Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Il2
Description: interleukin 2
Alias: Il-2, interleukin-2, T-cell growth factor, TCGF
Publications152 found, 100 shown here
- Helper requirements for generation of effector CTL to islet beta cell antigensGeorg M N Behrens
Immunology Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
J Immunol 172:5420-6. 2004..This provides insight into the helper requirements for adoptive transfer immunotherapy of tumors and suggests key points for inhibition of CTL-mediated autoimmunity...
- Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generationArian Laurence
Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Immunity 26:371-81. 2007..We conclude that in addition to the promotion of activation-induced cell death of lymphocytes and the generation of Treg cells, inhibition of Th17 polarization appears to be an important function of IL-2...
- PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and is overcome by IL-2LauraL Carter
Wyeth Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
Eur J Immunol 32:634-43. 2002..However, CD8(+) T cells may be more sensitive to modulation by the PD-1:PD-L pathway because of their intrinsic inability to produce significant levels of IL-2...
- Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cellsR Moriggl
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
Immunity 10:249-59. 1999..These phenotypes are not seen in mice lacking Stat5a or Stat5b alone. The results demonstrate that the Stat5 proteins, redundantly, are essential mediators of IL-2 signaling in T cells...
- A heat shock protein gene (Hsp70.1) is critically involved in the generation of the immune response to myelin antigenMarcin P Mycko
Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Medical University of Lodz, 22 Kopcinskiego Street, Lodz, Poland
Eur J Immunol 38:1999-2013. 2008....
- Phospholipase Cgamma2 is critical for Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ flux and cytokine production in dendritic cellsShengli Xu
Laboratory of Immunology, Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138668
J Biol Chem 284:7038-46. 2009..PLCgamma2-deficient DCs have drastic impairment of Ca2+ signaling and are defective in their secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor alpha...
- Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokinesC A Dinarello
Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111
Adv Immunol 44:153-205. 1989
- Sequential development of interleukin 2-dependent effector and regulatory T cells in response to endogenous systemic antigenBirgit Knoechel
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
J Exp Med 202:1375-86. 2005..Thus, a peripheral T cell reaction to a systemic antigen goes through a phase of effector cell-mediated pathology followed by T reg cell-mediated recovery, and both require the growth factor IL-2...
- IL-2 regulates perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on survival and proliferationMichelle L Janas
Cooperative Research Center for Vaccine Technology and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
J Immunol 175:8003-10. 2005..Together, these findings indicate that IL-2 can directly regulate perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on cell survival and proliferation...
- Perlecan: a major IL-2-binding proteoglycan in murine spleenJohn D Miller
Division of Transplantation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 7690, USA
Immunol Cell Biol 86:192-9. 2008..Identification of perlecan as a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan that binds IL-2 has implications for both the localization and regulation of IL-2 in vivo...
- Normal clonal expansion but impaired Fas-mediated cell death and anergy induction in interleukin-2-deficient miceB Kneitz
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, Wurzburg, Germany
Eur J Immunol 25:2572-7. 1995....
- Interleukin-2 gene deletion produces a robust reduction in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 miceJ M Petitto
Department of Psychiatry, UF Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0256, USA
Neurosci Lett 285:66-70. 2000Dysregulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the prototypical T cell growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine, may modify self-tolerance and predisposition to autoimmunity...
- Priming for T helper type 2 differentiation by interleukin 2-mediated induction of interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain expressionWei Liao
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Immunol 9:1288-96. 2008..expression, T cell receptor-induced IL-4Ralpha expression was normal in Il4(-/-) cells but was much lower in Il2(-/-) cells. Notably, forced IL-4Ralpha expression restored the T(H)2 differentiation of Il2(-/-) cells...
- Role of costimulation in the induction of the IL-12/IL-12 receptor pathway and the development of autoimmunityJ T Chang
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 164:100-6. 2000..These findings suggest that targeting IL-2 and IL-12 simultaneously may be effective in the treatment of Th1-mediated autoimmunity...
