Fos

Summary

Gene Symbol: Fos
Description: FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene
Alias: D12Rfj1, c-fos, cFos, proto-oncogene c-Fos, cellular oncogene fos, proto-oncogene protein c-fos
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Pleiotropic effects of a null mutation in the c-fos proto-oncogene
    R S Johnson
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Cell 71:577-86. 1992
  2. ncbi Bone and haematopoietic defects in mice lacking c-fos
    Z Q Wang
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna, Austria
    Nature 360:741-5. 1992
  3. pmc Regulation of c-fos transcription in mouse fibroblasts: identification of DNase I-hypersensitive sites and regulatory upstream sequences
    M Renz
    EMBO J 4:3711-6. 1985
  4. ncbi Analysis of FBJ-MuSV provirus and c-fos (mouse) gene reveals that viral and cellular fos gene products have different carboxy termini
    C Van Beveren
    Cell 32:1241-55. 1983
  5. ncbi Viral and cellular fos proteins: a comparative analysis
    T Curran
    Cell 36:259-68. 1984
  6. ncbi Platelet-derived growth factor induces rapid but transient expression of the c-fos gene and protein
    W Kruijer
    Nature 312:711-6. 1984
  7. ncbi c-fos protein can induce cellular transformation: a novel mechanism of activation of a cellular oncogene
    A D Miller
    Cell 36:51-60. 1984
  8. ncbi Behavioral assessment of c-fos mutant mice
    R Paylor
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309 0447
    Brain Res 651:275-82. 1994
  9. ncbi c-Fos: a key regulator of osteoclast-macrophage lineage determination and bone remodeling
    A E Grigoriadis
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna, Austria
    Science 266:443-8. 1994
  10. pmc Dual modes of control of c-fos mRNA induction by intracellular calcium in T cells
    G Lee
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724
    Mol Cell Biol 14:4579-87. 1994

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Pleiotropic effects of a null mutation in the c-fos proto-oncogene
    R S Johnson
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Cell 71:577-86. 1992
    The c-fos proto-oncogene has been implicated as a central regulatory component of the nuclear response to mitogens and other extracellular stimuli...
  2. ncbi Bone and haematopoietic defects in mice lacking c-fos
    Z Q Wang
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna, Austria
    Nature 360:741-5. 1992
    The proto-oncogene c-fos is the cellular homologue of v-fos originally isolated from murine osteosarcoma. Fos protein is a major component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which includes members of the jun family...
  3. pmc Regulation of c-fos transcription in mouse fibroblasts: identification of DNase I-hypersensitive sites and regulatory upstream sequences
    M Renz
    EMBO J 4:3711-6. 1985
    In quiescent mouse fibroblasts, the c-fos gene is expressed at very low levels, but is rapidly and transiently inducible by peptide growth factors...
  4. ncbi Analysis of FBJ-MuSV provirus and c-fos (mouse) gene reveals that viral and cellular fos gene products have different carboxy termini
    C Van Beveren
    Cell 32:1241-55. 1983
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the FBJ-MuSV proviral DNA and the cellular homolog (c-fos) of its oncogene (v-fos) have been determined...
  5. ncbi Viral and cellular fos proteins: a comparative analysis
    T Curran
    Cell 36:259-68. 1984
    ..It contains an oncogene termed v-fos derived from a normal cellular gene by recombination with an associated helper virus...
  6. ncbi Platelet-derived growth factor induces rapid but transient expression of the c-fos gene and protein
    W Kruijer
    Nature 312:711-6. 1984
    Exposure of quiescent mouse fibroblasts to platelet-derived growth factor induces mRNA from the c-fos proto-oncogene within 10 min followed by synthesis of nuclear c-fos proteins...
  7. ncbi c-fos protein can induce cellular transformation: a novel mechanism of activation of a cellular oncogene
    A D Miller
    Cell 36:51-60. 1984
    ..Transformation is due to the expression of a single viral protein (p55v-fos) which is encoded by sequences derived from mouse genetic material...
  8. ncbi Behavioral assessment of c-fos mutant mice
    R Paylor
    Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309 0447
    Brain Res 651:275-82. 1994
    Induction of the proto-oncogene c-fos has been associated with a number of neural and behavioral responses to acute stimuli...
  9. ncbi c-Fos: a key regulator of osteoclast-macrophage lineage determination and bone remodeling
    A E Grigoriadis
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, Vienna, Austria
    Science 266:443-8. 1994
    Mice lacking the proto-oncogene c-fos develop the bone disease osteopetrosis. Fos mutant mice were found to have a block in the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts that was intrinsic to hematopoietic cells...
  10. pmc Dual modes of control of c-fos mRNA induction by intracellular calcium in T cells
    G Lee
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724
    Mol Cell Biol 14:4579-87. 1994
    ..examine the molecular mechanisms through which these agents exert synergistic control over the expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene in a T-cell hybridoma...
