Fcgr2b

Summary

Gene Symbol: Fcgr2b
Description: Fc receptor, IgG, low affinity IIb
Alias: AI528646, CD32, F630109E10Rik, Fc[g]RII, FcgRII, Fcgr2, Fcgr2a, Fcr-2, Fcr-3, Ly-17, Ly-m20, LyM-1, Lym-1, fcRII, low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-b, Fc gamma RIIB, Fc-gamma-RII, FcgammaRIIB, fc gamma receptor IIB, fc-gamma RII, fc-gamma-RIIB, igG Fc receptor II beta, low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II, lymphocyte antigen 17
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Defective Fc gamma RII gene expression in macrophages of NOD mice: genetic linkage with up-regulation of IgG1 and IgG2b in serum
    J J Luan
    INSERM Unit 25 and Necker Institute, Paris, France
    J Immunol 157:4707-16. 1996
  2. ncbi Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytotoxicity against tumor targets
    R A Clynes
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Med 6:443-6. 2000
  3. ncbi Augmented humoral and anaphylactic responses in Fc gamma RII-deficient mice
    T Takai
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Japan
    Nature 379:346-9. 1996
  4. pmc Alport alloantibodies but not Goodpasture autoantibodies induce murine glomerulonephritis: protection by quinary crosslinks locking cryptic α3(IV) collagen autoepitopes in vivo
    Wentian Luo
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Immunol 185:3520-8. 2010
  5. pmc Structure, expression, and genetic linkage of the mouse BCM1 (OX45 or Blast-1) antigen. Evidence for genetic duplication giving rise to the BCM1 region on mouse chromosome 1 and the CD2/LFA3 region on mouse chromosome 3
    Y W Wong
    Medical Research Council Cellular Immunology Research Unit, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, England
    J Exp Med 171:2115-30. 1990
  6. ncbi Identification of intervals on chromosomes 1, 3, and 13 linked to the development of lupus in BXSB mice
    M E Haywood
    Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    Arthritis Rheum 43:349-55. 2000
  7. pmc Antigen receptor-mediated changes in glucose metabolism in B lymphocytes: role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in the glycolytic control of growth
    Cheryl A Doughty
    Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
    Blood 107:4458-65. 2006
  8. ncbi Gene mapping of the three subunits of the high affinity FcR for IgE to mouse chromosomes 1 and 19
    K Hupp
    Laboratory of Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Immunol 143:3787-91. 1989
  9. ncbi A 13-amino-acid motif in the cytoplasmic domain of Fc gamma RIIB modulates B-cell receptor signalling
    T Muta
    DeWitt Wallace Research Laboratory, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021
    Nature 368:70-3. 1994
  10. ncbi Identification of the mouse IgG3 receptor: implications for antibody effector function at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity
    A L Gavin
    The Austin Research Institute, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 160:20-3. 1998

Research Grants

  1. COMPLEMENT AND B CELL TOLERANCE IN A MURINE MODEL OF SLE
    Elahna Paul; Fiscal Year: 2002
  2. FRZB PROFILES AS OSTEOARTHRITIS BIOMARKERS
    MARY CORR; Fiscal Year: 2004
  3. Functions of Transmembrane and Soluble Fas ligand
    Ann Marshak Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 2005
  4. B CELL HYPERACTIVITY IN AUTOIMMUNITY
    Ann Marshak Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 2010

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications133 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Defective Fc gamma RII gene expression in macrophages of NOD mice: genetic linkage with up-regulation of IgG1 and IgG2b in serum
    J J Luan
    INSERM Unit 25 and Necker Institute, Paris, France
    J Immunol 157:4707-16. 1996
    ..chromosome 1, close to the fcgr2 locus encoding the low-affinity type II receptor for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc gamma RII)...
  2. ncbi Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytotoxicity against tumor targets
    R A Clynes
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Med 6:443-6. 2000
    ..Using a variety of syngenic and xenograft models, we demonstrate here that the inhibitory FcgammaRIIB molecule is a potent regulator of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vivo, modulating the ..
  3. ncbi Augmented humoral and anaphylactic responses in Fc gamma RII-deficient mice
    T Takai
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, Japan
    Nature 379:346-9. 1996
    ..on both lymphoid and myeloid cells, the biological role of the low-affinity immunoglobulin-G receptor, Fc gamma RII, is not fully understood...
  4. pmc Alport alloantibodies but not Goodpasture autoantibodies induce murine glomerulonephritis: protection by quinary crosslinks locking cryptic α3(IV) collagen autoepitopes in vivo
    Wentian Luo
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Immunol 185:3520-8. 2010
    ..hexamers in vitro, deposited linearly along the mouse GBM in vivo, eliciting crescentic glomerulonephritis in Fcgr2b(-/-) mice susceptible to Ab-mediated inflammation...
