Gad2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Gad2
Description: glutamic acid decarboxylase 2
Alias: 6330404F12Rik, GAD(65), GAD65, Gad-2, glutamate decarboxylase 2, 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD-65, glutamate decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) maintain normal levels of GAD67 and GABA in their brains but are susceptible to seizures
    H Asada
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi, 444, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 229:891-5. 1996
  2. pmc Hypercapnic ventilatory response in mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65)
    John M Bissonnette
    Department of Obstetrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Respir Res 5:3. 2004
  3. doi CREB-Dependent Regulation of GAD65 Transcription by BDNF/TrkB in Cortical Interneurons
    Carlos Sánchez-Huertas
    Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03550 Sant Joan d Alacant, Spain
    Cereb Cortex 21:777-88. 2011
  4. pmc Visual deprivation decreases somatic GAD65 puncta number on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex
    Alicja Kreczko
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Neural Plast 2009:415135. 2009
  5. ncbi Expression of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein in the adult and developing mouse brain indicates its role in neurodevelopment
    I L Schurov
    Merck Sharp and Dohme, The Neuroscience Research Centre, Terlings Park, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 9:1100-10. 2004
  6. ncbi Induction of autoimmune diabetes through insulin (but not GAD65) DNA vaccination in nonobese diabetic and in RIP-B7.1 mice
    Wolfram Karges
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Diabetes 51:3237-44. 2002
  7. ncbi Expression of the neuronal calcium sensor protein NCS-1 in the developing mouse olfactory pathway
    Helen B Treloar
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8082, USA
    J Comp Neurol 482:201-16. 2005
  8. ncbi Expression of coiled-coil protein 1, a novel gene downstream of FGF2, in the developing brain
    Francesca Pellicano
    Beatson Laboratories for Cancer Research, Division of Cancer Sciences and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:285-93. 2006
  9. pmc Absence of autoantibodies against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and low expression of the enzyme in mouse islets
    L A Velloso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Clin Exp Immunol 96:129-37. 1994
  10. ncbi Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets
    J Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco 94143 0534
    Diabetes 42:1799-808. 1993

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) maintain normal levels of GAD67 and GABA in their brains but are susceptible to seizures
    H Asada
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi, 444, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 229:891-5. 1996
    ..the 65 kDa isoform of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65, was targeted in mice by homologous recombination...
  2. pmc Hypercapnic ventilatory response in mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65)
    John M Bissonnette
    Department of Obstetrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Respir Res 5:3. 2004
    ..In mice lacking GAD65 the release of GABA during sustained synaptic activation is reduced...
  3. doi CREB-Dependent Regulation of GAD65 Transcription by BDNF/TrkB in Cortical Interneurons
    Carlos Sánchez-Huertas
    Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03550 Sant Joan d Alacant, Spain
    Cereb Cortex 21:777-88. 2011
    ..Previous studies have suggested that the expression levels of the rate-limiting GABA synthetic enzyme, GAD65, depend on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB activation...
  4. pmc Visual deprivation decreases somatic GAD65 puncta number on layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse visual cortex
    Alicja Kreczko
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
    Neural Plast 2009:415135. 2009
    ..mice expressing yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) in a subset of neurons, we found that the number of somatic GAD65-puncta on individual layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons is reduced when mice are dark-reared from birth and reverted to ..
  5. ncbi Expression of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein in the adult and developing mouse brain indicates its role in neurodevelopment
    I L Schurov
    Merck Sharp and Dohme, The Neuroscience Research Centre, Terlings Park, Harlow, Essex CM20 2QR, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 9:1100-10. 2004
    ..Together, these results suggest that DISC1 may play a critical role in brain development, consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of the etiology of schizophrenia...
  6. ncbi Induction of autoimmune diabetes through insulin (but not GAD65) DNA vaccination in nonobese diabetic and in RIP-B7.1 mice
    Wolfram Karges
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Diabetes 51:3237-44. 2002
    ..In contrast, GAD65 DNA conferred partial diabetes protection, and empty DNA plasmid was without effect. In RIP-B7...
  7. ncbi Expression of the neuronal calcium sensor protein NCS-1 in the developing mouse olfactory pathway
    Helen B Treloar
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8082, USA
    J Comp Neurol 482:201-16. 2005
    ..Together, these data suggest multiple and overlapping roles of NCS-1 in the developing and mature olfactory system...