  11. pmc Normal peripheral T-cell function in c-Fos-deficient mice
    J Jain
    Division of Tumor Virology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
    Mol Cell Biol 14:1566-74. 1994
    The ubiquitous transcription factors Fos and Jun are rapidly induced in T cells stimulated through the T-cell antigen receptor and regulate transcription of cytokines, including interleukin 2, in activated T cells...
  12. pmc Cell transformation by c-fos requires an extended period of expression and is independent of the cell cycle
    G G Miao
    Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Nutley, New Jersey 07110
    Mol Cell Biol 14:4295-310. 1994
    The proto-oncogene transcription factors Fos and Jun form a heterodimeric complex that binds to DNA and regulates expression of specific target genes...
  13. ncbi Programmed cell death in the absence of c-Fos and c-Jun
    S Roffler-Tarlov
    Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Development 122:1-9. 1996
    ..the transcription factor, AP-1, in the regulation of programmed cell death, and specifically implicate the genes c-fos and c-jun, as well as some other family members...
  14. ncbi Null mutation of c-fos impairs structural and functional plasticities in the kindling model of epilepsy
    Y Watanabe
    Department of Medicine Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 16:3827-36. 1996
    It has been suggested that expression of the immediate early gene c-fos links fleeting changes in neuronal activity to lasting modifications of neuronal structure and function in the mammalian nervous system...
  15. ncbi The absence of c-fos prevents light-induced apoptotic cell death of photoreceptors in retinal degeneration in vivo
    F Hafezi
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Med 3:346-9. 1997
    ..Although recent evidence indicates that the proto-oncogene c-fos is a mediator of apoptosis, its precise role is unclear...
  16. ncbi Fos expression in the retina of rd/rd mice during the light/dark cycle
    J J Huerta
    Departamento de Morfologia y Biologia Celular, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain
    Neurosci Lett 232:143-6. 1997
    An anti-Fos protein antiserum was used to elucidate the diurnal expression of Fos protein in the normal and degenerate rd/rd mice retina...
  17. ncbi Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB/ATF proteins
    T Herdegen
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Kiel, Hospitalstrasse 4, 24105, Kiel
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 28:370-490. 1998
    ..reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription ..
  18. pmc Functions of c-Jun in liver and heart development
    R Eferl
    Department of Pathology, University of Graz, A 8036 Graz, Austria
    J Cell Biol 145:1049-61. 1999
    ....
  19. ncbi Primary mouse fibroblasts deficient for c-Fos, p53 or for both proteins are hypersensitive to UV light and alkylating agent-induced chromosomal breakage and apoptosis
    D Lackinger
    Institute of Toxicology, Division of Applied Toxicology, University of Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str 67, D 55131, Mainz, Germany
    Mutat Res 457:113-23. 2000
    The important regulatory proteins, c-Fos and p53 are induced by exposure of cells to a variety of DNA damaging agents...
  20. ncbi RANKL maintains bone homeostasis through c-Fos-dependent induction of interferon-beta
    Hiroshi Takayanagi
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Nature 416:744-9. 2002
    ..cells, and that IFN-beta inhibits the differentiation by interfering with the RANKL-induced expression of c-Fos, an essential transcription factor for the formation of osteoclasts...
  21. pmc Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain of c-Fos by extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates the transcriptional activation of AP-1 and cellular transformation induced by platelet-derived growth factor
    Paula Monje
    Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4330, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 23:7030-43. 2003
    ..Among them, the AP-1 (activating protein-1) family of transcription factors, including c-Fos and c-Jun family members, plays a key role, as AP-1 activity is potently activated by PDGF and is required to ..
  22. ncbi Impaired long-term memory and NR2A-type NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in mice lacking c-Fos in the CNS
    Alexander Fleischmann
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    J Neurosci 23:9116-22. 2003
    The immediate early gene c-fos is part of the activator protein-1 transcription factor and has been postulated to participate in the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory...
  23. ncbi Light-induced c-fos in melanopsin retinal ganglion cells of young and aged rodless/coneless (rd/rd cl) mice
    Ma ayan Semo
    Department of Integrative and Molecular Neuroscience, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Road, London W6 8RF, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 18:3007-17. 2003
    ..Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we address the following. (1) Is Fos expression within these RGCs driven by an input from the rods/cones or is it the product of the intrinsic ..
  24. ncbi Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) rescues osteoclastogenesis in precursors lacking c-Fos
    Koichi Matsuo
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:26475-80. 2004
    Osteoclasts are specialized macrophages that resorb bone. Mice lacking the AP-1 component c-Fos are osteopetrotic because of a lack of osteoclast differentiation and show an increased number of macrophages...
  25. ncbi Phosphorylation of c-Fos by members of the p38 MAPK family. Role in the AP-1 response to UV light
    Tamara Tanos
    Laboratorio de Fisiologia y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, IFIBYNE CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Biol Chem 280:18842-52. 2005
    ..Among them, the rapid activation of genes coding for two subfamilies of proto-oncoproteins, Fos and Jun, which constitute the AP-1 transcription factor, plays a key role in the subsequent regulation of ..
