Alx4

Summary

Gene Symbol: Alx4
Description: aristaless-like homeobox 4
Alias: lst, homeobox protein aristaless-like 4, ALX-4, Aristaless-like 4, Strong's luxoid, aristaless 4
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Function and regulation of Alx4 in limb development: complex genetic interactions with Gli3 and Shh
    Sanne Kuijper
    Hubrecht Laboratory, The Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Dev Biol 285:533-44. 2005
  2. ncbi Severe nasal clefting and abnormal embryonic apoptosis in Alx3/Alx4 double mutant mice
    A Beverdam
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, PO Box 85164, 3508AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 128:3975-86. 2001
  3. pmc Mutual genetic antagonism involving GLI3 and dHAND prepatterns the vertebrate limb bud mesenchyme prior to SHH signaling
    Pascal te Welscher
    Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, 3584CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Genes Dev 16:421-6. 2002
  4. ncbi Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development
    Xin Sun
    Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0452, USA
    Nature 418:501-8. 2002
  5. pmc Haploinsufficiency of ALX4 as a potential cause of parietal foramina in the 11p11.2 contiguous gene-deletion syndrome
    Y Q Wu
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 67:1327-32. 2000
  6. ncbi Phylogenetic conservation of a limb-specific, cis-acting regulator of Sonic hedgehog ( Shh)
    Tomoko Sagai
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka ken 411 8540, Japan
    Mamm Genome 15:23-34. 2004
  7. ncbi Requirement for Mab21l2 during development of murine retina and ventral body wall
    Ryuichi Yamada
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, 630 0101, Japan
    Dev Biol 274:295-307. 2004
  8. ncbi Genetics of shoulder girdle formation: roles of Tbx15 and aristaless-like genes
    Sanne Kuijper
    Hubrecht Laboratory, The Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 132:1601-10. 2005
  9. ncbi Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development
    Yvan Lallemand
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, Institut Pasteur, URA 2578 du CNRS, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    Development 132:3003-14. 2005
  10. ncbi Genetic interaction of Gli3 and Alx4 during limb development
    Lia Panman
    Department of Developmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Dev Biol 49:443-8. 2005

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

  • David A F Loebel
  • Lia Panman
  • Thomas Drake
  • N R Manley
  • Pengfei Lu
  • Antonella Galli
  • Olena Zhulyn
  • Chi chung Hui
  • Daisuke Matsumaru
  • Claudia Compagnucci
  • Michael J Depew
  • Maryline Minoux
  • Terence D Capellini
  • Rong Mo
  • Vijitha Puviindran
  • DanYi Li
  • Sanne Kuijper
  • Patrick Hill
  • Sevan Hopyan
  • John N Griffin
  • Frits Meijlink
  • Shigeru Makino
  • S Qu
  • Xin Sun
  • Filippo M Rijli
  • A Beverdam
  • Richard R Behringer
  • Hu Zhao
  • Jamie M Verheyden
  • Xiaoyun Zhang
  • Steven Deimling
  • Pascal te Welscher
  • Ulrich Ruther
  • B Chen
  • Jennifer Fish
  • Ryuma Haraguchi
  • Gen Yamada
  • Naomi Nakagata
  • Paul A Hamel
  • Wei Liu
  • Mingi Hong
  • Jennifer Selever
  • Laurie A Wyngaarden
  • Dayana Krawchuk
  • F Meijlink
  • Vimla S Aggarwal
  • Yoichi Gondo
  • You Tzung Chen
  • Zhen Zhang
  • Ning Liu
  • Yukari Yada
  • Heidi Bildsoe
  • Naoki Takahashi
  • Toshihiko Shiroishi
  • Aurélie Jory
  • Manuela Schwark
  • Victor Tarabykin
  • Elisabetta Ferretti
  • Licia Selleri
  • Giuseppina Di Giacomo
  • Vincenzo Zappavigna
  • Philaiporn Vivatbutsiri
  • Douglas B Menke
  • Helen A Thomason
  • Yang Chai
  • Seung O Ko
  • Patrick P L Tam
  • Olga Britanova
  • Kata Boras-Granic
  • Purna A Joshi
  • Chuxia Deng
  • R Wisdom
  • Cuiling Li
  • Yvan Lallemand
  • Fabio Santagati
  • James F Martin
  • T F Vogt
  • Masato S Ota
  • Tomoko Sagai
  • Ileana Antonopoulou
  • Ryuichi Yamada
  • Ritva Rice
  • Takuya Murata
  • Erica Nieuwenhuis
  • Hayato Kotaki
  • Shunsuke Ishii
  • Yulu Cherry Liu
  • Yuichi Ishitsuka
  • Stephane Angers
  • Ryutaro Fukumura

Detail Information

Publications90

  1. ncbi Function and regulation of Alx4 in limb development: complex genetic interactions with Gli3 and Shh
    Sanne Kuijper
    Hubrecht Laboratory, The Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Dev Biol 285:533-44. 2005
    The role of the aristaless-related homeobox gene Alx4 in antero-posterior (AP-) patterning of the developing vertebrate limb has remained somewhat elusive...