  8. ncbi Expression of coiled-coil protein 1, a novel gene downstream of FGF2, in the developing brain
    Francesca Pellicano
    Beatson Laboratories for Cancer Research, Division of Cancer Sciences and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:285-93. 2006
    ..We observed that the expressed ccp1 protein was localised to endo/lysosomal compartment in the cell body as well as to vesicles present in the processes of primary cortical neurons and oligodendrocyte cell line...
  9. pmc Absence of autoantibodies against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and low expression of the enzyme in mouse islets
    L A Velloso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Clin Exp Immunol 96:129-37. 1994
    ....
  10. ncbi Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets
    J Kim
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco 94143 0534
    Diabetes 42:1799-808. 1993
    The smaller form of the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD65 (formerly the 64,000 M(r) autoantigen), is a major target of humoral autoimmunity in type I diabetes...
  11. ncbi Modulating autoimmune responses to GAD inhibits disease progression and prolongs islet graft survival in diabetes-prone mice
    J Tian
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles 90095, USA
    Nat Med 2:1348-53. 1996
    ..Immune deviation of T-cell responses to the beta-cell autoantigen glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65), induced an active form of self-tolerance that was associated with an inhibition of disease progression in ..
  12. pmc Cleft palate and decreased brain gamma-aminobutyric acid in mice lacking the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase
    H Asada
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki 444, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:6496-9. 1997
    ..GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), but the respective roles of its two isoforms (GAD65 and 67) have not been determined...
  13. pmc Epilepsy in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase
    S F Kash
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:14060-5. 1997
    ..major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, is synthesized by two glutamate decarboxylase isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67...
  14. pmc Widespread expression of an autoantigen-GAD65 transgene does not tolerize non-obese diabetic mice and can exacerbate disease
    L Geng
    Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University Kline Biology Tower 219 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10055-60. 1998
    ..In an attempt to establish immunological tolerance toward GAD65 in NOD mice, and thereby to test the importance of GAD in IDDM, we generated three lines transgenic for murine ..
  15. ncbi Synaptic localization of the 67,000 mol. wt isoform of glutamate decarboxylase and transmitter function of GABA in the mouse cerebellum lacking the 65,000 mol. wt isoform
    K Obata
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
    Neuroscience 93:1475-82. 1999
    ....
  16. ncbi Domain-restricted expression of two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes in midgestation mouse embryos
    Z Katarova
    BRC, Institute of Biochemistry, 6701 Szeged, Hungary
    J Comp Neurol 424:607-27. 2000
    ..In this paper, the authors studied the cellular distribution of two GAD isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, in midgestation mouse embryos by in situ hybridization histochemistry...
  17. ncbi MHC class I-restricted determinants on the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 molecule induce spontaneous CTL activity
    A Quinn
    Division of Immune Regulation, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    J Immunol 167:1748-57. 2001
    CD4(+) T cell responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) spontaneously arise in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice before the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and may be critical to the pathogenic process...
  18. pmc CD4(+) T cells from glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65-specific T cell receptor transgenic mice are not diabetogenic and can delay diabetes transfer
    Kristin V Tarbell
    Program in Immunology, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Exp Med 196:481-92. 2002
    ..However, the exact role of GAD65-specific T cells in diabetes pathogenesis is unclear...
  19. ncbi Dlx1, Dlx2, Pax6, Brn3b, and Chx10 homeobox gene expression defines the retinal ganglion and inner nuclear layers of the developing and adult mouse retina
    Jimmy de Melo
    Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9, Canada
    J Comp Neurol 461:187-204. 2003
    ....
  20. pmc Normal incidence of diabetes in NOD mice tolerant to glutamic acid decarboxylase
    Elmar Jaeckel
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 197:1635-44. 2003
    ..In spite of specific tolerance insulitis and diabetes occurred with normal kinetics indicating that GAD is not an essential autoantigen in the pathogenesis of diabetes...
  21. ncbi Rapid critical period induction by tonic inhibition in visual cortex
    Youichi Iwai
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    J Neurosci 23:6695-702. 2003
    Mice lacking a synaptic isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) do not exhibit ocular dominance plasticity unless an appropriate level of GABAergic transmission is restored by direct infusion of benzodiazepines into the brain...
  22. ncbi Dlx2 progenitor migration in wild type and Nkx2.1 mutant telencephalon
    Susana Nery
    Developmental Genetics Program and the Department of Cell Biology, The Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cereb Cortex 13:895-903. 2003
    ..This recovery may be, at least in part, a result of the late migration of Dlx2 progenitors from the caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE), which, based on our previous work, does not appear to require Nkx2.1 gene function...