  26. ncbi c-Fos degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in osteoclast progenitors
    Yuji Ito
    Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Sciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Institute of Health Biosciences, 3 18 15 Kuramoto cho Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
    Bone 37:842-9. 2005
    c-Fos is an immediate early gene type proto-oncogene that belongs to the AP (activator protein)-1 transcription factor family...
  27. pmc Autoamplification of NFATc1 expression determines its essential role in bone homeostasis
    Masataka Asagiri
    Department of Cell Signaling, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    J Exp Med 202:1261-9. 2005
    ..differentiation in vivo by adoptive transfer of NFATc1(-/-) hematopoietic stem cells to osteoclast-deficient Fos(-/-) mice, and by Fos(-/-) blastocyst complementation, thus avoiding the embryonic lethality of NFATc1(-/-) mice...
  28. ncbi Receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin regulate proinflammatory cytokine production in mice
    Kenta Maruyama
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Immunol 177:3799-805. 2006
    ..RANKL-induced tolerance occurred in the absence of c-Fos, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation...
  29. pmc c-Fos is required for excision repair of UV-light induced DNA lesions by triggering the re-synthesis of XPF
    Markus Christmann
    Department of Toxicology, University of Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, D 55131 Mainz, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:6530-9. 2006
    Cells deficient in c-Fos are hypersensitive to ultraviolet (UV-C) light. Here we demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking c-Fos (fos-/-) are defective in the repair of UV-C induced DNA lesions...
  30. pmc c-Fos-deficient mice are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection
    Kenta Maruyama
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 160 8582 Tokyo, Japan
    Infect Immun 75:1520-3. 2007
    c-Fos is a component of transcription factor AP-1...
  31. ncbi NF-kappaB p50 and p52 regulate receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-induced osteoclast precursor differentiation by activating c-Fos and NFATc1
    Teruhito Yamashita
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:18245-53. 2007
    ..Osteoclast formation induced by these cytokines requires NF-kappaB p50 and p52, c-Fos, and NFATc1 expression in osteoclast precursors...
  32. doi A functional NF-kappaB enhancer element in the first intron contributes to the control of c-fos transcription
    Ysadora Maisonnasse Charital
    Fondation pour Recherches Medicales, University of Geneva, 64 av de la Roseraie, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Gene 430:116-22. 2009
    ..Such regulation is important for the transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) and in particular for the c-fos gene, the first intron of which contains many potential transcription factor binding elements...
  33. pmc GnRH induces the c-Fos gene via phosphorylation of SRF by the calcium/calmodulin kinase II pathway
    Heather A Ely
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0674, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 25:669-80. 2011
    ..subunit genes, very little is known about mechanism of induction of intermediary immediate early genes, such as c-Fos, that are direct targets of GnRH signaling and that upon induction, activate transcription of gonadotropin genes...
  34. pmc A role for the immediate early gene product c-fos in imprinting T cells with short-term memory for signal summation
    CAROLYN E CLARK
    Institut Pasteur, Dynamics of Immune Responses Unit, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e18916. 2011
    ..Upregulation of the immediate early gene product c-fos, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, was maximal by 1-2 hours of stimulation, and protein levels remained ..
  35. pmc Fra-1 replaces c-Fos-dependent functions in mice
    A Fleischmann
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology IMP, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Genes Dev 14:2695-700. 2000
    ..analysis as well as studies with knock-out and transgenic mice have assigned distinct functions to c-Fos and Fra-1, two components of the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1)...
  36. ncbi Genetic analysis of colon cancer susceptibility in mice
    R F Jacoby
    Section of Gastroenterology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison 53792
    Genomics 22:381-7. 1994
    ..Multiple loci contribute to the phenotype, with significant linkage to a novel locus, Ccs1, between D12Mit5 and D12Mit6 on mouse Chr 12. Comparative maps suggest that the human homologue of Ccs1 is near FOS on human chromosome 14q.
  37. ncbi Effects of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid on expression of proto-oncogene c-fos
    M Mizuno
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley 94720
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:1136-42. 1994
    ..The AP-1 complex consists of distinct protein heterodimers encoded by the proto-oncogene c-fos and c-jun mRNA whose gene expression can be induced by TPA, cyclic AMP and growth factors...
  38. pmc Mice lacking c-fos have normal hematopoietic stem cells but exhibit altered B-cell differentiation due to an impaired bone marrow environment
    S Okada
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    Mol Cell Biol 14:382-90. 1994
    Mice lacking c-fos develop severe osteopetrosis with deficiencies in bone remodeling and exhibit extramedullary hematopoiesis, thymic atrophy, and altered B-cell development...
  39. pmc Osteoblasts are target cells for transformation in c-fos transgenic mice
    A E Grigoriadis
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    J Cell Biol 122:685-701. 1993
    We have generated transgenic mice expressing the proto-oncogene c-fos from an H-2Kb class I MHC promoter as a tool to identify and isolate cell populations which are sensitive to altered levels of Fos protein...