  2. ncbi Severe nasal clefting and abnormal embryonic apoptosis in Alx3/Alx4 double mutant mice
    A Beverdam
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, PO Box 85164, 3508AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 128:3975-86. 2001
    ..Mice homozygous for this null allele are indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Compound mutants of Alx3 and Alx4, however, show severe craniofacial abnormalities that are absent in Alx4 single mutants...
  3. pmc Mutual genetic antagonism involving GLI3 and dHAND prepatterns the vertebrate limb bud mesenchyme prior to SHH signaling
    Pascal te Welscher
    Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, 3584CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Genes Dev 16:421-6. 2002
    ..dHAND, in turn, excludes anterior genes such as Gli3 and Alx4 from posterior mesenchyme...
  4. ncbi Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development
    Xin Sun
    Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, 94143 0452, USA
    Nature 418:501-8. 2002
    ..In the complete absence of both FGF4 and FGF8 activities, limb development fails. We present a model to explain how the mutant phenotypes arise from FGF-mediated effects on limb bud size and cell survival...
  5. pmc Haploinsufficiency of ALX4 as a potential cause of parietal foramina in the 11p11.2 contiguous gene-deletion syndrome
    Y Q Wu
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 67:1327-32. 2000
    ..Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the human orthologue (ALX4) of the mouse Aristaless-like 4 gene (Alx4) is contained within this 11p clone...
  6. ncbi Phylogenetic conservation of a limb-specific, cis-acting regulator of Sonic hedgehog ( Shh)
    Tomoko Sagai
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka ken 411 8540, Japan
    Mamm Genome 15:23-34. 2004
    ..Absence of the conserved sequence in limbless reptiles and amphibians and a cis- trans test using the Hx and Shh KO alleles suggest that the sequence is a cis-acting regulator that controls the polarized expression of Shh...
  7. ncbi Requirement for Mab21l2 during development of murine retina and ventral body wall
    Ryuichi Yamada
    Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, 630 0101, Japan
    Dev Biol 274:295-307. 2004
    ..Our results reveal that Mab21l2 plays crucial roles in retina and in ventral body wall formation...
  8. ncbi Genetics of shoulder girdle formation: roles of Tbx15 and aristaless-like genes
    Sanne Kuijper
    Hubrecht Laboratory, The Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Development 132:1601-10. 2005
    ..We have studied the impact of Tbx15, Gli3, Alx4 and related genes on formation of the skeletal elements of the mouse shoulder and pelvic girdles...
  9. ncbi Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development
    Yvan Lallemand
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire de la Morphogenèse, Institut Pasteur, URA 2578 du CNRS, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
    Development 132:3003-14. 2005
    ..This results in a major outgrowth of the mesenchyme anteriorly, which nevertheless maintains a posterior identity, and leads to formation of extra digits. These defects are interpreted in the context of an impairment of Bmp signalling...
  10. ncbi Genetic interaction of Gli3 and Alx4 during limb development
    Lia Panman
    Department of Developmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Dev Biol 49:443-8. 2005
    The Gli3 and Alx4 transcriptional regulators are expressed in the anterior limb bud mesenchyme and their disruption in mice results in preaxial polydactyly...
