Akt2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Akt2
Description: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 2
Alias: 2410016A19Rik, AW554154, PKB, PKBbeta, RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase, PKB beta, RAC-PK-beta, protein kinase Akt-2, protein kinase B, beta
Species: mouse

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta)
    H Cho
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 292:1728-31. 2001
  2. pmc Overexpression of TEAD-1 in transgenic mouse striated muscles produces a slower skeletal muscle contractile phenotype
    Richard W Tsika
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:36154-67. 2008
  3. pmc Protein kinase C-delta and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activate mammalian target of rapamycin to modulate NF-kappaB activation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells
    Mohd Minhajuddin
    Department of Pediatrics Neonatology, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:4052-61. 2009
  4. ncbi Cellular survival: a play in three Akts
    S R Datta
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital and Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 USA
    Genes Dev 13:2905-27. 1999
  5. ncbi Akt1 and Akt2 differently regulate muscle creatine kinase and myogenin gene transcription in insulin-induced differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts
    Satoru Sumitani
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine C 4, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Endocrinology 143:820-8. 2002
  6. pmc Dwarfism, impaired skin development, skeletal muscle atrophy, delayed bone development, and impeded adipogenesis in mice lacking Akt1 and Akt2
    Xiao ding Peng
    Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Genes Dev 17:1352-65. 2003
  7. ncbi Protein kinase B alpha/Akt1 regulates placental development and fetal growth
    Zhong Zhou Yang
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 278:32124-31. 2003
  8. pmc Severe diabetes, age-dependent loss of adipose tissue, and mild growth deficiency in mice lacking Akt2/PKB beta
    Robert S Garofalo
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06357, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:197-208. 2003
  9. ncbi Transgenic mouse overexpressing the Akt reduced the volume of infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion
    Norihiro Ohba
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1 4 3 Asahimachi, Abeno Ku, Osaka, 545 8585, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 359:159-62. 2004
  10. ncbi Akt1/Akt2 and mammalian target of rapamycin/Bim play critical roles in osteoclast differentiation and survival, respectively, whereas Akt is dispensable for cell survival in isolated osteoclast precursors
    Toshifumi Sugatani
    Department of Pediatrics, Cell and Molecular Biology Unit, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:3583-9. 2005

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications123 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta)
    H Cho
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 292:1728-31. 2001
    ..We show that mice deficient in Akt2 are impaired in the ability of insulin to lower blood glucose because of defects in the action of the hormone on ..
  2. pmc Overexpression of TEAD-1 in transgenic mouse striated muscles produces a slower skeletal muscle contractile phenotype
    Richard W Tsika
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:36154-67. 2008
    ..These novel in vivo data support a role for TEAD-1 in modulating slow muscle gene expression...
  3. pmc Protein kinase C-delta and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activate mammalian target of rapamycin to modulate NF-kappaB activation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells
    Mohd Minhajuddin
    Department of Pediatrics Neonatology, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:4052-61. 2009
    ..Pkc-delta(-)(/)(-)), p85alpha and p85beta subunits of the PI3K (p85alpha(-)(/)(-)beta(-)(/)(-)), or Akt1 and Akt2 (Akt1(-)(/)(-)2(-)(/)(-))...
  4. ncbi Cellular survival: a play in three Akts
    S R Datta
    Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital and Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 USA
    Genes Dev 13:2905-27. 1999
  5. ncbi Akt1 and Akt2 differently regulate muscle creatine kinase and myogenin gene transcription in insulin-induced differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts
    Satoru Sumitani
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine C 4, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Endocrinology 143:820-8. 2002
    ..suppressed MCK gene transcription without affecting myogenin gene transcription, whereas heterologous expression of Akt2 increased myogenin and MCK gene transcription...
  6. pmc Dwarfism, impaired skin development, skeletal muscle atrophy, delayed bone development, and impeded adipogenesis in mice lacking Akt1 and Akt2
    Xiao ding Peng
    Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Genes Dev 17:1352-65. 2003
    To elucidate the functions of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB in vivo, we generated mice lacking both akt1 and akt2 genes. Akt1/Akt2 double-knockout (DKO) mice exhibit severe growth deficiency and die shortly after birth...
