Gli2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gli2
Description: GLI-Kruppel family member GLI2
Alias: zinc finger protein GLI2, Tax helper protein
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Diminished Sonic hedgehog signaling and lack of floor plate differentiation in Gli2 mutant mice
    Q Ding
    Program in Developmental Biology and Division of Endocrinology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 125:2533-43. 1998
  2. doi Gli2 activator function in preosteoblasts is sufficient to mediate Ihh-dependent osteoblast differentiation, whereas the repressor function of Gli2 is dispensable for endochondral ossification
    Dörthe Andrea Kesper
    University of Duisburg Essen, Center of Medical Biotechnology, Essen, Germany
    Dev Dyn 239:1818-26. 2010
  3. ncbi Evidence for an expansion-based temporal Shh gradient in specifying vertebrate digit identities
    Brian D Harfe
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Cell 118:517-28. 2004
  4. ncbi Gli2 is required for induction of floor plate and adjacent cells, but not most ventral neurons in the mouse central nervous system
    M P Matise
    Developmental Genetics Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Cell Biology and Physiology and Neuroscience, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 125:2759-70. 1998
  5. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates Gli activator and repressor functions with spatial and temporal precision in the mid/hindbrain region
    Sandra Blaess
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:1799-809. 2006
  6. pmc Protein kinase A acts at the basal body of the primary cilium to prevent Gli2 activation and ventralization of the mouse neural tube
    Miquel Tuson
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Development 138:4921-30. 2011
  7. ncbi Induction of sonic hedgehog mediators by transforming growth factor-beta: Smad3-dependent activation of Gli2 and Gli1 expression in vitro and in vivo
    Sylviane Dennler
    INSERM U697, Hopital Saint Louis, Pavillon Bazin, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France
    Cancer Res 67:6981-6. 2007
  8. ncbi Disruption of Meox or Gli activity ablates skeletal myogenesis in P19 cells
    Helen Petropoulos
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences Building, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 279:23874-81. 2004
  9. ncbi Negative regulation of Gli1 and Gli2 activator function by Suppressor of fused through multiple mechanisms
    Paul C Barnfield
    Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Developmental Biology, 101 College Street, TMDT, Rm 13 314, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7
    Differentiation 73:397-405. 2005
  10. doi Multipotent CD15+ cancer stem cells in patched-1-deficient mouse medulloblastoma
    Ryan J Ward
    Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Cancer Res 69:4682-90. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Excess TGF beta in neonatal lung injury and repair
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2004
  2. Lung epithelial and vascular morphogenesis
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE GROWTH FACTORS & LUNG MORPHOGENESIS
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TYPE II PNEUMOCYTE PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2010

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications123 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Diminished Sonic hedgehog signaling and lack of floor plate differentiation in Gli2 mutant mice
    Q Ding
    Program in Developmental Biology and Division of Endocrinology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 125:2533-43. 1998
    ..that the expression of known Shh-responsive genes such as Ptc and Gli1 is downregulated in mutant mice lacking Gli2 function...
  2. doi Gli2 activator function in preosteoblasts is sufficient to mediate Ihh-dependent osteoblast differentiation, whereas the repressor function of Gli2 is dispensable for endochondral ossification
    Dörthe Andrea Kesper
    University of Duisburg Essen, Center of Medical Biotechnology, Essen, Germany
    Dev Dyn 239:1818-26. 2010
    ..of the key regulators of endochondral ossification is mediated by transcription factors of the Gli family, Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3. Gli3 and to a lesser extent Gli2 can be proteolytically processed into short repressor proteins...
  3. ncbi Evidence for an expansion-based temporal Shh gradient in specifying vertebrate digit identities
    Brian D Harfe
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Cell 118:517-28. 2004
    ..Genetic studies of the effects of limiting accessibility of Shh within the limb support this model, in which the effect of the Shh morphogen is dictated by a temporal as well as a spatial gradient...
  4. ncbi Gli2 is required for induction of floor plate and adjacent cells, but not most ventral neurons in the mouse central nervous system
    M P Matise
    Developmental Genetics Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Cell Biology and Physiology and Neuroscience, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 125:2759-70. 1998
    ..In this study, we have examined d/v patterning of the CNS in Gli2 mouse mutants...
  5. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates Gli activator and repressor functions with spatial and temporal precision in the mid/hindbrain region
    Sandra Blaess
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:1799-809. 2006
    ..Thus, the precise spatial and temporal regulation of Gli2A and Gli3R by Shh is instrumental in coordinating mid/hindbrain development in three dimensions...
