Gnat2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gnat2
Description: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 2
Alias: AW490837, Gnat-2, Gt-2, Tcalpha, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-2, transducin alpha-2 chain
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Cone photoreceptor function loss-3, a novel mouse model of achromatopsia due to a mutation in Gnat2
    Bo Chang
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:5017-21. 2006
  2. pmc Phototransduction in transgenic mice after targeted deletion of the rod transducin alpha -subunit
    P D Calvert
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13913-8. 2000
  3. pmc Speed, spatial, and temporal tuning of rod and cone vision in mouse
    Yumiko Umino
    Center for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
    J Neurosci 28:189-98. 2008
  4. pmc Functional interchangeability of rod and cone transducin alpha-subunits
    Wen tao Deng
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17681-6. 2009
  5. pmc A visual circuit uses complementary mechanisms to support transient and sustained pupil constriction
    William Thomas Keenan
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
    elife 5:. 2016
  6. pmc M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
    Cameron L Prigge
    Eye Research Institute, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309
    J Neurosci 36:7184-97. 2016
  7. pmc Phototransduction Influences Metabolic Flux and Nucleotide Metabolism in Mouse Retina
    Jianhai Du
    From the Department of Biochemistry, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109
    J Biol Chem 291:4698-710. 2016
  8. pmc Alternative Splicing Shapes the Phenotype of a Mutation in BBS8 To Cause Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Daniel Murphy
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert C Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 35:1860-70. 2015
  9. pmc Retinal output changes qualitatively with every change in ambient illuminance
    Alexandra Tikidji-Hamburyan
    Retinal Circuits and Optogenetics, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 18:66-74. 2015
  10. doi Rods in daylight act as relay cells for cone-driven horizontal cell-mediated surround inhibition
    Tamas Szikra
    Neural Circuit Laboratories, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 17:1728-35. 2014

Research Grants

  1. Genetics of Age-Related Cataracts
    Bo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2007

Scientific Experts

  • Kwoon Y Wong
  • Bo Chang
  • Steven Nusinowitz
  • Wen tao Deng
  • Hiroki Fujieda
  • Frank Naarendorp
  • Annette E Allen
  • Yumiko Umino
  • Cameron L Prigge
  • William Thomas Keenan
  • Jianhai Du
  • Daniel Murphy
  • Alexandra Tikidji-Hamburyan
  • Xiwu Zhao
  • Rebecca S Jones
  • Tamas Szikra
  • Sanae Sakami
  • Samer Hattar
  • Andrew I Jobling
  • Robert J Lucas
  • James B Hurley
  • Yanbin V Wang
  • Cara M Altimus
  • Robert B Barlow
  • John J Alexander
  • Janaki Nathan
  • Hong Cheng
  • Shao Ling Fong
  • S Vincent Wu
  • Danijel Djukovic
  • Samer S Hattar
  • Chi Chan Lee
  • Jorgina Satrustegui
  • Austin Rountree
  • Lawrence Chan
  • Preethi Somasundaram
  • Alan C Rupp
  • Dao Qi Zhang
  • Dan Raftery
  • Stephen H Tsang
  • Nan Fu Liou
  • Po Ting Yeh
  • Shih Feng You
  • Suja Hiriyanna
  • David S McNeill
  • Bradford B Lowell
  • Haiwei Gu
  • Laura Contreras
  • Whitney M Cleghorn
  • Zhijian Wu
  • Tudor C Badea
  • Rachel A Ross
  • Ken J Lindsay
  • Phyllis R Robinson
  • Martin Sadilek
  • Ian R Sweet
  • Shih Kuo Chen
  • Kylie S Chew
  • Mark Kanow
  • Lei Lei Liu
  • Anahit Hovhannisyan
  • Peter Stoilov
  • Ratnesh Singh
  • Hartwig Seitter
  • Thomas A Münch
  • Saravanan Kolandaivelu
  • Martin Schenk
  • Visvanathan Ramamurthy
  • Christopher A Procyk
  • Katja Reinhard
  • Antonia Drinnenberg
  • Scott Nawy
  • Zoltan Raics
  • Josephine Jüttner
  • Damon A Clark
  • Botond Roska
  • Marina Pedisich
  • Krzysztof Palczewski
  • Ashley L Godin
  • Stuart Trenholm
  • Vladimir J Kefalov
  • Ben K Stafford
  • Karl Farrow
  • Martin Biel
  • W Michael King
  • Reed C Carroll
  • Rava Azeredo da Silveira
  • Gautam Awatramani
  • Jose Alain Sahel
  • Alexander V Kolesnikov