- Essential role for STAT5 signaling in CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cell homeostasis and the maintenance of self-toleranceAndrey Antov
Center for Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
J Immunol 171:3435-41. 2003..Furthermore, transient activation of STAT5 is sufficient to increase CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg numbers in IL-2-deficient mice. Our study uncovers an essential role for STAT5 in maintaining CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg homeostasis and self-tolerance...
- Genetic analysis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus in miceJ A Todd
Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
Nature 351:542-7. 1991..On the basis of comparative maps of the mouse and human genomes, the homologue of Idd-3 may reside on human chromosomes 1 or 4 and Idd-4 on chromosome 17...
- Cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal tissue of interleukin-2 deficient mice with bowel inflammationI B Autenrieth
Max v Pettenkofer Institut für Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munchen, Germany
Gut 41:793-800. 1997..Recent studies provided evidence that alpha beta T cells, particularly CD4 T cells, rather than B cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of bowel inflammation of IL-2 deficient mice...
- Mice with a fluorescent marker for interleukin 2 gene activationM Naramura
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
Immunity 9:209-16. 1998..These mice allow noninvasive detection of IL-2 production by single cells and analysis of the subsequent differentiative fate of these cells as an immune response develops...
- IL-2-deficient mice raised under germfree conditions develop delayed mild focal intestinal inflammationM Schultz
Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Am J Physiol 276:G1461-72. 1999..In contrast to other genetically engineered rodents, IL-2 -/- mice develop mild focal gastrointestinal and active portal tract inflammation in the absence of viable bacteria...
- Congenic mapping of the type 1 diabetes locus, Idd3, to a 780-kb region of mouse chromosome 3: identification of a candidate segment of ancestral DNA by haplotype mappingP A Lyons
Department of Medical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Study of Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, University of Cambridge, UK
Genome Res 10:446-53. 2000..The Il2 gene, which encodes the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), maps to this interval and is a strong candidate for Idd3...
- The role of the IL-2 pathway in costimulation blockade-resistant rejection of allograftsThomas R Jones
The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
J Immunol 168:1123-30. 2002..Interestingly, depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ cells, prevents prolongation in allograft survival, suggesting an IL-2-independent role for regulation in extended survival...
- Overexpression of interleukin-2 by a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 attenuates pathogenicity and enhances antiviral immunityHomayon Ghiasi
Ophthalmology Research, Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
J Virol 76:9069-78. 2002..These results suggest that IL-2 expression by recombinant HSV-1 reduces virulence and that depletion of IL-2 or T cells increases virulence in HSV-1-infected mice...
- Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2Homayon Ghiasi
Ophthalmology Research, Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
Virology 302:286-93. 2002..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
- Congenic mapping and candidate sequencing of susceptibility genes for Type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouseHiroshi Ikegami
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1005:196-204. 2003..Phenotypes of NOD. IIS-Idd3 congenic mice, which share the same alleles at both Il2 and Il21 as the NOD mouse, were indistinguishable from the NOD parental strain, indicating that both Il2 and Il21 ..
- Interleukin-2 is essential for CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell functionMaurus de la Rosa
Deutsches Rheuma ForschungsZentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Eur J Immunol 34:2480-8. 2004..We propose the parakrine uptake of soluble mediators as a flexible mechanism to adapt Treg activity to the strength of the responder T cell reaction...
- Idd1 and Idd3 are necessary but not sufficient for development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mouseHiroshi Ikegami
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 66:S85-90. 2004..One of the strongest non-MHC genes is Idd3, and Il2 which encodes interleukin 2, is a candidate gene for Idd3...
- Homeostatic role of interferons conferred by inhibition of IL-1-mediated inflammation and tissue destructionXiaoyu Hu
Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University New York, NY 10021, USA
J Immunol 175:131-8. 2005..These results identify cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the homeostatic role of IFNs in limiting inflammation and associated tissue destruction...