  6. pmc Protein kinase A acts at the basal body of the primary cilium to prevent Gli2 activation and ventralization of the mouse neural tube
    Miquel Tuson
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Development 138:4921-30. 2011
    ..form of Gli3, the principal function of PKA in the Shh pathway in neural development is to restrain activation of Gli2. Activation of the Hh pathway in PKA mutants depends on cilia, and the catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA are ..
  7. ncbi Induction of sonic hedgehog mediators by transforming growth factor-beta: Smad3-dependent activation of Gli2 and Gli1 expression in vitro and in vivo
    Sylviane Dennler
    INSERM U697, Hopital Saint Louis, Pavillon Bazin, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France
    Cancer Res 67:6981-6. 2007
    ..Herein, we show that TGF-beta induces the expression of the Hh signaling molecules Gli1 and Gli2 in various human cell types, including normal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, as well as various cancer cell lines...
  8. ncbi Disruption of Meox or Gli activity ablates skeletal myogenesis in P19 cells
    Helen Petropoulos
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences Building, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 279:23874-81. 2004
    b>Gli2 and Meox1 are transcription factors that are expressed in the developing somite and play roles in the commitment of cells to the skeletal muscle lineage...
  9. ncbi Negative regulation of Gli1 and Gli2 activator function by Suppressor of fused through multiple mechanisms
    Paul C Barnfield
    Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Developmental Biology, 101 College Street, TMDT, Rm 13 314, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7
    Differentiation 73:397-405. 2005
    ..We demonstrate here that Su(fu) prevents the nuclear accumulation of Gli1 and Gli2 through multiple mechanisms...
  10. doi Multipotent CD15+ cancer stem cells in patched-1-deficient mouse medulloblastoma
    Ryan J Ward
    Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
    Cancer Res 69:4682-90. 2009
    ....
  11. pmc Gli1 protein participates in Hedgehog-mediated specification of osteoblast lineage during endochondral ossification
    Hironori Hojo
    Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Biol Chem 287:17860-9. 2012
    With regard to Hedgehog signaling in mammalian development, the majority of research has focused on Gli2 and Gli3 rather than Gli1...
  12. ncbi GLI3-dependent transcriptional repression of Gli1, Gli2 and kidney patterning genes disrupts renal morphogenesis
    Ming Chang Hu
    Program in Developmental Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
    Development 133:569-78. 2006
    ..deficiency or cyclopamine-mediated SMO inhibition disrupted renal organogenesis, decreased expression of GLI1 and GLI2 proteins, but increased expression of GLI3 repressor relative to GLI3 activator...
  13. ncbi Complementary Gli activity mediates early patterning of the mouse visual system
    Marosh Furimsky
    Molecular Medicine Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute and University of Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Dyn 235:594-605. 2006
    ..This pathway is mediated by the Gli transcription factors (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3) that differentially activate and repress the expression of specific downstream target genes...
  14. pmc Hedgehog signaling, keratin 6 induction, and sebaceous gland morphogenesis: implications for pachyonychia congenita and related conditions
    Li Hong Gu
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Pathol 173:752-61. 2008
    ..Here, we exploit a mouse model of constitutively expressed Gli2, a Hedgehog (Hh) signal effector, to show that K6a expression correlates with duct fate in sebaceous glands (SGs)...
  15. ncbi A mouse model of greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: the extra-toesJ mutation contains an intragenic deletion of the Gli3 gene
    C C Hui
    Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Samuel Lunenfield Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Genet 3:241-6. 1993
    ..Furthermore, structures affected in the mouse mutant and human syndrome were found to correlate with expression domains of Gli3 in mouse. These results strongly suggest that the deficiency of GLI3 function leads to GCPS...
  16. ncbi Defects in mouse mammary gland development caused by conditional haploinsufficiency of Patched-1
    M T Lewis
    Department of Biology, Sinsheimer Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Development 126:5181-93. 1999
    ..Data demonstrate a critical mammary role for at least one component of the hedgehog signaling network and suggest that Ihh is the primary hedgehog gene active in the gland...
  17. pmc Gli2 and Gli3 localize to cilia and require the intraflagellar transport protein polaris for processing and function
    Courtney J Haycraft
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    PLoS Genet 1:e53. 2005
    ..Thus, our data support a model where cilia have a direct role in Gli processing and Shh signal transduction...
  18. ncbi Genetic elimination of Suppressor of fused reveals an essential repressor function in the mammalian Hedgehog signaling pathway
    Jessica Svärd
    Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
    Dev Cell 10:187-97. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate that, in striking contrast to Drosophila, in mammals, Sufu has a central role, and its loss of function leads to potent ligand-independent activation of the Hh pathway...
