Il2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Il2
Description: interleukin 2
Alias: Il-2, interleukin-2, T-cell growth factor, TCGF
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Helper requirements for generation of effector CTL to islet beta cell antigens
    Georg M N Behrens
    Immunology Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 172:5420-6. 2004
  2. ncbi Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generation
    Arian Laurence
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 26:371-81. 2007
  3. ncbi PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and is overcome by IL-2
    LauraL Carter
    Wyeth Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
    Eur J Immunol 32:634-43. 2002
  4. ncbi Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cells
    R Moriggl
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Immunity 10:249-59. 1999
  5. doi A heat shock protein gene (Hsp70.1) is critically involved in the generation of the immune response to myelin antigen
    Marcin P Mycko
    Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Medical University of Lodz, 22 Kopcinskiego Street, Lodz, Poland
    Eur J Immunol 38:1999-2013. 2008
  6. pmc Phospholipase Cgamma2 is critical for Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ flux and cytokine production in dendritic cells
    Shengli Xu
    Laboratory of Immunology, Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138668
    J Biol Chem 284:7038-46. 2009
  7. ncbi Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokines
    C A Dinarello
    Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111
    Adv Immunol 44:153-205. 1989
  8. pmc Sequential development of interleukin 2-dependent effector and regulatory T cells in response to endogenous systemic antigen
    Birgit Knoechel
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1375-86. 2005
  9. ncbi IL-2 regulates perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on survival and proliferation
    Michelle L Janas
    Cooperative Research Center for Vaccine Technology and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
    J Immunol 175:8003-10. 2005
  10. ncbi Perlecan: a major IL-2-binding proteoglycan in murine spleen
    John D Miller
    Division of Transplantation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 7690, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 86:192-9. 2008

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications152 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Helper requirements for generation of effector CTL to islet beta cell antigens
    Georg M N Behrens
    Immunology Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 172:5420-6. 2004
    ..This provides insight into the helper requirements for adoptive transfer immunotherapy of tumors and suggests key points for inhibition of CTL-mediated autoimmunity...
  2. ncbi Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generation
    Arian Laurence
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 26:371-81. 2007
    ..We conclude that in addition to the promotion of activation-induced cell death of lymphocytes and the generation of Treg cells, inhibition of Th17 polarization appears to be an important function of IL-2...
  3. ncbi PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and is overcome by IL-2
    LauraL Carter
    Wyeth Genetics Institute, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
    Eur J Immunol 32:634-43. 2002
    ..However, CD8(+) T cells may be more sensitive to modulation by the PD-1:PD-L pathway because of their intrinsic inability to produce significant levels of IL-2...
  4. ncbi Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cells
    R Moriggl
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Biochemistry, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Immunity 10:249-59. 1999
    ..These phenotypes are not seen in mice lacking Stat5a or Stat5b alone. The results demonstrate that the Stat5 proteins, redundantly, are essential mediators of IL-2 signaling in T cells...
  5. doi A heat shock protein gene (Hsp70.1) is critically involved in the generation of the immune response to myelin antigen
    Marcin P Mycko
    Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Medical University of Lodz, 22 Kopcinskiego Street, Lodz, Poland
    Eur J Immunol 38:1999-2013. 2008
    ....
  6. pmc Phospholipase Cgamma2 is critical for Dectin-1-mediated Ca2+ flux and cytokine production in dendritic cells
    Shengli Xu
    Laboratory of Immunology, Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138668
    J Biol Chem 284:7038-46. 2009
    ..PLCgamma2-deficient DCs have drastic impairment of Ca2+ signaling and are defective in their secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor alpha...
  7. ncbi Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokines
    C A Dinarello
    Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111
    Adv Immunol 44:153-205. 1989
  8. pmc Sequential development of interleukin 2-dependent effector and regulatory T cells in response to endogenous systemic antigen
    Birgit Knoechel
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1375-86. 2005
    ..Thus, a peripheral T cell reaction to a systemic antigen goes through a phase of effector cell-mediated pathology followed by T reg cell-mediated recovery, and both require the growth factor IL-2...
  9. ncbi IL-2 regulates perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on survival and proliferation
    Michelle L Janas
    Cooperative Research Center for Vaccine Technology and Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
    J Immunol 175:8003-10. 2005
    ..Together, these findings indicate that IL-2 can directly regulate perforin and granzyme gene expression in CD8+ T cells independently of its effects on cell survival and proliferation...
  10. ncbi Perlecan: a major IL-2-binding proteoglycan in murine spleen
    John D Miller
    Division of Transplantation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 7690, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 86:192-9. 2008
    ..Identification of perlecan as a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan that binds IL-2 has implications for both the localization and regulation of IL-2 in vivo...
