Ihh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Ihh
Description: Indian hedgehog
Alias: HHG-2, indian hedgehog protein
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity
    Y Echelard
    Harvard University, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cellular and Developmental Biology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
    Cell 75:1417-30. 1993
  2. ncbi Gli3 acts as a repressor downstream of Ihh in regulating two distinct steps of chondrocyte differentiation
    Lydia Koziel
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
    Development 132:5249-60. 2005
  3. ncbi Hedgehog and Bmp genes are coexpressed at many diverse sites of cell-cell interaction in the mouse embryo
    M J Bitgood
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Dev Biol 172:126-38. 1995
  4. ncbi Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling prevents osteoblasts from differentiating into chondrocytes
    Theo P Hill
    Research Institute for Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Dev Cell 8:727-38. 2005
  5. ncbi Expression profile of Papss2 (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2) during cartilage formation and skeletal development in the mouse embryo
    Christiane Stelzer
    Children s Hospital, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    Dev Dyn 236:1313-8. 2007
  6. ncbi Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice
    M Inada
    Department of Medicine III, Osaka University Medical School, Japan
    Dev Dyn 214:279-90. 1999
  7. pmc Hedgehog signaling controls mesenchymal growth in the developing mammalian digestive tract
    Junhao Mao
    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB 405, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Development 137:1721-9. 2010
  8. pmc Haploinsufficiency of Sox9 results in defective cartilage primordia and premature skeletal mineralization
    W Bi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Graduate Program in Genes and Development, M D Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6698-703. 2001
  9. ncbi Indian hedgehog coordinates endochondral bone growth and morphogenesis via parathyroid hormone related-protein-dependent and -independent pathways
    S J Karp
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular Biology, The Biolabs, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 127:543-8. 2000
  10. ncbi BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation
    E Minina
    Otto Warburg Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 73, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Development 128:4523-34. 2001

Research Grants

  1. SONIC HEDGEHOG SIGNALING IN ODONTOGENESIS
    Eiki Koyama; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. TLS and TLS Fusion Proteins in Leukemia
    Liu Yang; Fiscal Year: 2005
  3. CHONDROGENESIS AND HISTONE MODIFICATION ENZYMES
    Liu Yang; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. FUNCTION OF A GROWTH INDUCED GENE IN LIVER REGENERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2003
  5. Expression profiling of human islets
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
  6. Regulation of Parietal Endoderm Migration
    Laura Grabel; Fiscal Year: 2006
  7. TGF-beta Signaling in Mesenchymal Chondroprogenitors
    Anna Spagnoli; Fiscal Year: 2007
  8. Regulation of parietal bone differentiation
    Venkatesh Govindarajan; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. Small RNAs in skeletogenesis
    Tatsuya Kobayashi; Fiscal Year: 2008

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications163 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity
    Y Echelard
    Harvard University, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cellular and Developmental Biology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
    Cell 75:1417-30. 1993
    ..Ectopic expression of Shh in the mouse CNS leads to the activation of floor plate-expressed genes. These results suggest that Shh may play a role in the normal inductive interactions that pattern the ventral CNS...
  2. ncbi Gli3 acts as a repressor downstream of Ihh in regulating two distinct steps of chondrocyte differentiation
    Lydia Koziel
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
    Development 132:5249-60. 2005
    During endochondral ossification, the secreted growth factor Indian hedgehog (Ihh) regulates several differentiation steps...
  3. ncbi Hedgehog and Bmp genes are coexpressed at many diverse sites of cell-cell interaction in the mouse embryo
    M J Bitgood
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Dev Biol 172:126-38. 1995
    The mouse Hedgehog gene family consists of three members, Sonic, Desert, and Indian hedgehog (Shh, Dhh, and Ihh, respectively), relatives of the Drosophila segment polarity gene, hedgehog (hh)...
  4. ncbi Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling prevents osteoblasts from differentiating into chondrocytes
    Theo P Hill
    Research Institute for Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Dev Cell 8:727-38. 2005
    ..Thus, canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for skeletal lineage differentiation, preventing transdifferentiation of osteoblastic cells into chondrocytes...
  5. ncbi Expression profile of Papss2 (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 2) during cartilage formation and skeletal development in the mouse embryo
    Christiane Stelzer
    Children s Hospital, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    Dev Dyn 236:1313-8. 2007
    ....
  6. ncbi Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice
    M Inada
    Department of Medicine III, Osaka University Medical School, Japan
    Dev Dyn 214:279-90. 1999
    ..These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation...