  7. ncbi Protein kinase B alpha/Akt1 regulates placental development and fetal growth
    Zhong Zhou Yang
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 278:32124-31. 2003
    Protein kinase B alpha (PKB alpha/Akt1) is implicated in the regulation of metabolism, transcription, cell survival, angiogenesis, cell migration, growth, and tumorigenesis...
  8. pmc Severe diabetes, age-dependent loss of adipose tissue, and mild growth deficiency in mice lacking Akt2/PKB beta
    Robert S Garofalo
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06357, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:197-208. 2003
    ..To investigate the function of Akt2/PKBbeta, mice lacking this isoform were generated...
  9. ncbi Transgenic mouse overexpressing the Akt reduced the volume of infarct area after middle cerebral artery occlusion
    Norihiro Ohba
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1 4 3 Asahimachi, Abeno Ku, Osaka, 545 8585, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 359:159-62. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the DINE promoter is a useful promoter, which responds to neuronal insults and that the Akt-induced neuroprotective effect against ischemic damage is potent in vivo...
  10. ncbi Akt1/Akt2 and mammalian target of rapamycin/Bim play critical roles in osteoclast differentiation and survival, respectively, whereas Akt is dispensable for cell survival in isolated osteoclast precursors
    Toshifumi Sugatani
    Department of Pediatrics, Cell and Molecular Biology Unit, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:3583-9. 2005
    ..Here we show that Akt1/Akt2 play a critical role in osteoclast differentiation but not cell survival and that mammalian target of rapamycin (..
  11. pmc Role for Akt3/protein kinase Bgamma in attainment of normal brain size
    Rachael M Easton
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Clinical Research Building 322, 415 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:1869-78. 2005
    ..In mammals, three highly conserved proteins, Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3, comprise the Akt family, of which the first two are required for normal growth and metabolism, ..
  12. pmc Dosage-dependent effects of Akt1/protein kinase Balpha (PKBalpha) and Akt3/PKBgamma on thymus, skin, and cardiovascular and nervous system development in mice
    Zhong Zhou Yang
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, P O Box 2543, Maulbeerstrasse 66, Basel CH 4002, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 25:10407-18. 2005
    Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, transcription, cell migration, cell cycle progression, and cell survival...
  13. ncbi Distinct signals regulate AS160 phosphorylation in response to insulin, AICAR, and contraction in mouse skeletal muscle
    Henning F Kramer
    Section Head, Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Pl, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Diabetes 55:2067-76. 2006
    ..Insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation was fully blunted by wortmannin in vitro and in Akt2 knockout (KO) mice in vivo...
  14. pmc Life with a single isoform of Akt: mice lacking Akt2 and Akt3 are viable but display impaired glucose homeostasis and growth deficiencies
    Bettina Dummler
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel CH 4058, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 26:8042-51. 2006
    ..and isoform specificity of the Akt family of protein kinases in vivo, we generated mice deficient in both Akt2 and Akt3...
  15. pmc Only Akt1 is required for proliferation, while Akt2 promotes cell cycle exit through p21 binding
    Lisa Heron-Milhavet
    Cell Biology Unit, Institut de Genetique Humaine, CNRS UPR1142, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Mol Cell Biol 26:8267-80. 2006
    ..RNA duplexes in nontransformed mammalian cells, we show that only Akt1 is essential for cell proliferation, while Akt2 promotes cell cycle exit...
  16. ncbi Opposing roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in Rac/Pak signaling and cell migration
    Guo Lei Zhou
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:36443-53. 2006
    The Akt/PKB isoforms have different roles in animals, with Akt2 primarily regulating metabolic signaling and Akt1 regulating growth and survival...
  17. ncbi Functional studies of Akt isoform specificity in skeletal muscle in vivo; maintained insulin sensitivity despite reduced insulin receptor substrate-1 expression
    Mark E Cleasby
    Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia
    Mol Endocrinol 21:215-28. 2007
    ..These data indicate distinct roles for Akt-1 and Akt-2 in muscle glucose metabolism and that moderate reductions in IRS-1 expression do not result in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo...
  18. ncbi Akt deficiency impairs normal cell proliferation and suppresses oncogenesis in a p53-independent and mTORC1-dependent manner
    Jennifer E Skeen
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:269-80. 2006
    ..These effects are compounded by deleting both Akt1 and Akt2. In vivo, Akt1 null mice are resistant to MMTV-v-H-Ras-induced tumors and to skin carcinogenesis...
