Cr2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Cr2
Description: complement receptor 2
Alias: C3DR, CD21, CD35, Cr-1, Cr-2, Cr1, complement receptor type 2, complement C3d receptor, complement receptor type 1, expressed in B lymphocytes
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. pmc Markedly impaired humoral immune response in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2
    H Molina
    Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3357-61. 1996
  2. ncbi Expression of human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) in Cr2-/- mice restores humoral immune function
    K J Marchbank
    Division of Rheumatology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 165:2354-61. 2000
  3. ncbi Identification of chromosome intervals from 129 and C57BL/6 mouse strains linked to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus
    Y Heidari
    Molecular Genetics and Rheumatology Section, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
    Genes Immun 7:592-9. 2006
  4. pmc Follicular shuttling of marginal zone B cells facilitates antigen transport
    Guy Cinamon
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:54-62. 2008
  5. doi Modulation of murine complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) ectodomain shedding by its cytoplasmic domain
    Melanie M Hoefer
    Biotechnology Institute Thurgau, 8280 Kreuzlingen, Switzerland
    Mol Immunol 45:2127-37. 2008
  6. ncbi Monoclonal antibodies to mouse complement receptor type 1 (CR1). Their use in a distribution study showing that mouse erythrocytes and platelets are CR1-negative
    T Kinoshita
    Department of Bacteriology, Osaka University Medical School, Japan
    J Immunol 140:3066-72. 1988
  7. pmc The absence of IgE antibody-mediated augmentation of immune responses in CD23-deficient mice
    H Fujiwara
    Research Institute, Osaka Medical Center for Maternal and Child Health, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:6835-9. 1994
  8. ncbi Mouse complement receptors type 1 (CR1;CD35) and type 2 (CR2;CD21): expression on normal B cell subpopulations and decreased levels during the development of autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice
    K Takahashi
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Immunol 159:1557-69. 1997
  9. ncbi A critical role for complement in maintenance of self-tolerance
    A P Prodeus
    The Center for Blood Research, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 9:721-31. 1998
  10. pmc Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement
    A F Ochsenbein
    Institute for Experimental Immunology, University Hospital, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 190:1165-74. 1999

Scientific Experts

  • Liudmila Kulik
  • Rickard Pf Lindblom
  • Michael A Flierl
  • Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda
  • Mark Zabel
  • Adrian Erlebacher
  • Delisa Fairweather
  • Taras Lyubchenko
  • KENJI MASON CUNNION
  • Karsten Kretschmer
  • SUSAN BOACKLE
  • Marulasiddappa Suresh
  • Ziya Kaya
  • A F Ochsenbein
  • Manfred Kopf
  • Michael C Carroll
  • John H Weis
  • Amanda C Jacobson
  • V Michael Holers
  • Janis J Weis
  • Christian Rutemark
  • Tri Giang Phan
  • Stephen Tomlinson
  • Karen M Haas
  • M C Carroll
  • Carl Atkinson
  • Ming Zhang
  • Joerg Rossbacher
  • H Molina
  • Birgitta Heyman
  • Kirstin M Roundy
  • Jason G Cyster
  • Robert A Barrington
  • V M Holers
  • Cristina Fernandez-Arias
  • Luke R Donius
  • Joseph F Bower
  • Laura Castagnaro
  • Thomas F Tedder
  • Sherry D Fleming
  • Anna Bergman
  • Joel Kaye
  • Andrew Getahun
  • Maiko Moriyama
  • Hideharu Sekine
  • Keith M Woods
  • Santi Suryani
  • Z Chen
  • Kevin J Marchbank
  • Nirmal K Banda
  • F Carlsson
  • Reina E Mebius
  • Olga Pozdnyakova
  • Koichi Yanaba
  • Ramon Roozendaal
  • Mark F Vondenhoff
  • Almut Meyer-Bahlburg
  • Kristine A Kuhn
  • Melanie M Hoefer
  • Daniel Ricklin
  • Guy Cinamon
  • Hector Molina
  • David Depoil
  • Eszter Molnar
  • Ichiro Shimizu
  • Stewart T Moran
  • Irina Debnath
  • Minghe Ma
  • Andrew M Knight
  • Laura Mandik-Nayak
  • Panayiotis Victoratos
  • Y Heidari
  • R J Quigg
  • Georg Pongratz
  • Kazue Takahashi
  • Hongbin Song
  • Fei Qiao
  • Lena Erlandsson
  • Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Klaus Rajewsky
  • Yifang Chen
  • Marat B Alimzhanov
  • Anna Erdei
  • Lorenzo Benatuil
  • Dominique Gatto
  • Ted M Ross
  • Christopher J Del Nagro
  • Shangkui Xie
  • Harald Illges
  • Z Qian

Detail Information

Publications123 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Markedly impaired humoral immune response in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2
    H Molina
    Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3357-61. 1996
    Complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) have been implicated as regulators of B-cell activation...
  2. ncbi Expression of human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) in Cr2-/- mice restores humoral immune function
    K J Marchbank
    Division of Rheumatology, Departments of Medicine and Immunology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    J Immunol 165:2354-61. 2000
    b>Complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) is expressed by both human and murine B cells and has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the humoral immune response...