  23. ncbi A shared vesicular carrier allows synaptic corelease of GABA and glycine
    Sonja M Wojcik
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 50:575-87. 2006
    ..Since GABA and glycine compete for vesicular uptake, these data point to a close association of Viaat with GABA-synthesizing enzymes as a key factor in specifying GABAergic neuronal phenotypes...
  24. ncbi Megane/Heslike is required for normal GABAergic differentiation in the mouse superior colliculus
    Jordi Guimera
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, 35 8006, Ingolstädter Landstrasse, 1, Neuherberg, Germany
    Development 133:3847-57. 2006
    ..Mgn-null mice die between the second and the fifth postnatal week of age, and show a complete depletion of Gad65 and Gad67 expression in the superior colliculus and a reduction in the inferior colliculus...
  25. pmc Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina
    Liang Feng
    Center for Aging and Developmental Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Development 133:4815-25. 2006
    ..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes...
  26. ncbi Optimization of somatic inhibition at critical period onset in mouse visual cortex
    Hiroyuki Katagiri
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Neuron 53:805-12. 2007
    ..Combining GAD65 deletion with dark rearing from birth confirmed that an intermediate number of SPD receptors enable plasticity...
  27. pmc Mis-expression of L1 on pre-crossing spinal commissural axons disrupts pathfinding at the ventral midline
    Ralph Imondi
    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1410 Pelham Parkway South, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 36:462-71. 2007
    ..These observations suggest that L1-mediated pathfinding decisions are normally delayed until axons have crossed the ventral midline (VM)...
  28. pmc BARHL2 differentially regulates the development of retinal amacrine and ganglion neurons
    Qian Ding
    University of Rochester Eye Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Neurosci 29:3992-4003. 2009
    ..Thus, BARHL2 appears to have numerous roles in retinal development, including regulating neuronal subtype specification, differentiation, and survival...
  29. doi Thermal hyperalgesia via supraspinal mechanisms in mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65
    Kazuhiro Kubo
    Department of Anesthesiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi City, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 331:162-9. 2009
    ..However, the roles of a 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65)-mediated GABA in nociceptive processing are less clear...
  30. pmc Subtype specification of GABAergic amacrine cells by the orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a2/Nurr1
    Haisong Jiang
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, and Graduate Program in Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    J Neurosci 29:10449-59. 2009
    ....
  31. pmc Central nervous system destruction mediated by glutamic acid decarboxylase-specific CD4+ T cells
    Amanda R Burton
    Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    J Immunol 184:4863-70. 2010
    ..Although there is a considerable amount of data focusing on the role of GAD65-specific CD4(+) T cells in type 1 diabetes, little is known about their role in SPS...
  32. pmc Early B-cell factors are required for specifying multiple retinal cell types and subtypes from postmitotic precursors
    Kangxin Jin
    Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Neurosci 30:11902-16. 2010
    ....
  33. doi GAD65 is essential for synthesis of GABA destined for tonic inhibition regulating epileptiform activity
    Anne B Walls
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
    J Neurochem 115:1398-408. 2010
    GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which exists in two isoforms, that is, GAD65 and GAD67...
  34. pmc A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex
    Hiroki Taniguchi
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 71:995-1013. 2011
    ..As such, this approach will accelerate the study of GABAergic circuits throughout the mammalian brain...
  35. doi Lateral regions of the rodent striatum reveal elevated glutamate decarboxylase 1 mRNA expression in medium-sized projection neurons
    Stefan Trifonov
    Department of Anatomy and Brain Science, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka 570 8506, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 35:711-22. 2012
    The GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)1 and GAD2 are universally contained in GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system of the mouse and rat...
  36. ncbi Glutamate decarboxylase and GABA in pancreatic islets: lessons from knock-out mice
    S F Kash
    Department of Medicine, and Hormone Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0534, USA
    Horm Metab Res 31:340-4. 1999
    ..predominantly express the larger isoform of the enzyme, GAD67, and very low levels of the second isoform, GAD65. Yet GAD65 has been shown to be a target of very early autoimmune T-cell responses associated with beta-cell ..
  37. ncbi Engrailed-1 and netrin-1 regulate axon pathfinding by association interneurons that project to motor neurons
    H Saueressig
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Development 126:4201-12. 1999
    ....