  11. ncbi The role of Alx-4 in the establishment of anteroposterior polarity during vertebrate limb development
    M Takahashi
    The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Gene Expression Laboratory, La Jolla, CA 92037 1099, USA
    Development 125:4417-25. 1998
    ..Our data suggest the existence of a negative feedback loop between Alx-4 and Shh during vertebrate limb outgrowth...
  12. ncbi Mutations in mouse Aristaless-like4 cause Strong's luxoid polydactyly
    S Qu
    Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Development 125:2711-21. 1998
    ..Integration of the lst genetic and physical maps suggested the mouse Aristaless-like4 (Alx4) gene, which encodes a paired-type homeodomain protein that plays a role in limb patterning, as a strong molecular ..
  13. ncbi Pbx1/Pbx2 requirement for distal limb patterning is mediated by the hierarchical control of Hox gene spatial distribution and Shh expression
    Terence D Capellini
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Cornell University Weill Medical School, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 133:2263-73. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi Polydactyly and ectopic ZPA formation in Alx-4 mutant mice
    S Qu
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Development 124:3999-4008. 1997
    ..The results identify Alx-4 as a determinant of anterior-posterior positional identity in the limb and a component of a regulatory program that restricts ZPA formation to the posterior limb bud mesenchyme...
  15. pmc DNA binding-dependent and -independent functions of the Hand2 transcription factor during mouse embryogenesis
    Ning Liu
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9148, USA
    Development 136:933-42. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that Hand2 regulates tissue growth and development in vivo through DNA binding-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
  16. doi A SHH-independent regulation of Gli3 is a significant determinant of anteroposterior patterning of the limb bud
    Patrick Hill
    Institut für Entwicklungs und Molekularbiologie der Tiere, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Dev Biol 328:506-16. 2009
    ..Furthermore, we present evidence that the anteroposterior grading of GLI3 activity by the action of SHH is supported by a prototype patterning, which regulates Gli3 independently from SHH...
  17. pmc Distinct roles of Hand2 in initiating polarity and posterior Shh expression during the onset of mouse limb bud development
    Antonella Galli
    Developmental Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000901. 2010
    ..Our study uncovers essential components of the transcriptional machinery and key interactions that set-up limb bud asymmetry upstream of establishing the SHH signaling limb bud organizer...
  18. ncbi Multigenic control of the localization of the zone of polarizing activity in limb morphogenesis in the mouse
    H Masuya
    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan
    Dev Biol 182:42-51. 1997
    ..Thus, this study revealed a multigenic control in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis in mouse limb development...
  19. doi Pax6 regulates craniofacial form through its control of an essential cephalic ectodermal patterning center
    Claudia Compagnucci
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom
    Genesis 49:307-25. 2011
    ..Pax6 therefore regulates craniofacial form, at stages when CNC has just arrived in the frontonasal region, through its control of surface cephalic ectodermal competence to form an essential craniofacial patterning center...
  20. doi A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers
    Olena Zhulyn
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
    Dev Cell 29:241-9. 2014
    ....
  21. ncbi Progression of vertebrate limb development through SHH-mediated counteraction of GLI3
    Pascal te Welscher
    Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, NL 3584 CH Utrecht, Netherlands
    Science 298:827-30. 2002
    ..Our genetic analysis indicates that SHH signaling counteracts GLI3-mediated repression of key regulator genes, cell survival, and distal progression of limb bud development...
  22. pmc T396I mutation of mouse Sufu reduces the stability and activity of Gli3 repressor
    Shigeru Makino
    Mutagenesis and Genomics Team, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    PLoS ONE 10:e0119455. 2015
    ..This implies a novel Sufu-mediated mechanism in which Gli2 activator and Gli3 repressor are differentially regulated. ..
  23. pmc Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development
    Dayana Krawchuk
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Dev Biol 347:133-46. 2010
    ..Our data support a model whereby multiple Twist1 activity thresholds contribute to early limb bud patterning, and suggest how particular combinations of skeletal defects result from differing amounts of Twist1 activity...
  24. pmc Genetic analysis of the role of Alx4 in the coordination of lower body and external genitalia formation
    Daisuke Matsumaru
    1 Department of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Advanced Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan 2 Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    Eur J Hum Genet 22:350-7. 2014
    ..Naturally occurring mutations in Aristaless-like 4 (Alx4, Strong's luxoid: Alx4Lst) have ventral body wall and pelvic girdle abnormalities...