  3. ncbi Identification of chromosome intervals from 129 and C57BL/6 mouse strains linked to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus
    Y Heidari
    Molecular Genetics and Rheumatology Section, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, London, UK
    Genes Immun 7:592-9. 2006
    ..They also indicate that some susceptibility genes can be inherited from the genome of non-autoimmune parental strains...
  4. pmc Follicular shuttling of marginal zone B cells facilitates antigen transport
    Guy Cinamon
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:54-62. 2008
    ..Marginal zone-follicle shuttling of marginal zone B cells provides an efficient mechanism for systemic antigen capture and delivery to follicular dendritic cells...
  5. doi Modulation of murine complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) ectodomain shedding by its cytoplasmic domain
    Melanie M Hoefer
    Biotechnology Institute Thurgau, 8280 Kreuzlingen, Switzerland
    Mol Immunol 45:2127-37. 2008
    ..The extracellular domain of the human complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is released by proteolytic cleavage as a soluble protein through a variety of stimuli including the thiol ..
  6. ncbi Monoclonal antibodies to mouse complement receptor type 1 (CR1). Their use in a distribution study showing that mouse erythrocytes and platelets are CR1-negative
    T Kinoshita
    Department of Bacteriology, Osaka University Medical School, Japan
    J Immunol 140:3066-72. 1988
    mAb to murine C receptor type 1 (CR1) were produced and three of them were characterized...
  7. pmc The absence of IgE antibody-mediated augmentation of immune responses in CD23-deficient mice
    H Fujiwara
    Research Institute, Osaka Medical Center for Maternal and Child Health, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:6835-9. 1994
    ..Germinal center formation after immunization and in vitro proliferative response of B cells were not affected in mutant mice. However, antigen-specific IgE-mediated enhancement of antibody responses was severely impaired...
  8. ncbi Mouse complement receptors type 1 (CR1;CD35) and type 2 (CR2;CD21): expression on normal B cell subpopulations and decreased levels during the development of autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice
    K Takahashi
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Immunol 159:1557-69. 1997
    Human complement receptors type 1 (hCR1;CD35) and type 2 (hCR2;CD21) are expressed on B lymphocytes at specific stages during differentiation and activation...
  9. ncbi A critical role for complement in maintenance of self-tolerance
    A P Prodeus
    The Center for Blood Research, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 9:721-31. 1998
    ..We find that self-reactive B lymphocytes deficient in complement receptors CD21/CD35 or transferred into mice deficient in the complement protein C4 are not anergized by soluble self-antigen...
  10. pmc Protective T cell-independent antiviral antibody responses are dependent on complement
    A F Ochsenbein
    Institute for Experimental Immunology, University Hospital, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 190:1165-74. 1999
    ..Neutralizing IgM and IgG antibody responses were largely independent of CR2-mediated stimulation of B cells when mice were infected with live virus...
  11. ncbi Humoral immune responses in Cr2-/- mice: enhanced affinity maturation but impaired antibody persistence
    Z Chen
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 164:4522-32. 2000
    Deficiency in CD21/CD35 by disruption of the Cr2 loci leads to impaired humoral immune responses...
  12. ncbi Antibody production in mice deficient for complement receptors 1 and 2 can be induced by IgG/Ag and IgE/Ag, but not IgM/Ag complexes
    S E Applequist
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Immunol 165:2398-403. 2000
    Deficiencies in C factors C2, C3, or C4 as well as lack of C receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) lead to impaired Ab production...
  13. ncbi A role for the Cr2 gene in modifying autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus
    Xiaobo Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Immunol 169:1587-92. 2002
    ..Recent studies suggest that the Cr2 gene, which encodes for complement receptor (CR)1 and CR2, is important in disease susceptibility...
  14. ncbi Expression of human complement receptor type 2 (CD21) in mice during early B cell development results in a reduction in mature B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia
    Kevin J Marchbank
    Complement Biology Group, Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 169:3526-35. 2002
    Complement receptor (CR) type 2 (CR2/CD21) is normally expressed only during the immature and mature stages of B cell development. In association with CD19, CR2 plays an important role in enhancing mature B cell responses to foreign Ag...
  15. pmc B lymphocyte memory: role of stromal cell complement and FcgammaRIIB receptors
    Robert A Barrington
    Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1189-99. 2002
    To dissect the influence of CD21/CD35 and FcgammaRIIB in antigen retention and humoral memory, we used an adoptive transfer model in which antigen-primed B and T lymphocytes were given to sublethally irradiated wild-type mice or mice ..
  16. ncbi Complement receptors CD21/35 link innate and protective immunity during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by regulating IgG3 antibody responses
    Karen M Haas
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Immunity 17:713-23. 2002
    The CD21/35 receptor provides an important link between innate and adaptive immunity...
  17. ncbi B cells from mice prematurely expressing human complement receptor type 2 are unresponsive to T-dependent antigens
    Louise Birrell
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK
    J Immunol 174:6974-82. 2005
    b>Complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21), in association with CD19, plays an important role in enhancing mature B cell responses to opsonized Ags...