- Defective induction of CTLA-4 in the NOD mouse is controlled by the NOD allele of Idd3/IL-2 and a novel locus (Ctex) telomeric on chromosome 1Marie Lundholm
Department of Medical Biosciences, Division of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umea University, Sweden
Diabetes 55:538-44. 2006..Instead, as previously shown, higher ICOS levels in NOD mice appear to be controlled by gene(s) in the Idd5.1 region, possibly a polymorphism in the Icos gene itself...
- Role of toll-like receptors in spontaneous commensal-dependent colitisSeth Rakoff-Nahoum
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
Immunity 25:319-29. 2006..We report that colitis was dependent on TLR signaling in Il10(-/-) mice. In contrast, Il2(-/-) mice developed intestinal inflammation in the absence of TLR signaling pathways...
- Gfi-1 plays an important role in IL-2-mediated Th2 cell expansionJinfang Zhu
Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18214-9. 2006..Reduced Th2 cell expansion in the absence of Gfi-1 was confirmed by the diminished frequency of IL-4-producing cells when these mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni...
- FcRL6, a new ITIM-bearing receptor on cytolytic cells, is broadly expressed by lymphocytes following HIV-1 infectionTimothy J Wilson
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
Blood 109:3786-93. 2007....
- Effects of cyclosporine on transplant tolerance: the role of IL-2H G Kang
Harvard Medical School, Transplant Research Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
Am J Transplant 7:1907-16. 2007..The combination of IL-2/Fc and cyclosporine treatment may provide a new clinical strategy to promote transplant tolerance...
- Cutting edge: opposite effects of IL-1 and IL-2 on the regulation of IL-17+ T cell pool IL-1 subverts IL-2-mediated suppressionIlona Kryczek
Department of Surgery, University of Mechigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
J Immunol 179:1423-6. 2007..Thus, the IL-17(+) T cell pool may be controlled by the local cytokine profile in the microenvironment...
- Ets-1 is a negative regulator of Th17 differentiationJacques Moisan
Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Exp Med 204:2825-35. 2007..Based on these observations, we report that Ets-1 is a negative regulator of Th17 differentiation...
- Commonality in the genetic control of Type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice: variants of genes in the IL-2 pathway are associated with autoimmune diabetes in both speciesDan B Rainbow
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust JDRF WT Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, UK
Biochem Soc Trans 36:312-5. 2008Variants within the IL-2 (interleukin 2) and CD25 genes are associated with T1DM (Type 1 diabetes mellitus) in mice and humans respectively...
- Blimp-1 directly represses Il2 and the Il2 activator Fos, attenuating T cell proliferation and survivalGislaine A Martins
Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
J Exp Med 205:1959-65. 2008..that one critical activity of Blimp-1 in T cells is to repress IL-2, and that it does so by direct repression of Il2 transcription, and also by repression of Fos transcription...
- Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 renders lymphocytes responsive to IL-2 but not IL-15 for survivalPenelope Tsimbouri
Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NU, UK
J Gen Virol 89:2821-32. 2008..IL-2 is normally produced by activated T cells in vivo; thus, chronic immune activation or modulation could elicit this unique mode of virus-infected cell survival...
- Development and function of T cells in mice rendered interleukin-2 deficient by gene targetingH Schorle
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
Nature 352:621-4. 1991....
- Regulatory anatomy of the murine interleukin-2 geneT J Novak
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125
Nucleic Acids Res 18:4523-33. 1990We have cloned the mouse IL2 gene and sequenced 2800 bp of 5' flanking DNA...
- Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartmentD M Willerford
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Immunity 3:521-30. 1995..Thus, IL-2R alpha is essential for regulation of both the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment, probably by influencing the balance between clonal expansion and cell death following lymphocyte activation...
- Mice lacking the c-rel proto-oncogene exhibit defects in lymphocyte proliferation, humoral immunity, and interleukin-2 expressionF Kontgen
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
Genes Dev 9:1965-77. 1995..The ability of exogenous interleukin-2 to restore T Cell, but not B cell, proliferation indicates that Rel regulates the expression of different genes in B and T cells that are crucial for cell division and immune function...