  25. ncbi Growth arrest specific gene 1 acts as a region-specific mediator of the Fgf10/Fgf8 regulatory loop in the limb
    Ying Liu
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland 21210, USA
    Development 129:5289-300. 2002
    ..Our data provide evidence that Gas1 acts to maintain high levels of FGF10 at the tip mesenchyme and support the proposal that Fgf10 expression in this region is crucial for maintaining Fgf8 expression in the AER...
  26. doi Formation of proximal and anterior limb skeleton requires early function of Irx3 and Irx5 and is negatively regulated by Shh signaling
    DanYi Li
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON MS5 1A8, Canada
    Dev Cell 29:233-40. 2014
    ..Our data provide genetic evidence supporting the concept of early specification and progressive determination of anterior limb pattern. ..
  27. doi Ptch2 shares overlapping functions with Ptch1 in Smo regulation and limb development
    Olena Zhulyn
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8 Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8
    Dev Biol 397:191-202. 2015
    ....
  28. ncbi Alx4 binding to LEF-1 regulates N-CAM promoter activity
    Kata Boras
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 277:1120-7. 2002
    During murine embryogenesis, expression of the paired-like homeodomain protein Alx4 is restricted to tissues whose development depends on the expression of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1)...
  29. doi Sufu and Kif7 in limb patterning and development
    Olena Zhulyn
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Dyn 244:468-78. 2015
    ..We analyze the role of Sufu and Kif7 in the limb and demonstrate that their loss has distinct and synergistic effects on Gli activity and digit pattern...
  30. ncbi Expression patterns of group-I aristaless-related genes during craniofacial and limb development
    A Beverdam
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, P O Box 85164, 3508AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Mech Dev 107:163-7. 2001
    ....
  31. ncbi Alx-4: cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel paired-type homeodomain protein
    S Qu
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Gene 203:217-23. 1997
    ..Our results provide a starting point for the analysis of a new member of the family of paired type homeodomain proteins...
  32. pmc Fgf8 dosage determines midfacial integration and polarity within the nasal and optic capsules
    John N Griffin
    Dept of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Floor 27, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Dev Biol 374:185-97. 2013
    ..Taken together, our data highlight Fgf8 signaling in craniofacial development as a plausible target for evolutionary selective pressures...
  33. pmc Neogenin regulates Sonic Hedgehog pathway activity during digit patterning
    Mingi Hong
    Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Dev Dyn 241:627-37. 2012
    ..Although neogenin is implicated in BMP signaling, it has not been linked to SHH signaling and its role in digit patterning is unknown...
  34. doi Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula
    Claudia Compagnucci
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, Floor 27, Guy s Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Dev Biol 377:428-48. 2013
    ....
  35. doi Multiple abnormalities due to a nonsense mutation in the Alx4 gene
    B Chen
    Comparative Medicine Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
    Genet Mol Res 12:2771-8. 2013
    ..The mutation was mapped to chromosome 2, between markers D2Mit45 and D2Mit184. The Alx4 gene was identified as a potential candidate gene in this location...
  36. doi Regionalized Twist1 activity in the forelimb bud drives the morphogenesis of the proximal and preaxial skeleton
    David A F Loebel
    Embryology Unit, Children s Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
    Dev Biol 362:132-40. 2012
    ....
  37. pmc Impaired meningeal development in association with apical expansion of calvarial bone osteogenesis in the Foxc1 mutant
    Philaiporn Vivatbutsiri
    Section of Molecular Craniofacial Embryology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    J Anat 212:603-11. 2008
    ..These results suggest that there is a close association between meningeal development and the apical growth of the skull bones...
  38. pmc The apical ectodermal ridge is a timer for generating distal limb progenitors
    Pengfei Lu
    Department of Anatomy and Program in Developmental Biology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0452, USA
    Development 135:1395-405. 2008
    ..Taken together, we have uncovered a novel mechanism, whereby the AER regulates the number of autopod progenitors by determining the onset of their generation...
  39. pmc Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation
    Daisuke Matsumaru
    Global COE, Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Department of Organ Formation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e16260. 2011
    ..However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear...