  5. pmc Structure, expression, and genetic linkage of the mouse BCM1 (OX45 or Blast-1) antigen. Evidence for genetic duplication giving rise to the BCM1 region on mouse chromosome 1 and the CD2/LFA3 region on mouse chromosome 3
    Y W Wong
    Medical Research Council Cellular Immunology Research Unit, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, England
    J Exp Med 171:2115-30. 1990
    ....
  6. ncbi Identification of intervals on chromosomes 1, 3, and 13 linked to the development of lupus in BXSB mice
    M E Haywood
    Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK
    Arthritis Rheum 43:349-55. 2000
    ..To identify intervals containing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility alleles in the BXSB strain of mice...
  7. pmc Antigen receptor-mediated changes in glucose metabolism in B lymphocytes: role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in the glycolytic control of growth
    Cheryl A Doughty
    Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA
    Blood 107:4458-65. 2006
    ..We find that glucose utilization is inhibited by coengagement of the BCR and FcgammaRIIB, suggesting that limiting glucose metabolism may represent an important mechanism underlying FcgammaRIIB-..
  8. ncbi Gene mapping of the three subunits of the high affinity FcR for IgE to mouse chromosomes 1 and 19
    K Hupp
    Laboratory of Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    J Immunol 143:3787-91. 1989
    ..the distal end of mouse chromosome 1, clustered in a region where Fc epsilon RI alpha has also been linked to Fc gamma RII. At least one of the two forms of Fc gamma RII has recently been shown to contain gamma subunits identical to ..
  9. ncbi A 13-amino-acid motif in the cytoplasmic domain of Fc gamma RIIB modulates B-cell receptor signalling
    T Muta
    DeWitt Wallace Research Laboratory, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021
    Nature 368:70-3. 1994
    The Fc receptor on B lymphocytes, Fc gamma RIIB (beta 1 isoform), helps to modulate B-cell activation triggered by the surface immunoglobulin complex...
  10. ncbi Identification of the mouse IgG3 receptor: implications for antibody effector function at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity
    A L Gavin
    The Austin Research Institute, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
    J Immunol 160:20-3. 1998
    ....
  11. ncbi Paralogous sm22alpha (Tagln) genes map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 9: further evidence for a paralogous relationship
    P Stanier
    Division of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Charlotte s and Chelsea Hospital, Goldhawk Road, London, W6 OXG, United Kingdom
    Genomics 51:144-7. 1998
    ..The localization of Tagln2 was also determined and was found to map between Fcgr2 and D1Mit149 on distal mouse chromosome 1...
  12. ncbi Fc gamma receptor IIB on follicular dendritic cells regulates the B cell recall response
    D Qin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Anatomy, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298, USA
    J Immunol 164:6268-75. 2000
    ..FDCs in GCs, but not in primary follicles, express high levels of the IgG Fc receptor Fc gamma RIIB. This regulated expression of Fc gamma RIIB on FDC and its relation to recall Ab responses were examined both ..
  13. ncbi Polymorphisms in IgG Fc receptor IIB regulatory regions associated with autoimmune susceptibility
    Y Jiang
    Department of Pathology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Immunogenetics 51:429-35. 2000
    ..We found that there are three types of polymorphisms in the reported FcgammaRIIB transcription regulatory regions in mouse strains...
  14. ncbi Spontaneous autoimmune disease in Fc(gamma)RIIB-deficient mice results from strain-specific epistasis
    S Bolland
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Immunity 13:277-85. 2000
    By virtue of its ability to couple the BCR to an inhibitory pathway, FcgammaRIIB can potentially determine the fate of B cells upon IgG immune complex engagement...
  15. ncbi FcgammaRIV: a novel FcR with distinct IgG subclass specificity
    Falk Nimmerjahn
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Immunity 23:41-51. 2005
    ..These distinct binding affinities for the IgG subclasses to FcgammaRs account for their differential protective and pathogenic activities in vivo...
  16. pmc Antibody isotype-specific engagement of Fcgamma receptors regulates B lymphocyte depletion during CD20 immunotherapy
    Yasuhito Hamaguchi
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Exp Med 203:743-53. 2006
    ..or blocked for stimulatory FcgammaRI, FcgammaRIII, FcgammaRIV, or FcR common gamma chain, or inhibitory FcgammaRIIB. IgG1 CD20 mAbs induced B cell depletion through preferential, if not exclusive, interactions with low-affinity ..
  17. pmc Mast cells contribute to initiation of autoantibody-mediated arthritis via IL-1
    Peter A Nigrovic
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:2325-30. 2007
    ..These findings illuminate a mechanism by which mast cells can participate in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis and provide insights of potential relevance to human rheumatoid arthritis...
  18. pmc Fcgamma receptor regulation of Citrobacter rodentium infection
    Atsuhiro Masuda
    Department of Gastroenterology, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7 5 1, Chu o ku, Kusunoki cho, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0017, Japan
    Infect Immun 76:1728-37. 2008
    ..rodentium infection, indicating that the critical role played by IgG in this infection is not mediated by IgG alone but is dependent upon this class of receptors...