  7. pmc Hedgehog signaling controls mesenchymal growth in the developing mammalian digestive tract
    Junhao Mao
    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB 405, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Development 137:1721-9. 2010
    ..From early developmental stages, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and indian hedgehog (Ihh) are secreted by the endoderm of the mammalian gut, indicative of a developmental role...
  8. pmc Haploinsufficiency of Sox9 results in defective cartilage primordia and premature skeletal mineralization
    W Bi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Graduate Program in Genes and Development, M D Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6698-703. 2001
    ..First, an early step presumably at the stage of mesenchymal condensation of cartilage primordia, and second, a later step preceding the transition of chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes...
  9. ncbi Indian hedgehog coordinates endochondral bone growth and morphogenesis via parathyroid hormone related-protein-dependent and -independent pathways
    S J Karp
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular Biology, The Biolabs, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 127:543-8. 2000
    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) play a critical role in the morphogenesis of the vertebrate skeleton...
  10. ncbi BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation
    E Minina
    Otto Warburg Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 73, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Development 128:4523-34. 2001
    During endochondral ossification, two secreted signals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), have been shown to form a negative feedback loop regulating the onset of hypertrophic differentiation of ..
  11. pmc Coordination of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis by fibroblast growth factor 18
    Zhonghao Liu
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Genes Dev 16:859-69. 2002
    ..These data demonstrate that FGF18 signals through another FGFR to regulate osteoblast growth. Signaling to multiple FGFRs positions FGF18 to coordinate chondrogenesis in the growth plate with osteogenesis in cortical and trabecular bone...
  12. pmc Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning
    Asa Kolterud
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
    Gastroenterology 137:618-28. 2009
    ..We profiled cellular Hedgehog response patterns from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) to adult in murine antrum, pyloric region, small intestine, and colon...
  13. pmc Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis
    Takehiko Matsushita
    Department of Orthopaedics, Case Western Reserve University, 2109 Adelbert Road, BRB 329, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:5843-57. 2009
    ..Thus, our results indicate that ERK1 and ERK2 not only play essential roles in the lineage specification of osteo-chondroprogenitor cells but also support osteoclast formation in vivo...
  14. pmc E-selectin ligand-1 regulates growth plate homeostasis in mice by inhibiting the intracellular processing and secretion of mature TGF-beta
    Tao Yang
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:2474-85. 2010
    ..This study identifies what we believe to be a novel intracellular mechanism for regulating TGF-beta during skeletal development and homeostasis...
  15. ncbi The transcription factors L-Sox5 and Sox6 are essential for cartilage formation
    P Smits
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA
    Dev Cell 1:277-90. 2001
    ..L-Sox5 and Sox6 are thus redundant, potent enhancers of chondroblast functions, thereby essential for endochondral skeleton formation...
  16. pmc Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx2 regulates limb growth through induction of Indian hedgehog
    Carolina A Yoshida
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Genes Dev 18:952-63. 2004
    ..Runx2(-/-)3(-/-) mice did not express Ihh, which regulates chondrocyte proliferation and maturation...
  17. ncbi The IIIc alternative of Fgfr2 is a positive regulator of bone formation
    Vereragavan P Eswarakumar
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel
    Development 129:3783-93. 2002
    ..A decrease in the domain of transcription of the chondrocyte markers Ihh and PTHrP (Pthlh) corresponded with a decrease in their transcripts in the proliferative and hypertrophic ..
  18. ncbi Expression of Sonic hedgehog and its putative role as a precursor cell mitogen in the developing mouse retina
    A M Jensen
    MRC Developmental Neurobiology Programme, University College London, UK
    Development 124:363-71. 1997
    ..These findings suggest that hedgehog and patched are part of a conserved signalling pathway in retinal development in mammals and insects...
  19. ncbi Defects in mouse mammary gland development caused by conditional haploinsufficiency of Patched-1
    M T Lewis
    Department of Biology, Sinsheimer Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Development 126:5181-93. 1999
    ..Phenotypic reversion correlates with developmentally regulated and enhanced expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) during pregnancy and lactation...
  20. ncbi Combinatorial signaling through BMP receptor IB and GDF5: shaping of the distal mouse limb and the genetics of distal limb diversity
    S T Baur
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 127:605-19. 2000
    ....
  21. ncbi A neonatal lethal mutation in FGFR3 uncouples proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in embryos
    T Iwata
    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 9:1603-13. 2000
    ..independent of unaltered expression of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor and Indian Hedgehog (IHH:), suggesting a new regulatory role for Fgfr3 in embryos...