  11. ncbi Normal clonal expansion but impaired Fas-mediated cell death and anergy induction in interleukin-2-deficient mice
    B Kneitz
    Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 25:2572-7. 1995
    ....
  12. ncbi Interleukin-2 gene deletion produces a robust reduction in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice
    J M Petitto
    Department of Psychiatry, UF Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0256, USA
    Neurosci Lett 285:66-70. 2000
    Dysregulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the prototypical T cell growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine, may modify self-tolerance and predisposition to autoimmunity...
  13. pmc Priming for T helper type 2 differentiation by interleukin 2-mediated induction of interleukin 4 receptor alpha-chain expression
    Wei Liao
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:1288-96. 2008
    ..expression, T cell receptor-induced IL-4Ralpha expression was normal in Il4(-/-) cells but was much lower in Il2(-/-) cells. Notably, forced IL-4Ralpha expression restored the T(H)2 differentiation of Il2(-/-) cells...
  14. ncbi Role of costimulation in the induction of the IL-12/IL-12 receptor pathway and the development of autoimmunity
    J T Chang
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 164:100-6. 2000
    ..These findings suggest that targeting IL-2 and IL-12 simultaneously may be effective in the treatment of Th1-mediated autoimmunity...
  15. ncbi Essential role for STAT5 signaling in CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cell homeostasis and the maintenance of self-tolerance
    Andrey Antov
    Center for Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Immunol 171:3435-41. 2003
    ..Furthermore, transient activation of STAT5 is sufficient to increase CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg numbers in IL-2-deficient mice. Our study uncovers an essential role for STAT5 in maintaining CD25(+)CD4(+) T reg homeostasis and self-tolerance...
  16. ncbi Genetic analysis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus in mice
    J A Todd
    Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
    Nature 351:542-7. 1991
    ..On the basis of comparative maps of the mouse and human genomes, the homologue of Idd-3 may reside on human chromosomes 1 or 4 and Idd-4 on chromosome 17...
  17. pmc Cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal tissue of interleukin-2 deficient mice with bowel inflammation
    I B Autenrieth
    Max v Pettenkofer Institut für Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munchen, Germany
    Gut 41:793-800. 1997
    ..Recent studies provided evidence that alpha beta T cells, particularly CD4 T cells, rather than B cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of bowel inflammation of IL-2 deficient mice...
  18. ncbi Mice with a fluorescent marker for interleukin 2 gene activation
    M Naramura
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    Immunity 9:209-16. 1998
    ..These mice allow noninvasive detection of IL-2 production by single cells and analysis of the subsequent differentiative fate of these cells as an immune response develops...
  19. ncbi IL-2-deficient mice raised under germfree conditions develop delayed mild focal intestinal inflammation
    M Schultz
    Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Am J Physiol 276:G1461-72. 1999
    ..In contrast to other genetically engineered rodents, IL-2 -/- mice develop mild focal gastrointestinal and active portal tract inflammation in the absence of viable bacteria...
  20. pmc Congenic mapping of the type 1 diabetes locus, Idd3, to a 780-kb region of mouse chromosome 3: identification of a candidate segment of ancestral DNA by haplotype mapping
    P A Lyons
    Department of Medical Genetics, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Study of Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, University of Cambridge, UK
    Genome Res 10:446-53. 2000
    ..The Il2 gene, which encodes the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), maps to this interval and is a strong candidate for Idd3...
  21. ncbi The role of the IL-2 pathway in costimulation blockade-resistant rejection of allografts
    Thomas R Jones
    The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Immunol 168:1123-30. 2002
    ..Interestingly, depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ cells, prevents prolongation in allograft survival, suggesting an IL-2-independent role for regulation in extended survival...
  22. pmc Overexpression of interleukin-2 by a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 attenuates pathogenicity and enhances antiviral immunity
    Homayon Ghiasi
    Ophthalmology Research, Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    J Virol 76:9069-78. 2002
    ..These results suggest that IL-2 expression by recombinant HSV-1 reduces virulence and that depletion of IL-2 or T cells increases virulence in HSV-1-infected mice...
  23. ncbi Enhanced clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 and reduced herpetic eye disease in STAT6 knockout mice is associated with increased IL-2
    Homayon Ghiasi
    Ophthalmology Research, Cedars Sinai Burns and Allen Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Virology 302:286-93. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that in the absence of the STAT6 pathway, IL-2-mediated immune responses are up-regulated. This, in turn, leads to faster viral clearance and, consequently, lower levels of eye disease...