  40. ncbi The retina of c-fos-/- mice: electrophysiologic, morphologic and biochemical aspects
    N Kueng-Hitz
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:909-16. 2000
    Mice without a functional c-Fos protein (c-fos-/- mice) do not exhibit light-induced apoptotic cell death of rods in contrast to their wild-type littermates (c-fos+/+ mice)...
  41. ncbi Molecular basis for functional maturation of thymocytes: increase in c-fos translation with positive selection
    S Nunomura
    Department of Immunology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan
    J Immunol 164:5590-5. 2000
    ..In response to stimulation, a marked induction of c-Fos protein expression as well as cell proliferation is detected only in CD4+8- single positive cells but not in ..
  42. ncbi Apoptotic photoreceptor death in the rhodopsin knockout mouse in the presence and absence of c-fos
    A H Hobson
    The Ocular Genetics Unit, Trinity College, Dublin, 2, Ireland
    Exp Eye Res 71:247-54. 2000
    ..of apoptosis appeared to be similar, irrespective of whether or not the rod opsin knockout was present on a c-fos(+/+)or c-fos(-/-)genetic background, the latter known to favor survival of photoreceptors following exposure of ..
  43. ncbi Calgranulins S100A8 and S100A9 are negatively regulated by glucocorticoids in a c-Fos-dependent manner and overexpressed throughout skin carcinogenesis
    Christoffer Gebhardt
    Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Division of Signal Transduction and Growth Control, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Oncogene 21:4266-76. 2002
    ..By comparing S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels in wild type and c-Fos deficient mice (c-fos(-/-)) we found that expression is negatively regulated by c-Fos/AP-1...
  44. ncbi Deficient hippocampal c-fos expression results in reduced anxiety and altered response to chronic stress in female mice
    Jill M Slane McQuade
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH 45267, USA
    Neurosci Lett 403:125-30. 2006
    ..The transcription factor c-Fos is activated in the hippocampus following a number of stressors, including restraint stress...
  45. ncbi c-Fos facilitates the acquisition and extinction of cocaine-induced persistent changes
    Jianhua Zhang
    Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13287-96. 2006
    ..We examined a potential role of the immediate early gene Fos, which is robustly and rapidly induced by cocaine via D1 receptors, in mediating cocaine-induced persistent ..
  46. pmc Sall3 is required for the terminal maturation of olfactory glomerular interneurons
    Susan J Harrison
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    J Comp Neurol 507:1780-94. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that Sall3 is required for the terminal maturation of neurons destined for the glomerular layer...
  47. doi Cyclic adenosine monophosphate suppresses the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines via the phosphorylated c-Fos protein
    Keiko Koga
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3 1 1 Maidashi, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    Immunity 30:372-83. 2009
    ..Here, we demonstrated that the transcription factor c-Fos was responsible for the cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production...
  48. pmc Trolox prevents osteoclastogenesis by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling
    Jong Ho Lee
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 749, Republic of Korea
    J Biol Chem 284:13725-34. 2009
    ..We found that Trolox down-regulated the induction by RANKL of c-Fos protein by suppressing its translation...
  49. pmc Three prime exonuclease I (TREX1) is Fos/AP-1 regulated by genotoxic stress and protects against ultraviolet light and benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage
    Markus Christmann
    Department of Toxicology, University Medical Center, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, D 55131 Mainz, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:6418-32. 2010
    ..the genotoxic stress-induced expression of DNA repair genes in mouse fibroblasts proficient and deficient for c-Fos or c-Jun...
  50. doi Late-gestational systemic hypoxia leads to a similar early gene response in mouse placenta and developing brain
    Regina Trollmann
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299:R1489-99. 2010
    ..expression involving hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-dependent genes and immediate early genes (IEG) (Fos, Jun, Egr1, Bhlhb2), apoptosis-promoting factors (Bnip3, Dusp1, Ier3) that were all upregulated, and genes ..
  51. pmc Functions of Fos phosphorylation in bone homeostasis, cytokine response and tumourigenesis
    L Bakiri
    Genes, Development and Disease Group, F BBVA Cancer Cell Biology programme, National Cancer Research Centre CNIO, Madrid, Spain
    Oncogene 30:1506-17. 2011
    Mice lacking c-fos develop osteopetrosis due to a block in osteoclast differentiation...
  52. doi Regulation of the expression of proto-oncogenes by autocrine embryotropins in the early mouse embryo
    Xing Liang Jin
    Centre for Developmental and Regenerative Medicine, Kolling Institute for Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Biol Reprod 84:1216-24. 2011
    ..In this study we examined the role of Paf in the transcription of the key proto-oncogenes Bcl2 and Fos. Transcripts were detected in oocytes and some cohorts of zygotes but not in cohorts of 2-cell, 8-cell, and ..