  18. ncbi Subcapsular encounter and complement-dependent transport of immune complexes by lymph node B cells
    Tri Giang Phan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:992-1000. 2007
    ....
  19. pmc Pathogenic natural antibodies recognizing annexin IV are required to develop intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Liudmila Kulik
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80045, USA
    J Immunol 182:5363-73. 2009
    ..These data in toto identify annexin IV as a key ischemia-related target Ag that is recognized by natural Abs in a pathologic process required in vivo to develop intestinal IR injury...
  20. pmc Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and noncognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation
    Tri Giang Phan
    1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco UCSF, California, USA 2 Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Nat Immunol 10:786-93. 2009
    ..Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity...
  21. doi Impaired antibody responses but normal proliferation of specific CD4+ T cells in mice lacking complement receptors 1 and 2
    F Carlsson
    Department of Genetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Scand J Immunol 70:77-84. 2009
    ..One possibility is that C-containing immune complexes are endocytosed via CR2 on B cells and presented to specific CD4+ T cells, which would then proliferate and provide efficient help to ..
  22. pmc Complement receptor 2 is expressed in neural progenitor cells and regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Maiko Moriyama
    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA
    J Neurosci 31:3981-9. 2011
    ..We discovered that complement receptor 2 (CR2), classically known as a coreceptor of the B-lymphocyte antigen receptor, is expressed in adult neural progenitor ..
  23. pmc Requirement for complement in antibody responses is not explained by the classic pathway activator IgM
    Christian Rutemark
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, BMC, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E934-42. 2011
    ..Ab responses were also normal in these animals...
  24. ncbi The murine complement receptor gene family. IV. Alternative splicing of Cr2 gene transcripts predicts two distinct gene products that share homologous domains with both human CR2 and CR1
    C B Kurtz
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    J Immunol 144:3581-91. 1990
    ..w. of 155,307. The first six of these repeats are similar to human CR1 in sequence and organization...
  25. ncbi A molecular and immunochemical characterization of mouse CR2. Evidence for a single gene model of mouse complement receptors 1 and 2
    H Molina
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110
    J Immunol 145:2974-83. 1990
    The relationships between functional, biochemical, and genetic homologues of human and mouse C receptors 1 (CR1) and 2 (CR2) are incompletely understood...
  26. ncbi Disruption of the Cr2 locus results in a reduction in B-1a cells and in an impaired B cell response to T-dependent antigen
    J M Ahearn
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 4:251-62. 1996
    ..This effect is mediated by specific receptors, mCR1 (CD35) and mCR2 (CD21), expressed primarily on B cells and follicular dendritic cells in mice...
  27. ncbi Characterization of C3-binding proteins on mouse neutrophils and platelets
    R J Quigg
    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Immunol 159:2438-44. 1997
    ..These proteins were named C3dR-125 and C3dR-150...
  28. ncbi Impaired affinity maturation in Cr2-/- mice is rescued by adjuvants without improvement in germinal center development
    X Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, and Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Immunol 165:3119-27. 2000
    b>Cr2-/- mice have an impairment in humoral immunity, as shown by the decrease in the Ab titers against T cell-dependent Ags and abnormalities in germinal center formation...
  29. ncbi CD19 can regulate B lymphocyte signal transduction independent of complement activation
    M Hasegawa
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 167:3190-200. 2001
    B lymphocytes are critically regulated by signals transduced through the CD19-CD21 cell surface receptor complex, where complement C3d binding to CD21 supplies an already characterized ligand...
  30. ncbi Complement component C3 promotes T-cell priming and lung migration to control acute influenza virus infection
    Manfred Kopf
    Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Med 8:373-8. 2002
    ..delayed viral clearance and increased viral titers in lung, whereas mice deficient for complement receptors CR1 and CR2 (Cr2-/- mice) cleared the infection normally...
  31. ncbi Identification of sites for distinct DNA binding proteins including Oct-1 and Oct-2 in the Cr2 gene
    S M Christensen
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    J Immunol 148:3610-7. 1992
    The murine Cr2 gene produces two distinct products in a variety of murine cell types...
  32. ncbi Constitutive expression of TNF-alpha and -beta genes in mouse embryo: roles of cytokines as regulator and effector on development
    C Kohchi
    Biotechnology Research Center, Teikyo University, Kanagawa Ken, Japan
    Int J Biochem 26:111-9. 1994
    ..3. The mRNAs of several complement components (C2, C3, C4, C5) and receptors (CR1, CR2) were also detected. Among them, the expression of C3 and CR1 were prominent...
  33. ncbi Mapping the bovine factor H gene to chromosome 16 by SSCP analysis
    J L Williams
    Roslin Institute Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland, UK
    Mamm Genome 8:77-8. 1997
  34. ncbi Evidence for an important interaction between a complement-derived CD21 ligand on follicular dendritic cells and CD21 on B cells in the initiation of IgG responses
    D Qin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298, USA
    J Immunol 161:4549-54. 1998
    ..study, we report evidence supporting the concept that FDC bear a ligand that engages complement receptor II (CR2 or CD21) on B cells and provides a critical cosignal for both Ag-specific and polyclonal responses...