  24. ncbi Congenic mapping and candidate sequencing of susceptibility genes for Type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse
    Hiroshi Ikegami
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1005:196-204. 2003
    ..Phenotypes of NOD. IIS-Idd3 congenic mice, which share the same alleles at both Il2 and Il21 as the NOD mouse, were indistinguishable from the NOD parental strain, indicating that both Il2 and Il21 ..
  25. ncbi Interleukin-2 is essential for CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell function
    Maurus de la Rosa
    Deutsches Rheuma ForschungsZentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 34:2480-8. 2004
    ..We propose the parakrine uptake of soluble mediators as a flexible mechanism to adapt Treg activity to the strength of the responder T cell reaction...
  26. ncbi Idd1 and Idd3 are necessary but not sufficient for development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mouse
    Hiroshi Ikegami
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 66:S85-90. 2004
    ..One of the strongest non-MHC genes is Idd3, and Il2 which encodes interleukin 2, is a candidate gene for Idd3...
  27. ncbi Homeostatic role of interferons conferred by inhibition of IL-1-mediated inflammation and tissue destruction
    Xiaoyu Hu
    Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Department of Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Immunol 175:131-8. 2005
    ..These results identify cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the homeostatic role of IFNs in limiting inflammation and associated tissue destruction...
  28. ncbi Defective induction of CTLA-4 in the NOD mouse is controlled by the NOD allele of Idd3/IL-2 and a novel locus (Ctex) telomeric on chromosome 1
    Marie Lundholm
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Division of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umea University, Sweden
    Diabetes 55:538-44. 2006
    ..Instead, as previously shown, higher ICOS levels in NOD mice appear to be controlled by gene(s) in the Idd5.1 region, possibly a polymorphism in the Icos gene itself...
  29. ncbi Role of toll-like receptors in spontaneous commensal-dependent colitis
    Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Immunity 25:319-29. 2006
    ..We report that colitis was dependent on TLR signaling in Il10(-/-) mice. In contrast, Il2(-/-) mice developed intestinal inflammation in the absence of TLR signaling pathways...
  30. pmc Gfi-1 plays an important role in IL-2-mediated Th2 cell expansion
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18214-9. 2006
    ..Reduced Th2 cell expansion in the absence of Gfi-1 was confirmed by the diminished frequency of IL-4-producing cells when these mice were infected with Schistosoma mansoni...
  31. ncbi FcRL6, a new ITIM-bearing receptor on cytolytic cells, is broadly expressed by lymphocytes following HIV-1 infection
    Timothy J Wilson
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Blood 109:3786-93. 2007
    ....
  32. ncbi Effects of cyclosporine on transplant tolerance: the role of IL-2
    H G Kang
    Harvard Medical School, Transplant Research Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Transplant 7:1907-16. 2007
    ..The combination of IL-2/Fc and cyclosporine treatment may provide a new clinical strategy to promote transplant tolerance...
  33. ncbi Cutting edge: opposite effects of IL-1 and IL-2 on the regulation of IL-17+ T cell pool IL-1 subverts IL-2-mediated suppression
    Ilona Kryczek
    Department of Surgery, University of Mechigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Immunol 179:1423-6. 2007
    ..Thus, the IL-17(+) T cell pool may be controlled by the local cytokine profile in the microenvironment...
  34. pmc Ets-1 is a negative regulator of Th17 differentiation
    Jacques Moisan
    Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 204:2825-35. 2007
    ..Based on these observations, we report that Ets-1 is a negative regulator of Th17 differentiation...
  35. pmc Commonality in the genetic control of Type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice: variants of genes in the IL-2 pathway are associated with autoimmune diabetes in both species
    Dan B Rainbow
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust JDRF WT Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, UK
    Biochem Soc Trans 36:312-5. 2008
    Variants within the IL-2 (interleukin 2) and CD25 genes are associated with T1DM (Type 1 diabetes mellitus) in mice and humans respectively...
  36. pmc Blimp-1 directly represses Il2 and the Il2 activator Fos, attenuating T cell proliferation and survival
    Gislaine A Martins
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Exp Med 205:1959-65. 2008
    ..that one critical activity of Blimp-1 in T cells is to repress IL-2, and that it does so by direct repression of Il2 transcription, and also by repression of Fos transcription...
  37. doi Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 renders lymphocytes responsive to IL-2 but not IL-15 for survival
    Penelope Tsimbouri
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G11 6NU, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2821-32. 2008
    ..IL-2 is normally produced by activated T cells in vivo; thus, chronic immune activation or modulation could elicit this unique mode of virus-infected cell survival...