  22. ncbi Smoothened mutants reveal redundant roles for Shh and Ihh signaling including regulation of L/R asymmetry by the mouse node
    X M Zhang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 105:781-92. 2001
    ..We show that Smo acts epistatic to Ptc1 to mediate Shh and Ihh signaling in the early mouse embryo...
  23. ncbi The whereabouts of a morphogen: direct evidence for short- and graded long-range activity of hedgehog signaling peptides
    A Gritli-Linde
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Goteborg University, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Dev Biol 236:364-86. 2001
    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) are members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling molecules known to be involved in embryonic patterning and morphogenesis...
  24. ncbi Interaction of FGF, Ihh/Pthlh, and BMP signaling integrates chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation
    Eleonora Minina
    Otto Warburg Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 73, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Dev Cell 3:439-49. 2002
    ..Using a limb culture system, we have analyzed the role of FGF signaling and its interaction with the Ihh/Pthlh and BMP pathways in regulating chondrocyte differentiation...
  25. ncbi Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton
    Fanxin Long
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 131:1309-18. 2004
    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is indispensable for development of the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton...
  26. pmc The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(Kip2) mediates proliferative actions of PTHrP in chondrocytes
    Helen E MacLean
    Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Clin Invest 113:1334-43. 2004
    ..These studies suggest that the effects of PTHrP on both the rate and extent of chondrocyte proliferation are mediated, at least in part, through suppression of p57 expression...
  27. pmc Interactions between Sox9 and beta-catenin control chondrocyte differentiation
    Haruhiko Akiyama
    Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Genes Dev 18:1072-87. 2004
    ..Our results strongly suggest that chondrogenesis is controlled by interactions between Sox9 and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway...
  28. pmc Indian Hedgehog produced by postnatal chondrocytes is essential for maintaining a growth plate and trabecular bone
    Yukiko Maeda
    Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6382-7. 2007
    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is essential for chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation/differentiation during prenatal endochondral bone formation...
  29. ncbi Studies on the role of Dlx5 in regulation of chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral ossification in the developing mouse limb
    Hsian Jean Chin
    Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA
    Dev Growth Differ 49:515-21. 2007
    ..skeletal elements containing excessive numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes and expanded domains of expression of Ihh and type X collagen, molecular markers of hypertrophic maturation...
  30. pmc Site-1 protease is essential for endochondral bone formation in mice
    Debabrata Patra
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Cell Biol 179:687-700. 2007
    ..These data suggest that S1P activity is necessary for a specialized ER stress response required by chondrocytes for the genesis of normal cartilage and thus endochondral ossification...
  31. doi Akt regulates skeletal development through GSK3, mTOR, and FoxOs
    Satoshi Rokutanda
    Department of Cell Biology, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1 7 1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852 8588, Japan
    Dev Biol 328:78-93. 2009
    ....
  32. ncbi Conservation of the hedgehog/patched signaling pathway from flies to mice: induction of a mouse patched gene by Hedgehog
    L V Goodrich
    Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHMI, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5427, USA
    Genes Dev 10:301-12. 1996
    ..As in flies, mouse ptc transcription appears to be indicative of hedgehog signal reception. The results support the existence of a conserved signaling pathway used for pattern formation in insects and mammals...
  33. ncbi Regulation of rate of cartilage differentiation by Indian hedgehog and PTH-related protein
    A Vortkamp
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 273:613-22. 1996
    ..A chicken homolog of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a member of the conserved Hedgehog family of secreted proteins that is expressed during bone formation, has now ..
  34. ncbi PTH/PTHrP receptor in early development and Indian hedgehog-regulated bone growth
    B Lanske
    Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Science 273:663-6. 1996
    ..These results suggest that the PTH/PTHrP receptor mediates the effects of Indian Hedgehog and PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation...
  35. ncbi The world according to hedgehog
    M Hammerschmidt
    Spemann Laboratories, Frieburg, Germany
    Trends Genet 13:14-21. 1997
    ..Here, we review recent experiments addressing the function of the various Hedgehog members during invertebrate and vertebrate development...
  36. ncbi Expression of indian hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein 6 and gli during skeletal morphogenesis
    M Iwasaki
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0514, USA
    Mech Dev 69:197-202. 1997
    ..1997. The world according to hedgehog. Trends Genet. 13, 14-21). Two potential targets of Ihh are bmp6 and gli (Johnson et al., 1995...
  37. ncbi Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton
    L J Brunet
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3204, USA
    Science 280:1455-7. 1998
    ..Excess BMP activity in the absence of Noggin antagonism may enhance the recruitment of cells into cartilage, resulting in oversized growth plates; chondrocytes are also refractory to joint-inducing positional cues...