  40. pmc Smad4 is required to regulate the fate of cranial neural crest cells
    Seung O Ko
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology School of Dentistry University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 312:435-47. 2007
    ..Taken together, our data show that TGF-beta/BMP signals rely on Smad-dependent pathways in the ectomesenchyme to mediate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control craniofacial organogenesis...
  41. doi Dual hindlimb control elements in the Tbx4 gene and region-specific control of bone size in vertebrate limbs
    Douglas B Menke
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5329, USA
    Development 135:2543-53. 2008
    ....
  42. doi Facial clefting in Tp63 deficient mice results from altered Bmp4, Fgf8 and Shh signaling
    Helen A Thomason
    Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Michael Smith Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, England, UK
    Dev Biol 321:273-82. 2008
    ..Our results are consistent with a role for Tp63 in the regulation of Bmp signaling controlling the growth, modelling and fusion events underlying facial development and shed new light on the complex abnormality of facial clefting...
  43. ncbi Mouse Dll3: a novel divergent Delta gene which may complement the function of other Delta homologues during early pattern formation in the mouse embryo
    S L Dunwoodie
    Department of Mammalian Development, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, UK
    Development 124:3065-76. 1997
    ..We hypothesise that Dll1 is involved in the release of cells from the precursor population and that Dll3 is required later to divert neurons along a specific differentiation pathway...
  44. ncbi Haploinsufficient phenotypes in Bmp4 heterozygous null mice and modification by mutations in Gli3 and Alx4
    N R Dunn
    Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical School, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232 2175, USA
    Dev Biol 188:235-47. 1997
    ..a deletion mutation involving a gene encoding a zinc-finger protein related to Drosophila cubitus interruptus, and Alx4(tm1rwm), a targeted null mutation in a gene encoding a paired class homeoprotein related to Drosophila aristaless...
  45. pmc FGF-regulated Etv genes are essential for repressing Shh expression in mouse limb buds
    Zhen Zhang
    Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Dev Cell 16:607-13. 2009
    ..This finding elucidates a novel aspect of the mechanism coordinating limb development along the A-P and P-D axes...
  46. doi Requirement for Twist1 in frontonasal and skull vault development in the mouse embryo
    Heidi Bildsoe
    Children s Medical Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Wentworthville, NSW, Australia
    Dev Biol 331:176-88. 2009
    ..In contrast, the formation of other mesodermal skeletal derivatives such as the occipital bones and most of the chondrocranium are not affected by the loss of Twist1 in the neural crest cells...
  47. doi Numb promotes an increase in skeletal muscle progenitor cells in the embryonic somite
    Aurélie Jory
    Stem Cells and Development, Department of Developmental Biology Pasteur Institute, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS URA 2578, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Stem Cells 27:2769-80. 2009
    ..Thus, we propose that Numb can regulate the self-renewal of dermal and muscle progenitors during a lineage progression...
  48. pmc Mesodermal Tbx1 is required for patterning the proximal mandible in mice
    Vimla S Aggarwal
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Dev Biol 344:669-81. 2010
    ..5. This occurs without significant changes in cell proliferation or apoptosis at the same stage. Our results elucidate a new function for the non-neural crest core mesoderm and specifically, mesodermal Tbx1, in shaping the lower jaw...
  49. ncbi Polydactyly in the Strong's luxoid mouse is suppressed by limb deformity alleles
    T F Vogt
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey
    Dev Genet 19:33-42. 1996
    ..analysis to the process of limb development by studying two mouse mutants, limb deformity (ld) and Strong's luxoid (lst). These mutations confer contrasting phenotypic alterations to the anteroposterior limb pattern...
  50. ncbi The molecular basis of Pallister Hall associated polydactyly
    Patrick Hill
    Institut für Entwicklungs und Molekularbiologie der Tiere, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Hum Mol Genet 16:2089-96. 2007
    ..The presented findings help to understand the previously enigmatic emergence of Pallister-Hall associated polydactyly and thus add to the understanding of the pathogenic mode of the action of GLI3(PHS)...