- Immune responses in interleukin-2-deficient miceT M Kundig
Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Science 262:1059-61. 1993..Natural killer cell activity was markedly reduced but inducible. These normal in vivo immune responses in IL-2-deficient mice question the importance of IL-2 as defined by in vitro studies...
- Ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice with a disrupted interleukin-2 geneB Sadlack
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany
Cell 75:253-61. 1993..The data provide evidence for a primary role of the immune system in the etiology of ulcerative colitis and strongly suggest that the disease results from an abnormal immune response to a normal antigenic stimulus...
- GABP factors bind to a distal interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer and contribute to c-Raf-mediated increase in IL-2 inductionA Avots
Department of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
Mol Cell Biol 17:4381-9. 1997..Both signal cascades contribute to the induction of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene during T-cell activation...
- Regulatory CD4 T cells: expression of IL-2R alpha chain, resistance to clonal deletion and IL-2 dependencyM Papiernik
INSERM U345, Institut Necker, Paris France
Int Immunol 10:371-8. 1998..The absence of this population and/or an inability to produce IL-10 may be the missing link between IL-2R alpha KO, IL-2 KO and IL-10 KO mice, which all die of inflammatory bowel disease...
- Impaired alloantigen-mediated T cell apoptosis and failure to induce long-term allograft survival in IL-2-deficient miceZ Dai
The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Emory University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
J Immunol 161:1659-63. 1998..These findings indicate that endogenous IL-2 is required for the induction of long-term allograft survival, and that IL-2 regulates alloimmune responses by preparing activated T lymphocytes for alloantigen-induced apoptosis...
- Stat5 activation is uniquely associated with cytokine signaling in peripheral T cellsR Moriggl
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
Immunity 11:225-30. 1999..Here we demonstrate that activation of the Stat5 proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation is uniquely contributed by cytokine receptor signaling and specifically does not occur through the T cell receptor complex...
- The role of Stat5a and Stat5b in signaling by IL-2 family cytokinesJ X Lin
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10 Rm 7N252, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland MD 20892 1674, USA
Oncogene 19:2566-76. 2000..Here, we mainly focus on the IL2-/IL-2 receptor system, as it is one of the best-studied systems that depend on Stat5-mediated signals...
- Differential glycosylation of interleukin 2, the molecular basis for the NOD Idd3 type 1 diabetes gene?P L Podolin
Department of Autoimmune Diseases Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
Cytokine 12:477-82. 2000..35 cM region of chromosome 3 containing the structural gene for the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2)...
- The dual role of IL-2 in the generation and maintenance of CD8+ memory T cellsZ Dai
The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
J Immunol 165:3031-6. 2000..Thus, IL-2-based vaccine strategies or immunosuppressive regimens that target IL-2 should take into account the divergent roles of IL-2 in CD8+ T cell immunity...
- Control of T cell hyperactivation in IL-2-deficient mice by CD4(+)CD25(-) and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: evidence for two distinct regulatory mechanismsM Wolf
Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
Eur J Immunol 31:1637-45. 2001..IL-2 deficiency therefore may upset T cell homeostasis by two distinct mechanisms: the failure to program expanding T cells for apoptosis, and the failure to generate functional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells...
- Interleukin-2 signaling and the maintenance of self-toleranceBrad H Nelson
Virginia Mason Research Center, Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Wash, USA
Curr Dir Autoimmun 5:92-112. 2002..In this regard, perhaps new insights into this important issue can be gained by better defining when and where IL-2 signaling normally occurs in wild-type animals and the functional status of the T cells involved...
- CD4 regulatory T cells prevent lethal autoimmunity in IL-2Rbeta-deficient mice. Implications for the nonredundant function of IL-2Thomas R Malek
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA
Immunity 17:167-78. 2002..These observations indicate that the essential function of the IL-2/IL-2R system primarily lies at the level of the production of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells...
- Homeostasis of peripheral CD4+ T cells: IL-2R alpha and IL-2 shape a population of regulatory cells that controls CD4+ T cell numbersAfonso R M Almeida
Lymphocyte Population Biology, Unité de Recherche Associée Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1961, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
J Immunol 169:4850-60. 2002....
