Dbh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Dbh
Description: dopamine beta hydroxylase
Alias: dopamine beta-hydroxylase, dopamine beta-monooxygenase
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene in mice suggests roles for norepinephrine in motor function, learning, and memory
    S A Thomas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7370, USA
    Behav Neurosci 111:579-89. 1997
  2. ncbi Dopamine depletion does not protect against acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in vivo
    Daphne M Hasbani
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9428-33. 2005
  3. ncbi The homeobox gene Phox2b is essential for the development of autonomic neural crest derivatives
    A Pattyn
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille, CNRS INSERM Université de la Méditterranée AP de Marseille, France
    Nature 399:366-70. 1999
  4. ncbi Norepinephrine-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to seizure-inducing stimuli
    P Szot
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 19:10985-92. 1999
  5. pmc Mice with chronic norepinephrine deficiency resemble amphetamine-sensitized animals
    David Weinshenker
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13873-7. 2002
  6. ncbi Essential role of Gata transcription factors in sympathetic neuron development
    Konstantina Tsarovina
    Max Planck Institut für Hirnforschung, Abteilung Neurochemie, Deutschordenstr 46, 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Development 131:4775-86. 2004
  7. ncbi Cholinergic differentiation occurs early in mouse sympathetic neurons and requires Phox2b
    K Huber
    Institut für Anatomie und Zellbiologie III, Interdisziplindäres Zentrum für Neurowissenschaften, Ruprecht Karls Universitat Heidelberg, Imn Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Gene Expr 13:133-9. 2006
  8. pmc Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine
    David Weinshenker
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Neurochem 105:471-83. 2008
  9. doi The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons
    Konstantina Tsarovina
    Research Group Developmental Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 60528 Frankfurt M, Germany
    J Neurosci 30:10833-43. 2010
  10. ncbi Noradrenaline is essential for mouse fetal development
    S A Thomas
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nature 374:643-6. 1995

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications114 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene in mice suggests roles for norepinephrine in motor function, learning, and memory
    S A Thomas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7370, USA
    Behav Neurosci 111:579-89. 1997
    Mice unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) were created by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene...
  2. ncbi Dopamine depletion does not protect against acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in vivo
    Daphne M Hasbani
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 25:9428-33. 2005
    ..These results suggest that DA does not contribute to acute MPTP toxicity in vivo...
  3. ncbi The homeobox gene Phox2b is essential for the development of autonomic neural crest derivatives
    A Pattyn
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille, CNRS INSERM Université de la Méditterranée AP de Marseille, France
    Nature 399:366-70. 1999
    ....
  4. ncbi Norepinephrine-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to seizure-inducing stimuli
    P Szot
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 19:10985-92. 1999
    ..Seizure susceptibility was determined in the dopamine beta-hydroxylase null mutant (Dbh -/-) mouse using four different convulsant stimuli: 2,2,2-trifluroethyl ether (flurothyl), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), ..
  5. pmc Mice with chronic norepinephrine deficiency resemble amphetamine-sensitized animals
    David Weinshenker
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13873-7. 2002
    ..NE) signaling modulates psychostimulant responses by testing LRA in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE. Surprisingly, Dbh-/- animals were hypersensitive to the behavioral effects of amphetamine...
  6. ncbi Essential role of Gata transcription factors in sympathetic neuron development
    Konstantina Tsarovina
    Max Planck Institut für Hirnforschung, Abteilung Neurochemie, Deutschordenstr 46, 60528 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Development 131:4775-86. 2004
    ..after Mash1, Phox2b, Hand2 and Phox2a expression, but before the onset of the noradrenergic marker genes Th and Dbh, and is maintained throughout development...
  7. ncbi Cholinergic differentiation occurs early in mouse sympathetic neurons and requires Phox2b
    K Huber
    Institut für Anatomie und Zellbiologie III, Interdisziplindäres Zentrum für Neurowissenschaften, Ruprecht Karls Universitat Heidelberg, Imn Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Gene Expr 13:133-9. 2006
    ..Phox2b is required for development of cholinergic neurons but does not suffice to support cholinergic properties in chromaffin cells...
  8. pmc Genetic or pharmacological blockade of noradrenaline synthesis enhances the neurochemical, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine
    David Weinshenker
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Neurochem 105:471-83. 2008
    ..lacking NA (genetic or acute pharmacological blockade of the NA biosynthetic enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase; DBH)...