  38. ncbi Disrupted expression of matrix genes in the growth plate of the mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mutant
    A W Wai
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Hong Kong, China
    Dev Genet 22:349-58. 1998
    ..The discordance of gene expression in cmd chondrocytes may be additional factors contributing to the disrupted cellular architecture of the growth plate resulting from the primary absence of aggrecan...
  39. ncbi Evidence that preaxial polydactyly in the Doublefoot mutant is due to ectopic Indian Hedgehog signaling
    Y Yang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 125:3123-32. 1998
    ..In contrast, a second Hh family member, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) which maps close to Dbf, is ectopically expressed in the distal limb bud...
  40. ncbi Repression of hedgehog signaling and BMP4 expression in growth plate cartilage by fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
    M C Naski
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8103, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 125:4977-88. 1998
    ..Significantly, FGFR3 downregulated the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway and Bmp4 expression in both growth plate chondrocytes and in the perichondrium...
  41. pmc Role of CDMP-1 in skeletal morphogenesis: promotion of mesenchymal cell recruitment and chondrocyte differentiation
    N Tsumaki
    Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 144:161-73. 1999
    ..These results indicate that CDMP-1 antagonizes the ventralization signals from the notochord. Our study suggests a molecular mechanism by which CDMP-1 regulates the formation, growth, and differentiation of the skeletal elements...
  42. ncbi Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1
    I S Kim
    Universitäts Kinderklinik Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55101, Mainz, Germany
    Mech Dev 80:159-70. 1999
    ..Histology and in situ hybridization with probes for indian hedgehog (Ihh), collagen type X and osteopontin performed at E13.5, E14.5 and E17...
  43. ncbi GDF5 coordinates bone and joint formation during digit development
    E E Storm
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Beckman Center B300, Palo Alto, California 94305 5329, USA
    Dev Biol 209:11-27. 1999
    ..Thus, GDF5 function in the digits demonstrates a link between cartilage development and joint development and is an important determinant of the pattern of bones and articulations in the digits...
  44. ncbi Craniofacial, vestibular and bone defects in mice lacking the Distal-less-related gene Dlx5
    D Acampora
    International Institute of Genetic and Biophysics, CNR, Via Marconi 10, Italy
    Development 126:3795-809. 1999
    ..The defects observed in Dlx5-/- mutant animals suggest multiple and independent roles of this gene in the patterning of the branchial arches, in the morphogenesis of the vestibular organ and in osteoblast differentiation...
  45. pmc Indian hedgehog signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and is essential for bone formation
    B St-Jacques
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 USA
    Genes Dev 13:2072-86. 1999
    ..Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling from prehypertrophic chondrocytes has been implicated in the control of chondrocyte maturation by way of ..
  46. ncbi Perlecan is essential for cartilage and cephalic development
    E Arikawa-Hirasawa
    Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Genet 23:354-8. 1999
    ..Our findings suggest that these molecules affect similar signalling pathways...
  47. ncbi Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation
    I Satokata
    Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Nat Genet 24:391-5. 2000
    ..Our results provide a developmental basis for PFM and demonstrate that Msx2 is essential at multiple sites during organogenesis...
  48. ncbi Hedgehog signals regulate multiple aspects of gastrointestinal development
    M Ramalho-Santos
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Development 127:2763-72. 2000
    ..These results show that Hedgehog signals are essential for organogenesis of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and suggest that mutations in members of this signaling pathway may be involved in human gastrointestinal malformations...
  49. ncbi The CREB family of activators is required for endochondral bone development
    F Long
    The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Peptide Biology Laboratories, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 128:541-50. 2001
    ..Correspondingly, the expression of certain signaling molecules in cartilage, most notably the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) receptor patched (Ptch), was lower in A-CREB expressing versus wild-type chondrocytes...
  50. pmc Continuous expression of Cbfa1 in nonhypertrophic chondrocytes uncovers its ability to induce hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and partially rescues Cbfa1-deficient mice
    S Takeda
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genes Dev 15:467-81. 2001
    ..These results identify Cbfa1 as a hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation factor and provide a genetic argument for a common regulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation mediated by Cbfa1...
  51. pmc TGF-beta/Smad3 signals repress chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation and are required for maintaining articular cartilage
    X Yang
    Genetics of Development and Disease Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 153:35-46. 2001
    ..Without these inhibition signals, chondrocytes break quiescent state and undergo abnormal terminal differentiation, ultimately leading to osteoarthritis...
