Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Hmgcr
Description: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase
Alias: HMG-CoAR, Red, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, HMG-CoA reductase
- Renal ischemia-induced cholesterol loading: transcription factor recruitment and chromatin remodeling along the HMG CoA reductase geneMasayo Naito
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Am J Pathol 174:54-62. 2009..However, the factors during acute kidney injury that regulate HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) activity, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis, have not been defined...
- Early embryonic lethality caused by targeted disruption of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase geneKen Ohashi
Department of Metabolic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
J Biol Chem 278:42936-41. 2003..We used gene targeting to knock out the mouse HMG-CoA reductase gene. The heterozygous mutant mice (Hmgcr+/-) appeared normal in their development and gross anatomy and were fertile...
- Closing the gap: identification of human 3-ketosteroid reductase, the last unknown enzyme of mammalian cholesterol biosynthesisZrinka Marijanovic
GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
Mol Endocrinol 17:1715-25. 2003..In its function as the 3-ketosteroid reductase of cholesterol biosynthesis, HSD17B7 is a novel candidate for inborn errors of cholesterol metabolism...
- Contribution of Accelerated Degradation to Feedback Regulation of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase and Cholesterol Metabolism in the LiverSeonghwan Hwang
From the Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390 9046
J Biol Chem 291:13479-94. 2016..endoplasmic reticulum membranes stimulates the ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), which catalyzes a rate-limiting step in synthesis of cholesterol...
- SREBP-2-deficient and hypomorphic mice reveal roles for SREBP-2 in embryonic development and SREBP-1c expressionLaurent Vergnes
Departments of Human Genetics David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095
J Lipid Res 57:410-21. 2016..Reduced expression of SREBP-2 from the hypomorphic allele leads to early death in females and reduced cholesterol content in the liver, but not in adipose tissue. ..
- Perinatal deiodinase 2 expression in hepatocytes defines epigenetic susceptibility to liver steatosis and obesityTatiana L Fonseca
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:14018-23. 2015..The resulting phenotype of the adult ALB-D2KO mouse is dramatic, with greatly reduced susceptibility to diet-induced steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity. ..
- Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathyYoshinori Osaki
Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan Department of Internal Medicine Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 466:536-40. 2015HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol...
- Rapid proteasomal elimination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by interferon-γ in primary macrophages requires endogenous 25-hydroxycholesterol synthesisHongjin Lu
Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, United Kingdom
Steroids 99:219-29. 2015..IFN controls the first regulated step in the mevalonate-sterol pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), through the synthesis of 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) from cholesterol by the IFN-inducible Cholesterol-25-..
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone decreases HMG-CoA reductase phosphorylation via AMP-activated protein kinase in the liverXiujuan Zhang
Departments of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China
J Lipid Res 56:963-71. 2015Cholesterol homeostasis is strictly regulated through the modulation of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Phosphorylation of HMGCR inactivates it and dephosphorylation activates it...
- Analysis of hedgehog signaling in cerebellar granule cell precursors in a conditional Nsdhl allele demonstrates an essential role for cholesterol in postnatal CNS developmentDavid Cunningham
Center for Molecular and Human Genetics, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children s Hospital and Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Hum Mol Genet 24:2808-25. 2015..They further emphasize the complex ramifications of cholesterogenic enzyme deficiency on cellular metabolism. ..
- Cartilage-specific ablation of site-1 protease in mice results in the endoplasmic reticulum entrapment of type IIb procollagen and down-regulation of cholesterol and lipid homeostasisDebabrata Patra
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
PLoS ONE 9:e105674. 2014..This role appears not to be related to lipid pathways or other current known functions of S1P and is likely dependent on additional, yet unknown, S1P substrates in chondrocytes. ..
- Inflammatory stress induces statin resistance by disrupting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase feedback regulationYaxi Chen
From the Key Laboratory of Metabolism on Lipid and Glucose, Centre for Lipid Research, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Y C, L Z, Q L, A H, X Z R Division of Nephrology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan L C L and John Moorhead Research Laboratory, Centre for Nephrology, University College London UCL Medical School, United Kingdom H K, D C W, Z V, J F M, S H P, X Z R
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 34:365-76. 2014....
- Acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase is essential for normal neuronal developmentShinya Hasegawa
Department of Health Chemistry, Hoshi University, Ebara, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142 8501, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 427:398-403. 2012..These results suggest that AACS is regulated by SREBP-2 and involves in the normal development of neurons...
- Modified methylenedioxyphenol analogs lower LDL cholesterol through induction of LDL receptor expressionZhekang Ying
Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
J Lipid Res 53:879-87. 2012..INV-403 lowered plasma LDL cholesterol levels through LDLR upregulation. These results indicate a role for small molecule approaches other than statins for lowering LDL cholesterol...
- Liver-specific deletion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase causes hepatic steatosis and deathShuichi Nagashima
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311 1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329 0498, Japan
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32:1824-31. 20123-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis and has proven to be an effective target of lipid-lowering drugs, statins...
- Differential regulation of HMG-CoA reductase and Insig-1 by enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome systemYien Che Tsai
Laboratory of Protein Dynamics and Signaling, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 20712, USA
Mol Biol Cell 23:4484-94. 2012..Our results suggest a need for additional studies before definitive mechanistic conclusions are drawn that might set the stage for development of drugs to manipulate gp78 function in metabolic disorders...
- A suppressor screen in Mecp2 mutant mice implicates cholesterol metabolism in Rett syndromeChristie M Buchovecky
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
Nat Genet 45:1013-20. 2013..Our genetic screen therefore points to cholesterol homeostasis as a potential target for the treatment of patients with Rett syndrome. ..
- Macrophage NADPH oxidase activation, impaired cholesterol fluxes, and increased cholesterol biosynthesis in diabetic mice: a stimulatory role for D-glucoseTony Hayek
Lipid Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
Atherosclerosis 195:277-86. 2007..The above mechanisms in diabetic mice could be the result of the effect of high D-glucose on macrophages...
- Linalool reduces the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase via sterol regulatory element binding protein-2- and ubiquitin-dependent mechanismsSung Yun Cho
Department of Biotechnology, The Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
FEBS Lett 585:3289-96. 2011..These findings suggest that food molecules with a pleasant scent could exert beneficial metabolic effects through multiple mechanisms...
- Effects of buckwheat sprouts on plasma and hepatic parameters in type 2 diabetic db/db miceMitsuru Watanabe
Natl Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, 4 Akahira, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020 0198, Japan
J Food Sci 75:H294-9. 2010..It was deduced that excretion of bile acids in feces by feeding the BS diet would contribute to the suppression of the cholesterol concentration in the plasma and liver tissues of mice...
- Functional promoter polymorphisms govern differential expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene in mouse models of essential hypertensionParshuram J Sonawane
Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India
PLoS ONE 6:e16661. 20113-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase gene (Hmgcr) is a susceptibility gene for essential hypertension...
- Differential expression and function of ABCG1 and ABCG4 during development and agingDragana D Bojanic
Department of Biological Chemistry at UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Lipid Res 51:169-81. 2010..Finally, behavioral tests show that Abcg4(-/-) mice have a general deficit in associative fear memory. Together, these data indicate that loss of ABCG1 and/or ABCG4 from the CNS results in changes in metabolic pathways and in behavior...
- Cholesterol depletion associated with Leishmania major infection alters macrophage CD40 signalosome composition and effector functionAbdur Rub
National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
Nat Immunol 10:273-80. 2009..Thus, cholesterol depletion might represent an immune-evasion strategy used by L. major...
- Inhibition of HMG CoA reductase reveals an unexpected role for cholesterol during PGC migration in the mouseJiaxi Ding
Department of Genetics Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
BMC Dev Biol 8:120. 2008..Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of the sperm and eggs. Environmental or genetic defects that alter PGC development can impair fertility or cause formation of germ cell tumors...