  38. ncbi Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex
    M Fagiolini
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, Saitama, Japan
    Nature 404:183-6. 2000
    ..In mice of all ages lacking an isoform of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) synthetic enzyme (GAD65), as well as in immature wild-type animals before the onset of their natural critical period, benzodiazepines ..
  39. ncbi Mouse histamine N-methyltransferase: cDNA cloning, expression, gene cloning and chromosomal localization
    L Wang
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Graduate School Mayo Clinic Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 USA
    Inflamm Res 50:300-8. 2001
    ..We set out to clone a mouse liver HNMT cDNA and the mouse HNMT gene as steps toward characterizing molecular genetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of this important histamine-metabolizing enzyme...
  40. ncbi Severe defects in dorsal thalamic development in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 mutants
    Cheng Ji Zhou
    Department of Neurology, Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0435, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7632-9. 2004
    ..This study provides compelling in vivo evidence that thalamic development requires normal activity of the LRP6-mediated canonical Wnt signaling pathway...
  41. ncbi Role of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) isoform, GAD65, in GABA synthesis and transport into synaptic vesicles-Evidence from GAD65-knockout mice studies
    Heng Wu
    Department of Biomedical Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
    Brain Res 1154:80-3. 2007
    In GAD65-knockout mice, lack of GAD65 expression was confirmed. The expression level of vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was upregulated, and no change in the synaptic vesicles (SV)-associated GAD67 was found...
  42. doi Induction of anti-whole GAD65 reactivity in vivo results in disease suppression in type 1 diabetes
    Yasuhiko Kanazawa
    Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shimanomachi Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Autoimmun 32:104-9. 2009
    ..of type 1 diabetes is still controversial, we investigated the disease phenotype upon in vivo induction of whole GAD65 reactivity using a GAD65 homo knockout NOD splenocytes to NOD-scid transfer system...
  43. doi IGF-I promotes neuronal migration and positioning in the olfactory bulb and the exit of neuroblasts from the subventricular zone
    Anahí Hurtado-Chong
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Neurosci 30:742-55. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that IGF-I promotes neuronal positioning in the OB and support a role for IGF-I in stimulating neuroblast exit from the SVZ into the RMS, thereby promoting the incorporation of newly formed neurons into the OB...
  44. pmc Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knock-out mice
    Kelli A McDowell
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 30:7453-65. 2010
    ..Together, these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory...
  45. doi RNG105 deficiency impairs the dendritic localization of mRNAs for Na+/K+ ATPase subunit isoforms and leads to the degeneration of neuronal networks
    Nobuyuki Shiina
    Structural Biology Center, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, and Department of Genetics, SOKENDAI, Mishima, Shizuoka 411 8540, Japan
    J Neurosci 30:12816-30. 2010
    ..The present study first demonstrates the in vivo role of RNG105 in the dendritic localization of mRNAs and uncovers a novel link between dendritic mRNA localization and the development and maintenance of functional networks...
  46. pmc Generation and characterization of Tmeff2 mutant mice
    Tian Rui Chen
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3709, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 425:189-94. 2012
    ..No tumors were found in Tmeff2-mutant mice. The Tmeff2(PLAP/PLAP) knock-in mouse is an useful tool for studying the in vivo biological functions of TMEFF2...
  47. pmc Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain
    Shiro Tochitani
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan
    PLoS ONE 8:e56901. 2013
    ..Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges...
  48. pmc Immunocytochemical identification of electroneutral Na⁺-coupled HCO₃⁻ transporters in freshly dissociated mouse medullary raphé neurons
    A A Coley
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Neuroscience 246:451-67. 2013
    ..protein-2 monoclonal antibody) and specifically 5HT neurons (TPH monoclonal antibody) or GABAergic neurons (GAD2 monoclonal antibody) in freshly dissociated cells from the mouse MR...
  49. pmc Endothelial VEGF sculpts cortical cytoarchitecture
    Suyan Li
    Angiogenesis and Brain Development Laboratory, Division of Basic Neuroscience, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, Vascular Cell Biology Unit, Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium, Department for Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium, and Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
    J Neurosci 33:14809-15. 2013
    ..The unique roles of endothelial VEGF cannot be compensated by neuronal VEGF and underscores the high functional significance of endothelial VEGF for cerebral cortex development and from disease perspectives. ..
  50. pmc Deprivation-induced strengthening of presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibitory transmission in layer 4 of visual cortex during the critical period
    Marc Nahmani
    Department of Biology and Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454
    J Neurosci 34:2571-82. 2014
    ..at the ultrastructural level, FS→SP synapses in deprived hemispheres during the CP, but not the pre-CP or in GAD65 knock-out mice, had larger synapses and increased docked vesicle density compared with synapses from the ..