  19. pmc FcγRIIB regulation of BCR/TLR-dependent autoreactive B-cell responses
    Ana M Avalos
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 01655, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:2692-8. 2010
    ..These results demonstrate that FcγRIIB can effectively modulate both BCR/TLR9 and BCR/TLR7 endosomal-dependent activation of autoreactive B cells...
  20. pmc Identification of the low affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E on mouse mast cells and macrophages as Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII
    F Takizawa
    Molecular Allergy and Immunology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852
    J Exp Med 176:469-75. 1992
    ..In this paper, we show that Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII, but not Mac-2, on mouse mast cells and macrophages bind IgE-immune complexes...
  21. ncbi Fc receptors
    J V Ravetch
    DeWitt Wallace Research Laboratories, Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, New York, New York 10021
    Annu Rev Immunol 9:457-92. 1991
    ..Thus, the Fc receptors provide an example of a class of molecules in which conserved domains are combined with divergent sequences to yield a diversity of function...
  22. ncbi Organization of the human and mouse low-affinity Fc gamma R genes: duplication and recombination
    W Q Qiu
    Division of Molecular Biology, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10021
    Science 248:732-5. 1990
    Receptors for immunoglobulin G immune complexes (Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII) are expressed on most hematopoietic cells and show much structural and functional diversity...
  23. ncbi Structural heterogeneity and functional domains of murine immunoglobulin G Fc receptors
    J V Ravetch
    Science 234:718-25. 1986
    ..These studies demonstrate the molecular basis for the functional heterogeneity of FcR's, accounting for the possible transduction of different signals in response to a single ligand...
  24. ncbi Fc receptors: rubor redux
    J V Ravetch
    Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021
    Cell 78:553-60. 1994
  25. ncbi Impaired IgG-dependent anaphylaxis and Arthus reaction in Fc gamma RIII (CD16) deficient mice
    W L Hazenbos
    Department of Immunology, University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Immunity 5:181-8. 1996
    ..These results indicate a prominent role for Fc gamma RIII in inflammatory and anaphylactic responses, making this receptor a potential target in immunotherapy...
  26. ncbi Fc receptor biology
    M Daeron
    Laboratoire d Immunologie Cellulaire et Clinique, INSERM U 255, Institut Curie, Paris, France
    Annu Rev Immunol 15:203-34. 1997
    ..FcR therefore appear as the subunits of multichain receptors whose constitution is not predetermined and which deliver adaptative messages as a function of the environment...
  27. pmc Reversal of proinflammatory responses by ligating the macrophage Fcgamma receptor type I
    F S Sutterwala
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    J Exp Med 188:217-22. 1998
    ..This reciprocal alteration in the pattern of macrophage cytokine production illustrates a potentially important role for FcgammaR-mediated clearance in suppressing macrophage proinflammatory responses...
  28. pmc Modulation of immune complex-induced inflammation in vivo by the coordinate expression of activation and inhibitory Fc receptors
    R Clynes
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 189:179-85. 1999
    ..In vitro, this pathway can be interrupted by coligation to FcgammaRIIB, an IgG Fc receptor containing an inhibitory motif (ITIM)...
  29. pmc Deletion of fcgamma receptor IIB renders H-2(b) mice susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis
    T Yuasa
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Exp Med 189:187-94. 1999
    ..Biochemical and genetic studies indicate that the type IIB low-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig)G (FcgammaRIIB) inhibits cellular activation triggered through antibody or immune complexes and may be an important component ..
  30. pmc Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice
    M C Karlsson
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Unit of Pathology, Uppsala University, S 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:2244-9. 1999
    ..understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell...
  31. pmc Modulation of immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated systemic anaphylaxis by low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG
    A Ujike
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Exp Med 189:1573-9. 1999
    ..Mice deficient in the inhibitory receptor for IgG, FcgammaRIIB, display enhanced IgE-mediated anaphylactic responses, whereas mice deficient in an IgG activation receptor, ..
  32. ncbi IgG-mediated enhancement of antibody responses is low in Fc receptor gamma chain-deficient mice and increased in Fc gamma RII-deficient mice
    S Wernersson
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Sweden
    J Immunol 163:618-22. 1999
    ..Mice lacking the gamma subunit of Fc receptors (FcRs) (FcR gamma-/-), Fc gamma RII (Fc gamma RII-/-), or Fc gamma RIII (Fc gamma RIII-/-) were immunized with BSA-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) alone ..