Detail Information

Publications32

  1. ncbi Cone photoreceptor function loss-3, a novel mouse model of achromatopsia due to a mutation in Gnat2
    Bo Chang
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:5017-21. 2006
    ..To report a novel mouse model of achromatopsia with a cpfl3 mutation found in the ALS/LtJ strain...
  2. pmc Phototransduction in transgenic mice after targeted deletion of the rod transducin alpha -subunit
    P D Calvert
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13913-8. 2000
    ..These results indicate that most if not all rods use a single transducin type in phototransduction...
  3. pmc Speed, spatial, and temporal tuning of rod and cone vision in mouse
    Yumiko Umino
    Center for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
    J Neurosci 28:189-98. 2008
    ..forced-choice measures of contrast thresholds for optomotor responses of C57BL/6J mice with normal vision, Gnat2(cpfl3) mice without functional cones, and Gnat1-/- mice without functional rods. Gnat2(cpfl3) mice (threshold, -6...
  4. pmc Functional interchangeability of rod and cone transducin alpha-subunits
    Wen tao Deng
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17681-6. 2009
    ..expressed in cones and cone Talpha expressed in rods in three mouse strains: rod Talpha knockout, cone Talpha GNAT2(cpfl3) mutant, and rod and cone Talpha double mutant rd17 mouse...
  5. pmc A visual circuit uses complementary mechanisms to support transient and sustained pupil constriction
    William Thomas Keenan
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
    elife 5:. 2016
    ..These results highlight a temporal switch in the coding mechanisms of a neural circuit to support proper behavioral dynamics...
  6. pmc M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina
    Cameron L Prigge
    Eye Research Institute, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309
    J Neurosci 36:7184-97. 2016
    ..Together, the results strongly suggest that ipRGCs transmit luminance signals retrogradely to the outer retina through the dopaminergic system and in turn influence retinal light adaptation...
  7. pmc Phototransduction Influences Metabolic Flux and Nucleotide Metabolism in Mouse Retina
    Jianhai Du
    From the Department of Biochemistry, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109
    J Biol Chem 291:4698-710. 2016
    ..In addition, a comprehensive analysis of the retinal metabolome showed that phototransduction also influences steady-state concentrations of 5'-GMP, ribose-5-phosphate, ketone bodies, and purines. ..
  8. pmc Alternative Splicing Shapes the Phenotype of a Mutation in BBS8 To Cause Nonsyndromic Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Daniel Murphy
    Department of Biochemistry, Robert C Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 35:1860-70. 2015
    ..These intronic sequences are sufficient for photoreceptor-cell-specific splicing of heterologous exons, including an exon with a randomized sequence. ..
  9. pmc Retinal output changes qualitatively with every change in ambient illuminance
    Alexandra Tikidji-Hamburyan
    Retinal Circuits and Optogenetics, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 18:66-74. 2015
    ..This finding raises questions about signal processing within the retina and has implications for visual processing in higher brain areas. ..
  10. doi Rods in daylight act as relay cells for cone-driven horizontal cell-mediated surround inhibition
    Tamas Szikra
    Neural Circuit Laboratories, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 17:1728-35. 2014
    ..Our results show that the retinal circuitry repurposes rods, when they are not directly sensing light, to relay cone-driven surround inhibition. ..
  11. pmc Spatial organization of AMPAR subtypes in ON RGCs
    Rebecca S Jones
    Dominick P Purpura Department of Neuroscience and Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Rose F Kennedy Center, Bronx, New York 10461
    J Neurosci 34:656-61. 2014
    ..Together, our data suggest that the spatial organization of AMPARs at ON RGCs synapses allows for selective, intensity-dependent activation of AMPARs with distinct subunit composition. ..
  12. pmc Photoresponse diversity among the five types of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
    Xiwu Zhao
    Kellogg Eye Center, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Physiol 592:1619-36. 2014
    ....
  13. pmc P23H opsin knock-in mice reveal a novel step in retinal rod disc morphogenesis
    Sanae Sakami
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 23:1723-41. 2014
    ..These findings provide fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of the P23H mutant opsin and reveal a novel early sagittally aligned disc formation step in normal ROS disc expansion. ..
  14. pmc In vivo function of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3 in establishing photoreceptor identity during mammalian retinal development
    Hong Cheng
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, W K Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48105, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 15:2588-602. 2006
    ..Our studies reveal a critical role of NR2E3 in establishing functional specificity of NRL-expressing photoreceptor precursors during retinal neurogenesis...
  15. ncbi Scotopic and photopic visual thresholds and spatial and temporal discrimination evaluated by behavior of mice in a water maze
    Janaki Nathan
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 82:1489-94. 2006
    ..In this report we describe the sensitivities of rod-mediated and cone-mediated vision using GNAT1-/-and GNAT2-/- mice. Cone-mediated vision is approximately 10,000 times less sensitive than rod-mediated vision in mice...
  16. pmc Spectral and temporal sensitivity of cone-mediated responses in mouse retinal ganglion cells
    Yanbin V Wang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7670-81. 2011