  52. pmc Skeletal malformations caused by overexpression of Cbfa1 or its dominant negative form in chondrocytes
    C Ueta
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Cell Biol 153:87-100. 2001
    ..These data show that temporally and spatially regulated expression of Cbfa1 in chondrocytes is required for skeletogenesis, including formation of joints, permanent cartilages, and endochondral bones...
  53. pmc Evidence that the WNT-inducible growth arrest-specific gene 1 encodes an antagonist of sonic hedgehog signaling in the somite
    C S Lee
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11347-52. 2001
    ..Furthermore, ectopic expression of Gas1 in presomitic cells attenuates the response of these cells to SHH in vitro. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS1 functions to reduce the availability of active SHH within the dorsal somite...
  54. ncbi A high-resolution genetic, physical, and comparative gene map of the doublefoot (Dbf) region of mouse chromosome 1 and the region of conserved synteny on human chromosome 2q35
    C Hayes
    Medical Research Council, Mammalian Genetics Unit and UK Mouse Genome Centre, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RD, UK
    Genomics 78:197-205. 2001
    ..These genes include those encoding known developmental signaling molecules such as WNT proteins and IHH, and we provide evidence that these genes are candidates for the Dbf mutation.
  55. ncbi Genetic manipulation of hedgehog signaling in the endochondral skeleton reveals a direct role in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation
    F Long
    Harvard University, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 128:5099-108. 2001
    Indian hedgehog (Ihh), one of the three mammalian hedgehog (Hh) proteins, coordinates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes during endochondral bone development...
  56. ncbi The novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor osterix is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation
    Kazuhisa Nakashima
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Program in Genes and Development, M D Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cell 108:17-29. 2002
    ..Thus, Osx acts downstream of Runx2/Cbfa1. Because Osx null preosteoblasts express typical chondrocyte marker genes, we propose that Runx2/Cbfa1-expressing preosteoblasts are still bipotential cells...
  57. pmc FGF18 is required for normal cell proliferation and differentiation during osteogenesis and chondrogenesis
    Norihiko Ohbayashi
    Department of Genetic Biochemistry, Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Genes Dev 16:870-9. 2002
    ..Conversely, chondrocyte proliferation and the number of differentiated chondrocytes are increased. Therefore, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively in osteogenesis and negatively in chondrogenesis...
  58. ncbi Role of Runx genes in chondrocyte differentiation
    Sigmar Stricker
    Max Planck Institut fur Molekulare Genetik, Charite, Berlin, Germany
    Dev Biol 245:95-108. 2002
    ....
  59. pmc The Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are essential for craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeletal development
    Raymond F Robledo
    Brookdale Center for Developmental and Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    Genes Dev 16:1089-101. 2002
    ..Furthermore, spatiotemporal-specific transgenic overexpression of Dlx5, in the apical ectodermal ridge of Dlx5/6 null mice can fully rescue Dlx/Dll function in limb outgrowth...
  60. ncbi PTHrP and Indian hedgehog control differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes at multiple steps
    Tatsuya Kobayashi
    Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Development 129:2977-86. 2002
    ..Indian hedgehog (Ihh), which is predominantly expressed in prehypertrophic cells, stimulates expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-..
  61. ncbi p107 and p130 Coordinately regulate proliferation, Cbfa1 expression, and hypertrophic differentiation during endochondral bone development
    Ferdinand Rossi
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, 10032, USA
    Dev Biol 247:271-85. 2002
    ..The results suggest that Cbfa1 links a p107- and p130-mediated cell cycle arrest to chondrocyte terminal differentiation...
  62. ncbi Growth arrest specific gene 1 acts as a region-specific mediator of the Fgf10/Fgf8 regulatory loop in the limb
    Ying Liu
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Development 129:5289-300. 2002
    ..Our data provide evidence that Gas1 acts to maintain high levels of FGF10 at the tip mesenchyme and support the proposal that Fgf10 expression in this region is crucial for maintaining Fgf8 expression in the AER...
  63. ncbi Wnt5a and Wnt5b exhibit distinct activities in coordinating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation
    Yingzi Yang
    Genetic Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 130:1003-15. 2003
    ..Wnt5a and Wnt5b regulate the transition between different chondrocyte zones independently of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh)/parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) negative feedback loop...
  64. pmc Developmental mechanisms underlying polydactyly in the mouse mutant Doublefoot
    Alexandra P Crick
    Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK
    J Anat 202:21-6. 2003
    ....