  33. ncbi Genetically determined aberrant down-regulation of FcgammaRIIB1 in germinal center B cells associated with hyper-IgG and IgG autoantibodies in murine systemic lupus erythematosus
    Y Jiang
    Department of Pathology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    Int Immunol 11:1685-91. 1999
    ..Such strain differences were also evident in young mice upon in vivo stimulation with foreign antigens. In the FcgammaRIIB promoter region, the NZB allele has two deletion sites, including transcription factor-binding sites...
  34. ncbi C-reactive protein binding to murine leukocytes requires Fc gamma receptors
    M P Stein
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    J Immunol 164:1514-20. 2000
    ..of Fc gamma R-deficient mice were examined: gamma-chain-deficient mice that lack Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RIII, Fc gamma RII-deficient mice, and mice deficient in both gamma-chain and Fc gamma RII that lack all Fc gamma R...
  35. pmc Induction and suppression of collagen-induced arthritis is dependent on distinct fcgamma receptors
    S Kleinau
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, S 75185 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Exp Med 191:1611-6. 2000
    ..In comparison, DBA/1 mice lacking FcgammaRII developed an augmented IgG anticollagen response and arthritis. These observations suggest a crucial role of FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIII in triggering autoimmune arthritis...
  36. ncbi FcgammaRIIB in IgG-mediated suppression of antibody responses: different impact in vivo and in vitro
    M C Karlsson
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Immunol 167:5558-64. 2001
    ..suppression of primary Ab responses to SRBC in mice lacking the known FcRs for IgG (FcgammaRI, FcgammaIII, and FcgammaRIIB or the neonatal FcR)...
  37. ncbi Arthritis critically dependent on innate immune system players
    Hong Ji
    Section on Immunology and Immunogenetics, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Immunity 16:157-68. 2002
    ..We suggest that autoimmune disease, even one that is organ specific, can occur when mobilization of an adaptive immune response results in runaway activation of the innate response...
  38. ncbi FcgammaRI (CD64) contributes substantially to severity of arthritis, hypersensitivity responses, and protection from bacterial infection
    A Ioan-Facsinay
    Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands
    Immunity 16:391-402. 2002
    ..We conclude that FcgammaRI contributes substantially to a variety of IgG2a-IC-dependent immune functions and immunopathological responses...
  39. pmc Genetic modifiers of systemic lupus erythematosus in FcgammaRIIB(-/-) mice
    Silvia Bolland
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 195:1167-74. 2002
    b>FcgammaRIIB is a potent lupus susceptibility gene as demonstrated by the observation that mice deficient in this molecule develop spontaneous antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and fatal glomerulonephritis when on the C57BL/6 background...
  40. ncbi Protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by C-reactive protein and natural antibody requires complement but not Fc gamma receptors
    Carolyn Mold
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
    J Immunol 168:6375-81. 2002
    ..Injection of CRP protected wild-type, FcR gamma-chain-, Fc gamma RIIb-, and Fc gamma RIII-deficient mice from infection...
  41. ncbi The impact of Fcgamma receptors on Staphylococcus aureus infection
    Inger Gjertsson
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Microb Pathog 33:145-52. 2002
    ..aureus infection. We conclude that expression of Fcgamma receptor II is of importance during S. aureus infection...
  42. pmc B lymphocyte memory: role of stromal cell complement and FcgammaRIIB receptors
    Robert A Barrington
    Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1189-99. 2002
    To dissect the influence of CD21/CD35 and FcgammaRIIB in antigen retention and humoral memory, we used an adoptive transfer model in which antigen-primed B and T lymphocytes were given to sublethally irradiated wild-type mice or mice ..
  43. ncbi The role of FcgammaR signaling in the K/B x N serum transfer model of arthritis
    Maripat Corr
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology and Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA
    J Immunol 169:6604-9. 2002
    ....
  44. ncbi FcgammaRIIB deficiency with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmune disease
    Kaori Yajima
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
    Eur J Immunol 33:1020-9. 2003
    ..Here, we show that the gene for a unique inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RIIB) is a critical SLE suppressor. Fc gamma RIIB-deficient B6.Fas(lpr/lpr) (B6...
  45. ncbi Deregulation of peripheral B-cell development in enhanced severity of collagen-induced arthritis in FcgammaRIIB-deficient mice
    Akira Nakamura
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo machi 4 1, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Autoimmun 20:227-36. 2003
    Accumulating evidence indicates that the type IIB Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) plays a pivotal role in maintaining peripheral tolerance by suppressing excessive humoral and cellular immune responses...
  46. ncbi Accelerated antigen presentation and elicitation of humoral response in vivo by FcgammaRIIB- and FcgammaRI/III-mediated immune complex uptake
    Ayumi Yada
    Department of Experimental Immunology and the CREST Program of Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 980 8575, Sendai, Japan
    Cell Immunol 225:21-32. 2003
    ..and FcgammaRIII, are essential for inducing inflammatory responses, whereas a unique inhibitory FcgammaR, FcgammaRIIB, inhibits intracellular signaling upon ligation of IgG-immune complexes, and can suppress inflammation and ..