  19. ncbi Isoform-specific requirement for Akt1 in the developmental regulation of cellular metabolism during lactation
    Robert B Boxer
    Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Cell Metab 4:475-90. 2006
    ..By evaluating mice bearing targeted deletions in Akt1 or Akt2, we demonstrate that Akt1 is specifically required for lactating mice to synthesize sufficient quantities of milk ..
  20. ncbi Nonredundant role of Akt2 for neuroprotection of rod photoreceptor cells from light-induced cell death
    Guiyuan Li
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    J Neurosci 27:203-11. 2007
    ..We investigated the functional roles of Akt1 and Akt2, two of the isoforms of Akt, and their biological significance in light-induced retinal degeneration...
  21. ncbi Akt1 ablation inhibits, whereas Akt2 ablation accelerates, the development of mammary adenocarcinomas in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2/neu and MMTV-polyoma middle T transgenic mice
    Ioanna G Maroulakou
    Molecular Oncology Research Institute and Department of Pathology, Tufts New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Cancer Res 67:167-77. 2007
    ..The effects of ablation of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 on the induction and the biology of these tumors were dramatically different, with ablation of Akt1 ..
  22. pmc Akt1 and Akt2 are required for alphabeta thymocyte survival and differentiation
    Marisa M Juntilla
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12105-10. 2007
    ..In this study, we explore the role of the two Akt isoforms most highly expressed in the thymus, Akt1 and Akt2, in early T cell development...
  23. ncbi A novel Akt/PKB-interacting protein promotes cell adhesion and inhibits familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1-induced neuronal death via inhibition of PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt/PKB
    Mikiro Nawa
    Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Cell Signal 20:493-505. 2008
    Akt/Protein Kinase B (PKB) family proteins (Akts), consisting of Akt1, 2, and 3, play a crucial role in multiple biological processes...
  24. doi Rapid activation of Akt2 is sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Yvonne Ng
    Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
    Cell Metab 7:348-56. 2008
    The serine/threonine kinase Akt2 has been implicated in insulin-regulated glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells by promoting the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface...
  25. pmc Distinct roles of the three Akt isoforms in lactogenic differentiation and involution
    Ioanna G Maroulakou
    Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Cell Physiol 217:468-77. 2008
    ..As a result, ablation of Akt1 inhibits and ablation of Akt2 accelerates mammary tumor development by both oncogenes, while ablation of Akt3 is phenotypically almost neutral...
  26. pmc Distinct actions of Akt1 and Akt2 in skeletal muscle differentiation
    Peter Rotwein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 3098, USA
    J Cell Physiol 219:503-11. 2009
    ..Here we present evidence for distinct roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in different phases of muscle differentiation...
  27. pmc Leptin deficiency and beta-cell dysfunction underlie type 2 diabetes in compound Akt knockout mice
    William S Chen
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:3151-62. 2009
    ..analyses of mice null for the individual Akt isoforms suggested that they are functionally distinct and that only Akt2 plays a role in diabetes...
  28. pmc Insulin-modulated Akt subcellular localization determines Akt isoform-specific signaling
    Eva Gonzalez
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7004-9. 2009
    ..Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying Akt isoform functional specificity by using Akt2-specific regulation of glucose transport in insulin-stimulated adipocytes as a model system...
  29. pmc Akt1 and akt2 play distinct roles in the initiation and metastatic phases of mammary tumor progression
    Rachelle L Dillon
    Goodman Cancer Centre and Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Cancer Res 69:5057-64. 2009
    ..Here, we report the generation of transgenic mice expressing activated Akt2 in the mammary epithelium...
  30. pmc MicroRNAs differentially regulated by Akt isoforms control EMT and stem cell renewal in cancer cells
    Dimitrios Iliopoulos
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Sci Signal 2:ra62. 2009
    ..We expressed each isoform individually in an Akt1(-/-)/Akt2(-/-)/Akt3(-/-) cell line...
  31. pmc Akt2 is required for hepatic lipid accumulation in models of insulin resistance
    Karla F Leavens
    Department of Medicine, Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cell Metab 10:405-18. 2009
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that Akt2/protein kinase B is critical to insulin's control of glucose metabolism, but its role in lipid metabolism has ..