    ..In mice lacking cone function (Gnat2(cpfl3)), light-adapted rod-mediated responses peaked at ∼ 5-7 Hz...
  17. doi A naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia: characterization of the mutation in cone transducin and subsequent retinal phenotype
    Andrew I Jobling
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:3350-9. 2013
    This work investigates a novel, naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia. The specific missense mutation within the Gnat2 gene was identified and the subsequent retinal phenotype characterized.
  18. pmc Survey of common eye diseases in laboratory mouse strains
    Bo Chang
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:4974-81. 2013
    ..These eye diseases are retinal degeneration 1 (Pde6b(rd1)), retinal degeneration 8 (Crb1(rd8)), and cone photoreceptor function loss 3 (Gnat2(cpfl3)).
  19. ncbi Golf: an olfactory neuron specific-G protein involved in odorant signal transduction
    D T Jones
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Science 244:790-5. 1989
    ..The expression of Golf alpha in S49 cyc- kin- cells, a line deficient in endogenous stimulatory G proteins, demonstrates its capacity to stimulate adenylate cyclase in a heterologous system...
  20. pmc Restoration of cone vision in a mouse model of achromatopsia
    John J Alexander
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Nat Med 13:685-7. 2007
    ..Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy, we show that it is possible to target cones and rescue both the cone-mediated electroretinogram response and visual acuity in the Gnat2 ( cpfl3 ) mouse model of achromatopsia.
  21. pmc Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human
    C Blatt
    Weizmann Institute, Rehovoth, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:7642-6. 1988
    ..The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ ..
  22. ncbi Sequence of the alpha subunit of photoreceptor G protein: homologies between transducin, ras, and elongation factors
    M A Lochrie
    Science 228:96-9. 1985
    ..Amino acid sequence similarity between T alpha and ras is confined to these regions of the molecules...
  23. ncbi Expression of cone transducin, Gz alpha, and other G-protein alpha-subunit messenger ribonucleic acids in pancreatic islets
    J M Zigman
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637
    Endocrinology 135:31-7. 1994
    ..We conclude that islet cells express multiple G-proteins, including several that are normally expressed at high levels in certain neuronal cells...
  24. ncbi Chinese hamster transducin gene (GNAT2): genomic organization and peptide conservation
    B Baron
    Unité de Génétique Somatique, Département d immunologie de l Institut Pasteur LA CNRS n degrees 1960, Paris, France
    Mamm Genome 7:922-3. 1996
  25. ncbi Genomic organization, expression, and function of bitter taste receptors (T2R) in mouse and rat
    S Vincent Wu
    Center for Ulcer Research and Education, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, and Molecular Biology Institute, University of California and Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 90095, USA
    Physiol Genomics 22:139-49. 2005
    ....
  26. ncbi Characterization of a transgenic mouse line lacking photoreceptor development within the ventral retina
    Shao Ling Fong
    Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University, 702 Rotary Circle, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Exp Eye Res 81:376-88. 2005
    ..line was generated by incorporating a minigene that contained a cone-specific human cone transducin alpha-subunit (GNAT2) promoter, an attenuated diphtheria toxin A (DTA) gene, and an enhancer element from human interphotoreceptor ..
  27. pmc Visual responses in mice lacking critical components of all known retinal phototransduction cascades
    Annette E Allen
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e15063. 2010
    ..injection of U73122 (a phospholipase C antagonist), but is inhibited by a missense mutation of cone α transducin (Gnat2(cpfl3)), suggesting Gnat2-dependence...
  28. pmc Dark light, rod saturation, and the absolute and incremental sensitivity of mouse cone vision
    Frank Naarendorp
    Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 30:12495-507. 2010
    ..dissect the contributions of rod and cone pathways, both wild-type mice and mice lacking rod (Gnat1(-/-)) or cone (Gnat2(cpfl3)) function were studied...
  29. pmc Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities
    Cara M Altimus
    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:1107-12. 2010
    ..Thus, rods use two distinct retinal circuits to drive ipRGC function to support circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities...
  30. doi Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha regulates a subset of cone genes during mouse retinal development
    Hiroki Fujieda
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurochem 108:91-101. 2009
    ..Our data suggest that RORalpha plays a crucial role in cone development by directly regulating multiple cone genes...
  31. ncbi Temporal response properties of the primary and secondary rod-signaling pathways in normal and Gnat2 mutant mice
    S Nusinowitz
    Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Exp Eye Res 84:1104-14. 2007
    ..C57BL/6J and Gnat2(cpfl3) mutant mice lacking functional cones were used in these experiments...
  32. ncbi Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in BXD recombinant inbred mice
    F O Risinger
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience and Portland Alcohol Research Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, 97201 3098, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22:1234-44. 1998
    ..Some of these genes appear to influence taste sensitivity, whereas others appear to mediate sensitivity to aversive pharmacological effects of ethanol...

Research Grants1

  1. Genetics of Age-Related Cataracts
    Bo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..