Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Ccl21b
Description: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21B (leucine)
Alias: 6CKBAC1, 6Ckine, AI159701, CKb9, SLC, Scya21, Scya21a, TCA4, C-C motif chemokine 21b, beta-chemokine exodus-2, exodus-2, secondary lymphoid organ chemokine, small inducible cytokine A21, small-inducible cytokine A21a, small-inducible cytokine A21b, thymus-derived chemotactic agent 4
- Isolation and characterization of Exodus-2, a novel C-C chemokine with a unique 37-amino acid carboxyl-terminal extensionR Hromas
Department of Medicine, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis 46202, USA
J Immunol 159:2554-8. 1997..The combination of these characteristics may be a functional correlate for the unique carboxyl-terminal structure of Exodus-2...
- A novel mutant gene involved in T-lymphocyte-specific homing into peripheral lymphoid organs on mouse chromosome 4H Nakano
Department of Immunology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Blood 91:2886-95. 1998..7 cM from cetromere on chromosome 4. We discuss the possibility that a wild-type gene on plt locus encodes a chemokine inducing T-cell-specific homing into peripheral lymphoid tissues...
- Identification and characterization of a novel beta chemokine containing six conserved cysteinesJ A Hedrick
DNAX Research Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
J Immunol 159:1589-93. 1997..of a novel beta (CC) chemokine that exhibits an unusual pattern of six conserved cysteines and was thus designated 6Ckine. The primary amino acid sequence of 6Ckine is highly conserved in humans, mice, and pigs and contains the expected ..
- The reduced expression of 6Ckine in the plt mouse results from the deletion of one of two 6Ckine genesG Vassileva
Department of Immunology, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA
J Exp Med 190:1183-8. 1999b>6Ckine is an unusual chemokine capable of attracting naive T lymphocytes in vitro...
- An essential role for Prox1 in the induction of the lymphatic endothelial cell phenotypeJeffrey T Wigle
Department of Genetics, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
EMBO J 21:1505-13. 2002..wild-type embryos, those of Prox1-null embryos did not co-express any lymphatic markers such as VEGFR-3, LYVE-1 or SLC. Instead, the mutant cells appeared to have a blood vascular phenotype, as determined by their expression of ..
- A chemokine expressed in lymphoid high endothelial venules promotes the adhesion and chemotaxis of naive T lymphocytesM D Gunn
Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:258-63. 1998..Here we show that a chemokine represented in the EST database, secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (SLC), is expressed in the high endothelial venules of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, in the T cell areas of spleen, ..
- Identification of a new mouse beta-chemokine, thymus-derived chemotactic agent 4, with activity on T lymphocytes and mesangial cellsS Tanabe
Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 5701, USA
J Immunol 159:5671-9. 1997Thymus-derived chemotactic agent 4 (TCA4), a new member of the beta-chemokine family, was cloned from a mouse thymic cDNA library...
- Gene duplications at the chemokine locus on mouse chromosome 4: multiple strain-specific haplotypes and the deletion of secondary lymphoid-organ chemokine and EBI-1 ligand chemokine genes in the plt mutationH Nakano
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
J Immunol 166:361-9. 2001..The causative defect is thought to be a loss of secondary lymphoid-organ chemokine (SLC) expression in lymphoid tissues...
- SAMP1/YitFc mice develop ileitis via loss of CCL21 and defects in dendritic cell migrationZbigniew Mikulski
Division of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California
Gastroenterology 148:783-793.e5. 2015..Toll-like receptor agonists like the Toll-like receptor 7 agonist R848 induce DC maturation and mobilization...
- The homeostatic chemokine CCL21 predicts mortality in aortic stenosis patients and modulates left ventricular remodelingAlexandra Vanessa Finsen
Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Center for Heart Failure Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
PLoS ONE 9:e112172. 2014..Based on its role in concerting immunological responses and its proposed involvement in tissue remodeling, we hypothesized that this chemokine could play a role in myocardial remodeling during left ventricular (LV) pressure overload...