  35. pmc Adenosine deaminase deficiency increases thymic apoptosis and causes defective T cell receptor signaling
    S G Apasov
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 108:131-41. 2001
    ..Experiments with thymocytes ex vivo confirmed that ADA deficiency reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR-associated signaling molecules and blocks TCR-triggered calcium increases...
  36. ncbi CD19 signaling pathways play a major role for murine AIDS induction and progression
    Sonja M Knoetig
    Laboratory of Immunopathology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 5640 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Immunol 169:5607-14. 2002
    ..It is known that BM5def is expressed at highest levels in B cells and that B cells serve as viral APC. The CD19-CD21 complex and CD22 on the surface of B cells play critical roles as regulators of B cell responses to a variety of ..
  37. ncbi Survival of resting mature B lymphocytes depends on BCR signaling via the Igalpha/beta heterodimer
    Manfred Kraus
    New York University, Department of Biology, 1009 Main Building, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Cell 117:787-800. 2004
    ..Kinetic data demonstrate that BCR-less mature B cells have a severely reduced lifespan, with a half-life of 3-6 days. Together these results establish that BCR signaling is required to keep resting mature B cells alive in vivo...
  38. ncbi Antigen localization within the splenic marginal zone restores humoral immune response and IgG class switch in complement C4-deficient mice
    Berit Zachrau
    Institute for Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D 23560 Luebeck, Germany
    Int Immunol 16:1685-90. 2004
    ..a disturbed clearance of IgG immune complexes (ICs) and an insufficient B-cell regulation via complement receptors CD21/CD35 have been discussed as explanations for the induction of autoimmunity; however, a unifying hypothesis for the ..
  39. ncbi A critical role for complement C3d and the B cell coreceptor (CD19/CD21) complex in the initiation of inflammatory arthritis
    Christopher J Del Nagro
    Program of Inflammatory Disease Research, Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, The Burnham Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Immunol 175:5379-89. 2005
    ..the C3d fragment to Ag promotes B lymphocyte activation through coengagment of the BCR and complement receptor 2 (CD21). Signal augmentation is thought to be achieved through enhanced recruitment and activation of CD21-associated CD19...
  40. ncbi The level of IgE produced by a B cell is regulated by norepinephrine in a p38 MAPK- and CD23-dependent manner
    Georg Pongratz
    Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Immunol 177:2926-38. 2006
    ..The beta2AR-induced increase in sCD23 was associated with IgE up-regulation and possibly interacted with CD21/CD19...
  41. pmc Complement receptors 1 and 2 in murine antibody responses to IgM-complexed and uncomplexed sheep erythrocytes
    Christian Rutemark
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 7:e41968. 2012
    ..In this process, complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2), expressed on B cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in mice, play a central role...
  42. pmc Nkx2-5(+)islet1(+) mesenchymal precursors generate distinct spleen stromal cell subsets and participate in restoring stromal network integrity
    Laura Castagnaro
    Division of Molecular Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Immunity 38:782-91. 2013
    ..These findings identify progenitor cells that generate stromal diversity in spleen development and repair and suggest the existence of multipotent stromal progenitors in the adult spleen with regenerative capacity...
  43. pmc A new mouse anti-mouse complement receptor type 2 and 1 (CR2/CR1) monoclonal antibody as a tool to study receptor involvement in chronic models of immune responses and disease
    Liudmila Kulik
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Immunol 63:479-88. 2015
    Although reagents are available to block mouse complement receptor type 2 and/or type 1 (CR2/CR1, CD21/CD35) function in acute or short term models of human disease, a mouse anti-rat antibody response limits their use in chronic models...
  44. pmc Complement receptor 2 is up regulated in the spinal cord following nerve root injury and modulates the spinal cord response
    Rickard P F Lindblom
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuroimmunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neuroinflammation 12:192. 2015
    ..Activation of the complement system has been implicated in both acute and chronic states of neurodegeneration. However, a detailed understanding of this complex network of interacting components is still lacking...
  45. doi The dual role of complement in the progression of renal disease in NZB/W F(1) mice and alternative pathway inhibition
    Hideharu Sekine
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Mol Immunol 49:317-23. 2011
    ..Following onset of proteinuria, mice were injected twice weekly with CR2-fH (inhibits alternative pathway), CR2-Crry (inhibits all pathways at C3 activation step), sCR2 (C3d targeting ..
  46. pmc Malaria inhibits surface expression of complement receptor 1 in monocytes/macrophages, causing decreased immune complex internalization
    Cristina Fernandez-Arias
    Division of Medical Parasitology, Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10010, USA
    J Immunol 190:3363-72. 2013
    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) expressed on the surface of phagocytic cells binds complement-bound immune complexes (IC), playing an important role in the clearance of circulating IC...
