a finding with important implications for the development of cellular cancer therapies...
- Mouse macrophages are permissive to motile Legionella species that fail to trigger pyroptosisNatalie N Whitfield
Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Infect Immun 78:423-32. 2010..These results point to the complexity of disease, a product of the pathogenic potential of the microbe, as defined in the laboratory, and the capacity of the host to mount a measured defense...
- IL-21 receptor expression determines the temporal phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitisRuolan Liu
Department of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph s Hospital and Medical Center, 350 West Thomas Road, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
Exp Neurol 211:14-24. 2008..These results suggest that a temporal influence of IL-21 on the activity of immunoregulatory circuits can be important in the modulation of the course of the autoimmune disease...
- Endogenous IL-21 restricts CD8+ T cell expansion and is not required for tumor immunityHenrik Søndergaard
Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
J Immunol 183:7326-36. 2009....
- Upregulated IL-21 and IL-21 receptor expression is involved in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU)Lan Liu
Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P R China
Mol Vis 15:2938-44. 2009..Our study is designed to investigate the alteration and possible function of IL-21 in the development of an experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model...
- The impact of T cell intrinsic antigen adaptation on peripheral immune toleranceNevil J Singh
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
PLoS Biol 4:e340. 2006..These extrinsic mechanisms prevented the effector differentiation of the autoreactive T cells and reduced their precursor frequency, in vivo...
- DAP12 signaling directly augments proproliferative cytokine stimulation of NK cells during viral infectionsAnthony R French
Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Immunol 177:4981-90. 2006..The impact of Ly49H-mediated signaling on NK cell proliferation is masked in the presence of high concentrations of proproliferative cytokines that nonselectively drive all NK cells to proliferate...
- The IL-21 receptor augments Th2 effector function and alternative macrophage activationJohn Pesce
Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Clin Invest 116:2044-55. 2006..Collectively, these results illustrate an essential function for the IL-21R in the development of pathogen-induced Th2 responses, which may have relevance in therapies for both inflammatory and chronic fibrotic diseases...
- Stem cell mobilization with G-CSF induces type 17 differentiation and promotes sclerodermaGeoffrey R Hill
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
Blood 116:819-28. 2010..This study provides a logical explanation for the propensity of allogeneic stem cell transplantation to invoke sclerodermatous GVHD and suggests a therapeutic strategy for intervention...
- Autoreactive T cells mediate NK cell degeneration in autoimmune diseaseRuolan Liu
Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph s Hospital and Medical Center, 350 West Thomas Road, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
J Immunol 176:5247-54. 2006..Thus, NK cell degeneration may serve as a means evolved by the immune system to control excessive autoimmunity...
- Analysis of the role of IL-21 in development of murine B cell progenitors in the bone marrowNathalie Simard
Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada
J Immunol 186:5244-53. 2011..We also report in this paper that IL-21 is expressed by BM CD4(+) T cells. These results provide evidence that IL-21R is functional in B cell progenitors and indicate that IL-21 regulates B cell development...
- IL-21 induces death of marginal zone B cells during chronic inflammationLuigi Tortola
Institute of Integrative Biology, Molecular Biomedicine, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Schlieren, Switzerland
Blood 116:5200-7. 2010..Our results highlight key roles of IL-2 in inhibiting IL-21 production by CD4(+) T cells and of IL-21 in negatively regulating MZ B-cell survival and antibody production...
- IL-21 deficiency influences CD8 T cell quality and recall responses following an acute viral infectionJohn S Yi
Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
J Immunol 185:4835-45. 2010..Collectively, these studies highlight the potential roles of IL-21 in determining the quality of CD8 T cell responses postinfection...
- A nonredundant role for IL-21 receptor signaling in plasma cell differentiation and protective type 2 immunity against gastrointestinal helminth infectionIrah L King
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
J Immunol 185:6138-45. 2010..Our studies demonstrate a selective role for IL-21 in plasma cell differentiation in the context of protective antiparasitic type 2 immunity...
- A novel role for IL-22R1 as a driver of inflammationRam Savan
Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA
Blood 117:575-84. 2011..This study documents a previously unknown role of IL-22R1 in inflammation and identifies the involvement of IL-22R1/IL-22 in ALK(+)ALCL...
- Critical role for IL-21 in both primary and memory anti-viral CD8+ T-cell responsesBrianne R Barker
Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Eur J Immunol 40:3085-96. 2010..These findings indicate that IL-21 is an important mediator of CD4(+) T-cell help to CD8(+) T cells...
- IL-21 ensures TGF-beta 1-induced IgA isotype expression in mouse Peyer's patchesGoo Young Seo
Department of Molecular Bioscience, School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200 701, Korea
J Leukoc Biol 85:744-50. 2009..Our results showed that IL-21 was expressed in greater magnitude in Peyer's patches (PP) than in spleen. These results suggest that IL-21 has an important effect on selective IgA(+) B cell commitment in PP...
- A critical role for IL-21 receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus in BXSB-Yaa miceJason A Bubier
The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1518-23. 2009..IL-21 arising from an abnormal population of CD4 T cells is thus central to the development of this lethal disease, and, more generally, could play an important role in human SLE and related autoimmune disorders...
- CXCR4 expression on activated B cells is downregulated by CD63 and IL-21Nobuya Yoshida
Department of Developmental Genetics, H2, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
J Immunol 186:2800-8. 2011..Thus, CXCR4 can be downregulated on activated B cells by IL-21-induced endocytosis and CD63-mediated endosomal recruitment, and these mechanisms may contribute to downregulation of CXCR4 on centrocytes...
- CD4+ T cell help and innate-derived IL-27 induce Blimp-1-dependent IL-10 production by antiviral CTLsJie Sun
The Beirne B Carter Center for Immunology Research, The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Nat Immunol 12:327-34. 2011..These findings reveal a previously unrecognized pathway that coordinates signals derived from innate and helper T cells to control the production of a regulatory cytokine by CTLs during acute viral infection...
- IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and miceHaoli Jin
Division of Immunology, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Clin Invest 119:47-60. 2009..The importance of this finding was highlighted by the fact that both Il21r-/- mice and WT mice treated with soluble IL-21R-IgG2aFc fusion protein failed to develop skin inflammation after e...
- Treatment of BXSB-Yaa mice with IL-21R-Fc fusion protein minimally attenuates systemic lupus erythematosusJ A Bubier
The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main St Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1110:590-601. 2007..This experiment provides preliminary evidence for a role of IL-21 in modulating the severity of SLE in BXSB-Yaa mice...
- c-Maf activates the promoter and enhancer of the IL-21 gene, and TGF-beta inhibits c-Maf-induced IL-21 production in CD4+ T cellsYukiko Hiramatsu
Department of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
J Leukoc Biol 87:703-12. 2010..Taken together, these results suggest that c-Maf induces IL-21 production directly in CD4(+) T cells by activating IL-21P and the CNS-2 enhancer and that TGF-beta suppresses c-Maf-induced IL-21 production in CD4(+) T cells...
- Natural Killer Cell Mediated Control of Vaccinia VirusAnthony French; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed work will occur under the mentorship of Dr. Wayne Yokoyama a recognized pioneer in the NK cell field who has successfully trained numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. [unreadable] [unreadable]..