- Bacteroides vulgatus protects against Escherichia coli-induced colitis in gnotobiotic interleukin-2-deficient miceMarc Waidmann
Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Krankenhaushygiene, Eberhard Karls Universitat, Tubingen, Germany
Gastroenterology 125:162-77. 2003..Specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not germ-free, interleukin (IL)-2-deficient (IL-2-/-) mice develop colitis. The colitogenicity of commensal bacteria was determined...
- IL-2 is not required for the initiation of CD8 T cell cycling but sustains expansionWarren N D'Souza
Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
J Immunol 171:5727-35. 2003..Thus, activated CD8 T cells initially undergo IL-2-independent proliferation, but reach a critical juncture where the requirement for IL-2 as a growth factor gains prominence...
- IL-2, regulatory T cells, and toleranceBrad H Nelson
Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
J Immunol 172:3983-8. 2004IL-2 is a potent T cell growth factor that for many years was assumed to amplify lymphocyte responses in vivo...
- Roles for common cytokine receptor gamma-chain-dependent cytokines in the generation, differentiation, and maturation of NK cell precursors and peripheral NK cells in vivoChristian A J Vosshenrich
Unité des Cytokines et Développement Lymphoide, Institut Nationale de la Santé et Recherche Médicale Equipe 101, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
J Immunol 174:1213-21. 2005..Surprisingly, the few residual NK cells generated in absence of IL-15 appear relatively mature, expressing a variety of Ly49 receptors and demonstrating lytic and cytokine production capacity...
- Homeostatic maintenance of natural Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells by interleukin (IL)-2 and induction of autoimmune disease by IL-2 neutralizationRuka Setoguchi
Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
J Exp Med 201:723-35. 2005..Furthermore, impairment of this negative feedback loop via IL-2 can be a cause and a predisposing factor for autoimmune disease...
- Cell-type-specific epigenetic marking of the IL2 gene at a distal cis-regulatory region in competent, nontranscribing T-cellsSatoko Adachi
Division of Biology 156 29, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 33:3200-10. 2005..heritably for activation, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation to map histone modifications across the murine IL2 locus, from -10.2 through +0.25 kb, in induction-competent and incompetent cells...
- Coordinate analysis of murine immune cell surface markers and intracellular phosphoproteins by flow cytometryPeter O Krutzik
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Baxter Laboratory of Genetic Pharmacology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
J Immunol 175:2357-65. 2005....
- Development and function of agonist-induced CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the absence of interleukin 2 signalingLouise M D'Cruz
Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 1030 Vienna, Austria
Nat Immunol 6:1152-9. 2005b>Interleukin 2 signaling is believed to be critically involved in several aspects of CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cell biology, such as intrathymic development, peripheral survival and suppressive function...
- A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cellsJason D Fontenot
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nat Immunol 6:1142-51. 2005..Most T(reg) cells constitutively express the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor alpha-chain (CD25); however, the precise function of IL-2 in T(reg) cell biology has remained ..
- Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cellsMatthew A Williams
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nature 441:890-3. 2006..These results have important implications for the development of vaccination or immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at boosting memory T-cell function...
- Indexation as a novel mechanism of lymphocyte homeostasis: the number of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is indexed to the number of IL-2-producing cellsAfonso R M Almeida
Lymphocyte Population Biology Unit, Unite de Recherche Associee, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
J Immunol 177:192-200. 2006..The present study highlights that maintenance of proportions between different lymphocyte subsets may also be critical for the immune system and are under strict homeostatic control...
- DAP12 signaling directly augments proproliferative cytokine stimulation of NK cells during viral infectionsAnthony R French
Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Immunol 177:4981-90. 2006..The impact of Ly49H-mediated signaling on NK cell proliferation is masked in the presence of high concentrations of proproliferative cytokines that nonselectively drive all NK cells to proliferate...