  51. ncbi Conservation of the hedgehog/patched signaling pathway from flies to mice: induction of a mouse patched gene by Hedgehog
    L V Goodrich
    Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute HHMI, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5427, USA
    Genes Dev 10:301-12. 1996
    ..As in flies, mouse ptc transcription appears to be indicative of hedgehog signal reception. The results support the existence of a conserved signaling pathway used for pattern formation in insects and mammals...
  52. pmc Control of pelvic girdle development by genes of the Pbx family and Emx2
    Terence D Capellini
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA
    Dev Dyn 240:1173-89. 2011
    ..Lastly, we identify potential Pbx1-Emx2-regulated enhancers for Tbx15, Prrx1, and Pax1, using bioinformatics analyses...
  53. doi Ezh2 regulates anteroposterior axis specification and proximodistal axis elongation in the developing limb
    Laurie A Wyngaarden
    Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
    Development 138:3759-67. 2011
    ..Ezh2 maintains the late phase of Hox gene expression and cell transposition experiments suggest that it regulates the plasticity with which cells respond to instructive positional cues...
  54. ncbi Deficient outgrowth of the ureteric bud underlies the renal agenesis phenotype in mice manifesting the limb deformity (ld) mutation
    R Maas
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Dev Dyn 199:214-28. 1994
    ..However, since ld transcripts can be detected in both metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud, the molecular basis for the deficiency in ureteric bud outgrowth could reside in either component...
  55. ncbi Responses to selection for plus and minus modifiers of some effects of Strong's luxoid gene on the mouse skeleton
    P F Forsthoefel
    Teratology 1:339-51. 1968
  56. ncbi Linkage relationships of Strong's luxoid gene in the mouse
    P F Forsthoefel
    J Hered 61:64-6. 1970
  57. pmc The interfrontal bone and mutant genes in the mouse
    D R Johnson
    J Anat 121:507-13. 1976
    ..All genes reviewed which increase the incidence of the interfrontal bone and affect the neural tube also change the proportions of the adult skull...
  58. ncbi The effects of 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine used alone and in combination with normal nucleic acid precursors on development of mice in lines selected for low and high expression of Strong's luxoid gene
    P F Forsthoefel
    Teratology 11:1-13. 1975
    ..The interactions of the teratogens with the major gene were inhibited by minus- and promoted by plus-modifying genes of 1st. The effects of the teratogenic treatments may be mediated by cell death...
  59. pmc Alx4 and Msx2 play phenotypically similar and additive roles in skull vault differentiation
    Ileana Antonopoulou
    Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    J Anat 204:487-99. 2004
    b>Alx4 and Msx2 encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that show a clear functional overlap...
  60. ncbi Hoxb2 and hoxb4 act together to specify ventral body wall formation
    N R Manley
    Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    Dev Biol 237:130-44. 2001
    ..5, before secondary body wall formation. Prior to this defect, both Alx3 and Alx4 were specifically down regulated in the most ventral part of the primary body wall in Hoxb4(PolII) mutants...
  61. ncbi Isolation of differentially expressed genes from wild-type and Twist mutant mouse limb buds
    David A F Loebel
    Embryology Unit, Children s Medical Research Institute, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
    Genesis 33:103-13. 2002
    ..We show that the aristaless-like transcription factors, Alx3 and Alx4 are downregulated in the Twist(-/-) mutant and may be potential targets of Twist...
  62. ncbi Genetic modifiers of otocephalic phenotypes in Otx2 heterozygous mutant mice
    Takuichiro Hide
    Present address Vertebrate Body Plan Group, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minami cho, Chuou ku, Kobe, Hyougo 650 0047, Japan
    Development 129:4347-57. 2002
    ..Furthermore, these experiments offer a powerful approach with respect to identification and characterization of candidate genes that may contribute to human agnathia-holoprosencephaly complex diseases...
  63. ncbi Suppression of polydactyly of the Gli3 mutant (extra toes) by deltaEF1 homozygous mutation
    H Moribe
    Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
    Dev Growth Differ 42:367-76. 2000
    ..The data suggest the possibility that the extent of Hoxd13 expression along the distal margin of the limb bud is determinative in defining the digit number...
  64. ncbi Targeted misexpression of constitutively active BMP receptor-IB causes bifurcation, duplication, and posterior transformation of digit in mouse limb
    Z Zhang
    Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, Oslo, 0316, Norway
    Dev Biol 220:154-67. 2000
    ..In addition, BMPR-IB may represent a critical component in the Shh/FGF4 feedback loop by regulating Gremlin expression...