  9. doi The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons
    Konstantina Tsarovina
    Research Group Developmental Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 60528 Frankfurt M, Germany
    J Neurosci 30:10833-43. 2010
    ..Inactivation of Gata3 in embryonic DBH-expressing neurons elicits a strong reduction in neuron numbers due to apoptotic cell death and reduced ..
  10. ncbi Noradrenaline is essential for mouse fetal development
    S A Thomas
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nature 374:643-6. 1995
    ..Mutant embryos had a histological phenotype similar to that of embryos deficient in tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting that death might be due to cardiovascular failure...
  11. ncbi Thermoregulatory and metabolic phenotypes of mice lacking noradrenaline and adrenaline
    S A Thomas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7370, USA
    Nature 387:94-7. 1997
    ..The unexpected increase in basal metabolic rate is not due to hyperthyroidism, compensation by the widely expressed uncoupling protein UCP2, or shivering...
  12. ncbi Restoration of norepinephrine and reversal of phenotypes in mice lacking dopamine beta-hydroxylase
    S A Thomas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    J Neurochem 70:2468-76. 1998
    Mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene are unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine...
  13. ncbi Contribution of Hox genes to the diversity of the hindbrain sensory system
    Gary O Gaufo
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Development 131:1259-66. 2004
    ..More generally, these findings contribute to our understanding of how Hox genes specifically control cellular diversity in the developing organism..
  14. ncbi c-ret regulates cholinergic properties in mouse sympathetic neurons: evidence from mutant mice
    K Burau
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 20:353-62. 2004
    ..Our data suggest that c-ret signalling is necessary for the maturation of cholinergic sympathetic neurons but dispensable for de novo induction of ChAT and VAChT expression...
  15. ncbi Locus coeruleus neurons originate in alar rhombomere 1 and migrate into the basal plate: Studies in chick and mouse embryos
    Pilar Aroca
    Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, Medical School, University of Murcia, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 496:802-18. 2006
    ..studied the topography of the developing LoC in the hindbrain, using as markers the key noradrenergic marker gene Dbh and the transcription factors Phox2a and Phox2b (upstream of Dbh)...
  16. ncbi Specific ablation of the transcription factor CREB in sympathetic neurons surprisingly protects against developmentally regulated apoptosis
    Rosanna Parlato
    Department of Molecular Biology of the Cell I, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 134:1663-70. 2007
    ..Thus, our analysis indicates that the activity of cell-autonomous pro-survival signalling is operative in developing sympathetic neurons in the absence of CREB...
  17. pmc Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system
    Yuka Morikawa
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, 2000 Percival Stern Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    Dev Biol 307:114-26. 2007
    ..the levels of the norepinephrine biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) was examined...
  18. pmc Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety
    Jesse R Schank
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 63:1007-12. 2008
    ..While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety...
  19. doi Ongoing roles of Phox2 homeodomain transcription factors during neuronal differentiation
    Eva Coppola
    Institut de Biologie de l Ecole Normale Supérieure IBENS, Paris, France
    Development 137:4211-20. 2010
    ....
  20. ncbi The full expression of fasting-induced torpor requires beta 3-adrenergic receptor signaling
    Steven J Swoap
    Department of Biology, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267, USA
    J Neurosci 26:241-5. 2006
    ..the torpor adaptation to fasting by telemetrically monitoring the Tb of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh-/-) mice, which lack the ability to produce the SNS transmitters, norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine...
  21. ncbi Stage-specific expression of alkaline phosphatase during neural development in the mouse
    S Narisawa
    La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, Cancer Research Center, California 92037
    Dev Dyn 201:227-35. 1994
    ..We conclude that AP is a useful marker of a subpopulation of neuroectodermal cells present in the neural tube as early as E8.5, at which stages there are no other AP positive intraembryonic cells except PGCs...
  22. ncbi Steroidogenic enzyme P450c17 is expressed in the embryonic central nervous system
    N A Compagnone
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Endocrinology 136:5212-23. 1995
    ....
  23. ncbi Abl-interactor-1, a novel SH3 protein binding to the carboxy-terminal portion of the Abl protein, suppresses v-abl transforming activity
    Y Shi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA
    Genes Dev 9:2583-97. 1995
    ..We suggest that the Abi-1 protein may serve as a regulator of Abl function in transformation or in signal transduction...