  47. pmc Optimal germinal center B cell activation and T-dependent antibody responses require expression of the mouse complement receptor Cr1
    Luke R Donius
    Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    J Immunol 191:434-47. 2013
    ..b>Cr1/2 expression on B cells and FDCs was shown to provide a secondary signal for B cell activation, to facilitate ..
  48. ncbi Gene order and genetic distance of 13 loci spanning murine chromosome 15
    H Hameister
    Abteilung Klinische Genetik, Universitat Ulm, Germany
    Genomics 14:417-22. 1992
    ..Despite the unequal distribution along chromosome 15 of G-versus R-bands, a comparison of distances determined by physical and genetic mapping does not indicate an overt difference in distance between both mapping techniques...
  49. pmc Identification of murine complement receptor type 2
    J D Fingeroth
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:242-6. 1989
    A rabbit antiserum reactive with the human complement component C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor (complement receptor type 2, CR2) immunoprecipitates a Mr 155,000 murine B-cell surface antigen...
  50. ncbi Identification and linkage analyses of a gene, Rcs-1, suppressing spontaneous SJL/J lymphoma expression
    J E Bubbers
    J Natl Cancer Inst 72:441-6. 1984
    ..Thus Rcs-1 is different from three genes linked to these markers and known to influence murine leukemia virus, Fv-4 (chromosome 12), Cv (chromosome 5), and Fgv-1 (chromosome 7)...
  51. pmc Mouse complement regulatory protein Crry/p65 uses the specific mechanisms of both human decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein
    Y U Kim
    Department of Immunoregulation, Osaka University, Japan
    J Exp Med 181:151-9. 1995
    ..We propose that the repeating SCR motif in this family has allowed this unusual process of evolution to occur, perhaps driven by the use of MCP and DAF as receptors by human pathogens such as the measles virus...
  52. ncbi Molecular cloning of rat and mouse membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46): preferential expression in testis and close linkage between the mouse Mcp and Cr2 genes on distal chromosome 1
    T Miwa
    Department of Molecular Biology, Nagoya City University School of Medicine, Nagoya, 467 8601, Japan
    Immunogenetics 48:363-71. 1998
    ..Genetic mapping by linkage analysis indicated that the mouse Mcp gene is located on distal chromosome 1, closely linked to the complement receptor 2 (Cr2) gene.
  53. pmc Expression specificity of the mouse exonuclease 1 (mExo1) gene
    B I Lee
    Molecular and Structural Biology Division, Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, L 452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 9900, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:4114-20. 1999
    ....
  54. pmc Complement C4 inhibits systemic autoimmunity through a mechanism independent of complement receptors CR1 and CR2
    Z Chen
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Exp Med 192:1339-52. 2000
    ..Moreover, deficiencies in C4 or complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/CR2) lead to reduced selection against autoreactive B cells and impaired humoral responses...
  55. ncbi Complement facilitates early prion pathogenesis
    M A Klein
    Institute of Neuropathology, University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse, Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Med 7:488-92. 2001
    ..FDCs trap immune complexes with Fc-gamma receptors and C3d/C4b-opsonized antigens with CD21/CD35 complement receptors. We examined whether these mechanisms participate in peripheral prion pathogenesis...
  56. ncbi The follicular versus marginal zone B lymphocyte cell fate decision is regulated by Aiolos, Btk, and CD21
    A Cariappa
    Cancer Center and, Massachusetts General Hospital and, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Immunity 14:603-15. 2001
    ..maturation of follicular B cells is accompanied by the absence of MZ B lymphocytes and the downregulation of CD21 expression in follicular B cells, all of which depend on the generation of signals via Btk, which is in epistasis ..
  57. ncbi Arthritis critically dependent on innate immune system players
    Hong Ji
    Section on Immunology and Immunogenetics, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Immunity 16:157-68. 2002
    ..We suggest that autoimmune disease, even one that is organ specific, can occur when mobilization of an adaptive immune response results in runaway activation of the innate response...
  58. ncbi Redundant and alternative roles for activating Fc receptors and complement in an antibody-dependent model of autoimmune vitiligo
    Jiri Trcka
    The Swim Across America Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Graduate School of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Immunity 16:861-8. 2002
    ..Thus, either complement or macrophages expressing activating Fc gamma R can independently and alternatively mediate disease in a model of autoimmune vitiligo...
  59. ncbi Impaired antibody response to group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide in C3- and complement receptor 2-deficient mice
    Olga Pozdnyakova
    Department of Pathology, Center for Blood Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 170:84-90. 2003
    ..in the humoral immune response to type III GBS capsular polysaccharide (III-PS), mice deficient in C3 or in CD21/CD35 (i.e., complement receptors 1 and 2; CR1/CR2) were immunized with III-PS...
  60. ncbi Complement component 3 is required for optimal expansion of CD8 T cells during a systemic viral infection
    M Suresh
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    J Immunol 170:788-94. 2003
    ..Studies in complement receptor 1/2 (CR1/CR2)-deficient mice showed that regulation of LCMV-specific CD8 T cell responses by C3 is not dependent upon CR1/..