  53. pmc Serotonin transporter, sex, and hypoxia: microarray analysis in the pulmonary arteries of mice identifies genes with relevance to human PAH
    Kevin White
    Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Physiol Genomics 43:417-37. 2011
    ..In relevant groups, immunoblotting was performed for genes of interest (CEBPβ, CYP1B1, and FOS)...
  54. doi Inhibitory regulation of osteoclast differentiation by interleukin-3 via regulation of c-Fos and Id protein expression
    Jaemin Oh
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, Korea
    J Cell Physiol 227:1851-60. 2012
    ..IL-3 inhibited the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 in BMMs treated with RANKL...
  55. doi Inhibition of AP-1 signaling by JDP2 overexpression protects cardiomyocytes against hypertrophy and apoptosis induction
    Christian Hill
    Physiologisches Institut, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Aulweg 129, 35392 Gießen, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 99:121-8. 2013
    ....
  56. pmc Permanent genetic access to transiently active neurons via TRAP: targeted recombination in active populations
    Casey J Guenthner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 78:773-84. 2013
    ..CreER(T2) is expressed in an activity-dependent manner from the loci of the immediate early genes Arc and Fos. Active cells that express CreER(T2) can only undergo recombination when tamoxifen is present, allowing genetic ..
  57. pmc Modulation of c-Fos and BDNF protein expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice following the treatment with novel antiepileptic compound HHL-6
    Saima Mahmood Malhi
    H E J Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
    Biomed Res Int 2014:876712. 2014
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Fos are shown to promote epileptogenesis and are taken as a marker of neuronal activity...
  58. doi Cortical fosGFP expression reveals broad receptive field excitatory neurons targeted by POm
    Jean Sébastien Jouhanneau
    Department of Neuroscience, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine MDC, Berlin Buch, Robert Rossle Str 10, 13092 Berlin, Germany Cluster of Excellence NeuroCure, Neuroscience Research Center, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Neuron 84:1065-78. 2014
    ..We conclude that fosGFP expression discriminates between single- and multi-whisker receptive field layer 2 pyramidal neurons. ..
  59. pmc Gonadotropin and kisspeptin gene expression, but not GnRH, are impaired in cFOS deficient mice
    Changchuan Xie
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA Department of Reproductive Medicine, Center for Reproductive Science and Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 0674, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 411:223-31. 2015
    b>cFOS is a pleiotropic transcription factor, which binds to the AP1 site in the promoter of target genes. In the pituitary gonadotropes, cFOS mediates induction of FSHβ and GnRH receptor genes...
  60. pmc Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits IL-1-induced expression of C-C motif ligand 5 via c-Fos-dependent suppression of IFN-β amplification loop
    Jessie W Yester
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, USA
    FASEB J 29:4853-65. 2015
    ..S1PR2 stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Ca(++) release and Elk-1 phosphorylation and enhanced c-Fos expression. In our study, IL-1 induced the IFNβ production that supports CCL5 expression...
  61. ncbi Proto-oncogene c-jun and c-fos messenger RNAs increase in the liver of carnitine-deficient juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mice
    M Tomomura
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Japan
    FEBS Lett 311:63-6. 1992
    We determined the mRNA levels of c-jun and c-fos in the liver of C3H-H-2 degrees jvs mice. Both were higher in jvs mice than in normal mice...
  62. pmc Removal of a 67-base-pair sequence in the noncoding region of protooncogene fos converts it to a transforming gene
    F Meijlink
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:4987-91. 1985
    Transformation of fibroblasts by protooncogene fos (c-fos) requires the linkage of viral long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences and interruption of 3'-noncoding sequences...
  63. ncbi Tissue factor gene transcription in serum-stimulated fibroblasts is mediated by recruitment of c-Fos into specific AP-1 DNA-binding complexes
    S J Felts
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Biochemistry 34:12355-62. 1995
    ..complexes indicates that the predominant form of AP-1 activity in quiescent cells consists of an unidentified Fos-related protein and JunD...
  64. ncbi Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression are not impaired in fibroblasts and ES cells lacking c-Fos
    S Brüsselbach
    Institut für Molekularbiologie und Tumorforschung IMT, Marburg, Germany
    Oncogene 10:79-86. 1995
    ..AP-1 is thought to play an important role in the control of cell proliferation, but the function of individual Fos and Jun family members is a largely unresolved issue...
  65. ncbi Muscle homeodomain protein MHox inhibits ternary complex formation at the c-fos serum response element
    J T Ma
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:1742-7. 1994
    The Serum Response Element in the c-fos promoter is the target of growth factor-regulated signal transduction pathways...
  66. ncbi Evi-1 raises AP-1 activity and stimulates c-fos promoter transactivation with dependence on the second zinc finger domain
    T Tanaka
    Department of Molecular Biology, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, Japan
    J Biol Chem 269:24020-6. 1994
    ..P19 cells showed some differentiated phenotypes and increased expression of endogenous c-Jun and c-Fos. These results indicate that Evi-1 raises AP-1 activity...