- NRIF is a regulator of neuronal cholesterol biosynthesis genesZeljka Korade
Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 8124A MRB III, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
J Mol Neurosci 38:152-8. 2009..decreased the mRNA for two main cholesterogenic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr; EC 188.8.131.52) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Dhcr7; EC 184.108.40.206)...
- Purification of brain peroxisomes and localization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductaseW J Kovacs
Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
Eur J Biochem 268:4850-9. 2001..In addition, we show by analytical subcellular fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy that HMG-CoA reductase protein and activity are localized both in the ER and peroxisomes in the CNS...
- Glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression in the immune system. Analysis of glucocorticoid-regulated transcripts from the mouse macrophage-like cell line P388D1A Helmberg
Institute for General and Experimental Pathology, University of Innsbruck, Austria
J Immunol 145:4332-7. 1990..Our results raise the possibility that the immunosuppressive activity of glucocorticoids might be mediated, in part, by regulating the expression of the above immunoregulatory proteins...
- Genes for HMG-CoA reductase and serotonin 1a receptor are on mouse chromosome 13S Sundaresan
Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
Somat Cell Mol Genet 15:465-9. 1989..The human gene (HMGCR) has been assigned to the q13.3-q14 region of chromosome 5 (HSA5)...
- Nerve regeneration and cholesterol reutilization occur in the absence of apolipoproteins E and A-I in miceJ F Goodrum
Brain and Development Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599
J Neurochem 64:408-16. 1995..These data suggest that there is considerable redundancy in the process of cholesterol reutilization within nerve, and that apolipoproteins other than apolipoproteins E and A-I may be involved in the recycling of myelin cholesterol...
- Nucleotide sequence of mouse spermidine synthase cDNAS Myöhänen
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, Finland
DNA Seq 4:343-6. 1994..The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 302 amino acids, displaying 95% similarity to human and 33% similarity to E. coli spermidine synthase. The 3' flanking region contained an unusual polyadenylation signal AATACA...
- Genomic structure, chromosomal location, and evolution of the mouse Hox 8 geneJ R Bell
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033
Genomics 16:123-31. 1993..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
- Apolipoprotein A-I is required for cholesteryl ester accumulation in steroidogenic cells and for normal adrenal steroid productionA S Plump
Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, The Rockefeller University, New York 10021, USA
J Clin Invest 97:2660-71. 1996....
- Overproduction of cholesterol and fatty acids causes massive liver enlargement in transgenic mice expressing truncated SREBP-1aH Shimano
Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235, USA
J Clin Invest 98:1575-84. 1996..The mRNAs encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) synthase, HMG CoA reductase, squalene synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 were all ..
- ApoA-I knockout mice: characterization of HDL metabolism in homozygotes and identification of a post-RNA mechanism of apoA-I up-regulation in heterozygotesA S Plump
Laboratory of Biochemical, Genetics, and Metabolism, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Lipid Res 38:1033-47. 1997..In the apoA-I knockout mouse model it appears that low HDL levels create a new steady state in which decreased cholesterol is delivered to both peripheral tissues and the liver...
- Gene expression related to cholesterol metabolism in mouse brain during developmentS Hanaka
Department of Pediatrics, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2 11 1 Kaga, Itabashi ku, 173 8605, Tokyo, Japan
Brain Dev 22:321-6. 2000....
- Disturbances in the normal regulation of SREBP-sensitive genes in PPAR alpha-deficient miceD D Patel
Lipoprotein Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 ONN, UK
J Lipid Res 42:328-37. 2001..Patel, D. D., B. L. Knight, D. Wiggins, S. M. Humphreys, and G. F. Gibbons. Disturbances in the normal regulation of SREBP-sensitive genes in PPAR alpha-deficient mice. J. Lipid Res. 2001. 42: 328--337...