  19. ncbi Suppressing Wnt signaling by the hedgehog pathway through sFRP-1
    Jing He
    Sealy Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Department of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1048, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:35598-602. 2006
    ..expression of a secreted frizzled-related protein-sFRP-1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is dependent on Gli1 and Gli2. In human gastric cancer cells, inhibition of Hh signaling reduces the level of sFRP-1 transcript, whereas ectopic ..
  20. doi The kinesin protein Kif7 is a critical regulator of Gli transcription factors in mammalian hedgehog signaling
    Helen Oi Lam Cheung
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Sci Signal 2:ra29. 2009
    ..Thus, Kif7 is a missing component of the mammalian Hh signaling machinery, implying a greater commonality between the Drosophila and mammalian system than the prevailing view suggests...
  21. ncbi Expression of three mouse homologs of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, in ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues suggests multiple roles during postimplantation development
    C C Hui
    Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Biol 162:402-13. 1994
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, a naturally occurring Gli-3 mutation, the mouse extra-toes mutant; shows defects in both mesoderm- and ectoderm-derived tissues...
  22. ncbi Specific and redundant functions of Gli2 and Gli3 zinc finger genes in skeletal patterning and development
    R Mo
    Program in Developmental Biology and Division of Endocrinology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Development 124:113-23. 1997
    ..We show here that Gli2 mutant mice exhibit severe skeletal abnormalities including cleft palate, tooth defects, absence of vertebral body ..
  23. ncbi A binding site for Gli proteins is essential for HNF-3beta floor plate enhancer activity in transgenics and can respond to Shh in vitro
    H Sasaki
    Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
    Development 124:1313-22. 1997
    ..Gli expression is restricted to the ventral part, while Gli2 and Gli3 are expressed throughout the neural tube and dorsally, respectively...
  24. ncbi Control of cell pattern in the neural tube by the zinc finger transcription factor and oncogene Gli-1
    M Hynes
    Department of Neuroscience, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    Neuron 19:15-26. 1997
    ..These findings demonstrate that GLI-1 can reproduce the cell patterning actions of Shh in the developing nervous system and provide support for the hypothesis that it is a mediator of the Shh signal in vertebrates...
  25. ncbi Evidence for the involvement of the Gli gene family in embryonic mouse lung development
    J C Grindley
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232 2175, USA
    Dev Biol 188:337-48. 1997
    Murine Gli, Gli2, and Gli3 are zinc finger genes related to Drosophila cubitus interuptus, a component of the hedgehog signal transduction pathway...
  26. ncbi Essential function of Gli2 and Gli3 in the formation of lung, trachea and oesophagus
    J Motoyama
    Programs in Developmental Biology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Genet 20:54-7. 1998
    ..In mice, three zinc-finger transcription factors, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3, have been implicated in the transduction of Shh signal...
  27. ncbi Characterization of the human suppressor of fused, a negative regulator of the zinc-finger transcription factor Gli
    D M Stone
    Departments of Neuroscience, Genentech, Inc 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Cell Sci 112:4437-48. 1999
    ..transcription factor Gli, which mediates Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates, and to physically interact with Gli, Gli2 and Gli3 as well as with Slimb, an F-box containing protein which, in the fly, suppresses the Hedgehog response, in ..
  28. ncbi Mouse Gli1 mutants are viable but have defects in SHH signaling in combination with a Gli2 mutation
    H L Park
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 127:1593-605. 2000
    ..requirements for the three Gli genes in mice, we have produced a Gli1 mutant and analyzed the phenotypes of Gli1/Gli2 and Gli1/3 double mutants...
  29. ncbi Gli regulation by the opposing activities of fused and suppressor of fused
    M Murone
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 2:310-2. 2000
  30. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates growth and morphogenesis of the tooth
    H R Dassule
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 127:4775-85. 2000
    ..These studies demonstrate that Shh regulates growth and determines the shape of the tooth. However, Shh signaling is not essential for differentiation of ameloblasts or odontoblasts...
  31. ncbi Gli1 can rescue the in vivo function of Gli2
    C B Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 128:5161-72. 2001
    ..In particular, Gli1 appears to be a constitutive activator, and Gli2 and Gli3 have repressor functions...
  32. ncbi Gli2, but not Gli1, is required for initial Shh signaling and ectopic activation of the Shh pathway
    C Brian Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 129:4753-61. 2002
    ..Of significance, we found instead that Gli2 is required for mediating some of the inappropriate Shh signaling in Ptc mutants...
  33. pmc Sonic hedgehog-dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development
    Pleasantine Mill
    Program in Developmental Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, and Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Genes Dev 17:282-94. 2003
    ..Of the three Gli transcription factors involved in transducing Shh signals in vertebrates, we demonstrate here that Gli2 is the key mediator of Shh responses in skin...