  65. pmc Integrin-linked kinase regulates chondrocyte shape and proliferation
    Carsten Grashoff
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany
    EMBO Rep 4:432-8. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that Ilk regulates actin reorganization in chondrocytes and modulates chondrocyte growth independently of phosphorylation of Pkb/Akt and GSK3-beta...
  66. pmc Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development
    Sanja Ivkovic
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Development 130:2779-91. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate that CTGF is important for cell proliferation and matrix remodeling during chondrogenesis, and is a key regulator coupling extracellular matrix remodeling to angiogenesis at the growth plate...
  67. ncbi Dlx5 regulates chondrocyte differentiation at multiple stages
    Andrew J Bendall
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Int J Dev Biol 47:335-44. 2003
    ....
  68. ncbi Multiple roles of Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 in the formation of the mammalian forelimb zeugopod
    Anne M Boulet
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Development 131:299-309. 2004
    ..As a consequence, growth and maturation of these bones is highly disorganized, resulting in the creation of amorphous bony elements, rather than a normal radius and ulna...
  69. pmc Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival
    Christa Maes
    Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    J Clin Invest 113:188-99. 2004
    ..These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF(188) isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation...
  70. pmc Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to develop and maintain source, columnar, and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate
    Patrick Smits
    Dept of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave, ND 20, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Cell Biol 164:747-58. 2004
    ..They act, at least in part, by down-regulating Ihh signaling, Fgfr3, and Runx2 and by up-regulating Bmp6...
  71. ncbi Ext1-dependent heparan sulfate regulates the range of Ihh signaling during endochondral ossification
    Lydia Koziel
    Otto Warburg Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse 73, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Dev Cell 6:801-13. 2004
    ..HS synthesis in mice carrying a hypomorphic mutation in Ext1 results in an elevated range of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling during embryonic chondrocyte differentiation...
  72. ncbi Targeted expression of SHH affects chondrocyte differentiation, growth plate organization, and Sox9 expression
    Sara Tavella
    Department of Oncology, Biology and Genetics, University of Genoa Medical School, Genoa, Italy
    J Bone Miner Res 19:1678-88. 2004
    ..Overexpression caused a lethal craniorachischisis with major alterations in long bones because of defects in chondrocyte differentiation...
  73. pmc Critical roles for collagenase-3 (Mmp13) in development of growth plate cartilage and in endochondral ossification
    Masaki Inada
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Building 149, 13th Street, Room 8301, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17192-7. 2004
    ..Cartilaginous growth plate abnormalities persisted in adult mice and phenocopied defects observed in human hereditary chondrodysplasias. Our findings demonstrate a unique role of Mmp13 in skeletal development...
  74. ncbi Sequential roles of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in osteoblast development
    Hongliang Hu
    Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 132:49-60. 2005
    Signals that govern development of the osteoblast lineage are not well understood. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a member of the hedgehog (Hh) family of proteins, is essential for osteogenesis in the endochondral skeleton during embryogenesis...
  75. ncbi Indian hedgehog synchronizes skeletal angiogenesis and perichondrial maturation with cartilage development
    Celine Colnot
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0514, USA
    Development 132:1057-67. 2005
    A null mutation in the morphogen Indian hedgehog (IHH) results in an embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by the conspicuous absence of bony tissue in the extremities...
  76. ncbi Developmental regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signals is required for growth plate assembly, cartilage integrity, and endochondral ossification
    Yoshihiro Tamamura
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:19185-95. 2005
    ....
  77. pmc Indian hedgehog stimulates periarticular chondrocyte differentiation to regulate growth plate length independently of PTHrP
    Tatsuya Kobayashi
    Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1734-42. 2005
    ..Parathyroid hormone-related (PTH-related) protein (PTHrP), regulated by Indian hedgehog (Ihh), prevents premature hypertrophic differentiation, thereby maintaining the length of columns...
  78. ncbi Gli3 null mice display glandular overgrowth of the developing stomach
    Jae H Kim
    Program in Integrative Biology, The Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Dev Dyn 234:984-91. 2005
    ..In the developing stomach, Sonic (Shh) and Indian (Ihh) hedgehog are expressed in both distinct and overlapping regions...
  79. ncbi Genetic elimination of Suppressor of fused reveals an essential repressor function in the mammalian Hedgehog signaling pathway
    Jessica Svärd
    Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    Dev Cell 10:187-97. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in striking contrast to Drosophila, in mammals, Sufu has a central role, and its loss of function leads to potent ligand-independent activation of the Hh pathway...