  38. ncbi Development and function of T cells in mice rendered interleukin-2 deficient by gene targeting
    H Schorle
    Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Nature 352:621-4. 1991
    ....
  39. pmc Regulatory anatomy of the murine interleukin-2 gene
    T J Novak
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125
    Nucleic Acids Res 18:4523-33. 1990
    We have cloned the mouse IL2 gene and sequenced 2800 bp of 5' flanking DNA...
  40. ncbi Interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain regulates the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment
    D M Willerford
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 3:521-30. 1995
    ..Thus, IL-2R alpha is essential for regulation of both the size and content of the peripheral lymphoid compartment, probably by influencing the balance between clonal expansion and cell death following lymphocyte activation...
  41. ncbi Mice lacking the c-rel proto-oncogene exhibit defects in lymphocyte proliferation, humoral immunity, and interleukin-2 expression
    F Kontgen
    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Genes Dev 9:1965-77. 1995
    ..The ability of exogenous interleukin-2 to restore T Cell, but not B cell, proliferation indicates that Rel regulates the expression of different genes in B and T cells that are crucial for cell division and immune function...
  42. ncbi Immune responses in interleukin-2-deficient mice
    T M Kundig
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 262:1059-61. 1993
    ..Natural killer cell activity was markedly reduced but inducible. These normal in vivo immune responses in IL-2-deficient mice question the importance of IL-2 as defined by in vitro studies...
  43. ncbi Ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice with a disrupted interleukin-2 gene
    B Sadlack
    Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 75:253-61. 1993
    ..The data provide evidence for a primary role of the immune system in the etiology of ulcerative colitis and strongly suggest that the disease results from an abnormal immune response to a normal antigenic stimulus...
  44. pmc GABP factors bind to a distal interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer and contribute to c-Raf-mediated increase in IL-2 induction
    A Avots
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Cell Biol 17:4381-9. 1997
    ..Both signal cascades contribute to the induction of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene during T-cell activation...
  45. ncbi Regulatory CD4 T cells: expression of IL-2R alpha chain, resistance to clonal deletion and IL-2 dependency
    M Papiernik
    INSERM U345, Institut Necker, Paris France
    Int Immunol 10:371-8. 1998
    ..The absence of this population and/or an inability to produce IL-10 may be the missing link between IL-2R alpha KO, IL-2 KO and IL-10 KO mice, which all die of inflammatory bowel disease...
  46. ncbi Impaired alloantigen-mediated T cell apoptosis and failure to induce long-term allograft survival in IL-2-deficient mice
    Z Dai
    The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Emory University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
    J Immunol 161:1659-63. 1998
    ..These findings indicate that endogenous IL-2 is required for the induction of long-term allograft survival, and that IL-2 regulates alloimmune responses by preparing activated T lymphocytes for alloantigen-induced apoptosis...
  47. ncbi Stat5 activation is uniquely associated with cytokine signaling in peripheral T cells
    R Moriggl
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Immunity 11:225-30. 1999
    ..Here we demonstrate that activation of the Stat5 proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation is uniquely contributed by cytokine receptor signaling and specifically does not occur through the T cell receptor complex...
  48. ncbi The role of Stat5a and Stat5b in signaling by IL-2 family cytokines
    J X Lin
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10 Rm 7N252, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland MD 20892 1674, USA
    Oncogene 19:2566-76. 2000
    ..Here, we mainly focus on the IL2-/IL-2 receptor system, as it is one of the best-studied systems that depend on Stat5-mediated signals...
  49. ncbi Differential glycosylation of interleukin 2, the molecular basis for the NOD Idd3 type 1 diabetes gene?
    P L Podolin
    Department of Autoimmune Diseases Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
    Cytokine 12:477-82. 2000
    ..35 cM region of chromosome 3 containing the structural gene for the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2)...
  50. ncbi The dual role of IL-2 in the generation and maintenance of CD8+ memory T cells
    Z Dai
    The Carlos and Marguerite Mason Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
    J Immunol 165:3031-6. 2000
    ..Thus, IL-2-based vaccine strategies or immunosuppressive regimens that target IL-2 should take into account the divergent roles of IL-2 in CD8+ T cell immunity...
  51. ncbi Control of T cell hyperactivation in IL-2-deficient mice by CD4(+)CD25(-) and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: evidence for two distinct regulatory mechanisms
    M Wolf
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 31:1637-45. 2001
    ..IL-2 deficiency therefore may upset T cell homeostasis by two distinct mechanisms: the failure to program expanding T cells for apoptosis, and the failure to generate functional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells...