  32. pmc Akt isoforms differentially regulate neutrophil functions
    Jia Chen
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Blood 115:4237-46. 2010
    ..the 2 major Akt isoforms in neutrophil activation on the basis of studies in which we used individual Akt1 and Akt2 knockout mice...
  33. pmc The critical role of AKT2 in hepatic steatosis induced by PTEN loss
    Lina He
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    Am J Pathol 176:2302-8. 2010
    ..To explore the role of AKT2, the major liver AKT isoform in steatosis induced by deletion of Pten, we created mice lacking both Pten and Akt2 ..
  34. doi Dlg1-PTEN interaction regulates myelin thickness to prevent damaging peripheral nerve overmyelination
    Laurent Cotter
    Institute of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule ETH Zurich, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 328:1415-8. 2010
    ..Indeed, the Dlg1 brake is no longer functional in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Therefore, negative regulation of myelination appears to be essential for optimization of nerve conduction velocity and myelin maintenance...
  35. pmc Sin1-mTORC2 suppresses rag and il7r gene expression through Akt2 in B cells
    Adam S Lazorchak
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Mol Cell 39:433-43. 2010
    ..We further show that Akt2 specifically mediates the Sin1-mTORC2 dependent suppression of il7r and rag gene expression in B cells by ..
  36. doi Deletion of Akt1 causes heart defects and abnormal cardiomyocyte proliferation
    Zai Chang
    MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
    Dev Biol 347:384-91. 2010
    The PI3K-PDK1-PKB/Akt (PI3K, phosphoinositide-3 kinase; PDK1, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1; PKB, protein kinase B) signaling pathway plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes including cell survival, ..
  37. pmc Expansion of hepatic tumor progenitor cells in Pten-null mice requires liver injury and is reversed by loss of AKT2
    Vivian A Galicia
    Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Gastroenterology 139:2170-82. 2010
    The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits AKT2 signaling; both are aberrantly expressed in liver tumors. We investigated how PTEN and AKT2 regulate liver carcinogenesis...
  38. pmc Akt1 deletion prevents lung tumorigenesis by mutant K-ras
    M C Hollander
    Medical Oncology Branch, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
    Oncogene 30:1812-21. 2011
    ..Here, we show that deletion of Akt1 but not Akt2 or Akt3 prevents lung tumorigenesis in a tobacco carcinogen-induced model and a genetic model...
  39. pmc S6 kinase 1 is required for rapamycin-sensitive liver proliferation after mouse hepatectomy
    Catherine Espeillac
    INSERM, U845, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 121:2821-32. 2011
    ..The identification of an S6K1-dependent mechanism participating in cell proliferation in vivo may be relevant for cancer cells displaying high mTOR complex 1 activity and cyclin D1 accumulation...
  40. pmc The effect Akt2 deletion on tumor development in Pten(+/-) mice
    P Z Xu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    Oncogene 31:518-26. 2012
    ..Here, we analyzed the effect of Akt2 deficiency on the incidence of tumors in Pten(+/-) mice...
  41. pmc C2 domain-containing phosphoprotein CDP138 regulates GLUT4 insertion into the plasma membrane
    Xiangyang Xie
    Metabolic Signaling and Disease Program, Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute, Orlando, FL 32827, USA
    Cell Metab 14:378-89. 2011
    The protein kinase B(β) (Akt2) pathway is known to mediate insulin-stimulated glucose transport through increasing glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane (PM)...
  42. pmc Postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism requires signaling through Akt2 independent of the transcription factors FoxA2, FoxO1, and SREBP1c
    Min Wan
    The Institute of Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Cell Metab 14:516-27. 2011
    ..activation of neither FoxA2 nor FoxO1 can account for the protection from steatosis afforded by deletion of Akt2 in liver...
  43. pmc Insulin regulates liver metabolism in vivo in the absence of hepatic Akt and Foxo1
    Mingjian Lu
    The Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Med 18:388-95. 2012
    ..Here we show that mice with hepatic deletion of Akt1 and Akt2 were glucose intolerant, insulin resistant and defective in their transcriptional response to feeding in the liver...