  61. pmc A role for complement in feedback enhancement of antibody responses by IgG3
    Teresita Díaz de Ståhl
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Exp Med 197:1183-90. 2003
    ..significantly impaired in mice depleted of complement factor C3 and in mice lacking complement receptors 1 and 2 (Cr2-/-)...
  62. ncbi The role of complement receptors in production of antibodies specific for Galalpha1,3Gal
    Joel Kaye
    Transplantation Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, MGH East, Building 149, 13th Street, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Transplantation 77:314-6. 2004
    ..Similarly, pretreatment of GT-/- mice with a blocking antibody to CD21 and CD35 inhibited production of alphaGal-reactive antibodies after immunization...
  63. ncbi Distinct sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of complement receptor 2 are involved in antigen internalization and presentation
    Denise V Barrault
    Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    J Immunol 172:3509-17. 2004
    ..One of these receptors, CR2, binds Ags coated with activated complement components...
  64. ncbi Coligation of the B cell receptor with complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21) using its natural ligand C3dg: activation without engagement of an inhibitory signaling pathway
    Taras Lyubchenko
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80220, USA
    J Immunol 174:3264-72. 2005
    ..product of the C3 component of complement that can facilitate the coligation of the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) with the BCR via C3dg/Ag complexes...
  65. ncbi Expression of CR1/2 receptor on alloantigen-stimulated mouse T cells
    Z Qian
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Transplant Proc 37:32-4. 2005
    ..We tested the effects of alloantibodies on CR1/2 expression by alloantigen-stimulated T cells...
  66. ncbi Several genes contribute to the production of autoreactive B and T cells in the murine lupus susceptibility locus Sle1c
    Yifang Chen
    Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Immunol 175:1080-9. 2005
    ..We have proposed that these phenotypes resulted from polymorphisms in the C3 complement receptor Cr2 gene...
  67. ncbi CD21/CD19 coreceptor signaling promotes B cell survival during primary immune responses
    Robert A Barrington
    CBR Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 175:2859-67. 2005
    ..On B cells, coreceptors CD21/CD19 modulate the strength of BCR signals, potentially influencing cell fate...
  68. pmc Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection
    Carl Atkinson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Children s Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:2444-53. 2005
    ..to sites of complement activation by linking an iC3b/C3dg-binding fragment of mouse complement receptor 2 (CR2) to a mouse complement-inhibitory protein, Crry...
  69. ncbi Divergent immunoglobulin g subclass activity through selective Fc receptor binding
    Falk Nimmerjahn
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 310:1510-2. 2005
    ..We suggest that these highly predictable functions assigned by Fc binding will be an important consideration in the design of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines...
  70. ncbi The role of natural IgM in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Ming Zhang
    The CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Inc, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, and Section of Cardiovascular Sciences, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Mol Cell Cardiol 41:62-7. 2006
    ..whether a similar mechanism is involved in myocardial tissues, mice bearing an altered natural IgM repertoire (Cr2-/-) were examined in a murine model of coronary artery ischemia...
  71. pmc Autoreactive marginal zone B cells are spontaneously activated but lymph node B cells require T cell help
    Laura Mandik-Nayak
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1985-98. 2006
    ..Therefore, our study of low affinity autoreactive B cells reveals two distinct but potentially concurrent mechanisms for their activation, of which one is T cell dependent and the other is T cell independent...
  72. pmc B-cell extrinsic CR1/CR2 promotes natural antibody production and tolerance induction of anti-alphaGAL-producing B-1 cells
    Ichiro Shimizu
    Bone Marrow Transplantation Section, Transplantation Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
    Blood 109:1773-81. 2007
    ..Mixed hematopoietic chimerism was induced in alpha1-3galactosyltransferase (GalT-/-) and GalT-/-Cr2-/- mice with alphaGal+ BALB/c marrow donors...
  73. pmc Mice lacking CD21 and CD35 proteins mount effective immune responses against Borrelia burgdorferi infection
    Amanda C Jacobson
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 North Medical Drive East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5650, USA
    Infect Immun 75:2075-8. 2007
    b>CD21/35(-/-) mice, deficient in CD21 and CD35 (complement receptors 2 and 1, respectively), were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi to assess the role of these receptors in a chronic bacterial infection...
  74. pmc Constraints in antigen presentation severely restrict T cell recognition of the allogeneic fetus
    Adrian Erlebacher
    Department of Pathology, Experimental Pathology Program, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:1399-411. 2007
    ..The pronounced degree of T cell ignorance of the fetus also has implications for the pathophysiology of immune-mediated early pregnancy loss...
  75. ncbi Synergism between NF-kappa B1/p50 and Notch2 during the development of marginal zone B lymphocytes
    Stewart T Moran
    Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical Scool, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Immunol 179:195-200. 2007
    ..These studies provide in vivo evidence for a genetic interaction between the Notch and NF-kappaB pathways...
  76. ncbi Stromal complement receptor CD21/35 facilitates lymphoid prion colonization and pathogenesis
    Mark D Zabel
    Institute for Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 179:6144-52. 2007
    We have studied the role of CD21/35, which bind derivatives of complement factors C3 and C4, in extraneural prion replication and neuroinvasion...