  52. ncbi Interleukin-2 signaling and the maintenance of self-tolerance
    Brad H Nelson
    Virginia Mason Research Center, Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Wash, USA
    Curr Dir Autoimmun 5:92-112. 2002
    ..In this regard, perhaps new insights into this important issue can be gained by better defining when and where IL-2 signaling normally occurs in wild-type animals and the functional status of the T cells involved...
  53. ncbi CD4 regulatory T cells prevent lethal autoimmunity in IL-2Rbeta-deficient mice. Implications for the nonredundant function of IL-2
    Thomas R Malek
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, USA
    Immunity 17:167-78. 2002
    ..These observations indicate that the essential function of the IL-2/IL-2R system primarily lies at the level of the production of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells...
  54. ncbi Homeostasis of peripheral CD4+ T cells: IL-2R alpha and IL-2 shape a population of regulatory cells that controls CD4+ T cell numbers
    Afonso R M Almeida
    Lymphocyte Population Biology, Unité de Recherche Associée Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1961, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Immunol 169:4850-60. 2002
    ....
  55. ncbi Bacteroides vulgatus protects against Escherichia coli-induced colitis in gnotobiotic interleukin-2-deficient mice
    Marc Waidmann
    Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Krankenhaushygiene, Eberhard Karls Universitat, Tubingen, Germany
    Gastroenterology 125:162-77. 2003
    ..Specific pathogen-free (SPF), but not germ-free, interleukin (IL)-2-deficient (IL-2-/-) mice develop colitis. The colitogenicity of commensal bacteria was determined...
  56. ncbi IL-2 is not required for the initiation of CD8 T cell cycling but sustains expansion
    Warren N D'Souza
    Department of Medicine, Division of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    J Immunol 171:5727-35. 2003
    ..Thus, activated CD8 T cells initially undergo IL-2-independent proliferation, but reach a critical juncture where the requirement for IL-2 as a growth factor gains prominence...
  57. ncbi IL-2, regulatory T cells, and tolerance
    Brad H Nelson
    Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    J Immunol 172:3983-8. 2004
    IL-2 is a potent T cell growth factor that for many years was assumed to amplify lymphocyte responses in vivo...
  58. ncbi Roles for common cytokine receptor gamma-chain-dependent cytokines in the generation, differentiation, and maturation of NK cell precursors and peripheral NK cells in vivo
    Christian A J Vosshenrich
    Unité des Cytokines et Développement Lymphoide, Institut Nationale de la Santé et Recherche Médicale Equipe 101, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Immunol 174:1213-21. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, the few residual NK cells generated in absence of IL-15 appear relatively mature, expressing a variety of Ly49 receptors and demonstrating lytic and cytokine production capacity...
  59. pmc Homeostatic maintenance of natural Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells by interleukin (IL)-2 and induction of autoimmune disease by IL-2 neutralization
    Ruka Setoguchi
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    J Exp Med 201:723-35. 2005
    ..Furthermore, impairment of this negative feedback loop via IL-2 can be a cause and a predisposing factor for autoimmune disease...
  60. pmc Cell-type-specific epigenetic marking of the IL2 gene at a distal cis-regulatory region in competent, nontranscribing T-cells
    Satoko Adachi
    Division of Biology 156 29, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:3200-10. 2005
    ..heritably for activation, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation to map histone modifications across the murine IL2 locus, from -10.2 through +0.25 kb, in induction-competent and incompetent cells...
  61. ncbi Coordinate analysis of murine immune cell surface markers and intracellular phosphoproteins by flow cytometry
    Peter O Krutzik
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Baxter Laboratory of Genetic Pharmacology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 175:2357-65. 2005
    ....
  62. ncbi Development and function of agonist-induced CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the absence of interleukin 2 signaling
    Louise M D'Cruz
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nat Immunol 6:1152-9. 2005
    b>Interleukin 2 signaling is believed to be critically involved in several aspects of CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cell biology, such as intrathymic development, peripheral survival and suppressive function...
  63. ncbi A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells
    Jason D Fontenot
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:1142-51. 2005
    ..Most T(reg) cells constitutively express the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor alpha-chain (CD25); however, the precise function of IL-2 in T(reg) cell biology has remained ..
  64. pmc Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cells
    Matthew A Williams
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 441:890-3. 2006
    ..These results have important implications for the development of vaccination or immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at boosting memory T-cell function...