  47. pmc FcgammaRIIb balances efficient pathogen clearance and the cytokine-mediated consequences of sepsis
    Menna R Clatworthy
    The Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, CB2 2XY, UK
    J Exp Med 199:717-23. 2004
    ..Mice deficient in FcgammaRIIb, an inhibitory immunoglobulin G Fc receptor, have enhanced immune responses...
  48. ncbi The inhibitory Fcgamma receptor modulates autoimmunity by limiting the accumulation of immunoglobulin G+ anti-DNA plasma cells
    Hidehiro Fukuyama
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:99-106. 2005
    Deletion of the gene encoding the Fc immunoglobulin G receptor IIB (FcgammaRIIB) results in a fulminant, lupus-like disease in C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice...
  49. ncbi The Src family kinases Hck and Fgr negatively regulate neutrophil and dendritic cell chemokine signaling via PIR-B
    Hong Zhang
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Immunity 22:235-46. 2005
    ..These data support a model in which the Src family kinases Hck and Fgr function as negative regulators of myeloid cell chemokine signaling by maintaining the tonic phosphorylation of PIR-B...
  50. ncbi Fc gamma RIIB regulates nasal and oral tolerance: a role for dendritic cells
    Janneke N Samsom
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Faculteit der Geneeskunde, MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 174:5279-87. 2005
    ..In this study, we show that mice deficient in FcgammaRIIB failed to develop mucosal tolerance to OVA, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo a critical role for this ..
  51. ncbi Failed up-regulation of the inhibitory IgG Fc receptor Fc gamma RIIB on germinal center B cells in autoimmune-prone mice is not associated with deletion polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Fc gamma RIIB gene
    Ziaur S M Rahman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107 5541, USA
    J Immunol 175:1440-9. 2005
    b>FcgammaRIIB, a low-affinity FcR for IgG, inhibits BCR-mediated activation when these two receptors are co-cross-linked by Ags and IgG-containing immune complexes...
  52. ncbi Divergent immunoglobulin g subclass activity through selective Fc receptor binding
    Falk Nimmerjahn
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 310:1510-2. 2005
    ..We suggest that these highly predictable functions assigned by Fc binding will be an important consideration in the design of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines...
  53. pmc Hydronephrosis associated with antiurothelial and antinuclear autoantibodies in BALB/c-Fcgr2b-/-Pdcd1-/- mice
    Taku Okazaki
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Exp Med 202:1643-8. 2005
    ..diseases by epistatic effects of two immunoinhibitory receptors, low affinity type IIb Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)...
  54. pmc IgG-blocking antibodies inhibit IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in vivo through both antigen interception and Fc gamma RIIb cross-linking
    Richard T Strait
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:833-41. 2006
    ....
  55. ncbi Genetic dissection of the effects of stimulatory and inhibitory IgG Fc receptors on murine lupus
    Qingshun Lin
    Department of Pathology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Immunol 177:1646-54. 2006
    ..In lupus-prone BXSB mice, while stimulatory FcgammaRs are intact, inhibitory FcgammaRIIB expression is impaired because of promoter region polymorphism...
  56. ncbi Phosphorylation-independent ubiquitylation and endocytosis of Fc gammaRIIA
    Patricia Mero
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada
    J Biol Chem 281:33242-9. 2006
    ..Endocytosis of Fc gammaRIIA is dependent on clathrin but independent of the adaptor protein AP-2. These findings point to a novel mechanism for ubiquitylation and endocytosis of this immunoreceptor...
  57. ncbi FcgammaRIIB regulates autoreactive primary antibody-forming cell, but not germinal center B cell, activity
    Ziaur S M Rahman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Immunol 178:897-907. 2007
    The low-affinity FcR for IgG FcgammaRIIB suppresses the development of IgG autoantibodies and autoimmune disease in normal individuals, but how this effect is mediated is incompletely understood...
  58. ncbi Follicular exclusion of autoreactive B cells requires FcgammaRIIb
    Elahna Paul
    Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Int Immunol 19:365-73. 2007
    ..To study the role of Fcgamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb) in peripheral B cell tolerance, FcgammaRIIb(-/-) mice were crossed with C57BL/6 mice bearing a site-directed ..
  59. ncbi FcgammaRIIb controls bone marrow plasma cell persistence and apoptosis
    Zou Xiang
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2OY, UK
    Nat Immunol 8:419-29. 2007
    ..We found here that the inhibitory Fc receptor FcgammaRIIb was expressed on plasma cells and controlled their persistence in the bone marrow...
  60. pmc Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated defects in the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb reduce susceptibility to malaria
    Menna R Clatworthy
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7169-74. 2007
    ..A defunctioning, SLE-associated polymorphism of the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb is found at an increased frequency in African and Asian populations, broadly corresponding to areas where ..