  65. ncbi The Fused toes (Ft) mouse mutation causes anteroposterior and dorsoventral polydactyly
    Lars Grotewold
    Institut für Entwicklungs und Molekularbiologie der Tiere EMT, Heinrich Heine Universitat, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Dev Biol 251:129-41. 2002
    ..In addition, our analysis reveals a specific requirement of the genes deleted by the Ft mutation in hindlimb morphogenesis...
  66. ncbi Genetics and manifold effects of Strong's luxoid gene in the mouse, including its interactions with Green's luxoid and Carter's luxate genes
    P F Forsthoefel
    J Morphol 110:391-420. 1962
  67. ncbi THE EMBRYOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF STRONG'S LUXOID GENE IN THE MOUSE
    P F Forsthoefel
    J Morphol 113:427-51. 1963
  68. ncbi Progression of calvarial bone development requires Foxc1 regulation of Msx2 and Alx4
    Ritva Rice
    Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, P O Box 56, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Dev Biol 262:75-87. 2003
    ..defect in ch mutants to the calvarial mesenchyme, which lacks the expression of transcription factors Msx2 and Alx4. This lack of expression is associated with a reduction in the proliferation of osteoprogenitor cells...
  69. pmc Genetic profile of insertion mutations in mouse leukemias and lymphomas
    G M Hansen
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030 USA
    Genome Res 10:237-43. 2000
    ....
  70. ncbi Twist is required for patterning the cranial nerves and maintaining the viability of mesodermal cells
    Masato S Ota
    Embryology Unit, Children s Medical Research Institute, Westmead, NSW Australia
    Dev Dyn 230:216-28. 2004
    ....
  71. ncbi Vertebrate aristaless-related genes
    F Meijlink
    Hubrecht Laboratory, Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht
    Int J Dev Biol 43:651-63. 1999
    ....
  72. ncbi Loss of Alx4, a stromally-restricted homeodomain protein, impairs mammary epithelial morphogenesis
    Purna A Joshi
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Room 6318, Medical Sciences Building, 1 King s College Circle, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8
    Dev Biol 297:284-94. 2006
    ..b>Alx4 is a mesenchymally restricted homeodomain transcription factor expressed in a number of developing tissues, ..
  73. ncbi The dominant hemimelia mutation uncouples epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and disrupts anterior mesenchyme formation in mouse hindlimbs
    L Lettice
    MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Crewe Rd, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK
    Development 126:4729-36. 1999
    ..The Dh gene functions in the initial stages of limb development and we suggest that these initial roles are linked to mechanisms that pattern gene expression in the AER...
  74. ncbi Physical and genetic interactions between Alx4 and Cart1
    S Qu
    Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Development 126:359-69. 1999
    b>Alx4 and Cart1 are closely related members of the family of transcription factors that contain the paired-type homeodomain...
  75. ncbi Alx-4, a transcriptional activator whose expression is restricted to sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
    R Hudson
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Dyn 213:159-69. 1998
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that Alx-4 is a potent transcriptional activator that is expressed at sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during murine embryonic development...
  76. ncbi Evaluation of mouse Sfrp3/Frzb1 as a candidate for the lst, Ul, and Far mutants on chromosome 2
    C L Peichel
    Department of Molecular Biology, Lewis Thomas Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Mamm Genome 9:385-7. 1998
  77. ncbi Bmp4 in limb bud mesoderm regulates digit pattern by controlling AER development
    Jennifer Selever
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 276:268-79. 2004
    ..Our data show that Bmp4 in limb mesoderm regulates AER induction and maturation and implicate signaling from the AER in regulation of digit number and identity...
  78. ncbi Conditional inactivation of Fgfr1 in mouse defines its role in limb bud establishment, outgrowth and digit patterning
    Jamie M Verheyden
    Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Development 132:4235-45. 2005
    ..Our study of these two Fgfr1 conditional mutants has elucidated the multiple roles of FGFR1 in limb bud establishment, growth and patterning...