  34. ncbi Interplays of Gli2 and Gli3 and their requirement in mediating Shh-dependent sclerotome induction
    Laura Buttitta
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 115 West University Parkway, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
    Development 130:6233-43. 2003
    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is essential for sclerotome development in the mouse. Gli2 and Gli3 are thought to be the primary transcriptional mediators of Shh signaling; however, their roles in Shh induction of sclerotomal genes have ..
  35. ncbi All mouse ventral spinal cord patterning by hedgehog is Gli dependent and involves an activator function of Gli3
    C Brian Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Dev Cell 6:103-15. 2004
    ..The full range of Gli activity and its dependence on Hh have not been determined, although the Gli2 activator and Gli3 repressor have been implicated...
  36. ncbi Dynamic changes in the response of cells to positive hedgehog signaling during mouse limb patterning
    Sohyun Ahn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 118:505-16. 2004
    ..Finally, by fate mapping Shh-responding cells in Gli2 and Gli3 mutant limbs, we demonstrate that a specific level of positive Hh signaling is not required to specify ..
  37. ncbi Spatial pattern of sonic hedgehog signaling through Gli genes during cerebellum development
    JoMichelle D Corrales
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 131:5581-90. 2004
    ..By contrast, Gli2 is expressed uniformly in all cells in the developing cerebellum except Purkinje cells and Gli3 is broadly ..
  38. ncbi Gli2 and Gli3 have redundant and context-dependent function in skeletal muscle formation
    Aileen McDermott
    Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
    Development 132:345-57. 2005
    ..We report that Gli genes are differentially expressed in the mouse somite. Gli2 and Gli3 are essential for Gli1 expression in somites, establishing Gli2 and Gli3 as primary mediators and Gli1 as ..
  39. ncbi Hedgehog signaling induces cardiomyogenesis in P19 cells
    Peter J Gianakopoulos
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 280:21022-8. 2005
    ..Furthermore, aggregated P19 cell lines expressing Gli2 or Meox1 also up-regulated the expression of cardiac muscle factors, leading to cardiomyogenesis...
  40. ncbi Shh controls epithelial proliferation via independent pathways that converge on N-Myc
    Pleasantine Mill
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Dev Cell 9:293-303. 2005
    ..These findings demonstrate that Shh signaling controls the rapid and patterned expansion of epithelial progenitors through convergent Gli-mediated regulation...
  41. ncbi Gli3 acts as a repressor downstream of Ihh in regulating two distinct steps of chondrocyte differentiation
    Lydia Koziel
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
    Development 132:5249-60. 2005
    ..Furthermore, by regulating distal chondrocyte differentiation, Gli3 seems to position the domain of PTHrP expression...
  42. ncbi Mouse Rab23 regulates hedgehog signaling from smoothened to Gli proteins
    Jonathan T Eggenschwiler
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Dev Biol 290:1-12. 2006
    ..Double mutant analysis indicates that the primary target of Rab23 is the Gli2 activator and that Rab23 and Gli3 repressor have additive effects on patterning...
  43. ncbi Unique and complimentary activities of the Gli transcription factors in Hedgehog signaling
    Robert J Lipinski
    Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, Madison, WI 53705 222, USA
    Exp Cell Res 312:1925-38. 2006
    ..b>Gli2 loss-of-function was associated with diminished Shh-induced target gene expression, while Gli3 loss-of-function was ..
  44. ncbi The level of sonic hedgehog signaling regulates the complexity of cerebellar foliation
    JoMichelle D Corrales
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, 540 First Avenue New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:1811-21. 2006
    ..shown that sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling correlates spatially and temporally with fissure formation, and that Gli2 is the main activator driving Shh induced proliferation of embryonic GCPs...
  45. pmc Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates Gli2 transcriptional activity by suppressing its processing and degradation
    Yong Pan
    Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Room W404, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 26:3365-77. 2006
    b>Gli2 and Gli3 are the primary transcription factors that mediate Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signals in the mouse. Gli3 mainly acts as a transcriptional repressor, because the majority of full-length Gli3 protein is proteolytically processed...
  46. ncbi Gli2 is targeted for ubiquitination and degradation by beta-TrCP ubiquitin ligase
    Neehar Bhatia
    Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:19320-6. 2006
    ..The transcription factor Gli2 plays a key role in the transduction of Hh signals by modulating transcription of some Hh target genes, yet the ..