  65. ncbi Indexation as a novel mechanism of lymphocyte homeostasis: the number of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is indexed to the number of IL-2-producing cells
    Afonso R M Almeida
    Lymphocyte Population Biology Unit, Unite de Recherche Associee, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    J Immunol 177:192-200. 2006
    ..The present study highlights that maintenance of proportions between different lymphocyte subsets may also be critical for the immune system and are under strict homeostatic control...
  66. ncbi DAP12 signaling directly augments proproliferative cytokine stimulation of NK cells during viral infections
    Anthony R French
    Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Immunol 177:4981-90. 2006
    ..The impact of Ly49H-mediated signaling on NK cell proliferation is masked in the presence of high concentrations of proproliferative cytokines that nonselectively drive all NK cells to proliferate...
  67. ncbi Cytokine-dependent Blimp-1 expression in activated T cells inhibits IL-2 production
    Dapeng Gong
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    J Immunol 178:242-52. 2007
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that there is a negative feedback regulatory loop in activated T cells such that IL-2 inhibits its own production through induction of Blimp-1 while promoting an effector cell phenotype...
  68. ncbi IL-2 receptor beta-dependent STAT5 activation is required for the development of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells
    Matthew A Burchill
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 178:280-90. 2007
    ..Finally, STAT5 binds to the promoter of the foxp3 gene suggesting that IL-2Rbeta-dependent STAT5 activation promotes Treg differentiation by regulating expression of foxp3...
  69. pmc Helper T cell IL-2 production is limited by negative feedback and STAT-dependent cytokine signals
    Alejandro V Villarino
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Exp Med 204:65-71. 2007
    ....
  70. pmc Interleukin-2 gene variation impairs regulatory T cell function and causes autoimmunity
    Jun Yamanouchi
    Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre JMDRC and Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Institute of Inflammation, Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    Nat Genet 39:329-37. 2007
    ..in IL-2 underpins the Idd3-linked destabilization of immune homeostasis, we show that engineered haplodeficiency of Il2 gene expression not only reduces T cell IL-2 production by twofold but also mimics the autoimmune dysregulatory ..
  71. pmc Interleukin-2 enhances CD4+ T cell memory by promoting the generation of IL-7R alpha-expressing cells
    Hans Dooms
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Exp Med 204:547-57. 2007
    ..These results identify IL-2 as a factor regulating IL-7Ralpha expression and, consequently, memory T cell homeostasis in vivo...
  72. pmc An intense form of homeostatic proliferation of naive CD8+ cells driven by IL-2
    Jae Ho Cho
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1787-801. 2007
    ..IL-2/IL-15) concerned. The relevance of the data to the gradual transition of naive T cells into memory-phenotype (MP) cells with age is discussed...
  73. ncbi Protein kinase C theta plays a fundamental role in different types of chronic colitis
    Kiyotaka Nagahama
    Department of Pathology, Experimental Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Gastroenterology 134:459-69. 2008
    ..A key molecule associated with the IS is protein kinase C (PKC) theta. However, the role of PKCtheta in the pathogenesis of colitis has not fully been defined...
  74. ncbi Interleukin-2 promotes angiogenesis by activation of Akt and increase of ROS
    Jinhee Bae
    College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 200 701, Korea
    J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:377-82. 2008
    ..IL-2 increased angiogenesis in an animal model and tube formation in HUVECs. The effect of IL-2 on angiogenesis and tube formation was mediated by ROS and Akt. This is the first report that IL-2 promotes angiogenesis...
  75. ncbi IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complex enhances vaccine-mediated antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and increases the ratio of effector/memory CD8+ T cells to regulatory T cells
    Sven Mostbock
    Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 180:5118-29. 2008
    ..This phenomenon can thus potentially be used in the enhancement of immune responses to vaccination...
  76. ncbi Cutting edge: Enhanced IL-2 signaling can convert self-specific T cell response from tolerance to autoimmunity
    Jason Waithman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Australia
    J Immunol 180:5789-93. 2008
    ..Therefore, enhanced IL-2 signaling can act as a major selector between tolerance and autoimmunity...
  77. doi A critical function for TGF-beta signaling in the development of natural CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells
    Yongzhong Liu
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:632-40. 2008
    ..recovery of Foxp3+ thymocytes was attributable mainly to overproduction of and heightened responsiveness to interleukin 2, as genetic ablation of interleukin 2 in TbetaRI-mutant mice resulted in a complete absence of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ ..
  78. pmc IL-2, -7, and -15, but not thymic stromal lymphopoeitin, redundantly govern CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development
    Kieng B Vang
    Center for Immunology and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Immunol 181:3285-90. 2008
    ....