  24. ncbi Limb and kidney defects in Lmx1b mutant mice suggest an involvement of LMX1B in human nail patella syndrome
    H Chen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, U T M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Nat Genet 19:51-5. 1998
    ..Our results demonstrate an essential function for Lmx1b in mouse limb and kidney development and suggest that NPS might result from mutations in the human LMX1B gene...
  25. ncbi Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice
    M S Szczypka
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Neuron 22:167-78. 1999
    ..TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior...
  26. pmc Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity
    R C Alaniz
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:2274-8. 1999
    ..We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead...
  27. ncbi GFR alpha3, a component of the artemin receptor, is required for migration and survival of the superior cervical ganglion
    J Nishino
    Division of Molecular Biology, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan
    Neuron 23:725-36. 1999
    ..These observations suggest that GFR alpha3-mediated signaling is required both for the rostral migration of SCG precursors and for the survival of mature SCG neurons...
  28. pmc Dopamine controls the firing pattern of dopamine neurons via a network feedback mechanism
    Carlos A Paladini
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2866-71. 2003
    ..These data suggest that endogenously released dopamine plays a critical role in the afferent control of dopamine neuron bursting activity and that this control is exerted via a network feedback mechanism...
  29. ncbi Peptides that regulate food intake: norepinephrine is not required for reduction of feeding induced by cholecystokinin
    C Matson Cannon
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7370, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R1384-8. 2003
    ..NE) is necessary for satiety induced by peripheral CCK-8 by using mice lacking dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh(-/-)), the enzyme responsible for synthesizing NE and epinephrine from dopamine...
  30. ncbi The role of dopamine in learning, memory, and performance of a water escape task
    Victor H Denenberg
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Box 357370, Seattle, WA 98195 7370, USA
    Behav Brain Res 148:73-8. 2004
    ....
  31. ncbi Endogenous neurotensin attenuates dopamine-dependent locomotion and stereotypy
    Elena H Chartoff
    Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Brain Res 1022:71-80. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi Hand2 is necessary for terminal differentiation of enteric neurons from crest-derived precursors but not for their migration into the gut or for formation of glia
    Fabien D'Autréaux
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, P and S, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Development 134:2237-49. 2007
    ..We suggest that enteric neuronal development occurs in stages and that Hand2 expression is required for terminal differentiation but not for precursors to enter the neuronal lineage...
  33. ncbi Insm1 (IA-1) is a crucial component of the transcriptional network that controls differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal lineage
    Hendrik Wildner
    Max Delbrück Centrum for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Development 135:473-81. 2008
    ..of sympatho-adrenal precursors, as assessed by the expression of neuronal subtype-specific genes such as Th and Dbh, is delayed in a pronounced manner, which is accompanied by a reduced proliferation...
  34. pmc Regulation of gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase- and CRH-knockout mice exposed to stress
    Richard Kvetnansky
    Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Centre of Excellence CENDO, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1148:257-68. 2008
    Norepinephrine-deficient mice harbor a disruption of the gene for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH-KO). Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout mice (CRH-KO) have markedly reduced HPA activity...
  35. doi Increased basement membrane thickness, pericyte ghosts, and loss of retinal thickness and cells in dopamine beta hydroxylase knockout mice
    Jena J Steinle
    Departments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Exp Eye Res 88:1014-9. 2009
    ..To test this, retinas from non-diabetic dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh, Dbh(-/-)) knockout mice and their littermate controls were assessed for diabetic-like capillary ..
  36. pmc Insm1 (IA-1) is an essential component of the regulatory network that specifies monoaminergic neuronal phenotypes in the vertebrate hindbrain
    John Jacob
    MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 136:2477-85. 2009
    ..Thus, Insm1 regulates the synthesis of distinct monoaminergic neurotransmitters by acting combinatorially with, or independently of, Ascl1 in specific monoaminergic populations...
  37. doi Bmp5/7 in concert with the mid-hindbrain organizer control development of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons
    Hadas Tilleman
    Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Department of Morphology, Division of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be er Sheva, Israel
    Mol Cell Neurosci 45:1-11. 2010
    ..In addition, we conclude that the position of the mid-hindbrain organizer determines the size of the LC and propose that Bmp5/7 play an important role in mediating this organizer function...
  38. pmc The slow afterhyperpolarization: a target of β1-adrenergic signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval
    Lei Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6084, USA
    J Neurosci 33:5006-16. 2013
    ....