- Biphasic regulation of HMG-CoA reductase expression and activity during wound healing and its functional role in the control of keratinocyte angiogenic and proliferative responsesDana Schiefelbein
Pharmazentrum frankfurt ZAFES, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Theodor Stern Kai 7, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
J Biol Chem 283:15479-90. 2008....
- Absence of functional peroxisomes does not lead to deficiency of enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesisSietske Hogenboom
Laboratory for Genetic Metabolic Diseases F0 224, Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, P O Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Lipid Res 43:90-8. 2002..Our data provide an explanation for the conflicting findings in the literature and show that great care should be taken in the interpretation of data obtained in postmortem material...
- Leptin promotes biliary cholesterol elimination during weight loss in ob/ob mice by regulating the enterohepatic circulation of bile saltsHideyuki Hyogo
Department of Medicine, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
J Biol Chem 277:34117-24. 2002..Cholesterol gallstone formation during weight loss in ob/ob mice appears to represent a pathologic consequence of an adaptive response that prevents absorption of biliary and dietary cholesterol...
- Glycogen stored in skeletal but not in cardiac muscle in acid alpha-glucosidase mutant (Pompe) mice is highly resistant to transgene-encoded human enzymeNina Raben
Arthritis and Rheumatism Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Mol Ther 6:601-8. 2002..The results demonstrate that complete reversal of pathology in skeletal muscle or long-affected heart muscle will require much more enzyme than previously expected or a different approach...
- ATP-citrate lyase deficiency in the mouseAnne P Beigneux
Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
J Biol Chem 279:9557-64. 2004..The Acly knockout allele is useful for identifying cell types with a high demand for acetyl-CoA synthesis...
- Novel QTLs for HDL levels identified in mice by controlling for Apoa2 allelic effects: confirmation of a chromosome 6 locus in a congenic strainCarrie L Welch
Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
Physiol Genomics 17:48-59. 2004..003 and P = 0.0001 for HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, respectively). These data are consistent with polygenic inheritance of HDL-C levels in the mouse model and provide candidate loci for HDL-C and non-HDL-C level determination in humans...
- The developmental regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha expression in the liver is partially dissociated from the control of gluconeogenesis and lipid catabolismPilar Yubero
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Endocrinology 145:4268-77. 2004....
- Over-expression of hepatic neutral cytosolic cholesteryl ester hydrolase in mice increases free cholesterol and reduces expression of HMG-CoAR, CYP27, and CYP7A1Timothy B Langston
Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
Lipids 40:31-8. 2005..These results demonstrate elevation of FC and depletion of cholesteryl esters by over-expression of hncCEH, which were resistant to compensatory responses by other enzymes of cholesterol homeostasis...
- Altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism compensates for disruption of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in miceMichele K Wu
Department of Biochemistry, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 289:G456-61. 2005..We speculate that regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is a physiological function of PC-TP in liver, which can be overcome with a cholesterol-rich lithogenic diet...
- Schoenheimer effect explained--feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis in mice mediated by Insig proteinsLuke J Engelking
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9046, USA
J Clin Invest 115:2489-98. 2005..These studies indicate that the essential elements of the regulatory pathway for lipid synthesis function in liver as they do in cultured cells...
- Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on brain 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity in male ICR miceNobuya Shirai
National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
J Nutr Biochem 18:488-94. 2007..The DHA percentages of brain and liver microsomal fractions increased with the intake of DHA-EE in adult and aged mice. These results suggest that DHA may enhance brain HMG-CoA reductase activity in aged mice...
- Genetic and dietary interactions in the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase gene expressionJ J Hwa
Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
J Lipid Res 33:711-25. 1992..The variation provides a striking example, at the molecular level, of the importance of dietary-genetic interactions in the control of cholesterol metabolism...
- An integrated genetic map of the pearl locus of mouse chromosome 13A B Seymour
Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
Genome Res 6:538-44. 1996..As-1), thrombin receptor (Cf2r), hexosaminidase b(Hexb), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr), microtubule associated protein 5/1b (Mtap5), phosphodiesterase (Pde), phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (Pik3rl), ..