  47. ncbi Lef1 is required for the transition of Wnt signaling from mesenchymal to epithelial cells in the mouse embryonic mammary gland
    Kata Boras-Granic
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 6318 Medical Sciences Building, 1 King s College Road, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8
    Dev Biol 295:219-31. 2006
    ..Specifically, Shh, Ihh, and Gli2 are expressed in mammary epithelial cells at levels in Lef1-deficient animals similar to wild-type littermates...
  48. ncbi Gli3-mediated repression of Hedgehog targets is required for normal mammary development
    Sarah J Hatsell
    Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 133:3661-70. 2006
    ..Here, we show that although Gli2 and Gli3 are expressed during embryonic mammary development, transcriptional reporters of positive Hedgehog ..
  49. ncbi Wnt signaling inhibitors regulate the transcriptional response to morphogenetic Shh-Gli signaling in the neural tube
    Qiubo Lei
    Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, 08854, USA
    Dev Cell 11:325-37. 2006
    ..These results identify a transcriptional mechanism that integrates graded Shh and Wnt signaling to define progenitor gene expression domains and cell fates in the neural tube...
  50. ncbi Expression of hedgehog signalling components in adult mouse testis
    Anette Szczepny
    Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Dev Dyn 235:3063-70. 2006
    ..Overall, the coordinated expression pattern of these genes in adult mouse testis indicates a role for Hh signalling in spermatogenesis...
  51. ncbi A novel protein-processing domain in Gli2 and Gli3 differentially blocks complete protein degradation by the proteasome
    Yong Pan
    Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:10846-52. 2007
    ..The molecular mechanism for such limited degradation is unknown. The repressor forms of Gli2 and Gli3 transcription factors are generated from their full-length proteins through limited proteasome-mediated ..
  52. ncbi Opposing gradients of Gli repressor and activators mediate Shh signaling along the dorsoventral axis of the inner ear
    Jinwoong Bok
    National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Development 134:1713-22. 2007
    ..which Shh regulates inner ear development, we examined embryos with various combinations of mutant alleles for Shh, Gli2 and Gli3...
  53. pmc Ihh/Gli2 signaling promotes osteoblast differentiation by regulating Runx2 expression and function
    Atsuko Shimoyama
    The Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1 8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 18:2411-8. 2007
    ..Overexpression of Gli2- but not Gli3-induced ALP, osteocalcin expression, and calcification of these cells...
  54. doi Sonic Hedgehog mediator Gli2 regulates bladder mesenchymal patterning
    Wei Cheng
    Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    J Urol 180:1543-50. 2008
    ..Current evidence suggests that Shh (R&D Systems) is an epithelial signal regulating bladder development, although the mechanism of the regulation is still unclear. We examined the regulation of bladder mesenchymal development...
  55. doi Gli2 is a novel regulator of sox2 expression in telencephalic neuroepithelial cells
    Hiromi Takanaga
    Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe, Japan
    Stem Cells 27:165-74. 2009
    ..We show here that the expression of sox2 gene, which is essential for the maintenance of NSCs, is regulated by the Gli2 transcription factor, a downstream mediator of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling: Gli2 binds to an enhancer that is ..
  56. pmc Phosphorylation of Gli2 by protein kinase A is required for Gli2 processing and degradation and the Sonic Hedgehog-regulated mouse development
    Yong Pan
    Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, W404, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Dev Biol 326:177-89. 2009
    In mice, Gli2 and Gli3 are the transcription factors that mediate the initial Hedgehog (Hh) signaling...
  57. pmc Inhibition of microtubule assembly in osteoblasts stimulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and bone formation through transcription factor Gli2
    Ming Zhao
    Department of Medicine Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 372321, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:1291-305. 2009
    ..in osteoblasts, inhibition of microtubule assembly increased cytoplasmic levels and transcriptional activity of Gli2, a transcriptional mediator of Hh signaling that we have previously shown to enhance BMP-2 expression in ..
  58. pmc Mouse hitchhiker mutants have spina bifida, dorso-ventral patterning defects and polydactyly: identification of Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Sonic hedgehog pathway
    Victoria L Patterson
    Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxon, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 18:1719-39. 2009
    ..We discuss the possible mechanism of action of Tulp3 in Shh-mediated signalling in light of these new data...
  59. pmc Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning
    Asa Kolterud
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2200, USA
    Gastroenterology 137:618-28. 2009
    ..We profiled cellular Hedgehog response patterns from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) to adult in murine antrum, pyloric region, small intestine, and colon...
  60. pmc Mouse Kif7/Costal2 is a cilia-associated protein that regulates Sonic hedgehog signaling
    Karel F Liem
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13377-82. 2009
    ..screen, we show that, similar to Drosophila and zebrafish Cos2, mouse Kif7 acts downstream of Smo and upstream of Gli2 and has both negative and positive roles in Shh signal transduction...