  44. pmc Loss of Akt1 or Akt2 delays mammary tumor onset and suppresses tumor growth rate in MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice
    Katrina L Watson
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada
    BMC Cancer 13:375. 2013
    ..However, there are three mammalian isoforms of Akt (Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3) and these isoforms regulate distinct physiologic properties within cells...
  45. doi A critical role of the small GTPase Rac1 in Akt2-mediated GLUT4 translocation in mouse skeletal muscle
    Nobuyuki Takenaka
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Japan
    FEBS J 281:1493-504. 2014
    ..The serine/threonine kinase Akt2 has been implicated as a key regulator of this insulin action...
  46. ncbi Unequal contribution of Akt isoforms in the double-negative to double-positive thymocyte transition
    Changchuin Mao
    Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Immunol 178:5443-53. 2007
    ..signals activate Akt and that pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, or combined ablation of Akt1 and Akt2, and to a lesser extent Akt1 and Akt3, interfere with the differentiation of DN3 and the accumulation of DP ..
  47. ncbi Differential contribution of insulin receptor substrates 1 versus 2 to insulin signaling and glucose uptake in l6 myotubes
    Carol Huang
    Program in Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 280:19426-35. 2005
    ..Insulin-induced Akt1 and Akt2 phosphorylation was reduced in myotubes treated with siIRS-1, but only Akt2 phosphorylation was reduced in myotubes ..
  48. ncbi Phosphorylation of Bad is not essential for PKB-mediated survival signaling in hemopoietic cells
    S W Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Jack Bell Research Centre, 2660 Oak St, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3Z6
    Apoptosis 10:341-8. 2005
    ..One key question is whether the survival signaling effect of the PI 3-kinase pathway is mediated by PKB phosphorylation of Bad...
  49. pmc A WD-FYVE protein binds to the kinases Akt and PKCzeta/lambda
    Thorsten Fritzius
    Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Gloriastrasse 30, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
    Biochem J 399:9-20. 2006
    ..In summary, we describe a new binding partner for kinases, located on vesicular structures in specialized cells, which may play a role for the spatial organization of signalling cascades...
  50. pmc PHLPP-1 negatively regulates Akt activity and survival in the heart
    Shigeki Miyamoto
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0636, USA
    Circ Res 107:476-84. 2010
    ..The regulatory role of PHLPP-1 in the heart has not been considered...
  51. pmc Akt deficiency attenuates muscle size and function but not the response to ActRIIB inhibition
    Marcus D Goncalves
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12707. 2010
    ..Thus, we hypothesized that mice deficient in either Akt1 or Akt2 would not respond to in vivo inhibition of ActRIIB with ActRIIB-mFc treatment.
  52. pmc PKB signaling and atrogene expression in skeletal muscle of aged mice
    Megan Gaugler
    Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Skidmore College, 815 North Broadway, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 111:192-9. 2011
    The purpose of this study was to determine if PKB signaling is decreased and contractile protein degradation is increased in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from middle-aged (MA) and aged (AG) mice...
  53. pmc Akt2 regulates all Akt isoforms and promotes resistance to hypoxia through induction of miR-21 upon oxygen deprivation
    Christos Polytarchou
    Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Cancer Res 71:4720-31. 2011
    ..Here, we show that both normal and tumor cells expressing the protein kinase Akt2 are more resistant to hypoxia than cells expressing Akt1 or Akt3...
  54. pmc Sin1 regulates Treg-cell development but is not required for T-cell growth and proliferation
    Xing Chang
    Department of Immunobiology and Vascular Biology and Therapeutic Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA
    Eur J Immunol 42:1639-47. 2012
    ..Our results reveal that Sin1 and mTORC2 are dispensable for the development and activation of T cells but play a role in nTreg-cell differentiation...
  55. pmc PI3K/AKT signaling regulates bioenergetics in immortalized hepatocytes
    Chen Li
    Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, CA 90089 United States
    Free Radic Biol Med 60:29-40. 2013
    ....
  56. doi Nuclear Akt2 opposes limbal keratinocyte stem cell self-renewal by repressing a FOXO-mTORC1 signaling pathway
    Stefania Saoncella
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
    Stem Cells 32:754-69. 2014
    ..we show that Akt signaling is prominent in SC populations both in vivo and in vitro, and that Akt1 promotes while Akt2 opposes SC self-renewal...