  51. pmc Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement
    Andrew J P Fink
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Mortimer B Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Departments of Neuroscience and Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 509:43-8. 2014
    ..We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of ..
  52. pmc PTEN action in leukaemia dictated by the tissue microenvironment
    Cornelius Miething
    1 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA 2 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA 3 Department of Medicine I, Medical Center University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Nature 510:402-6. 2014
    ..They further reveal that the role of PTEN loss in tumour maintenance is not invariant and can be influenced by the tissue microenvironment, thereby producing a form of intratumoral heterogeneity that is independent of cancer genotype. ..
  53. pmc Parvalbumin and GAD65 interneuron inhibition in the ventral hippocampus induces distinct behavioral deficits relevant to schizophrenia
    Robin Nguyen
    Department of Psychology and
    J Neurosci 34:14948-60. 2014
    ..behavioral function of two different but overlapping populations of vHPC GABA neurons that express either PV or GAD65 by selectively inhibiting these neurons with the pharmacogenetic neuromodulator hM4D...
  54. pmc GIRK Channels Modulate Opioid-Induced Motor Activity in a Cell Type- and Subunit-Dependent Manner
    Lydia Kotecki
    Department of Pharmacology and
    J Neurosci 35:7131-42. 2015
    ..Collectively, these data support the contention that the unique GIRK channel subtype in VTA DA neurons, the GIRK2/GIRK3 heteromer, regulates the sensitivity of the mouse mesolimbic DA system to drugs with addictive potential. ..
  55. pmc A novel inhibitory nucleo-cortical circuit controls cerebellar Golgi cell activity
    Lea Ankri
    Department of Neurobiology, Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    elife 4:. 2015
    ..Our data suggest that the CN may contribute to the functional recruitment of the cerebellar cortex by decreasing Golgi cell inhibition onto granule cells. ..
  56. pmc Adult mouse cortical cell taxonomy revealed by single cell transcriptomics
    Bosiljka Tasic
    Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Neurosci 19:335-46. 2016
    ....
  57. doi An Optogenetic Approach for Investigation of Excitatory and Inhibitory Network GABA Actions in Mice Expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 in GABAergic Neurons
    Guzel Valeeva
    Institut de Neurobiologie de la Mediterranee, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 901, 13273 Marseille, France, Aix Marseille University, 13273 Marseille, France, and Laboratory of Neurobiology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia
    J Neurosci 36:5961-73. 2016
    ..and these mice display a developmental excitatory-to-inhibitory switch in GABA action in cortical slices in vitro, but so far show mainly inhibitory GABA actions on spontaneous EPSCs in the immature hippocampus and neocortex in vivo..
  58. pmc Dynamin 1 isoform roles in a mouse model of severe childhood epileptic encephalopathy
    Samuel Asinof
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, United States
    Neurobiol Dis 95:1-11. 2016
    ..These results reveal functional differences between Dnm1a and Dnm1b isoforms in the presence of a challenge, i.e. toxic Dnm1(Ftfl), while reinforcing its effect explicitly in this model of severe pediatric epilepsy. ..
  59. pmc MATH5 controls the acquisition of multiple retinal cell fates
    Liang Feng
    Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Mol Brain 3:36. 2010
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that Math5 regulates the generation of multiple retinal cell types via different mechanisms during retinogenesis...
  60. pmc Nitric oxide signaling modulates synaptic transmission during early postnatal development
    Csaba Cserép
    Laboratory of Cerebral Cortex Research, Department of Cellular and Network Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H 1083 Budapest, Hungary
    Cereb Cortex 21:2065-74. 2011
    ....
  61. pmc GABA signaling promotes synapse elimination and axon pruning in developing cortical inhibitory interneurons
    Xiaoyun Wu
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    J Neurosci 32:331-43. 2012
    ..Therefore, GABA may regulate activity-dependent inhibitory synapse formation by coordinately eliminating certain nascent contacts while promoting the maturation of other nascent synapses...
  62. pmc Behavioral actions of alcohol: phenotypic relations from multivariate analysis of mutant mouse data
    Y A Blednov
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, Section on Neurobiology, Institute for Neuroscience, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 11:424-35. 2012
    ..We suggest that alcohol consumption is controlled by multiple physiological systems where single-gene mutations can disrupt the networks of such systems...