  39. pmc Twist1 controls a cell-specification switch governing cell fate decisions within the cardiac neural crest
    Joshua W Vincentz
    Riley Heart Research Center, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Division of Pediatrics Cardiology, Departments of Anatomy, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003405. 2013
    ..These data demonstrate that Twist1 functions in post-migratory neural crest cells to repress pro-neural factors and thereby regulate cell fate determination between ectodermal and mesodermal lineages...
  40. pmc Loss of Hand2 in a population of Periostin lineage cells results in pronounced bradycardia and neonatal death
    Nathan J Vandusen
    Riley Heart Research Center, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Departments of Pediatrics and Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1044 West Walnut Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202 5225, USA
    Dev Biol 388:149-58. 2014
    ..In both cases, Hand2 loss-of-function dramatically reduces expression of Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase (Dbh), a gene encoding a crucial catecholaminergic biosynthetic enzyme...
  41. pmc Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during mouse adrenal gland development
    Lorise C Gahring
    Salt Lake City VA Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e103861. 2014
    ..by their progressive increase in the co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that is complete by E18.5...
  42. ncbi The bHLH protein NEUROGENIN 2 is a determination factor for epibranchial placode-derived sensory neurons
    C Fode
    IGBMC, CNRS INSERM Universite Louis Pasteur, Illkirch, C U de Strasbourg, France
    Neuron 20:483-94. 1998
    ..Interestingly, the homeobox gene Phox2a is activated independently of ngn2 in epibranchial placodes, suggesting that neuronal fate and neuronal subtype identity may be specified independently in cranial sensory ganglia...
  43. ncbi Gata3 loss leads to embryonic lethality due to noradrenaline deficiency of the sympathetic nervous system
    K C Lim
    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA
    Nat Genet 25:209-12. 2000
    ..find here that null mutation of Gata3 leads to reduced accumulation of Th (encoding tyrosine hydroxylase, Th) and Dbh (dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dbh) mRNA, whereas several other SNS genes are unaffected...
  44. pmc Firing properties of dopamine neurons in freely moving dopamine-deficient mice: effects of dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia
    Siobhan Robinson
    Neurobiology and Behavior Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:13329-34. 2004
    ..These data suggest that restoration of endogenous dopamine signaling activates hypersensitive long-loop feedback pathways that serve to limit dopamine release and underscore the importance of recording from awake animals...
  45. pmc Pontine norepinephrine defects in Mecp2-null mice involve deficient expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase but not a loss of catecholaminergic neurons
    Xiaoli Zhang
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, 24 Peachtree Center Avenue, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 394:285-90. 2010
    ..deficiency in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has been demonstrated, it is possible that dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the critical enzyme converting dopamine to NE, is also affected...
  46. pmc A Phox2- and Hand2-dependent Hand1 cis-regulatory element reveals a unique gene dosage requirement for Hand2 during sympathetic neurogenesis
    Joshua W Vincentz
    Riley Heart Research Center, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Anatomy, Indiana Medical School, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 5225, USA
    J Neurosci 32:2110-20. 2012
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that Hand1 is dispensable for normal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) expression in sympathetic neurons, even when Hand2 gene dosage is concurrently reduced by half...
  47. pmc Developmental expression of orphan G protein-coupled receptor 50 in the mouse brain
    Ellen Grünewald
    Medical Genetics Section, University of Edinburgh, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Molecular Medicine Centre, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH2 4XU, United Kingdom
    ACS Chem Neurosci 3:459-72. 2012
    ..With this study, we identify a link between GPR50 and neurotransmitter signaling and strengthen a likely role in stress response and energy homeostasis...
  48. pmc Developmental origins of central norepinephrine neuron diversity
    Sabrina D Robertson
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Neurosci 16:1016-23. 2013
    ....
  49. pmc Formation of brainstem (nor)adrenergic centers and first-order relay visceral sensory neurons is dependent on homeodomain protein Rnx/Tlx3
    Y Qian
    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 15:2533-45. 2001
    ....
  50. ncbi A mutation in the ATP7B copper transporter causes reduced dopamine beta-hydroxylase and norepinephrine in mouse adrenal
    Vincent Gerbasi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Neurochem Res 28:867-73. 2003
    ..One cuproprotein, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) functions in the biosynthesis of norepinephrine and epinephrine, neurohormones in endocrine and nervous tissue...
  51. ncbi Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART
    Florent Elefteriou
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 434:514-20. 2005
    ..Our study establishes that leptin-regulated neural pathways control both aspects of bone remodelling, and demonstrates that integrity of sympathetic signalling is necessary for the increase in bone resorption caused by gonadal failure...