  77. ncbi CD19 is essential for B cell activation by promoting B cell receptor-antigen microcluster formation in response to membrane-bound ligand
    David Depoil
    Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Nat Immunol 9:63-72. 2008
    ..of the main constituents of the BCR 'signalosome' and revealed an essential role for CD19, independent of the costimulatory molecule CD21, in amplifying early B cell activation events in response to membrane-bound ligand stimulation.
  78. pmc Characterization of a late transitional B cell population highly sensitive to BAFF-mediated homeostatic proliferation
    Almut Meyer-Bahlburg
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    J Exp Med 205:155-68. 2008
    We have characterized a distinct, late transitional B cell subset, CD21(int) transitional 2 (T2) B cells...
  79. doi Novel roles for murine complement receptors type 1 and 2 I. Regulation of B cell survival and proliferation by CR1/2
    Eszter Molnar
    Department of Immunology, Lorand Eotvos University, Budapest, Hungary
    Immunol Lett 116:156-62. 2008
    ..The proliferative effect is severely impaired in Cr2-/- animals, strengthening the involvement of CR1/2...
  80. doi Complement receptor CR2/CR1 deficiency protects mice from collagen-induced arthritis and associates with reduced autoantibodies to type II collagen and citrullinated antigens
    Kristine A Kuhn
    Departments of Immunology and Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Mol Immunol 45:2808-19. 2008
    ..To determine the importance of complement receptors CR2/CR1 in CIA, the Cr2-/- genotype was backcrossed onto the DBA/1j strain...
  81. pmc The development and function of regulatory B cells expressing IL-10 (B10 cells) requires antigen receptor diversity and TLR signals
    Koichi Yanaba
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Immunol 182:7459-72. 2009
    ..Thereby, both adaptive and innate signals regulate B10 cell development, maturation, CD5 expression, and competence for IL-10 production...
  82. pmc Deletion of putative intronic control sequences does not alter cell or stage specific expression of Cr2
    Kirstin M Roundy
    The Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, 15 North Medical Drive East, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5650, United States
    Mol Immunol 47:517-25. 2009
    The expression of the mouse Cr2 gene has been shown to be restricted to mature B cells, follicular dendritic cells and, in some reports, to a minor population of activated T cells...
  83. pmc Targeted inhibition of the complement alternative pathway with complement receptor 2 and factor H attenuates collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice
    Nirmal K Banda
    Division of Rheumatology, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Immunol 183:5928-37. 2009
    ..this study was to examine the effect of a recombinant AP inhibitor containing complement receptor 2 and factor H (CR2-fH) on CAIA in mice...
  84. doi Differential expression of CD21 identifies developmentally and functionally distinct subsets of human transitional B cells
    Santi Suryani
    Immunology and Inflammation Group, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia
    Blood 115:519-29. 2010
    ..Here, we have identified 2 subsets of human transitional B cells based on the differential expression of CD21. CD21(hi) transitional cells displayed higher expression of CD23, CD44, and IgD, and exhibited greater ..
  85. pmc CR2+ marginal zone B cell production of pathogenic natural antibodies is C3 independent
    Keith M Woods
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    J Immunol 186:1755-62. 2011
    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced damage requires complement receptor 2 (CR2) for generation of the appropriate natural Ab repertoire...
  86. ncbi Murine complement receptor gene family. II. Identification and characterization of the murine homolog (Cr2) to human CR2 and its molecular linkage to Crry
    C B Kurtz
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    J Immunol 143:2058-67. 1989
    ..Use of these murine Cr2-specific cDNA clones to isolate their respective genomic sequences has allowed for the linkage of the 3' end of the Cr2 gene to the 5' end of the Crry gene, the evolutionary homolog to human CR1.
  87. pmc Genetic organization of complement receptor-related genes in the mouse
    S F Kingsmore
    Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    J Exp Med 169:1479-84. 1989
    ..These data suggest that a translocation or inversion occurred within the RCA family during the evolution of the mouse, defining a breakpoint of this large conserved linkage group...
  88. ncbi Expression of the murine CD21 gene is regulated by promoter and intronic sequences
    H Hu
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132, USA
    J Immunol 158:4758-68. 1997
    Murine CD21 gene products are expressed primarily on the surface of B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells...
  89. pmc Distinct roles of lymphotoxin alpha and the type I tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor in the establishment of follicular dendritic cells from non-bone marrow-derived cells
    M Matsumoto
    Center for Immunology and the Department of, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 186:1997-2004. 1997
    ..in establishing organized FDC structure was further investigated by the transfer of complement receptor 1 and 2 (CR1/2)-deficient BM cells into LT-alpha-deficient mice...
  90. ncbi Beta-glucan, a "specific" biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18)
    J Yan
    Division of Experimental Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    J Immunol 163:3045-52. 1999
    ..Therapy fails when tumors lack iC3b, but can be restored by tumor-specific Abs that deposit iC3b onto the tumors...