  80. ncbi PTH/PTHrP receptor delays chondrocyte hypertrophy via both Runx2-dependent and -independent pathways
    Jun Guo
    Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Dev Biol 292:116-28. 2006
    ..These data indicate that the delayed hypertrophy induced by PTHrP is mediated by both Runx2-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  81. pmc A mouse model for human short-stature syndromes identifies Shox2 as an upstream regulator of Runx2 during long-bone development
    John Cobb
    Department of Zoology and Animal Biology and National Research Center Frontiers in Genetics, Sciences III, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:4511-5. 2006
    ..Furthermore, using this mouse model, we establish the cellular etiology of these defects and show that Shox2 acts upstream the Runx2 gene, a key regulator of chondrogenesis...
  82. pmc Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling in the osteo-chondrogenic cell lineage regulates sequential steps of osteoblast maturation
    Anne L Jacob
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University Medical School, Campus Box 8103, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Dev Biol 296:315-28. 2006
    ..These data demonstrate that signaling through FGFR1 in osteoblasts is necessary to maintain the balance between bone formation and remodeling through a direct effect on osteoblast maturation...
  83. ncbi BMPs regulate multiple aspects of growth-plate chondrogenesis through opposing actions on FGF pathways
    Byeong S Yoon
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Development 133:4667-78. 2006
    ..These studies indicate that BMP signaling is required to promote Ihh expression, and to inhibit activation of STAT and ERK1/2 MAPK, key effectors of FGF signaling...
  84. pmc Shox2 is required for chondrocyte proliferation and maturation in proximal limb skeleton
    Ling Yu
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70117, USA
    Dev Biol 306:549-59. 2007
    ..of Runx2 and Runx3 could account for the lack of chondrocyte hypertrophy, while a down-regulation of Ihh expression may be responsible for a significant reduction in chondrocyte proliferation in the mutant stylopod...
  85. pmc Gas1 extends the range of Hedgehog action by facilitating its signaling
    David C Martinelli
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Genes Dev 21:1231-43. 2007
    ..Our data support a model in which GAS1 helps transform the Hedgehog protein gradient into the observed activity gradient. We propose that Gas1 is an evolutionarily novel, vertebrate-specific Hedgehog pathway regulator...
  86. doi Indian hedgehog signals independently of PTHrP to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy
    Kinglun Kingston Mak
    Genetic Disease Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 49 Convent Drive, MSC 4472, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 135:1947-56. 2008
    ..Proper regulation of chondrocyte hypertrophy is also required in postnatal cartilage homeostasis. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and PTHrP signaling play crucial roles in regulating the onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy by forming a negative ..
  87. pmc MSX2 stimulates chondrocyte maturation by controlling Ihh expression
    Katsuhiko Amano
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita 565 0871, Japan
    J Biol Chem 283:29513-21. 2008
    ..In addition, caMsx2 overexpression induced Ihh (Indian hedgehog) expression in mouse primary chondrocytes...
  88. pmc Regulation of articular chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein in mice
    Xuesong Chen
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8020, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 58:3788-97. 2008
    Chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth zone are regulated by the Indian hedgehog (IHH)-parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) axis...
  89. pmc The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway interacts differentially with PTHrP signaling to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and final maturation
    Xizhi Guo
    Developmental Genetics Section, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6067. 2009
    ..Furthermore, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling also controls final maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, but such regulation is PTHrP signaling-independent...
  90. pmc Temporomandibular joint formation requires two distinct hedgehog-dependent steps
    Patricia Purcell
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18297-302. 2009
    ..Thus, these experiments establish that Hh signaling acts at two distinct steps in disk morphogenesis, condyle initiation, and disk-condyle separation and provide a molecular framework for future studies of the TMJ...
  91. pmc Atf4 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during endochondral ossification by activating Ihh transcription
    Weiguang Wang
    Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1225F Medical Research Building IV, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Development 136:4143-53. 2009
    ..The expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is markedly decreased, whereas the expression of other chondrocyte marker genes, such as type II collagen (Col2a1),..
  92. pmc The Gli2 transcriptional activator is a crucial effector for Ihh signaling in osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization
    Kyu Sang Joeng
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 136:4177-85. 2009
    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) critically regulates multiple aspects of endochondral bone development...
  93. pmc Role of Indian hedgehog signaling in palatal osteogenesis
    Benjamin Levi
    Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Division, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif, USA
    Plast Reconstr Surg 127:1182-90. 2011
    ..Indian hedgehog (Ihh) has been shown to be associated with craniofacial development and to be active in the palatine bone...