- JAK tyrosine kinases promote hierarchical activation of Rho and Rap modules of integrin activationAlessio Montresor
Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, Division of General Pathology, School of Medicine, and 2 The Center for Biomedical Computing, University of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy
J Cell Biol 203:1003-19. 2013..Thus, JAK tyrosine kinases control integrin activation and dependent lymphocyte trafficking by bridging chemokine receptors to the concurrent and hierarchical activation of the Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation. ..
- Cell-autonomous defects in thymic epithelial cells disrupt endothelial-perivascular cell interactions in the mouse thymusJerrod L Bryson
Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
PLoS ONE 8:e65196. 2013..These data further demonstrate a novel TEC-mesenchyme-endothelial interaction required for proper fetal thymus organogenesis...
- Wnt4 regulates thymic cellularity through the expansion of thymic epithelial cells and early thymic progenitorsKrista M Heinonen
Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Universite de Montreal, QC, Canada
Blood 118:5163-73. 2011..Wnt4 and its downstream signaling pathways could thus represent interesting candidates to improve thymic output in subjects with thymic atrophy...
- Increased Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells with intact suppressive activity but altered cellular localization in murine lupusJun Abe
Department of Molecular Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Am J Pathol 173:1682-92. 2008..Taken together, we conclude that T(reg) cells in BWF1 mice are not predisposed to functional incompetence but rather are present in a highly activated state...
- Isolation of ALP, a novel divergent murine CC chemokine with a unique carboxy terminal extensionR Hromas
Hematology Oncology, Biochemistry Molecular Biology, and the Walther Oncology Center, Indiana University Medical Center, 1044 W Walnut St, Indianapolis, Indiana, 46202, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 258:737-40. 1999..It is expressed preferentially in testis, heart, and liver, which is atypical for CC chemokines...
- Chemokines define distinct microenvironments in the developing thymusC C Bleul
Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
Eur J Immunol 30:3371-9. 2000..chemokines is regulated temporally during embryogenesis; in the alymphoid early thymic anlage, only TECK, SDF-1 and SLC but not ELC, MDC or TARC are expressed...
- Ectopic expression of the murine chemokines CCL21a and CCL21b induces the formation of lymph node-like structures in pancreas, but not skin, of transgenic miceShu Cheng Chen
Department of Immunology, Schering Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA
J Immunol 168:1001-8. 2002....
- Divergent vascular mechanisms downstream of Sry establish the arterial system in the XY gonadJennifer Brennan
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Dev Biol 244:418-28. 2002..This newly formed arterial system establishes a new pattern of blood flow in the XY gonad, which we speculate may have an important role in export of testosterone to masculinize the XY embryo...
- Neuronal CCL21 up-regulates microglia P2X4 expression and initiates neuropathic pain developmentKnut Biber
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Section of Molecular Psychiatry, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
EMBO J 30:1864-73. 2011..Since neuronal CCL21 is the earliest yet identified factor in the cascade leading to tactile allodynia, these findings may lead to a preventive therapy in neuropathic pain...
- Autoimmune regulator deficiency results in decreased expression of CCR4 and CCR7 ligands and in delayed migration of CD4+ thymocytesMartti Laan
Molecular Pathology Group, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia
J Immunol 183:7682-91. 2009..These results suggest a novel mechanism behind the Aire-dependent induction of central tolerance...
- Chemokine CXCL13 is essential for lymph node initiation and is induced by retinoic acid and neuronal stimulationSerge A van de Pavert
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Nat Immunol 10:1193-9. 2009..Therefore, our data show that the initiation of lymph node development is controlled by RA-mediated expression of CXCL13 and suggest that RA may be provided by adjacent neurons...
- FOXC2 controls formation and maturation of lymphatic collecting vessels through cooperation with NFATc1Camilla Norrmen
Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
J Cell Biol 185:439-57. 2009..As damage to collecting vessels is a major cause of lymphatic dysfunction in humans, our results suggest that FOXC2 and NFATc1 are potential targets for therapeutic intervention...