  61. ncbi Expression of the autoimmune Fcgr2b NZW allele fails to be upregulated in germinal center B cells and is associated with increased IgG production
    Z S M Rahman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Genes Immun 8:604-12. 2007
    The inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb regulates B-cell functions. Genetic studies have associated Fcgr2b polymorphisms and lupus susceptibility in both humans and murine models, in which B cells express reduced FcgammaRIIb levels...
  62. pmc Distinct cell-specific control of autoimmunity and infection by FcgammaRIIb
    Rebecca J Brownlie
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2OY, England, UK
    J Exp Med 205:883-95. 2008
    b>FcgammaRIIb is an inhibitory Fc receptor expressed on B cells and myeloid cells. It is important in controlling responses to infection, and reduced expression or function predisposes to autoimmunity...
  63. ncbi Immune complex/Ig negatively regulate TLR4-triggered inflammatory response in macrophages through Fc gamma RIIb-dependent PGE2 production
    Yan Zhang
    Institute of Immunology and National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China
    J Immunol 182:554-62. 2009
    ..Thus we provide new manner for the immune regulation and mechanistic explanation for nonpathogenic IC/Ig in the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases...
  64. pmc Development of murine lupus involves the combined genetic contribution of the SLAM and FcgammaR intervals within the Nba2 autoimmune susceptibility locus
    Trine N Jørgensen
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 184:775-86. 2010
    ..homeostasis of terminally differentiated B cells was found to be controlled by the FcgammaR interval where FcgammaRIIb-mediated apoptosis of germinal center B cells and plasma cells was impaired...
  65. doi FcgammaRIIB inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice
    Ming Zhao
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmo University Hospital, Lund University, S 205 02 Malmo, Sweden
    J Immunol 184:2253-60. 2010
    ..However, the role of the inhibitory IgG receptor FcgammaRIIB in atherosclerosis has not been defined...
  66. pmc FcgammaRIIb inhibits allergic lung inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma
    Nilesh Dharajiya
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute NHLBI Proteomics Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e9337. 2010
    ..b>Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb), an inhibitory IgG receptor, has recently emerged as a negative regulator of allergic ..
  67. pmc The inhibitory effects of intravenous administration of rabbit immunoglobulin G on airway inflammation are dependent upon Fcγ receptor IIb on CD11c(+) dendritic cells in a murine model
    M Yamamoto
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    Clin Exp Immunol 162:315-24. 2010
    ..Targeting Fc portions of IgG and Fcγ receptor IIb on CD11c(+) DCs in allergic asthma is a promising therapeutic strategy...
  68. pmc Development of self-reactive germinal center B cells and plasma cells in autoimmune Fc gammaRIIB-deficient mice
    Thomas Tiller
    Max Planck Molecular Immunology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    J Exp Med 207:2767-78. 2010
    Abnormalities in expression levels of the IgG inhibitory Fc gamma receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) are associated with the development of immunoglobulin (Ig) G serum autoantibodies and systemic autoimmunity in mice and humans...
  69. pmc The inhibitory FcγRIIb modulates the inflammatory response and influences atherosclerosis in male apoE(-/-) mice
    Yanice V Mendez-Fernandez
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, USA
    Atherosclerosis 214:73-80. 2011
    ..Although studies in mice have determined that stimulatory Fcγ receptors contribute to atherosclerosis, the role of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIb (FcγRIIb) has only recently been investigated...
  70. pmc Genetic susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus protects against cerebral malaria in mice
    Michael Waisberg
    Laboratories of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1122-7. 2011
    ....
  71. doi The inhibiting Fc receptor for IgG, FcγRIIB, is a modifier of autoimmune susceptibility
    Peter Boross
    Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 187:1304-13. 2011
    ..In the presence of the Yaa lupus-susceptibility locus, FcγRIIB(B6)(-/-) mice do develop lethal lupus, confirming that FcγRIIB deficiency only amplifies spontaneous autoimmunity determined by other loci...
  72. pmc Inhibitory Fcγ receptor engagement drives adjuvant and anti-tumor activities of agonistic CD40 antibodies
    Fubin Li
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Science 333:1030-4. 2011
    ..This unexpected requirement for FcγRIIB in enhancing CD40-mediated immune activation has direct implications for the design of agonistic antibodies to TNFR as therapeutics...
  73. pmc Coupling of Fcγ receptor I to Fcγ receptor IIb by SRC kinase mediates C-reactive protein impairment of endothelial function
    Nathan C Sundgren
    Division of Pulmonary and Vascular Biology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Circ Res 109:1132-40. 2011
    ..In mice, CRP actions on eNOS blunt carotid artery re-endothelialization...
  74. pmc Ly6G ligation blocks recruitment of neutrophils via a β2-integrin-dependent mechanism
    Jun Xia Wang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Blood 120:1489-98. 2012
    ....