  67. pmc Scaffold attachment regions stimulate HSP70.1 expression in mouse preimplantation embryos but not in differentiated tissues
    E M Thompson
    Unite de Biologie du Developpement, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Jouy en Josas, France
    Mol Cell Biol 14:4694-703. 1994
    ..These results suggest a limited capacity of SARs to act as insulating elements but are consistent with a proposed model of SAR-mediated chromatin opening and closing...
  68. ncbi Novel RFLPs at protooncogene and cancer-related gene loci on mouse chromosomes
    J Santos
    Department of Pathology and Kaplan Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, NY 10016
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 62:217-9. 1993
    DNA probes for the NRAS, HRAS, KRAS2, LCK, RAF1, MET, MYCL1, MYCN, MYB, ERBB2, FOS, CSF1R, and SRC protooncogene loci; the retinoblastoma gene locus (RB1); the tumor virus integration sites INT2, PVT1, and MLV12; and the locus of the ..
  69. ncbi Defective transcription of the IL-2 gene is associated with impaired expression of c-Fos, FosB, and JunB in anergic T helper 1 cells
    A Mondino
    Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA
    J Immunol 157:2048-57. 1996
    ..DNA enhancer elements: NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells; a sequence that binds a heterotrimeric NFATp, Fos, and Jun protein complex) and Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) (that binds Fos and Jun heterodimers)...
  70. ncbi Cloning, chromosomal localization, and functional analysis of the murine estrogen receptor beta
    G B Tremblay
    Molecular Oncology Group, Boyal Victoria Hospital Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Mol Endocrinol 11:353-65. 1997
    ..Our results demonstrate that while ER beta shares many of the functional characteristics of ER alpha, the molecular mechanisms regulating the transcriptional activity of mER beta may be distinct from those of ER alpha...
  71. ncbi Id genes are direct targets of bone morphogenetic protein induction in embryonic stem cells
    A Hollnagel
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Biol Chem 274:19838-45. 1999
    ..We therefore propose that the Msx and Id genes are direct target genes of embryonic BMP4 signaling in vivo...
  72. ncbi Skin-derived nerve growth factor blocks programmed cell death in the trigeminal ganglia but does not enhance neuron proliferation
    H F Figueiredo
    Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Mech Dev 109:205-14. 2001
    ..Analysis of RNA and protein expression suggests this block in cell death is mediated via the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2...
  73. ncbi Neurotrophic signaling in normal and degenerating rodent retinas
    K J Wahlin
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 9277, USA
    Exp Eye Res 73:693-701. 2001
    ..by performing immunohistochemical staining for the phosphorylated form of extracellular receptor kinase (pERK) or c-fos after intravitreous injection of neurotrophic factors in wild type rats or mice, or those with inherited retinal ..
  74. ncbi Fra-1 substitutes for c-Fos in AP-1-mediated signal transduction in retinal apoptosis
    Andreas Wenzel
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria
    J Neurochem 80:1089-94. 2002
    Lack of the AP-1 member c-Fos protects photoreceptors against light-induced apoptosis, a model for retinal degeneration...
  75. ncbi Dissociation of angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis during endochondral bone formation in neonatal mice
    Martine M L Deckers
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
    J Bone Miner Res 17:998-1007. 2002
    ..In line with these observations, in the osteopetrotic mouse mutants c-fos knockout mice and op/op mice, capillaries invaded the calcified cartilage in the absence of osteoclasts...
  76. ncbi Activation of the coactivator four-and-a-half-LIM-only protein FHL2 and the c-fos promoter through inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A
    Mona Johannessen
    Department of Biochemistry, Section for Molecular Genetics, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, Norway
    Biochem Pharmacol 65:1317-28. 2003
    ..Overexpression of FHL2 readily enhanced the transcription of the luciferase reporter gene driven by the c-fos promoter, and inhibition of PP2A further stimulated FHL2-induced transactivation of this promoter...
  77. ncbi Increased c-fos-like immunoreactivity in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus of the rd mouse
    Bin Lu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah Health Science Center, 75 N Medical Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Brain Res 1025:220-5. 2004
    In most subcortical visual centers in normal mice maintained for a period in the dark, very few neurons express fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI), most likely reflecting c-fos expression, but if an animal is exposed to a flashing light, ..
  78. ncbi Skeletal unloading alleviates the anabolic action of intermittent PTH(1-34) in mouse tibia in association with inhibition of PTH-induced increase in c-fos mRNA in bone marrow cells
    Shinya Tanaka
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan
    J Bone Miner Res 19:1813-20. 2004
    ..Reduction of the PTH-induced anabolic actions on bone was associated with unloading, which was apparently related to suppression of c-fos mRNA expression in bone marrow.
  79. ncbi Glutamate receptor-mediated regulation of c-fos expression in cultured microglia
    Su Yong Eun
    Division of Brain Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, National Institute of Health, 5 Nokbun dong, Eunpyung Ku, Seoul 122 701, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325:320-7. 2004
    ..Here, we investigated the role of glutamate receptor on c-fos gene expression in primary cultured and BV-2 microglia...