  63. ncbi Assignment of the rat genes coding for dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD1 and GAD2)
    C Vassort
    Laboratoire de Biocheimie Cellulaire, College de France, Paris
    Mamm Genome 4:202-6. 1993
    ..PLP)-dependent decarboxylases--namely, DOPA-decarboxylase (Ddc), glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2)--were assigned to rat Chromosomes (Chrs) 14, 3, and 17, respectively...
  64. ncbi Genetic mapping of the interleukin 1 receptor alpha and beta chain genes in the mouse
    C A Kozak
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    Mamm Genome 6:823-4. 1995
  65. ncbi A novel family of Cys-Cys, His-Cys zinc finger transcription factors expressed in developing nervous system and pituitary gland
    Y Jiang
    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:10723-30. 1996
    ..Identification of a second mouse gene highly homologous to NZF-1, encoded by a distinct genomic locus, reveals a dispersed gene family encoding proteins containing Cys-Cys, His-Cys motifs...
  66. ncbi Transcription and translation of two glutamate decarboxylase genes in the ileum of rat, mouse and guinea pig
    S Williamson
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Auton Nerv Syst 55:18-28. 1995
    ..Two forms of GAD, designated GAD 65 and GAD 67, are encoded by distinct genes and have been demonstrated in the mammalian brain...
  67. ncbi Presence of calbindin D28K and GAD67 mRNAs in both orthotopic and ectopic Purkinje cells of staggerer mice suggests that staggerer acts after the onset of cytodifferentiation
    G D Frantz
    Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    J Neurosci Res 44:255-62. 1996
    ..Our data suggest that the sg/sg mutation does not interfere with the transcriptional activation of these two genes, and might therefore act after the induction of specific gene expression in developing Purkinje cells...
  68. ncbi Frequent provirus insertional mutagenesis of Notch1 in thymomas of MMTVD/myc transgenic mice suggests a collaboration of c-myc and Notch1 for oncogenesis
    L Girard
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Genes Dev 10:1930-44. 1996
    ..Furthermore, our data indicate that Notch1 alleles mutated by provirus insertion can lead to increased expression of truncated and full-length (330/280-kD) Notch1 proteins, both being produced in a cleaved and uncleaved form...
  69. ncbi Regional and cellular patterns of reelin mRNA expression in the forebrain of the developing and adult mouse
    S Alcantara
    Department of Animal and Plant Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
    J Neurosci 18:7779-99. 1998
    ..We also performed double-labeling studies with several markers, including calcium-binding proteins, GAD65/67, and neuropeptides, to characterize the neuronal subsets that express reelin transcripts...
  70. pmc Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex
    T K Hensch
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Brain Science Institute RIKEN, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Science 282:1504-8. 1998
    ..Specific networks of inhibitory interneurons intrinsic to visual cortex may detect perturbations in sensory input to drive experience-dependent plasticity during development...
  71. pmc Increased anxiety and altered responses to anxiolytics in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase
    S F Kash
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, and Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:1698-703. 1999
    ..In contrast, the smaller isoform, GAD65, has been implicated in the fine-tuning of inhibitory neurotransmission...
  72. ncbi Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and its animal models
    F S Wong
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8011, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 11:643-7. 1999
    ..Further studies using transgenic mice have also highlighted the role of glutamic acid decarboxylase as an autoantigen. It remains to be seen whether one or both of these autoantigens can be used in strategies to prevent human diabetes...
  73. ncbi Postnatal development of a GABA deficit and disturbance of neural functions in mice lacking GAD65
    O Stork
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
    Brain Res 865:45-58. 2000
    The 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is believed to play an essential role for GABA synthesis in the central nervous system...
  74. ncbi Structure of the mouse glutamate decarboxylase 65 gene and its promoter: preferential expression of its promoter in the GABAergic neurons of transgenic mice
    K Makinae
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    J Neurochem 75:1429-37. 2000
    GABA is synthesized by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which has two forms, GAD65 and GAD67. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mouse GAD65 (mGAD65) gene expression, we isolated and characterized the mGAD65 gene...
  75. ncbi Ectopic expression of the Dlx genes induces glutamic acid decarboxylase and Dlx expression
    Thorsten Stühmer
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, LPPI, University of California at San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Development 129:245-52. 2002
    ..We also used this method to show cross-regulation between different Dlx family members. We find that Dlx2 can induce Dlx5 expression, and that Dlx1, Dlx2 and Dlx5 can induce expression from a Dlx5/6-lacZ enhancer/"reporter construct...