  75. pmc Apoptotic and antitumor activity of death receptor antibodies require inhibitory Fcγ receptor engagement
    Fubin Li
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:10966-71. 2012
    ....
  76. pmc FcγRIIb on liver sinusoidal endothelium clears small immune complexes
    Latha P Ganesan
    Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Immunol 189:4981-8. 2012
    ..5 h, respectively. RIIb on LSEC, a major scavenger, keeps SIC blood concentrations low and minimizes pathologic deposition of inflammatory immune complex...
  77. doi FcγRIIb on myeloid cells and intrinsic renal cells rather than B cells protects from nephrotoxic nephritis
    Phoebe E H Sharp
    Division of Immunity and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 190:340-8. 2013
    ..Where there was a lack of FcγRIIb on circulating myeloid cells, expression of FcγRIIb on intrinsic renal cells provided an additional level of protection from Ab-mediated glomerulonephritis...
  78. pmc Antitumor activities of agonistic anti-TNFR antibodies require differential FcγRIIB coengagement in vivo
    Fubin Li
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:19501-6. 2013
    ....
  79. ncbi Differential expression of the inhibitory IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIB on germinal center cells: implications for selection of high-affinity B cells
    Sambasiva P Rao
    Kimmel Cancer Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    J Immunol 169:1859-68. 2002
    The murine low-affinity receptor for IgG, FcgammaRIIB, mediates inhibition of B cell receptor-triggered events in primary B cells...
  80. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of Fcgr2b gene by polymorphic promoter region and its contribution to humoral immune responses
    Yan Xiu
    Department of Pathology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
    J Immunol 169:4340-6. 2002
    ..We earlier found deletion polymorphism in the Fcgr2b promoter region among mouse strains in which systemic autoimmune disease-prone NZB, BXSB, MRL, and autoimmune ..
  81. ncbi Structure of the mouse beta Fc gamma receptor II gene
    P M Hogarth
    Research Centre for Cancer and Transplantation, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
    J Immunol 146:369-76. 1991
    We have isolated and deduced the structure of the beta Fc gamma RII gene from the mouse. This gene spans approximately 18 kb of DNA; the structure and nucleotide sequence has been determined and potential regulatory sites identified...
  82. pmc Fcgamma receptor IIB-deficient mice develop Goodpasture's syndrome upon immunization with type IV collagen: a novel murine model for autoimmune glomerular basement membrane disease
    A Nakamura
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8575, Japan
    J Exp Med 191:899-906. 2000
    ..receptor for immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody expression and function, the type IIB Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB)...
  83. ncbi Differentially regulated expression and function of CD22 in activated B-1 and B-2 lymphocytes
    Frédéric Lajaunias
    Department of Pathology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Immunol 168:6078-83. 2002
    ..These data indicate that the expression and function of CD22 are differentially regulated in B-1 and conventional B-2 cells, which are apparently implicated in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively...
  84. ncbi Identification of CD16-2, a novel mouse receptor homologous to CD16/Fc gamma RIII
    Ludmila V Mechetina
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Lavrentjev St 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Immunogenetics 54:463-8. 2002
    ..RIII arose by an evolutionarily recent recombination, which brought together the extracellular domains from Fc gamma RII with the transmembrane/cytoplasmic region from the ancestor Fc gamma RIII...
  85. ncbi Ontogeny and distribution of the murine B cell Fc gamma RII
    T M Foy
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242
    J Immunol 149:1516-23. 1992
    The distribution and expression of the IgG FcRII (Fc gamma RII) on normal murine B cells was examined...
  86. pmc Genomic organization of mouse Fc gamma receptor genes
    A Kulczycki
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:2856-60. 1990
    ..Partial characterization of the Fc gamma RIIb gene indicates that it also contains multiple leader exons, including a 21-base-pair exon and two exons coding ..
  87. ncbi Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma R) and IgG-binding factors (IgG-BF): their relationships
    W H Fridman
    Laboratoire d Immunologie Cellulaire et Clinique, INSERM UNITE 255, Institut Curie, Paris
    Res Immunol 141:60-4; discussion 105-8. 1990
  88. pmc The murine Fc receptor for immunoglobulin: purification, partial amino acid sequence, and isolation of cDNA clones
    M L Hibbs
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:6980-4. 1986
    ..Thus, the presence of coding information at the 5' and 3' ends of this clone suggests that full-length Fc receptor cDNA spans greater than 1 kilobase...
  89. ncbi Genetic relationships of Mlsa among polymorphic loci on distal mouse chromosome 1
    M F Seldin
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710
    J Immunogenet 15:59-66. 1988
    ..The identification of multiple polymorphic loci in the region of Mlsa should allow precise gene localization and assist in efforts to clone this gene...