- Cytokine-dependent Blimp-1 expression in activated T cells inhibits IL-2 productionDapeng Gong
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA
J Immunol 178:242-52. 2007..Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a negative feedback regulatory loop in activated T cells such that IL-2 inhibits its own production through induction of Blimp-1 while promoting an effector cell phenotype...
- IL-2 receptor beta-dependent STAT5 activation is required for the development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cellsMatthew A Burchill
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
J Immunol 178:280-90. 2007..Finally, STAT5 binds to the promoter of the foxp3 gene suggesting that IL-2Rbeta-dependent STAT5 activation promotes Treg differentiation by regulating expression of foxp3...
- Helper T cell IL-2 production is limited by negative feedback and STAT-dependent cytokine signalsAlejandro V Villarino
Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Exp Med 204:65-71. 2007....
- Interleukin-2 gene variation impairs regulatory T cell function and causes autoimmunityJun Yamanouchi
Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre JMDRC and Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Institute of Inflammation, Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
Nat Genet 39:329-37. 2007..in IL-2 underpins the Idd3-linked destabilization of immune homeostasis, we show that engineered haplodeficiency of Il2 gene expression not only reduces T cell IL-2 production by twofold but also mimics the autoimmune dysregulatory ..
- Interleukin-2 enhances CD4+ T cell memory by promoting the generation of IL-7R alpha-expressing cellsHans Dooms
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Exp Med 204:547-57. 2007..These results identify IL-2 as a factor regulating IL-7Ralpha expression and, consequently, memory T cell homeostasis in vivo...
- An intense form of homeostatic proliferation of naive CD8+ cells driven by IL-2Jae Ho Cho
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Exp Med 204:1787-801. 2007..IL-2/IL-15) concerned. The relevance of the data to the gradual transition of naive T cells into memory-phenotype (MP) cells with age is discussed...
- Protein kinase C theta plays a fundamental role in different types of chronic colitisKiyotaka Nagahama
Department of Pathology, Experimental Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Gastroenterology 134:459-69. 2008..A key molecule associated with the IS is protein kinase C (PKC) theta. However, the role of PKCtheta in the pathogenesis of colitis has not fully been defined...
- Interleukin-2 promotes angiogenesis by activation of Akt and increase of ROSJinhee Bae
College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200 701, Korea
J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:377-82. 2008..IL-2 increased angiogenesis in an animal model and tube formation in HUVECs. The effect of IL-2 on angiogenesis and tube formation was mediated by ROS and Akt. This is the first report that IL-2 promotes angiogenesis...
- IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complex enhances vaccine-mediated antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and increases the ratio of effector/memory CD8+ T cells to regulatory T cellsSven Mostbock
Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Immunol 180:5118-29. 2008..This phenomenon can thus potentially be used in the enhancement of immune responses to vaccination...
- Cutting edge: Enhanced IL-2 signaling can convert self-specific T cell response from tolerance to autoimmunityJason Waithman
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
J Immunol 180:5789-93. 2008..Therefore, enhanced IL-2 signaling can act as a major selector between tolerance and autoimmunity...
- A critical function for TGF-beta signaling in the development of natural CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cellsYongzhong Liu
Mucosal Immunology Unit, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Immunol 9:632-40. 2008..recovery of Foxp3+ thymocytes was attributable mainly to overproduction of and heightened responsiveness to interleukin 2, as genetic ablation of interleukin 2 in TbetaRI-mutant mice resulted in a complete absence of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ ..
- IL-2, -7, and -15, but not thymic stromal lymphopoeitin, redundantly govern CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell developmentKieng B Vang
Center for Immunology and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
J Immunol 181:3285-90. 2008....
- Cutting edge: CD4+ T cell-derived IL-2 is essential for help-dependent primary CD8+ T cell responsesElizabeth B Wilson
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, David H Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Aab Institute of Biomedical Sciences and University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
J Immunol 181:7445-8. 2008..We suggest that it is also a critical component of help for CD8(+) T cell responses to pathogens, because protective memory also requires CD8(+) T cell stimulation by IL-2 during priming...