  91. ncbi A role for CD21/CD35 and CD19 in responses to acute septic peritonitis: a potential mechanism for mast cell activation
    J L Gommerman
    Department of Pathology, Center for Blood Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 165:6915-21. 2000
    ..To evaluate the mechanism for mast cell activation in the CLP model, complement receptor CD21/CD35-deficient mice (Cr2(null)) were examined in the present study...
  92. ncbi Genetic contributions of nonautoimmune SWR mice toward lupus nephritis
    S Xie
    Simmon s Arthritis Research Center and Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    J Immunol 167:7141-9. 2001
    ..In conclusion, lupus in the SNF(1) strain is truly polygenic, with at least four dominant contributions from the SWR strain. The immunological functions and molecular identities of these loci await elucidation...
  93. ncbi Yin Yang 1, Oct1, and NFAT-4 form repeating, cyclosporin-sensitive regulatory modules within the murine CD21 intronic control region
    Mark D Zabel
    Department of Pathology, Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    J Immunol 168:3341-50. 2002
    The murine complement receptor type 2 gene (Cr2/CD21) is expressed by murine B and follicular dendritic cells, but not murine T cells...
  94. ncbi The selection of marginal zone B cells differs from that of B-1a cells
    Karsten Kretschmer
    Molecular Immunology, Gesellschaft für Biotechnologishe Forschung, German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig, Germany
    J Immunol 171:6495-501. 2003
    ..Thus, our data demonstrate that despite common functional properties, MZ B and B-1a cells exhibit striking differences in their selection and/or maintenance requirements...
  95. ncbi Genetic origin of lupus in NZB/SWR hybrids: lessons from an intercross study
    Shangkui Xie
    Simmons Arthritis Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75390 8884, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 52:659-67. 2005
    ..The present intercross study was executed to replicate the earlier findings, using an independent panel of (SWR x NZB)F(2) offspring...
  96. ncbi Both the pre-BCR and the IL-7Ralpha are essential for expansion at the pre-BII cell stage in vivo
    Lena Erlandsson
    Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signaling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK
    Eur J Immunol 35:1969-76. 2005
    ..As a consequence of the absence of both receptors, the peripheral B cell pool is severely depleted, resulting in atypical splenic B cell structures and reduced serum Ig levels...
  97. ncbi A minimum CR2 binding domain of C3d enhances immunity following vaccination
    Joseph F Bower
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 586:249-64. 2006
    ..C3d has been hypothesized to enhance immunity by direct interaction with complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) on immune cells...
  98. pmc Analysis of the regulatory role of BAFF in controlling the expression of CD21 and CD23
    Irina Debnath
    The Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, 15 North Medical Drive East, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5650, USA
    Mol Immunol 44:2388-99. 2007
    ..Induced expression of CD23 and CD21 is also coincident with the T1 to T2 maturation stage...
  99. ncbi Comparative structure and evolution of murine CR2. The homolog of the human C3d/EBV receptor (CD21)
    J D Fingeroth
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115
    J Immunol 144:3458-67. 1990
    The complete nucleotide sequence of murine complement receptor type 2 (CR2) was determined from two overlapping cDNA clones derived from a lambda gt11 library of late pre-B cell origin...
  100. pmc Murine complement receptor gene expression: Cr2 gene transcripts are depressed during a high dose microbial challenge
    S S Tan
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    Immunology 79:82-8. 1993
    The murine Cr2 gene encodes mRNA that produce two protein products predicted to be approximately 145,000 M(r) (Cr2-145) and 190,000 M(r) (Cr2-190)...
  101. ncbi In vivo ablation of surface immunoglobulin on mature B cells by inducible gene targeting results in rapid cell death
    K P Lam
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 90:1073-83. 1997
    ..Ablation leads to rapid death of mature B lymphocytes, which is preceded by down-regulation of MHC antigens and up-regulation of CD95 (Fas) and can be delayed by constitutive bcl-2 expression...

Research Grants6

  1. Complement and the Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus
    KENJI CUNNION; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In vivo experiments will be performed using complement deficient mice. Collaborating laboratories have provided special S. aureus stains and anti-S. aureus antibodies. ..
  2. Cr2 as a Murine Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..corresponding to Slelc, derived from NZW, contains Cr2, which encodes complement receptors I and 2 (CR1/CR2, CD35/CD21). CR1/CR2 deficiency has been associated with autoimmune disease in both humans and in animal models...
  3. Complement Receptor 2 as a Biomarker for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    SUSAN BOACKLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is the strongest candidate gene for lupus susceptibility in the Slelc lupus susceptibility interval of the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus, based on ..
  4. Enhancement of CD8 T Cell Immunity by IL-7 Therapy
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed studies should aid in the rational design of vaccines that can engender potent CDS T cell memory and protect against poxvirus and arenaviral infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Functional Analysis of Complement Receptor 2 as a Lupus Susceptibility Gene
    Susan A Boackle; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) is the strongest candidate gene for lupus susceptibility in the Sle 1c lupus susceptibility interval of the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus, based on structural and ..
  6. Direct Regulation of CD8 T Cells by Interferon gamma
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies should aid in the development of vaccines against arena viruses in particular and other viruses in general. ..