  90. ncbi Genetic and serologic re-evaluation of LyM-1 antigen specified by a gene closely linked to Mls: establishment of LyM-1 antigen of the mouse
    H Sato
    J Immunogenet 8:27-40. 1981
    ..2 serum under the condition in which Lyb-2.1 is not involved in analysis. The strain distribution of LyM-1 antigen, its preferential expression on B lymphocytes and close genetic linkage of LyM-1 to Mls have been established...
  91. ncbi Genetic linkage between Lym-1, Sas-1 and Mls loci
    H B Dickler
    Immunogenetics 10:93-6. 1980
  92. pmc Modulation of the Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII induced by GM-CSF, IFN-gamma and IL-4 on murine eosinophils
    B de Andres
    Department of Immunology, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain
    Immunology 83:155-60. 1994
    ..receptors on eosinophils, Northern blot analyses were carried out using specific cDNA probes encoding for the Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII. Murine eosinophils constitutively express transcripts for Fc gamma RII and RIII...
  93. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor induces a block in the cotranslation of Fc gamma RIIb mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages
    Y Chicheportiche
    Department of Pathology, Centre Medical Universitaire, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 269:20134-8. 1994
    ..It shows that the cell surface expression of Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RIIb is strongly reduced in macrophages cultured in the presence of tumor necrosis factor, whereas the mRNA of the ..
  94. ncbi Influence of the apoA-II gene locus on HDL levels and fatty streak development in mice
    M Mehrabian
    Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
    Arterioscler Thromb 13:1-10. 1993
    ..The results support the concept that increased synthesis of apoAII results in increased HDL cholesterol levels. Unexpectedly, increased expression of apoAII appeared to promote rather than retard aortic fatty streak development...
  95. ncbi Nonsynonymous mutations in an Fc-receptor structural gene in NZB mice
    D J Sawchuk
    Immunogenetics 43:112-3. 1996
  96. ncbi Genetic control of T-cell proliferative response in mice linked to chromosomes 11 and 15
    H Havelková
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fleming nám 2, 16637 Praha 6, Czech Republic
    Immunogenetics 44:475-7. 1996
  97. ncbi Cloning of 5'-flanking region and a polymorphic CTT trinucleotide repeat within 5'-untranslated region of mouse R-type calcium channel alpha1-subunit (Cchra1) gene, and its genetic mapping
    K Yamazaki
    Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Eisai Co, Ltd, 5 1 3, Tokodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300 2635, Japan
    Gene 214:199-204. 1998
    ..Using this polymorphism, the Cchra1 was mapped to the region of chromosome 1 where the synteny to human chromosome 1q was conserved...
  98. ncbi ADAM-TS5, ADAM-TS6, and ADAM-TS7, novel members of a new family of zinc metalloproteases. General features and genomic distribution of the ADAM-TS family
    T L Hurskainen
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:25555-63. 1999
    ..Individual ADAM-TS members differ in the number of COOH-terminal TS modules, and some have unique COOH-terminal domains. The ADAM-TS genes are dispersed in human and mouse genomes...
  99. ncbi Redundant and alternative roles for activating Fc receptors and complement in an antibody-dependent model of autoimmune vitiligo
    Jiri Trcka
    The Swim Across America Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Graduate School of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Immunity 16:861-8. 2002
    ..Thus, either complement or macrophages expressing activating Fc gamma R can independently and alternatively mediate disease in a model of autoimmune vitiligo...
  100. ncbi C-reactive protein mediates protection from lipopolysaccharide through interactions with Fc gamma R
    Carolyn Mold
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Immunol 169:7019-25. 2002
    ..In the mouse, CRP binds to the regulatory receptor, FcgammaRIIb, and to the gamma-chain-associated receptor, FcgammaRI...
  101. ncbi Central role of complement in passive protection by human IgG1 and IgG2 anti-pneumococcal antibodies in mice
    Eirikur Saeland
    Immunotherapy Laboratory, Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 170:6158-64. 2003
    ..These studies demonstrate complement to play a central role in Ab-mediated protection against pneumococcal infection in vivo, as well as in bacteremia-associated thrombotic complications...

Research Grants4

  1. COMPLEMENT AND B CELL TOLERANCE IN A MURINE MODEL OF SLE
    Elahna Paul; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..By combining immunologic, nephrologic and molecular analyses I propose to elucidate how classical complement deficiency predisposes to SLE. ..
  2. FRZB PROFILES AS OSTEOARTHRITIS BIOMARKERS
    MARY CORR; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of these studies will both contribute to, and will utilize, the resources of the OA biomarker consortium. ..
  3. Functions of Transmembrane and Soluble Fas ligand
    Ann Marshak Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will help to assess the feasibility of clinical applications of forced FasL expression and they should further reveal the significance of FasL expression by non-lymphoid tissues. ..
  4. B CELL HYPERACTIVITY IN AUTOIMMUNITY
    Ann Marshak Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A better understanding of the events that contribute to the initial activation of these autoreactive B cells will be critical to the development of more effective and less toxic therapies. ..