  79. ncbi Cutting edge: CD4+ T cell-derived IL-2 is essential for help-dependent primary CD8+ T cell responses
    Elizabeth B Wilson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, David H Smith Center for Vaccine Biology and Immunology, Aab Institute of Biomedical Sciences and University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Immunol 181:7445-8. 2008
    ..We suggest that it is also a critical component of help for CD8(+) T cell responses to pathogens, because protective memory also requires CD8(+) T cell stimulation by IL-2 during priming...
  80. pmc Homeostatic imbalance of regulatory and effector T cells due to IL-2 deprivation amplifies murine lupus
    Jens Y Humrich
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:204-9. 2010
    ..The reversibility of this homeostatic Treg disorder provides promising approaches for the treatment of SLE...
  81. pmc Interleukin-2 and inflammation induce distinct transcriptional programs that promote the differentiation of effector cytolytic T cells
    Matthew E Pipkin
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Immune Disease Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunity 32:79-90. 2010
    ..Thus, inflammation influences both effector and memory CTL differentiation, whereas persistent IL-2 stimulation promotes effector at the expense of memory CTL development...
  82. pmc Competing feedback loops shape IL-2 signaling between helper and regulatory T lymphocytes in cellular microenvironments
    Dorothea Busse
    Research Group Modeling of Biological Systems B086, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3058-63. 2010
    ..The present findings explain how IL-2 can play two distinct roles in immune regulation and point to a hitherto largely unexplored spatiotemporal complexity of cytokine signaling...
  83. pmc IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes show strong biological activity by avoiding interaction with IL-2 receptor alpha subunit CD25
    Sven Létourneau
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, University Hospital of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2171-6. 2010
    ..These data suggest an unpredicted role for CD25 in IL-2 homeostasis...
  84. doi Primed antigen-specific CD4+ T cells are required for NK cell activation in vivo upon Leishmania major infection
    Franck Bihl
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6097, Valbonne, France
    J Immunol 185:2174-81. 2010
    ..Our results reveal an unappreciated role for Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells in the initiation of NK cell activation in vivo upon L. major infection and demonstrate bidirectional regulations between innate and adaptive immunity...
  85. doi Th cells act via two synergistic pathways to promote antiviral CD8+ T cell responses
    Melanie Wiesel
    Institute for Microbiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 185:5188-97. 2010
    ..Second, Th cells provide CD8(+) T cells with IL-2, thereby enhancing their survival. Thus, Th cells are at the center of an important communication loop with a central role for IL-2/IL-2R and bioactive IL-12...
  86. pmc Opposing regulation of the locus encoding IL-17 through direct, reciprocal actions of STAT3 and STAT5
    Xiang Ping Yang
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:247-54. 2011
    b>Interleukin 2 (IL-2), a cytokine linked to human autoimmune disease, limits IL-17 production...
  87. doi Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells promote T helper 17 cell development in vivo through regulation of interleukin-2
    Yi Chen
    Merck Research Laboratories, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Immunity 34:409-21. 2011
    ..Rather, regulation of IL-2 availability and resultant signaling through CD25 by Treg cells was found to play an important role...
  88. pmc CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation by modulating IL-2 homeostasis
    Alice McNally
    University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7529-34. 2011
    ..Furthermore, a regulatory loop exists between Treg and CD8(+) effector T cells, where IL-2 produced during CD8(+) T-cell effector differentiation promotes Treg expansion...
  89. pmc Modulation of cytokine receptors by IL-2 broadly regulates differentiation into helper T cell lineages
    Wei Liao
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:551-9. 2011
    ..T(H)1 differentiation was also impaired in mouse Il2(-/-) T cells but was restored by IL-12Rβ2 expression...
  90. pmc Autocrine IL-2 is required for secondary population expansion of CD8(+) memory T cells
    Sonia Feau
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:908-13. 2011
    ..to explain the role of CD4(+) T cells in priming CD8(+) memory T cells: one proposes paracrine secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2); the other proposes the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via the costimulatory molecule ..
  91. pmc Molecular mechanisms that control the expression and activity of Bcl-6 in TH1 cells to regulate flexibility with a TFH-like gene profile
    Kenneth J Oestreich
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Immunol 13:405-11. 2012
    ..Here we found that high concentrations of interleukin 2 (IL-2) inhibited Bcl-6 expression in polarized T(H)1 cells...