  76. pmc Permissive proteolytic activity for visual cortical plasticity
    Nobuko Mataga
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama, 351 0198, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:7717-21. 2002
    ....
  77. ncbi Absence of long-term depression in the visual cortex of glutamic Acid decarboxylase-65 knock-out mice
    Se Young Choi
    Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Mind Brain Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    J Neurosci 22:5271-6. 2002
    ..might control plasticity, we assessed the status of synaptic inhibition and LTD in visual cortical slices of GAD 65 knock-out mice...
  78. ncbi BDNF regulates spontaneous correlated activity at early developmental stages by increasing synaptogenesis and expression of the K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2
    Fernando Aguado
    Department of Cell Biology Faculty of Biology, and Barcelona Science Park, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
    Development 130:1267-80. 2003
    ..Given that BDNF itself is regulated by neuronal activity, we suggest that BDNF acts as a homeostatic factor controlling the emergence, complexity and networking properties of spontaneous networks...
  79. ncbi Prepulse inhibition deficits in GAD65 knockout mice and the effect of antipsychotic treatment
    Scott A Heldt
    Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1610-9. 2004
    ..startle habituation in knockout (KO) mice that lack the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65)...
  80. ncbi Experience-dependent pruning of dendritic spines in visual cortex by tissue plasminogen activator
    Nobuko Mataga
    Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Neuron 44:1031-41. 2004
    ..Targeted disruption of tPA release or its upstream regulation by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) prevented MD-induced spine loss that was pharmacologically rescued concomitant with critical period plasticity...
  81. ncbi CNTF/LIF/gp130 receptor complex signaling maintains a VZ precursor differentiation gradient in the developing ventral forebrain
    Christopher Gregg
    Genes and Development Research Group, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    Development 132:565-78. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate a novel region-specific role for CNTF/LIF/gp130 signaling in the development of the germinal layers of the embryonic telencephalon...
  82. ncbi Lbx1 and Tlx3 are opposing switches in determining GABAergic versus glutamatergic transmitter phenotypes
    Leping Cheng
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1510-5. 2005
    ..These genetic studies suggest that Lbx1 expression defines a basal GABAergic differentiation state, and Tlx3 acts to antagonize Lbx1 to promote glutamatergic differentiation...
  83. ncbi Delayed development of adult-generated granule cells in dentate gyrus
    Linda S Overstreet-Wadiche
    Vollum Institute, L474, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2326-34. 2006
    ..Consistent with this idea, maturation was altered in mice lacking the GABA synthetic enzyme GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65)...
  84. ncbi Dominant CTL-inducing epitopes on GAD65 are adjacent to or overlap with dominant Th-inducing epitopes
    Rhea Y Busick
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
    Clin Immunol 122:298-311. 2007
    Immune responses to GAD65 are associated with progression to T1D in NOD mice and humans. Our previous data suggested that dominant CTL-inducing and Th-inducing determinants might preferentially occur in proximal GAD65 sequences...
  85. pmc Cerebellar GABAergic progenitors adopt an external granule cell-like phenotype in the absence of Ptf1a transcription factor expression
    Marta Pascual
    Institut de Recerca Biomèdica, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Josep Samitier 1 5, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5193-8. 2007
    ..Moreover, our results suggest that Ptf1a is also required for the suppression of the granule cell specification program in cerebellar ventricular zone precursors...
  86. ncbi Respiratory activity in brainstem of fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 and vesicular GABA transporter
    M Fujii
    Laboratory for Memory and Learning, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako 351 0198, Japan
    Neuroscience 146:1044-52. 2007
    ..glycine in fetal respiratory function, we studied neural activities in brainstem-spinal cord blocks prepared from GAD65-/-:67-/- and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-/-mice on embryonic day 14 (E14)-E15 and E18...
  87. pmc GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling regulate inhibitory synaptic innervation in the visual cortex
    Bidisha Chattopadhyaya
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 54:889-903. 2007
    ..Germline knockdown of GAD67 but not GAD65 showed similar deficits, suggesting a specific role of GAD67 in the maturation of perisomatic innervation...
  88. pmc Generation of mice with a conditional Foxp2 null allele
    Catherine A French
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Genesis 45:440-6. 2007
    ....
  89. ncbi Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Meis2 in the embryonic and postnatal retina
    Keely M Bumsted-O'Brien
    Department of Neuroanatomy, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenst 46, 60218 Frankfurt, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 505:58-72. 2007
    ....