  79. ncbi Genetic interaction between Lef1 and Alx4 is required for early embryonic development
    Kata Boras-Granic
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Int J Dev Biol 50:601-10. 2006
    ..We determined previously that the mesenchymally restricted, paired-like homeodomain protein Aristaless-like 4 (Alx4) interacts with Lef1 and together alters promoter activity of candidate genes...
  80. ncbi Temporal requirement of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest skeletal morphogenesis
    Fabio Santagati
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, UMR 7104, BP 10142, CU de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, France
    Development 132:4927-36. 2005
    ..arch skeletal derivatives, reproducing the conventional Hoxa2 knockout phenotype, and induced rapid changes in Alx4, Bapx1, Six2 and Msx1 expression patterns...
  81. pmc Satb2 haploinsufficiency phenocopies 2q32-q33 deletions, whereas loss suggests a fundamental role in the coordination of jaw development
    Olga Britanova
    Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max Plank Institute for Experimental Medicine, Goettingen, Germany
    Am J Hum Genet 79:668-78. 2006
    ..of expression of three genes implicated in the regulation of craniofacial development in humans and mice: Pax9, Alx4, and Msx1...
  82. ncbi Threshold-specific requirements for Bmp4 in mandibular development
    Wei Liu
    Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M System Health Science Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    Dev Biol 283:282-93. 2005
    ..Lastly, we provide evidence that Prx homeobox genes repress expression of an Msx2 transgene, previously shown to be Bmp4-responsive, revealing a mechanism for differential regulation of Msx1 and Msx2 by Bmp signaling...
  83. pmc Rostral and caudal pharyngeal arches share a common neural crest ground pattern
    Maryline Minoux
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 7104, Strasbourg, France
    Development 136:637-45. 2009
    ..These results provide insights into how facial and throat structures are assembled during development, and have implications for the evolution of the pharyngeal region of the vertebrate head...
  84. ncbi Polydactylous limbs in Strong's Luxoid mice result from ectopic polarizing activity
    D C Chan
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Development 121:1971-8. 1995
    ..We suggest that the 1st gene product is involved in anteroposterior axis formation during normal limb development...
  85. ncbi Genetic loci influencing natural variations in femoral bone morphometry in mice
    T A Drake
    Department of Pathology, University of California at Los Angeles, 90095 1732, USA
    J Orthop Res 19:511-7. 2001
    ..These findings show that genetic regulation of femoral bone morphology is complex, and are consistent with the distinct biologic processes that control longitudinal and lateral growth of the femur...
  86. ncbi Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes
    Michael J Depew
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, 401 Parnassus Avenue, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0984, USA
    Science 298:381-5. 2002
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression...
  87. ncbi The mouse polydactylous mutation, luxate (lx), causes anterior shift of the anteroposterior border in the developing hindlimb bud
    Yukari Yada
    Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan
    Int J Dev Biol 46:975-82. 2002
    ..Conversely, the expression domains of anterior mesenchymal markers such as Gli3and Alx4 decreased in size. Thus, ectopic Shh is not a primary defect of the lx mutation...
  88. ncbi FGFR1 function at the earliest stages of mouse limb development plays an indispensable role in subsequent autopod morphogenesis
    Cuiling Li
    Genetics of Development and Disease Branch, NIDDK, NIH, 10 9N105, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Development 132:4755-64. 2005
    ..of a number of genes involved in apoptosis and digit patterning, including increased expression of Bmp4, Dkk1 and Alx4, and downregulation of MKP3...
  89. pmc TGF-beta type I receptor Alk5 regulates tooth initiation and mandible patterning in a type II receptor-independent manner
    Hu Zhao
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA 103, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 320:19-29. 2008
    ..in early mandible patterning and altered expression of key patterning genes including Msx1, Bmp4, Bmp2, Pax9, Alx4, Lhx6/7 and Gsc...
  90. ncbi Expression of the mouse Gli and Ptc genes is adjacent to embryonic sources of hedgehog signals suggesting a conservation of pathways between flies and mice
    K A Platt
    The Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine Developmental Genetics Program and Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University, NY 10016, USA
    Mech Dev 62:121-35. 1997
    ..These results are consistent with conservation of the Hh signal transduction pathway in mice with Gli potentially mediating Hh signaling in multiple regions of the developing embryo...

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