  92. pmc Interleukin-2 inhibits germinal center formation by limiting T follicular helper cell differentiation
    André Ballesteros-Tato
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Immunity 36:847-56. 2012
    ..Our data demonstrate that IL-2 is a critical factor that regulates successful Tfh and B cell responses in vivo and regulates Tfh cell development...
  93. pmc Regulatory T cells control NK cells in an insulitic lesion by depriving them of IL-2
    Jonathan Sitrin
    Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 210:1153-65. 2013
    ..Our findings highlight the need to consider potential effects on NK cells when designing therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of IL-2 levels or targets...
  94. pmc IL-2-dependent tuning of NK cell sensitivity for target cells is controlled by regulatory T cells
    Georg Gasteiger
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Exp Med 210:1167-78. 2013
    ..Our results suggest that IL-2-dependent adaptive-innate lymphocyte cross talk tunes NK cell reactivity and that T reg cells restrain NK cell cytotoxicity by limiting the availability of IL-2...
  95. pmc Antiviral immune responses in mice deficient for both interleukin-2 and interleukin-4
    M F Bachmann
    Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    J Virol 69:4842-6. 1995
    ....
  96. ncbi Regulated expression and function of CD122 (interleukin-2/interleukin-15R-beta) during lymphoid development
    T Reya
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104 6076, USA
    Blood 87:190-201. 1996
    ..Together, these observations suggest that CD122 plays a role in regulating normal lymphocyte development in vivo...
  97. ncbi Defective transcription of the IL-2 gene is associated with impaired expression of c-Fos, FosB, and JunB in anergic T helper 1 cells
    A Mondino
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    J Immunol 157:2048-57. 1996
    ..Thus, defective IL-2 gene transcription appears to be due, at least in part, to a selective block in the expression of the AP-1 Fos and Jun family members in anergic T cells...
  98. ncbi Interleukin-2 deficient mice: a new model to study autoimmunity and self-tolerance
    I Horak
    Institute of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Immunol Rev 148:35-44. 1995
  99. ncbi High mobility group protein I(Y) is required for function and for c-Rel binding to CD28 response elements within the GM-CSF and IL-2 promoters
    S R Himes
    Hanson Centre for Cancer Research, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia
    Immunity 5:479-89. 1996
    ..Expression of HMG I or c-Rel antisense RNA inhibited CD28 activation of the IL-2 and GM-CSF promoters, implying that HMG I(Y) enhancement of c-Rel binding plays an important role in the activity of the CD28REs...
  100. ncbi QTL influencing autoimmune diabetes and encephalomyelitis map to a 0.15-cM region containing Il2
    J A Encinas
    Nat Genet 21:158-60. 1999
  101. ncbi IL-15 and IL-2: a matter of life and death for T cells in vivo
    X C Li
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 7:114-8. 2001
    ..Our study provides data that IL-2 and IL-15 regulate distinct aspects of primary T-cell expansion in vivo...

Research Grants12

  1. T cell immunity and cytokine receptor redundancy
    THOMAS MALEK; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our goal here is to relate molecular targets of IL-2R signaling with specific biological responses. ..
  2. Innate & adaptive immunities in control of ocular HSV
    Homayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  3. The IL-2 receptor in T regulatory cell development
    Thomas R Malek; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Ocular HSV: Role of virus and IL-2 in Optic neuritis
    Homayon Ghiasi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3. Determine if a recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-4 (HSV-IL-4) can protect against HSV-IL-2-induced demyelination, while a similarly made recombinant virus expressing IFN-gamma is not beneficial. ..
  5. IL-2 GENE DELETION: NEURODEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR
    JOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We believe that the proposed research is timely and will lay an essential foundation on which to build in future studies. ..
  6. TRANSPLANT IMMUNOLOGY OF IL2 IFNY DOUBLE KNOCKOUT MICE
    Martin Zand; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Intragraft expression of the cytokines interleukin 2 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has been found to be markers for clinical and experimental allograft ..
  7. Neuroimmunology of IL-15
    JOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Regulation of immunity by heparan sulfate-bound IL-2
    Lucile Wrenshall; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  9. Natural Killer Cell Mediated Control of Vaccinia Virus
    Anthony French; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed work will occur under the mentorship of Dr. Wayne Yokoyama a recognized pioneer in the NK cell field who has successfully trained numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. The regulation of tumor immunity by NKT cells
    Mark Smyth; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal focuses clearly on a pivotal immune control mechanism that will influence many current and future immunotherapies. ..
  11. Immunodeficiency and Neuronal Function
    JOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  12. Basal Ig Signaling and Receptor Editing
    Michael Farrar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..