  94. ncbi Cloning, expression, and chromosomal location of SHH and IHH: two human homologues of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog
    V Marigo
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genomics 28:44-51. 1995
    ..We have cloned and sequenced human cDNA copies of two of these genes, SHH and IHH. The SHH clone includes the full coding sequence and encodes a protein 92.4% identical to its murine homologue...
  95. ncbi Post-translational processing and renal expression of mouse Indian hedgehog
    R P Valentini
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0676, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:8466-73. 1997
    The full-length mouse Indian hedgehog (Ihh) cDNA was cloned from an embryonic 17.5-day kidney library and was used to study the post-translational processing of the peptide and temporal and spatial expression of the transcript...
  96. ncbi The mesenchymal winged helix transcription factor Fkh6 is required for the control of gastrointestinal proliferation and differentiation
    K H Kaestner
    Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104 6145, USA
    Genes Dev 11:1583-95. 1997
    ....
  97. ncbi A role for Indian hedgehog in extraembryonic endoderm differentiation in F9 cells and the early mouse embryo
    S Becker
    Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06559 0170, USA
    Dev Biol 187:298-310. 1997
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Indian hedgehog is involved in mediating differentiation of extraembryonic endoderm during early mouse embryogenesis...
  98. ncbi Using EC and ES cell culture to study early development: recent observations on Indian hedgehog and Bmps
    L Grabel
    Department of Biology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 0170, USA
    Int J Dev Biol 42:917-25. 1998
    ..We present a continuation of our studies on the role of IHH-based signaling in early development and demonstrate that the IHH N-peptide is expressed in the outer visceral ..
  99. ncbi Indian hedgehog signaling in extraembryonic endoderm and ectoderm differentiation in ES embryoid bodies
    P Maye
    Biology Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 0170, USA
    Mech Dev 94:117-32. 2000
    We previously demonstrated that a member of the Hedgehog gene family, Indian hedgehog (Ihh), is expressed in the visceral endoderm of EC and ES cell embryoid bodies and mouse embryos...
  100. ncbi Hedgehog signaling regulates differentiation from double-negative to double-positive thymocyte
    S V Outram
    Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Immunity 13:187-97. 2000
    ..We show that one consequence of pre-TCR signaling is downregulation of Smo, allowing DN thymocytes to proliferate and differentiate...
  101. ncbi A molecular analysis of matrix remodeling and angiogenesis during long bone development
    C I Colnot
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, CA 94143 0514, USA
    Mech Dev 100:245-50. 2001
    ..Here, we have produced a 'molecular map' of the initial vascularization of the developing skeleton that provides a framework in which to interpret a wide range of fetal skeletal malformations, disruptions, and dysplasias...

Research Grants14

  1. SONIC HEDGEHOG SIGNALING IN ODONTOGENESIS
    Eiki Koyama; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results of the project will provide key information on morphogenetic and cellular signals responsible for initiation and progression of odontogenesis. ..
  2. TLS and TLS Fusion Proteins in Leukemia
    Liu Yang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is envisioned that successful completion of this project will unveil potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of human leukemias characterized by the t(16;21) translocation. ..
  3. CHONDROGENESIS AND HISTONE MODIFICATION ENZYMES
    Liu Yang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  4. FUNCTION OF A GROWTH INDUCED GENE IN LIVER REGENERATION
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  5. Expression profiling of human islets
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  6. Regulation of Parietal Endoderm Migration
    Laura Grabel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will therefore examine PE outgrowth on Matrigel, plus and minus fibronectin, with a particular focus on examining the role of integrins in promoting directed versus random migration. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. TGF-beta Signaling in Mesenchymal Chondroprogenitors
    Anna Spagnoli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding the role of TGF-beta in MCC biology will provide a framework for therapeutic manipulations to optimize the use of MCC in cartilage diseases. ..
  8. Regulation of parietal bone differentiation
    Venkatesh Govindarajan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. Development of C57BL/6 ES cell technology for high thoughput use.
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. Small RNAs in skeletogenesis
    Tatsuya Kobayashi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF THE BETA-CELL
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The new resources generated through this project will be made available to the NIDDK-funded biotechnology centers and the diabetes research community at large. ..
  12. Liver Biology, Development and Disease
    KLAUS KAESTNER; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. RUNX2 AND PPAR-GAMMA IN CHONDROCYTE FUNCTION
    Masahiro Iwamoto; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Molecular Regulation of Ocular Gland Development
    Venkatesh Govindarajan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, the proposed studies will, in the long-term, allow the development of novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of patients with dry eye syndromes. ..