  80. ncbi Calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent kinase IIalpha regulate osteoblast differentiation by controlling c-fos expression
    Majd Zayzafoon
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:7049-59. 2005
    ..Inhibition of alpha-CaMKII decreases the expression of c-fos, AP-1 transactivation, and AP-1 DNA binding activity...
  81. pmc c-Fos protein as a target of anti-osteoclastogenic action of vitamin D, and synthesis of new analogs
    Hisashi Takasu
    Department of Bone and Joint Disease, Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:528-35. 2006
    ..Among signaling molecules downstream of RANK, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the induction of c-Fos protein after RANKL stimulation, and retroviral expression of c-Fos protein abrogated the suppressive effect of ..
  82. ncbi Role of selenium in spermatogenesis: differential expression of cjun and cfos in tubular cells of mice testis
    Sonia Shalini
    Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
    Mol Cell Biochem 292:27-38. 2006
    ..cjun and cfos (components of transcription factor AP1) regulate cellular growth and differentiation and also exert a regulatory ..
  83. ncbi Syk-dependent ERK activation regulates IL-2 and IL-10 production by DC stimulated with zymosan
    Emma C Slack
    Immunobiology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:1600-12. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the lack of receptor compensation observed here suggests that responses induced by complex innate stimuli cannot always be predicted by the signalling pathways downstream of individual receptors...
  84. ncbi Sequential actions of ERK1/2 on the AP-1 transcription factor allow temporal integration of metabolic signals in pancreatic beta cells
    Dominique A Glauser
    Fondation pour Recherches Medicales, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    FASEB J 21:3240-9. 2007
    The AP-1 transcription factor composed of fos and jun gene products mediates transcriptional responses to hormonal and metabolic stimulations of pancreatic beta cells...
  85. ncbi The differential effects of emotional or physical stress on pain behaviors or on c-Fos immunoreactivity in paraventricular nucleus or arcuate nucleus
    Min Soo Kwon
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Natural Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University, 1 Okchun dong, Chuncheon, Gangwon Do, 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1190:122-31. 2008
    ..In the present study, we investigated the differential effects of ES or PS on pain behaviors or on c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or arcuate nucleus (ArcN) using electrical footshock-..
  86. doi Individual contribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) 2 and 3 to c-Fos expression pattern evoked by mGlu2/3 antagonism
    Alfred Hetzenauer
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacy and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck CMBI, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 201:1-13. 2008
    ..c-Fos expression was used as a marker of neuronal activation.
  87. pmc C-Fos elimination compensates for disabled-2 requirement in mouse extraembryonic endoderm development
    Dong Hua Yang
    Ovarian Cancer Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Dev Dyn 238:514-23. 2009
    ..5-E6.5 due to the disorganization of the endoderm layers. Here we show that Dab2 suppresses c-Fos expression in endoderm cells. A morphological normal primitive endoderm layer was observed in putative E5...
  88. pmc Cytoplasmic Prep1 interacts with 4EHP inhibiting Hoxb4 translation
    J Carlos Villaescusa
    IFOM, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milano, Italy
    PLoS ONE 4:e5213. 2009
    ..Interestingly, Prep1 contains a putative binding motif for 4EHP, which may reflect a novel unknown function...
  89. pmc AP-1 activated by toll-like receptors regulates expression of IL-23 p19
    Weicheng Liu
    Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 6574, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:24006-16. 2009
    ..Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis showed that c-Jun and c-Fos bind to the AP-1 site, which was confirmed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
  90. doi Fos proteins suppress dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis through inhibition of NF-kappaB
    Yasunari Takada
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    J Immunol 184:1014-21. 2010
    The Fos family proteins, c-Fos and Fra-1, are components of the dimeric transcription factor AP-1, which is typically composed of Fos and Jun family proteins...
  91. doi Increase of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in spinal and cranial motoneurons of the degenerating muscle mouse (Scn8a(dmu))
    Hiroyuki Ichikawa
    Division of Oral and Craniofacial Anatomy, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8575, Japan
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 30:737-42. 2010
    ..6. The distribution of c-Fos and c-Jun was examined in spinal and cranial motoneurons of the dmu mouse...
  92. pmc c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice
    Makoto Wada
    Department of Physiology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 5:e10483. 2010
    ..In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task...
  93. pmc Osteoclasts are dispensable for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and mobilization
    Kana Miyamoto
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio Kanrinmaru Project, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Exp Med 208:2175-81. 2011
    ..To investigate this question, we evaluated hematopoietic activity in three osteopetrotic mouse models: op/op, c-Fos-deficient, and RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand)-deficient mice...
  94. ncbi Cellular proto-oncogene expression following exposure of mice to gamma rays
    A Anderson
    Argonne National Laboratory, Biological and Medical Research Division, Illinois 60439 4833
    Radiat Res 130:340-4. 1992
    ..We selected specific cellular oncogenes (c-fos, c-myc, c-src, and c-H-ras), based on their normal expression in liver and gut tissues from untreated mice...