  61. pmc Cilium-independent regulation of Gli protein function by Sufu in Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved
    Miao Hsueh Chen
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1910-28. 2009
    ..Taken together, these studies delineate important aspects of cilium-dependent and cilium-independent Hh signal transduction and provide significant mechanistic insight into Hh signaling in diverse species...
  62. pmc The Gli2 transcriptional activator is a crucial effector for Ihh signaling in osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization
    Kyu Sang Joeng
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 136:4177-85. 2009
    ..To test the involvement of Gli2 activation in these processes, we have generated a mouse strain that expresses a constitutive Gli2 activator in a ..
  63. doi Histone deacetylase and Cullin3-REN(KCTD11) ubiquitin ligase interplay regulates Hedgehog signalling through Gli acetylation
    Gianluca Canettieri
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University, 324 Viale Regina Elena, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Nat Cell Biol 12:132-42. 2010
    ..We show here that Gli1 and Gli2 are acetylated proteins and that their HDAC-mediated deacetylation promotes transcriptional activation and sustains ..
  64. pmc Kinetics of hedgehog-dependent full-length Gli3 accumulation in primary cilia and subsequent degradation
    Xiaohui Wen
    Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 30:1910-22. 2010
    ..By generating antibodies capable of detecting endogenous pathway transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3, we monitored their kinetics of accumulation in cilia upon Hh stimulation...
  65. pmc Suppressor of fused and Spop regulate the stability, processing and function of Gli2 and Gli3 full-length activators but not their repressors
    Chengbing Wang
    Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Development 137:2001-9. 2010
    b>Gli2 and Gli3 are primary transcriptional regulators that mediate hedgehog (Hh) signaling...
  66. pmc Distinct Sonic Hedgehog signaling dynamics specify floor plate and ventral neuronal progenitors in the vertebrate neural tube
    Vanessa Ribes
    Developmental Neurobiology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW71AA, United Kingdom
    Genes Dev 24:1186-200. 2010
    ..In addition, we provide evidence supporting a common scheme for FP specification by Shh signaling that reconciles mechanisms of FP development in teleosts and amniotes...
  67. pmc A mechanism for vertebrate Hedgehog signaling: recruitment to cilia and dissociation of SuFu-Gli protein complexes
    Hanna Tukachinsky
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Cell Biol 191:415-28. 2010
    ..Our results support a simple mechanism in which Hh signals at vertebrate cilia cause dissociation of inactive SuFu-Gli complexes, a process inhibited by PKA...
  68. doi Fuz controls the morphogenesis and differentiation of hair follicles through the formation of primary cilia
    Daisy Dai
    Dermatology and Charles C Gates Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 131:302-10. 2011
    ....
  69. pmc Complex interactions between genes controlling trafficking in primary cilia
    Polloneal Jymmiel R Ocbina
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Genet 43:547-53. 2011
    ....
  70. pmc A novel murine allele of Intraflagellar Transport Protein 172 causes a syndrome including VACTERL-like features with hydrocephalus
    Joshua M Friedland-Little
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, 900 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 20:3725-37. 2011
    ..mutant cilia showed defects of the distal ciliary axoneme, including disrupted IFT88 localization and Hh-dependent Gli2 localization...
  71. pmc Antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu define graded intracellular Gli activities in Hedgehog signaling
    Kelvin King Lo Law
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e50193. 2012
    ..show that Kif7 is also required to establish high intracellular Gli activity by antagonizing the Sufu-inhibition of Gli2. Strikingly, by abolishing the negative regulatory action of Sufu, diverse ventral cell fates can be specified in ..
  72. doi The ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 negatively regulates the Sonic hedgehog pathway via cAMP signaling
    Saikat Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Research Oncology, Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Cell 152:210-23. 2013
    ..Conversely, Shh signaling directs Gpr161 to be internalized from cilia, preventing its activity. Thus, Gpr161 defines a morphogenetic pathway coupling protein kinase A activation to Shh signaling during neural tube development...
  73. pmc Interaction of PACAP with Sonic hedgehog reveals complex regulation of the hedgehog pathway by PKA
    Pawel Niewiadomski
    Intellectual Development and Disabilities Research Center, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Cell Signal 25:2222-30. 2013
    ..activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibition of the translocation of the Shh-dependent transcription factor Gli2 into the primary cilium...
  74. doi A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers
    Olena Zhulyn
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
    Dev Cell 29:241-9. 2014
    ....
  75. ncbi Gli1 is a target of Sonic hedgehog that induces ventral neural tube development
    J Lee
    The Skirball Institute, Developmental Genetics Program and Department of Cell Biology, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 124:2537-52. 1997
    ..In contrast, Gli2 and Gli3 are absent from the neural plate midline with Gli2 expressed widely and Gli3 in a graded fashion with ..