  52. doi In vivo role for CREB signaling in the noradrenergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons
    Roland Rüdiger
    RG Developmental Neurobiology, Department Neurochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Deutschordenstr 46, D 60528 Frankfurt M, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 42:142-51. 2009
    ..development proceeds normally in CREB-deficient mouse embryos, a decrease in noradrenergic differentiation (TH, DBH) was observed in chick sympathetic ganglia in response to ACREB, a dominant-negative CREB variant which interferes ..
  53. pmc Redundant catecholamine signaling consolidates fear memory via phospholipase C
    Ming Ouyang
    Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Graduate Group, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6084, USA
    J Neurosci 32:1932-41. 2012
    ..The results support recent evidence indicating that blocking β-adrenergic receptors alone shortly after trauma may not be sufficient to prevent PTSD...
  54. doi Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart
    Candice Baker
    Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 423:536-41. 2012
    ..model where adrenergic hormone production was blocked due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene...
  55. pmc Physiological and genomic consequences of adrenergic deficiency during embryonic/fetal development in mice: impact on retinoic acid metabolism
    Kingsley Osuala
    Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida 32827, USA
    Physiol Genomics 44:934-47. 2012
    ..To perform this study, we used a mouse model with targeted disruption of the Dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene, whose product is responsible for enzymatic conversion of dopamine into norepinephrine...
  56. pmc Autonomic neurocristopathy-associated mutations in PHOX2B dysregulate Sox10 expression
    Mayumi Nagashimada
    Laboratory for Neuronal Differentiation and Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
    J Clin Invest 122:3145-58. 2012
    ..mutation of PHOX2B reduced transactivation of wild-type PHOX2B on its known target, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), in a dominant-negative fashion...
  57. pmc Severe stress switches CRF action in the nucleus accumbens from appetitive to aversive
    Julia C Lemos
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 490:402-6. 2012
    ..Thus, the current findings offer a biological substrate for the switch in affect which is central to stress-induced depressive disorders...
  58. pmc The transcription factor Hmx1 and growth factor receptor activities control sympathetic neurons diversification
    Alessandro Furlan
    Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    EMBO J 32:1613-25. 2013
    ....
  59. ncbi Genetic linkage analysis of the Ak1, Col5a1, Epb7.2, Fpgs, Grp78, Pbx3, and Notch1 genes in the region of mouse chromosome 2 homologous to human chromosome 9q
    A Pilz
    Department of Genetics and Biometry, University College London, United Kingdom
    Genomics 21:104-9. 1994
    ..The consensus gene order deduced by combining data from both crosses is D2Mit1-(Dbh,Notch1)-(Col5a1,Rxra)-Spna2-Ab l-(Ak1,Fpgs)- (Grp78,Pbx3)-(Epb7.2,Hc,Gsn)-Acra...
  60. pmc Chromosomal localization of the proteasome Z subunit gene reveals an ancient chromosomal duplication involving the major histocompatibility complex
    M Kasahara
    Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:9096-101. 1996
    ..3 and 9q33-q34). These observations have implications in understanding the genomic organization of the present-day MHC and offer insights into the origin of the MHC...
  61. ncbi The isolation and mapping of PCR markers specific to mouse Chromosome 2
    S Malas
    Department of Genetics and Biometry, University College London, UK
    Mamm Genome 7:145-8. 1996
  62. ncbi The expression pattern of the transcription factor Phox2 delineates synaptic pathways of the autonomic nervous system
    M C Tiveron
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille, Centre National dela Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université de la Mediterranée, Marseille, France
    J Neurosci 16:7649-60. 1996
    ..e., that of the medullary control reflexes of autonomic functions. This suggests that Phox2 could be involved in the establishment of these circuits...
  63. ncbi Norepinephrine facilitates the development of the murine sweat response but is not essential
    A T Tafari
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7370, USA
    J Neurosci 17:4275-81. 1997
    ..We tested this hypothesis in vivo using dopamine beta-hydroxylase-deficient mice (DBH -/-), which are unable to synthesize NE and epinephrine, and tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient mice (TH -/-), which ..
  64. ncbi Expression and interactions of the two closely related homeobox genes Phox2a and Phox2b during neurogenesis
    A Pattyn
    Laboratoire de Genetique et Physiologie du Developpement, Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille, CNRS Inserm Université de la Méditerranée, France
    Development 124:4065-75. 1997
    ..This suggests that Phox2b links early patterning events to the differentiation of defined neuronal populations in the hindbrain...