  57. pmc Rictor/mTORC2 loss in the Myf5 lineage reprograms brown fat metabolism and protects mice against obesity and metabolic disease
    Chien Min Hung
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell Rep 8:256-71. 2014
    ..Our findings provide insights into the signaling circuitry that regulates brown adipocytes and could have important implications for developing therapies aimed at increasing energy expenditure as a means to combat human obesity...
  58. pmc Macrophage deficiency of Akt2 reduces atherosclerosis in Ldlr null mice
    Vladimir R Babaev
    Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232
    J Lipid Res 55:2296-308. 2014
    ..Macrophages express three Akt isoforms, Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3, but the roles of Akt1 and Akt2 in atherosclerosis in vivo remain unclear...
  59. pmc Unique roles of Akt1 and Akt2 in IGF-IR mediated lung tumorigenesis
    S Elizabeth Franks
    Department of Biomedical Science, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Oncotarget 7:3297-316. 2016
    ..model where IGF-IR overexpression drives lung tumorigenesis, we found that loss of Akt1 inhibited while loss of Akt2 enhanced lung tumor development...
  60. ncbi Akt negatively regulates translation of the ternary complex factor Elk-1
    Claudia Figueroa
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0606, USA
    Oncogene 22:5554-61. 2003
    ..We conclude that Akt negatively regulates translation of the Elk-1 mRNA. A coding region determinant that maps within the first 279 nts of the Elk-1 message is necessary and sufficient for Akt-mediated regulation of Elk-1...
  61. pmc A Ral GAP complex links PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling to RalA activation in insulin action
    Xiao Wei Chen
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 22:141-52. 2011
    ..Insulin inhibits the GAP complex through Akt2-catalyzed phosphorylation of RGC2 in vitro and in vivo, while activated Akt relieves the inhibitory effect of RGC ..
  62. pmc Novel role for SGK3 in glucose homeostasis revealed in SGK3/Akt2 double-null mice
    Li Jun Yao
    Departments of Medicine, and Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94107 2140, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 25:2106-18. 2011
    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent kinase, Akt2, plays a central role in mediating insulin effects in glucose-metabolizing tissues...
  63. pmc Defining Akt actions in muscle differentiation
    Samantha Gardner
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 303:C1292-300. 2012
    ..Akt1 is essential for initiation of differentiation in culture and is required for normal myoblast motility, while Akt2 is dispensable...
  64. pmc Decreased spermatogenesis, fertility, and altered Slc2A expression in Akt1-/- and Akt2-/- testes and sperm
    Sung Tae Kim
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Reprod Sci 19:31-42. 2012
    ..This work describes the reproductive phenotype of Akt1-/- and Akt2-/- in male mice...
  65. pmc Abnormal Wnt and PI3Kinase signaling in the malformed intestine of lama5 deficient mice
    Léa Ritie
    INSERM, U682, Strasbourg, France Univ de Strasbourg, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e37710. 2012
    ..Thus deregulated adhesion to laminin-511 may be instrumental in diseases such as human pathologies of the gut where laminin-511 is abnormally expressed as it is shown here...
  66. pmc Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: amplification of AKT1 in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma
    S P Staal
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:5034-7. 1987
    ..Two human homologues of the v-akt oncogene, AKT1 and AKT2, were cloned...
  67. ncbi Generation of a floxed allele of Smad5 for cre-mediated conditional knockout in the mouse
    Lieve Umans
    Department of Developmental Biology VIB 7, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology VIB, and Laboratory of Molecular Biology Celgen, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Genesis 37:5-11. 2003
    ..Smad5(flE2/flE2) mice are now available and will be a valuable tool to analyze the role of Smad5 beyond its crucial early embryonic function throughout development and postnatal life...
  68. ncbi Akt2 negatively regulates assembly of the POSH-MLK-JNK signaling complex
    Claudia Figueroa
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:47922-7. 2003
    We demonstrate that POSH, a scaffold for the JNK signaling pathway, binds to Akt2. A POSH mutant that is unable to bind Akt2 (POSH W489A) exhibits enhanced-binding to MLK3, and this increase in binding is accompanied by increased ..
  69. ncbi fgf8 mRNA decay establishes a gradient that couples axial elongation to patterning in the vertebrate embryo
    Julien Dubrulle
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, 64110 Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Nature 427:419-22. 2004
    ..In addition, this mechanism provides a novel model for morphogen gradient formation...