  76. ncbi Mouse suppressor of fused is a negative regulator of sonic hedgehog signaling and alters the subcellular distribution of Gli1
    Q Ding
    Program in Developmental Biology The Hospital for Sick Children Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics University of Toronto 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X8, Canada
    Curr Biol 9:1119-22. 1999
    ..Although the Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 zinc finger proteins are known to be effectors of Hh signaling in vertebrates, the mechanisms regulating ..
  77. ncbi Shh signaling within the dental epithelium is necessary for cell proliferation, growth and polarization
    Amel Gritli-Linde
    Department of Oral Biochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Sweden
    Development 129:5323-37. 2002
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that Shh signaling between ameloblasts and the overlying stratum intermedium may involve subcellular localization of Patched 2 and Gli1 mRNAs, both of which are targets of Shh signaling in these cells...
  78. ncbi Hedgehog-GLI signaling regulates the behavior of cells with stem cell properties in the developing neocortex
    Veronica Palma
    The Skirball Institute and Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 131:337-45. 2004
    ..These findings identify a crucial mechanism for the regulation of the number of cells with stem cell properties that is unexpectedly conserved in different stem cell niches...
  79. doi Notochord-derived Shh concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body in neural target cells and forms a dynamic gradient during neural patterning
    Chester E Chamberlain
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 135:1097-106. 2008
    ..This study, in which we directly observe, measure, localize and modify notochord-derived Shh ligand in the context of neural patterning, provides several new insights into mechanisms of Shh morphogen action...
  80. pmc Gli2 trafficking links Hedgehog-dependent activation of Smoothened in the primary cilium to transcriptional activation in the nucleus
    Jynho Kim
    Department of Developmental Biology, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21666-71. 2009
    ..in the nucleus is not known, and to address this question we have characterized the cellular trafficking of Gli2, the principal mediator of Hh-dependent transcriptional activation...
  81. ncbi Cloning and sequencing of the mouse Gli2 gene: localization to the Dominant hemimelia critical region
    D C Hughes
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Genomics 39:205-15. 1997
    ..We have cloned and sequenced the mouse homolog of the zinc finger gene Gli2 and demonstrated significant similarity to the human GLI3 gene...
  82. ncbi Sexually dimorphic expression of protease nexin-1 and vanin-1 in the developing mouse gonad prior to overt differentiation suggests a role in mammalian sexual development
    S Grimmond
    MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, Harwell, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 9:1553-60. 2000
    ....
  83. ncbi The morphogen sonic hedgehog is an axonal chemoattractant that collaborates with netrin-1 in midline axon guidance
    Frederic Charron
    Department of Biological Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Cell 113:11-23. 2003
    ..These results provide evidence that Shh, acting via Smo, is a midline-derived chemoattractant for commissural axons and show that a morphogen can also act as an axonal chemoattractant...
  84. pmc Progenitor cell proliferation in the retina is dependent on Notch-independent Sonic hedgehog/Hes1 activity
    Dana S Wall
    Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Cell Biol 184:101-12. 2009
    ..We show that Shh-driven stabilization of Hes1 is independent of Notch signaling and requires the Shh effector Gli2. We identify Gli2 as a primary mediator of this response by showing that Gli2 is required for Hh (Hedgehog)-..
  85. doi Dual function of suppressor of fused in Hh pathway activation and mouse spinal cord patterning
    Jinling Liu
    Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, Center for Cellular Dynamics, Huck Institute of Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Dev Biol 362:141-53. 2012
    ..and spinal cord D/V patterning remain controversial, particularly in light of recent findings that Sufu protects Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from proteasomal degradation...
  86. pmc Forward genetics uncovers Transmembrane protein 107 as a novel factor required for ciliogenesis and Sonic hedgehog signaling
    Kasey J Christopher
    Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Dev Biol 368:382-92. 2012
    ..Tmem107 is required for normal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the neural tube and acts in combination with Gli2 and Gli3 to pattern ventral and intermediate neuronal cell types...
  87. ncbi Sonic hedgehog regulates branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung
    C V Pepicelli
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Curr Biol 8:1083-6. 1998
    ..In addition, the transcription of several mesenchymally expressed downstream targets of Shh is abolished. These results highlight the importance of epithelially derived Shh in regulating branching morphogenesis of the lung...