  65. ncbi Impaired maternal behavior in mice lacking norepinephrine and epinephrine
    S A Thomas
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Cell 91:583-92. 1997
    ..NE) and epinephrine in behavior were investigated by targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene, thereby eliminating these compounds in vivo...
  66. ncbi Dopamine-stimulated sexual behavior is testosterone dependent in mice
    M S Szczypka
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7370, USA
    Behav Neurosci 112:1229-35. 1998
    ..In addition, replacement of testosterone to castrated males showed that the testosterone-responsive pathways of DA-/- males were more sensitive to testosterone than wild-type mice...
  67. ncbi Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 control dorsoventral patterns of neuronal development in the rostral hindbrain
    M Davenne
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Louis Pasteur, College de France, Strasbourg
    Neuron 22:677-91. 1999
    ....
  68. ncbi Impaired extrapyramidal function caused by the targeted disruption of retinoid X receptor RXRgamma1 isoform
    Y Saga
    Banyu Tsukuba Research Institute Merck Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 300 33 Japan
    Genes Cells 4:219-28. 1999
    ..In contrast to the widespread expression of RXRalpha and RXRbeta, the expression of RXRgamma is restricted to particular tissues in which RXRgamma1 is the major isoform expressed in the mouse corpus striatum...
  69. pmc Feeding behavior in dopamine-deficient mice
    M S Szczypka
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7370, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:12138-43. 1999
    ..Therefore, DA-/- mice can execute behaviors necessary to seek and ingest food, but they do not eat enough to survive...
  70. ncbi Ethanol-associated behaviors of mice lacking norepinephrine
    D Weinshenker
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 20:3157-64. 2000
    ..to determine the effect of NE depletion on ethanol-mediated behaviors by using dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that specifically lack the ability to synthesize NE...
  71. ncbi Dopamine is required for hyperphagia in Lep(ob/ob) mice
    M S Szczypka
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Box 357370, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Genet 25:102-4. 2000
    ..Dopamine-deficient mice (Dbh(Th/+), Th-/-; hereafter DD mice) cannot synthesize dopamine in dopaminergic neurons...
  72. ncbi Role of the target in the pathfinding of facial visceral motor axons
    J Jacob
    MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King s College, Guy s Campus, 4th floor New Hunt s House, London, SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Neurosci 16:14-26. 2000
    ..Moreover, the absence of correct facial visceral motor pathways was concomitant with defects in the pathfinding of rostrally-projecting sympathetic axons...
  73. ncbi Dopamine production in the caudate putamen restores feeding in dopamine-deficient mice
    M S Szczypka
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and, Department of Biochemistry, Box 357370, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Neuron 30:819-28. 2001
    ..These data suggest that a fundamental difference exists between feeding for sustenance and the ability to prefer rewarding substances...
  74. ncbi Use of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-deficient mice to determine the role of norepinephrine in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs
    J F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6084, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 298:651-7. 2001
    ..that are unable to synthesize NE and epinephrine due to targeted disruption of the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene (Dbh)...
  75. ncbi Important role of endogenous norepinephrine and epinephrine in the development of in vivo pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy
    A Rapacciuolo
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 38:876-82. 2001
    ..We sought to define the role of norepinephrine and epinephrine in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and to determine whether the absence of circulating catecholamines alters the activation of downstream myocardial signaling pathways...
  76. ncbi Genetic comparison of seizure control by norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y
    D Weinshenker
    Departments of Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Biochemistry, Clinical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 21:7764-9. 2001
    ..NPY knock-out (NPY KO) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (DBH KO) mice that lack NE are susceptible to seizures, and agonists of NE and NPY receptors protect against seizures...
  77. ncbi Role of catecholamine signaling in brain and nervous system functions: new insights from mouse molecular genetic study
    K Kobayashi
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 6:115-21. 2001
    ....
  78. ncbi Genetic alterations that inhibit in vivo pressure-overload hypertrophy prevent cardiac dysfunction despite increased wall stress
    Giovanni Esposito
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Circulation 105:85-92. 2002
    ..Epidemiological data, however, have shown that cardiac hypertrophy is associated with increased mortality, thus casting doubt on the validity of this hypothesis...
  79. pmc Adenosine receptor blockade reverses hypophagia and enhances locomotor activity of dopamine-deficient mice
    Douglas S Kim
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7275, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1346-51. 2003
    ..This study of a genetic model of dopamine depletion provides evidence that A(2A) receptor antagonists could ameliorate the hypokinetic symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease patients without inducing excessive motor activity...