- Stabilized beta-catenin in thymic epithelial cells blocks thymus development and functionSaulius Zuklys
Department of Clinical Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Pediatric Immunology, University of Basel, and Basel University Children s Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
J Immunol 182:2997-3007. 2009..These results suggest that a precise regulation of canonical Wnt signaling in thymic epithelia is essential for normal thymus development and function...
- Antiviral immune responses in the absence of organized lymphoid T cell zones in plt/plt miceTobias Junt
Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
J Immunol 168:6032-40. 2002....
- Mesodermal patterning activity of SCLIsmail Ismailoglu
Lillehei Heart Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Exp Hematol 36:1593-603. 2008..These data support a master-regulatory role for SCL in mesodermal patterning, in addition to its established later roles in hematopoietic differentiation...
- ICOS costimulation expands Th2 immunity by augmenting migration of lymphocytes to draining lymph nodesAmanda G Tesciuba
Department of Medicine, Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
J Immunol 181:1019-24. 2008..Our data support a model in which ICOS costimulation augments the pool of lymphocytes in the draining lymph nodes, leading to an increase in the frequency of potentially reactive T and B cells...
- Lymph node chemokines promote sustained T lymphocyte motility without triggering stable integrin adhesiveness in the absence of shear forcesEilon Woolf
Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Nat Immunol 8:1076-85. 2007..Thus, lymph node chemokines that promote motility and strongly activate lymphocyte integrins under shear forces fail to stimulate stable integrin adhesiveness in extravascular shear-free environments...
- Gcm2 is required for the differentiation and survival of parathyroid precursor cells in the parathyroid/thymus primordiaZhijie Liu
Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Dev Biol 305:333-46. 2007..These results suggest that Gcm2 is not required for pouch patterning or to establish the parathyroid domain, but is required for differentiation and subsequent survival of parathyroid cells...
- Lymphatic vascular endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1- and CCL21-positive lymphatic compartments in the diabetic thymusRui Cheng Ji
Department of Anatomy, Biology and Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan
Anat Sci Int 81:201-9. 2006....
- Mammalian Polycomb complexes are required for Peyer's patch development by regulating lymphoid cell proliferationToru Sato
Department of Clinical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chiba, Japan
Gene 379:166-74. 2006..We suggest that PcG complexes may act to mediate certain inductive signals maybe through IL-7Ralpha to allow sufficient proliferation of lymphoid inducer cells during PP organogenesis...
- The lymphoid chemokine CCL21 costimulates naive T cell expansion and Th1 polarization of non-regulatory CD4+ T cellsKenneth Flanagan
Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Cell Immunol 231:75-84. 2004CCL21 (SLC/6Ckine) is constitutively expressed by secondary lymphoid tissue and attracts CCR7-expressing mature dendritic cells and naive T cells...
- CCR7 signals are essential for cortex-medulla migration of developing thymocytesTomoo Ueno
Division of Experimental Immunology, Institute for Genome Research, University of Tokushima, 3 18 15 Kuramoto, 770 8503, Japan
J Exp Med 200:493-505. 2004..CCR7-dependent cortex-medulla migration of thymocytes plays a crucial role in medulla formation and neonatal T cell export but is not essential for maturation, survival, negative selection, and adult export of thymocytes...
- Mesenchymal expression of Foxl1, a winged helix transcriptional factor, regulates generation and maintenance of gut-associated lymphoid organsKatsuyuki Fukuda
Department of Molecular Embryology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
Dev Biol 255:278-89. 2003..Together, the data suggest that Foxl1 might be involved in cellular responses of gut-associated lymphoid tissues dependent upon the Lymphotoxins/Lymphotoxin beta-receptor axis...
- Chemokine requirements for B cell entry to lymph nodes and Peyer's patchesTakaharu Okada
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
J Exp Med 196:65-75. 2002..Here we show that the homing of CXCR4-/- B cells is suppressed in CCL19 (ELC)- and CCL21 (SLC)-deficient paucity of lymph node T cells mice, but not in wild-type mice...
- Lineage-specific biology revealed by a finished genome assembly of the mouseDeanna M Church
National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS Biol 7:e1000112. 2009..The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not...