  88. ncbi New mouse models of congenital anorectal malformations
    S G Kimmel
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Infection, Immunity, Injury, and Repair, University of Toronto, Department of Surgery, Ontario, Canada
    J Pediatr Surg 35:227-30; discussion 230-1. 2000
    ..reports genetically based murine models of congenital anorectal malformations (CAM) involving the Shh-responsive transcription factors, Gli2 and Gli3. Its purpose is to show the necessity of these 2 factors to normal hindgut development.
  89. ncbi Physical and functional interactions between Zic and Gli proteins
    Y Koyabu
    Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Biol Chem 276:6889-92. 2001
    ....
  90. ncbi A novel gene, GliH1, with homology to the Gli zinc finger domain not required for mouse development
    M Nakashima
    Department of Clinical Oral Molecular Biology, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Mech Dev 119:21-34. 2002
    ....
  91. ncbi Gli1 is not required for Pdgfralpha expression during mouse embryonic development
    Xiao Qun Zhang
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Differentiation 73:109-19. 2005
    ..g., bone, gut, and lung development. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that Glis can have more complex regulatory effects on Pdgfra gene activity, nor can we exclude such effects in pathological conditions...
  92. pmc Hedgehog signaling regulates sensory cell formation and auditory function in mice and humans
    Elizabeth Carroll Driver
    Section on Developmental Neuroscience, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 28:7350-8. 2008
    ..These results suggest that HH signaling plays a key role in the specification, size, and location of the prosensory domain, and therefore of hair cells, within the cochlea...
  93. ncbi Evidence that preaxial polydactyly in the Doublefoot mutant is due to ectopic Indian Hedgehog signaling
    Y Yang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Development 125:3123-32. 1998
    ..specific components in the Hedgehog pathway are either ectopically activated (Ptc, Ptc-2, Gli1) or repressed (Gli2). We propose that misexpression of Ihh, and not a novel Smoothened ligand as recently suggested (Hayes et al...
  94. ncbi Morphogenesis
    B L Hogan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2175, USA
    Cell 96:225-33. 1999
  95. ncbi Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog
    R J Wechsler-Reya
    Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:103-14. 1999
    ..Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum...
  96. ncbi Syndactyly of Ft/+ mice correlates with an imbalance in bmp4 and fgf8 expression
    J Heymer
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany
    Mech Dev 88:173-81. 1999
    ..The data suggest a negative effect of Bmp4 on Fgf8 expression and a positive influence on the induction of bone elements...
  97. ncbi The murine Bapx1 homeobox gene plays a critical role in embryonic development of the axial skeleton and spleen
    C Tribioli
    Brookdale Center for Developmental and Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    Development 126:5699-711. 1999
    ..Loss of Bapx1 is accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cell death in affected tissues, although cell cycling rates are unaltered...
  98. ncbi Cholesterol modification of sonic hedgehog is required for long-range signaling activity and effective modulation of signaling by Ptc1
    P M Lewis
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 105:599-612. 2001
    ..Thus, cholesterol modification is essential for the normal range of signaling. It also appears to be necessary for appropriate modulation of signaling by the Shh receptor, Ptc1...
  99. ncbi Irx1 and Irx2 expression in early lung development
    M B Becker
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077, Gottingen, Germany
    Mech Dev 106:155-8. 2001
    ..Their transcripts are not localised in the same cells but adjacent to each other in either mesenchymal or epithelial structures. It is thought that the lung development is regulated by the mesenchymal/epithelial interactions...
  100. pmc Anorectal malformations caused by defects in sonic hedgehog signaling
    R Mo
    Program in Developmental Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Pathol 159:765-74. 2001
    ..Shh null-mutant mice display persistent cloaca. Mutant mice lacking Gli2 or Gli3, two zinc finger transcription factors involved in Shh signaling, respectively, exhibit imperforate anus ..
  101. ncbi The Sonic Hedgehog-Gli pathway regulates dorsal brain growth and tumorigenesis
    N Dahmane
    Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, Developmental Genetics Program and Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Development 128:5201-12. 2001
    ..SHH-GLI signaling thus modulates normal dorsal brain growth by controlling precursor proliferation, an evolutionarily important and plastic process that is deregulated in brain tumors...

Research Grants4

  1. Excess TGF beta in neonatal lung injury and repair
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Lung epithelial and vascular morphogenesis
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE GROWTH FACTORS & LUNG MORPHOGENESIS
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 4: To determine the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in protein-protein interaction and supra-molecular assembly of mSPRY2 with SHP2 and FRS2. Aim 5: To determine the functional importance of Shp2 in lung morphogenesis in vivo. ..
  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TYPE II PNEUMOCYTE PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION
    David Warburton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Inosine may function as a low molecular weight therapeutic to ameliorate lung injury, protect lung progenitor cells and hence to promote recovery of the alveolar epithelium from acute injury in both adult and neonate. ..