  95. ncbi The effect of LPS on expression of the early "competence" genes JE and KC in murine peritoneal macrophages
    M Introna
    J Immunol 138:3891-6. 1987
    ..This set of genes (e.g., c-myc, c-fos, r-fos, JE, and KC) were first described in BALB/c 3T3 cells treated with platelet-derived growth factor...
  96. pmc Product of the cellular oncogene, c-fos, observed in mouse and human tissues using an antibody to a synthetic peptide
    E D Adamson
    EMBO J 4:941-7. 1985
    The transforming gene of the osteosarcoma-producing FBJ murine sarcoma virus, v-fos, is homologous to a normal cellular gene, c-fos, in vertebrate species...
  97. ncbi Differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells after transfer of c-fos proto-oncogenes
    R Muller
    Nature 311:438-42. 1984
    Transfer of mouse or human c-fos proto-oncogenes into F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells results in expression of c-fos mRNA and protein...
  98. ncbi Synergistic activation of neurotensin/neuromedin N gene expression by c-Jun and glucocorticoids: novel effects of Fos family proteins
    R J Harrison
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 9:981-93. 1995
    ..Here we report that c-Jun acts synergistically with glucocorticoids to activate the NT/N promoter, and that Fos family proteins have novel regulatory effects on this interaction...
  99. ncbi Characterization of a 142-bp fragment of the murine c-fos oncogene promoter upstream of the SIF-binding element
    Y Lavrovsky
    Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
    Gene 142:285-90. 1994
    ..reported that in transformed mouse sarcoma cells of spontaneous origin and in revertants transfected with a fos-cat fusion, the 600-bp c-fos promoter region provides chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity...
  100. ncbi Regional localization of loci on chromosome 14 using somatic cell hybrids
    G D Billingsley
    Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont, Canada
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 66:33-8. 1994
    ..Four additional genes, chromogranin A (CHGA), myosin (MYH7), tRNA proline 2 (TRP2) and c-FOS (FOS) and four random segments, D14S26, D14S12, D14S14 and D14S13 have been more precisely localized...
  101. ncbi Changes in protooncogene expression correlated with general and sex-specific differentiation in murine primordial germ cells
    E C Coucouvanis
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305
    Mech Dev 42:49-58. 1993
    ..We report here that mRNA levels for nuclear protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun increase dramatically in both sexes from little or no detectable expression on day 12 to high expression ..

Research Grants13

  1. LONG TERM COCAINE INDUCED CHANGES VIA DOPAMINE RECEPTORS
    Ming Xu; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  2. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF SLEEP IN AGING
    Priyattam Shiromani; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Recent studies with the immediate-early gene, c-fos, have shown that this gene is expressed differentially in discrete brain regions in response to sleep and ..
  3. Serial analysis of transcription factor binding sites
    Robyn Meech; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Such information may be particularly useful in the design of specifically targeted promoter sequences for gene therapy vectors. ..
  4. Barx2 in limb muscle and tendon development
    Robyn Meech; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Cue dependency with intravenous nutrients and nicotine
    Neil Rowland; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies may help to develop ways in conditioned preferences can be manipulated to prevent or treat certain addictive disorders, including overeating. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. ASBESTOS AND NO2 IN ENVIRONMENTAL LUNG DISEASE
    Nicholas Heintz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Dissection of the role of cell cycle and survival regulators in proliferative and apoptotic responses to the combined effects of asbestos and N02 may lead to new biomarkers for exposure of the human lung to chemical mixtures. ..
  7. Retinal Neurons Afferent to the Circadian System
    GARY PICKARD; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Understanding the retinal neurons and circuits afferent to the SCN and IGL will aid in our ability to understand and treat these disturbances of phase. ..
  8. Molecular Determinants of Compulsive Cocaine-Taking
    Ming Xu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Based on work from our own laboratory and from others, we hypothesize that DA D1 and D3 receptors and c-Fos play important roles in the transition between controlled cocaine use and escalated cocaine intake...
  9. BRAIN MECHANISMS IN SLEEP AND NARCOLEPSY
    Priyattam Shiromani; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific aim 3 will test the hypothesis that loss of a specific population of HCRT neurons is responsible for the symptoms of narcolepsy. Specific aim 4 will determine the afferents and efferents of this population of HCRT neurons. ..
  10. Physiology and genetics of food procurement in rodents
    Neil Rowland; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed studies will be the first to address the issue of behavioral change induced by anorectics under such conditions of simulated economic costs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Priyattam J Shiromani; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Role of c-fos in cocaine actions
    Ming Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The immediate early gene product c-Fos is an ideal candidate to couple repeated cocaine stimuli to persistent neuroadaptation in the brain DA system by ..
  13. Retinal Neurons Afferent to the Circadian System
    GARY EDWARD PICKARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding the retinal neurons afferent to the SCN will aid in our ability to understand and treat these disturbances of phase. ..