- Homeostatic imbalance of regulatory and effector T cells due to IL-2 deprivation amplifies murine lupusJens Y Humrich
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:204-9. 2010..The reversibility of this homeostatic Treg disorder provides promising approaches for the treatment of SLE...
- Interleukin-2 and inflammation induce distinct transcriptional programs that promote the differentiation of effector cytolytic T cellsMatthew E Pipkin
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Immune Disease Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Immunity 32:79-90. 2010..Thus, inflammation influences both effector and memory CTL differentiation, whereas persistent IL-2 stimulation promotes effector at the expense of memory CTL development...
- Competing feedback loops shape IL-2 signaling between helper and regulatory T lymphocytes in cellular microenvironmentsDorothea Busse
Research Group Modeling of Biological Systems B086, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3058-63. 2010..The present findings explain how IL-2 can play two distinct roles in immune regulation and point to a hitherto largely unexplored spatiotemporal complexity of cytokine signaling...
- IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes show strong biological activity by avoiding interaction with IL-2 receptor alpha subunit CD25Sven Létourneau
Division of Immunology and Allergy, University Hospital of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2171-6. 2010..These data suggest an unpredicted role for CD25 in IL-2 homeostasis...
- Primed antigen-specific CD4+ T cells are required for NK cell activation in vivo upon Leishmania major infectionFranck Bihl
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6097, Valbonne, France
J Immunol 185:2174-81. 2010..Our results reveal an unappreciated role for Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells in the initiation of NK cell activation in vivo upon L. major infection and demonstrate bidirectional regulations between innate and adaptive immunity...
- Th cells act via two synergistic pathways to promote antiviral CD8+ T cell responsesMelanie Wiesel
Institute for Microbiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
J Immunol 185:5188-97. 2010..Second, Th cells provide CD8(+) T cells with IL-2, thereby enhancing their survival. Thus, Th cells are at the center of an important communication loop with a central role for IL-2/IL-2R and bioactive IL-12...
- Opposing regulation of the locus encoding IL-17 through direct, reciprocal actions of STAT3 and STAT5Xiang Ping Yang
Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Nat Immunol 12:247-54. 2011b>Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a cytokine linked to human autoimmune disease, limits IL-17 production...
- Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells promote T helper 17 cell development in vivo through regulation of interleukin-2Yi Chen
Merck Research Laboratories, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Immunity 34:409-21. 2011..Rather, regulation of IL-2 availability and resultant signaling through CD25 by Treg cells was found to play an important role...
- CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation by modulating IL-2 homeostasisAlice McNally
University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7529-34. 2011..Furthermore, a regulatory loop exists between Treg and CD8(+) effector T cells, where IL-2 produced during CD8(+) T-cell effector differentiation promotes Treg expansion...
- Modulation of cytokine receptors by IL-2 broadly regulates differentiation into helper T cell lineagesWei Liao
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Nat Immunol 12:551-9. 2011..T(H)1 differentiation was also impaired in mouse Il2(-/-) T cells but was restored by IL-12Rβ2 expression...
- Autocrine IL-2 is required for secondary population expansion of CD8(+) memory T cellsSonia Feau
Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA
Nat Immunol 12:908-13. 2011..to explain the role of CD4(+) T cells in priming CD8(+) memory T cells: one proposes paracrine secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2); the other proposes the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via the costimulatory molecule ..
- Molecular mechanisms that control the expression and activity of Bcl-6 in TH1 cells to regulate flexibility with a TFH-like gene profileKenneth J Oestreich
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
Nat Immunol 13:405-11. 2012..Here we found that high concentrations of interleukin 2 (IL-2) inhibited Bcl-6 expression in polarized T(H)1 cells...
- Interleukin-2 inhibits germinal center formation by limiting T follicular helper cell differentiationAndré Ballesteros-Tato
Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Immunity 36:847-56. 2012..Our data demonstrate that IL-2 is a critical factor that regulates successful Tfh and B cell responses in vivo and regulates Tfh cell development...