  80. pmc FGFR1 is independently required in both developing mid- and hindbrain for sustained response to isthmic signals
    Ras Trokovic
    Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    EMBO J 22:1811-23. 2003
    ..In addition, FGFR1 appears to modify cell adhesion properties critical for maintaining a coherent organizing center. This may be achieved by regulating expression of specific cell-adhesion molecules at the midbrain-hindbrain border...
  81. ncbi Crucial role of TrkB ligands in the survival and phenotypic differentiation of developing locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons
    Pontus C Holm
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm S 171 77, Sweden
    Development 130:3535-45. 2003
    ..In summary, our findings suggest that, unlike NT3 and GDNF, TrkB ligands are required and sufficient to promote the development of central noradrenergic neurons...
  82. ncbi Norepinephrine and epinephrine-deficient mice are hyperinsulinemic and have lower blood glucose
    Linda Ste Marie
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Endocrinology 144:4427-32. 2003
    ..The absence of NE and Epi in dopamine beta-hydroxylase-null (Dbh-/-) mice results in chronically low blood glucose levels, an impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia, and ..
  83. ncbi Dbh(-/-) mice are hypotensive, have altered circadian rhythms, and have abnormal responses to dieting and stress
    Steven J Swoap
    Department of Biology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286:R108-13. 2004
    We used mice deficient in dopamine beta-hydroxylase [Dbh(-/-)] and their littermate controls [Dbh(+/-)] to examine the role of epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in the maintenance of cardiovascular parameters during 7 days of ..
  84. ncbi MafB deficiency causes defective respiratory rhythmogenesis and fatal central apnea at birth
    Bruno Blanchi
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, CNRS INSERM Université Mediterrané, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France
    Nat Neurosci 6:1091-100. 2003
    ..Our results show an essential role of MafB in central respiratory control, possibly involving the specification of rhythmogenic preBötC neurons...
  85. ncbi Reward without dopamine
    Claire Matson Cannon
    Department of Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7370, USA
    J Neurosci 23:10827-31. 2003
    ..Thus, DA is not required for mice to learn to consume sweet solutions preferentially. We conclude that DA is not required to find the sweet tastes of sucrose or saccharin rewarding...
  86. pmc Norepinephrine-deficient mice lack responses to antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    John F Cryan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8186-91. 2004
    ..to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine due to targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene, Dbh, were used to critically test roles for NE in mediating acute behavioral changes elicited by different classes of ..
  87. ncbi Altered sleep latency and arousal regulation in mice lacking norepinephrine
    Melissa S Hunsley
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Box 357370, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7370, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 78:765-73. 2004
    ..The results presented here suggest that NE promotes wakefulness during transitions between sleep and wake under conditions involving mild stress and SD, but not under baseline circumstances...
  88. ncbi Norepinephrine regulates hepatic innate immune system in leptin-deficient mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Zhiping Li
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Hepatology 40:434-41. 2004
    ..In conclusion, low NE activity increases hepatic NKT cell apoptosis and depletes liver NKT cells, promoting proinflammatory polarization of hepatic cytokine production that sensitizes the liver to LPS toxicity...
  89. ncbi Vlgr1 knockout mice show audiogenic seizure susceptibility
    Hideshi Yagi
    Division of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Department of Morphological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Japan
    J Neurochem 92:191-202. 2005
    ..Our monogenic mice, which have a unique genetic background, serve as a useful tool for further studies on seizures...
  90. ncbi Adrenergic catecholamine trophic activity contributes to flow-mediated arterial remodeling
    Cauveh Erami
    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, 474 MSRB, Univ of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7545, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289:H744-53. 2005
    ..wild-type mice or mice deficient in norepinephrine and epinephrine synthesis [dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (DBH-KO)], all distal branches of the left carotid artery (LC) except the thyroid artery were ligated to reduce flow in ..
  91. ncbi Genetic reduction of noradrenergic function alters social memory and reduces aggression in mice
    Melissa D Marino
    Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Behav Brain Res 161:197-203. 2005
    ..We tested dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that lack NA in various social behavior paradigms...
  92. ncbi Norepinephrine- and epinephrine-deficient mice gain weight normally on a high-fat diet
    Linda Ste Marie
    Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Box 357370, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Obes Res 13:1518-22. 2005
    ..one would predict that mice unable to make NE/Epi because of inactivation of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene (Dbh-null mice) would have a propensity to become obese...