  90. ncbi GAD isoforms exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in the developing mouse lens: correlation with Dlx2 and Dlx5
    Andrea Kwakowsky
    Department of Gene Technology and Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Dev Dyn 236:3532-44. 2007
    ..We show that the GAD isoforms are sequentially induced with specific spatiotemporal profiles: GAD65 and embryonic GAD isoforms prevail in primary fibers, while GAD67 is the predominant GAD expressed in the ..
  91. doi Mice lacking the transcription factor Ikaros display behavioral alterations of an anti-depressive phenotype
    Tim Rasmus Kiehl
    Department of Pathology, University Health Network, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Exp Neurol 211:107-14. 2008
    ....
  92. pmc Co-regulation of ocular dominance plasticity and NMDA receptor subunit expression in glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 knock-out mice
    Patrick O Kanold
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Physiol 587:2857-67. 2009
    ....
  93. doi Periphilin is strongly expressed in the murine nervous system and is indispensable for murine development
    Anne S Soehn
    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    Genesis 47:697-707. 2009
    ..These results point to an indispensable function of periphilin during murine development and an important role in the nervous system, reflected by a strong and tightly regulated expression in the murine brain...
  94. pmc Mice lacking Gad2 show altered behavioral effects of ethanol, flurazepam and gabaxadol
    Yuri A Blednov
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 0159, USA
    Addict Biol 15:45-61. 2010
    ..Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized in brain by two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad), Gad1 and Gad2. Gad1 provides most of the GABA in brain, but Gad2 can be rapidly activated in times of high GABA demand...
  95. pmc Knockout of GAD65 has major impact on synaptic GABA synthesized from astrocyte-derived glutamine
    Anne B Walls
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:494-503. 2011
    ..acid (GABA) synthesis from glutamate is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of which two isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, have been identified...
  96. doi Modulation of synaptic transmission from primary afferents to spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons by group III mGluRs in GAD65-EGFP transgenic mice
    Lian Cui
    Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Yeongeon Dong, Jongro Gu, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    J Neurophysiol 105:1102-11. 2011
    ..By GABA immunolabeling, we confirmed the majority of GAD65-EGFP-expressing neurons were GABAergic...
  97. pmc Neurod6 expression defines new retinal amacrine cell subtypes and regulates their fate
    Jeremy N Kay
    Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Neurosci 14:965-72. 2011
    ..Our results support the view that cell fate decisions made in progenitors and their progeny act together to diversify ACs...
  98. pmc Epigenetic suppression of GAD65 expression mediates persistent pain
    Zhi Zhang
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Nat Med 17:1448-55. 2011
    ..inflammatory and neuropathic pain epigenetically suppresses Gad2 (encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65)) transcription through histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated histone hypoacetylation, resulting in impaired γ-..
  99. ncbi Electroencephalographic correlates of the audiogenic seizure response of inbred mice
    S C Maxson
    Physiol Behav 16:623-9. 1976
  100. ncbi Localization and quantitation of expression of two glutamate decarboxylase genes in pancreatic beta-cells and other peripheral tissues of mouse and rat
    B E Faulkner-Jones
    Burnet Clinical Research Unit, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Royal Parade, Parkville, Australia
    Endocrinology 133:2962-72. 1993
    ..cDNAs encoding GAD 67 and GAD 65 were cloned from mouse brain and shown to be 95% homologous with the rat sequences...
  101. ncbi Ontogeny of glutamic acid decarboxylase gene expression in the mouse pancreas
    J M Pleau
    CNRS URA 1461, Universite Paris V, Hopital Necker, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233:227-30. 1997
    ..5 times higher than in C57BL/6 mice. The pancreatic expression of GAD 65 is under the detection limit of the assay until 5 weeks of age...

Research Grants5

  1. GABA Receptors in the Acquisition and Extinction of Fear
    Scott Heldt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. SODIUM PUMP AND REGULATION OF NEURONAL EXCITABILITY
    Bradley Alger; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This proposal is a step towards filling the gap. ..
  3. Opioid Receptors in the Mechanisms of Opioid Tolerance
    Zhizhong Pan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This research will significantly expand our knowledge of the neural mechanisms for opioid tolerance and contribute to our efforts to improve the treatment for chronic pain and other chronic opioid-related problems. ..
  4. Heart Rate Variability in Mecp2 Deficient Mice
    JOHN BISSONNETTE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will contribute to the understanding of depressed parasympathetic activity in Rett syndrome. ..