- Regulatory T cells control NK cells in an insulitic lesion by depriving them of IL-2Jonathan Sitrin
Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Exp Med 210:1153-65. 2013..Our findings highlight the need to consider potential effects on NK cells when designing therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of IL-2 levels or targets...
- IL-2-dependent tuning of NK cell sensitivity for target cells is controlled by regulatory T cellsGeorg Gasteiger
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
J Exp Med 210:1167-78. 2013..Our results suggest that IL-2-dependent adaptive-innate lymphocyte cross talk tunes NK cell reactivity and that T reg cells restrain NK cell cytotoxicity by limiting the availability of IL-2...
- Antiviral immune responses in mice deficient for both interleukin-2 and interleukin-4M F Bachmann
Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
J Virol 69:4842-6. 1995....
- Regulated expression and function of CD122 (interleukin-2/interleukin-15R-beta) during lymphoid developmentT Reya
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104 6076, USA
Blood 87:190-201. 1996..Together, these observations suggest that CD122 plays a role in regulating normal lymphocyte development in vivo...
- Defective transcription of the IL-2 gene is associated with impaired expression of c-Fos, FosB, and JunB in anergic T helper 1 cellsA Mondino
Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
J Immunol 157:2048-57. 1996..Thus, defective IL-2 gene transcription appears to be due, at least in part, to a selective block in the expression of the AP-1 Fos and Jun family members in anergic T cells...
- Interleukin-2 deficient mice: a new model to study autoimmunity and self-toleranceI Horak
Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
Immunol Rev 148:35-44. 1995
- High mobility group protein I(Y) is required for function and for c-Rel binding to CD28 response elements within the GM-CSF and IL-2 promotersS R Himes
Hanson Centre for Cancer Research, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia
Immunity 5:479-89. 1996..Expression of HMG I or c-Rel antisense RNA inhibited CD28 activation of the IL-2 and GM-CSF promoters, implying that HMG I(Y) enhancement of c-Rel binding plays an important role in the activity of the CD28REs...
- QTL influencing autoimmune diabetes and encephalomyelitis map to a 0.15-cM region containing Il2J A Encinas
Nat Genet 21:158-60. 1999
- IL-15 and IL-2: a matter of life and death for T cells in vivoX C Li
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Med 7:114-8. 2001..Our study provides data that IL-2 and IL-15 regulate distinct aspects of primary T-cell expansion in vivo...
- T cell immunity and cytokine receptor redundancyTHOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2005..Our goal here is to relate molecular targets of IL-2R signaling with specific biological responses. ..
- Innate & adaptive immunities in control of ocular HSVHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- The IL-2 receptor in T regulatory cell developmentThomas R Malek; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Ocular HSV: Role of virus and IL-2 in Optic neuritisHomayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2010..3. Determine if a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-4 (HSV-IL-4) can protect against HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination, while a similarly made recombinant virus expressing IFN-gamma is not beneficial. ..
- IL-2 GENE DELETION: NEURODEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIORJOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2002..We believe that the proposed research is timely and will lay an essential foundation on which to build in future studies. ..
- TRANSPLANT IMMUNOLOGY OF IL2 IFNY DOUBLE KNOCKOUT MICEMartin Zand; Fiscal Year: 2002..Intragraft expression of the cytokines interleukin 2 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has been found to be markers for clinical and experimental allograft ..
- Neuroimmunology of IL-15JOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Regulation of immunity by heparan sulfate-bound IL-2Lucile Wrenshall; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Natural Killer Cell Mediated Control of Vaccinia VirusAnthony French; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed work will occur under the mentorship of Dr. Wayne Yokoyama a recognized pioneer in the NK cell field who has successfully trained numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- The regulation of tumor immunity by NKT cellsMark Smyth; Fiscal Year: 2007..This proposal focuses clearly on a pivotal immune control mechanism that will influence many current and future immunotherapies. ..
- Immunodeficiency and Neuronal FunctionJOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2008....
- Basal Ig Signaling and Receptor EditingMichael Farrar; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..