  93. pmc Reciprocal gene replacements reveal unique functions for Phox2 genes during neural differentiation
    Eva Coppola
    TIGEM Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Napoli, Italy, and MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King s College Guy s Campus, London, UK
    EMBO J 24:4392-403. 2005
    ..Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that biochemical differences between the proteins rather than temporal regulation of their expression account for the specific function of each paralogue...
  94. ncbi Morphine reward in dopamine-deficient mice
    Thomas S Hnasko
    Graduate Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 438:854-7. 2005
    ....
  95. ncbi Delays in neuronal differentiation in Mash1/Ascl1 mutants
    Alexandre Pattyn
    CNRS UMR 8542, Departement de Biologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75005 Paris, France
    Dev Biol 295:67-75. 2006
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that the acceleration imposed by Mash1, regardless of the production of post-mitotic cells, affects differentiation itself, both generic and type-specific...
  96. pmc Cre recombinase-mediated restoration of nigrostriatal dopamine in dopamine-deficient mice reverses hypophagia and bradykinesia
    Thomas S Hnasko
    Graduate Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Biochemistry, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8858-63. 2006
    ..This approach offers numerous advantages compared with previous models aimed at examining dopamine signaling in discrete dopaminergic circuits...
  97. ncbi Neural crest-specific removal of Zfhx1b in mouse leads to a wide range of neurocristopathies reminiscent of Mowat-Wilson syndrome
    Tom Van de Putte
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology Celgen, KULeuven, Herestraat 49, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Hum Mol Genet 16:1423-36. 2007
    ....
  98. pmc Norepinephrine loss produces more profound motor deficits than MPTP treatment in mice
    K S Rommelfanger
    Department of Human Genetics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13804-9. 2007
    ..a battery of coordinated movement tests and examining motor deficits in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE altogether...
  99. pmc Peripheral circadian clock rhythmicity is retained in the absence of adrenergic signaling
    Dermot F Reilly
    Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6084, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:121-6. 2008
    ..Molecular clocks have been described in the heart and the vasculature; however it is largely unknown how the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) entrains these peripheral oscillators...
  100. pmc Norepinephrine controls both torpor initiation and emergence via distinct mechanisms in the mouse
    Steven J Swoap
    Department of Biology, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e4038. 2008
    ..We previously showed that dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), do not reduce circulating leptin upon fasting nor do they enter torpor...
  101. pmc Dopamine is necessary for cue-dependent fear conditioning
    Jonathan P Fadok
    Graduate Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 29:11089-97. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that DA acting on multiple receptor subtypes within multiple target regions facilitates the stabilization of fear memory...

Research Grants8

  1. TRH in mediating the bradycardia of caloric restriction
    Steven Swoap; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The mice to be used in this proposal will be lacking an intact sympathetic nervous system (Dbh-/-), lacking parasympathetic nervous system to the heart (M2R-/-), hypothyroid, and lacking the neurotransmitter, ..
  2. Disulfiram, DBH, and cocaine-induced anxiety
    David Weinshenker; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts DA to NE in noradrenegic cells, thus controlling the abundance of both NE and DA in the brain...
  3. Role of dopamine D1 receptors in morphine withdrawal
    Elena Chartoff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This work may lead to new pharmacotherapies that can alleviate aversive and dysphoric states associated with opiate withdrawal and perhaps reduce relapse to drug taking. ..
  4. Modeling genetically controlled DBH activity in mice
    David Weinshenker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons, adrenergic neurons, and adrenal chromaffin cells...
  5. A Rodent Model of Epilepsy and Depression Co-morbidity
    David Weinshenker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Completion of these aims will develop animal models with which to study epilepsy and depression comorbidity and lay the groundwork for identification of genes that contribute to both diseases. ..
  6. Cellular Mechanisms in Cocaine Self-Administration
    CARLOS PALADINI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Recordings from yoked-controls will also be used. Intracranial microinjections will also be used to determine whether the mGluR response can control cocaine self-administration. ..
  7. Consequences of repeated kappa receptor activation on brain stimulation reward
    Elena Chartoff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Mechanism of Disulfiram-Induced Cocaine Abstinence
    David Weinshenker; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The enzyme dopamine (3-hydroxylase(DBH) converts DA to NE in noradrenegic cells, thus controlling the abundanceof both NE and DA in the brain...