  70. pmc Akt2, a novel functional link between p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in myogenesis
    Ivelisse Gonzalez
    Signalling Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Biol 24:3607-22. 2004
    ..Analysis of Akt isoforms revealed a specific increase in Akt2 protein levels that coincided with AktS473 phosphorylation during myogenesis and an enrichment of S473-..
  71. ncbi Regulation of insulin action by ceramide: dual mechanisms linking ceramide accumulation to the inhibition of Akt/protein kinase B
    Suzanne Stratford
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1870, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:36608-15. 2004
    The sphingolipid ceramide negatively regulates insulin action by inhibiting Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), a serine/threonine kinase that is a central regulator of glucose uptake and anabolic metabolism...
  72. ncbi Molecular and genetic studies imply Akt-mediated signaling promotes protein kinase CbetaII alternative splicing via phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor SRp40
    Niketa A Patel
    Department of Biochemistry, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:14302-9. 2005
    ..C., and Cooper, D. C. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 22648-22654). Transient transfection of constitutively active Akt2 kinase promotes PKCbetaII exon inclusion...
  73. ncbi PI3K-AKT pathway mediates growth and survival signals during development of fetal mouse lung
    J Wang
    Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
    Tissue Cell 37:25-35. 2005
    ..The LY294002 and wortmannin treatments showed decreased expression of SPC. These findings suggest that the PI3K-AKT signalling pathway plays a pivotal role in mouse lung development through various biological processes...
  74. ncbi The PI3K/Akt pathway is present and functional in the preimplantation mouse embryo
    Joan K Riley
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Dev Biol 284:377-86. 2005
    ..Taken together, these data are the first to demonstrate the presence and function of the PI3K/Akt pathway in mammalian preimplantation embryos...
  75. pmc Akt1/protein kinase Balpha is critical for ischemic and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis
    Eric Ackah
    Department of Pharmacology and Program in Vascular Cell Signaling and Therapeutics, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06536 0812, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:2119-27. 2005
    ..Here we show that the genetic loss of Akt1, but not Akt2, in mice results in defective ischemia and VEGF-induced angiogenesis as well as severe peripheral vascular disease...
  76. ncbi Quantitative analysis of anti-apoptotic function of Akt in Akt1 and Akt2 double knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblast cells under normal and stressed conditions
    Xuesong Liu
    Department of Cancer Research R47S, Abbott L, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:31380-8. 2006
    The serine/threonine kinases Akt1/PKBalpha, Akt2/PKBbeta, and Akt3/PKBgamma have been implicated in preventing cells from undergoing apoptosis...
  77. pmc Akt2 regulates cardiac metabolism and cardiomyocyte survival
    Brian DeBosch
    Center for Cardiovascular Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 4940 Parkview Place, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:32841-51. 2006
    ..All three known Akt family members, Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3, are expressed in the myocardium, although Akt1 and Akt2 are most abundant...
  78. ncbi Akt/Protein kinase B modulates macrophage inflammatory response to Francisella infection and confers a survival advantage in mice
    Murugesan V S Rajaram
    Dorothy M Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 473 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    J Immunol 177:6317-24. 2006
    ..novicida. Together, these observations indicate that Akt promotes proinflammatory cytokine production by F. novicida-infected macrophages through its influence on NF-kappaB, thereby contributing to immunity against F. novicida infection...
  79. ncbi Effects of caloric restriction and growth hormone resistance on insulin-related intermediates in the skeletal muscle
    Khalid A Al-Regaiey
    Departments of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, Springfield, USA
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62:18-26. 2007
    ..In addition to changes detected in both genotypes, and responses unique to GHRKO mice, the levels of Akt2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) were increased and levels of ..
  80. ncbi AKT-dependent HspB1 (Hsp27) activity in epidermal differentiation
    Ryan F L O'Shaughnessy
    Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 282:17297-305. 2007
    ..This work demonstrates a new role for Akt in epidermis...
  81. ncbi Akt/PKB regulates hepatic metabolism by directly inhibiting PGC-1alpha transcription coactivator
    Xinghai Li
    Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Cox Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 447:1012-6. 2007
    ..Here we describe a mechanism by which insulin, through the intermediary protein kinase Akt2/protein kinase B (PKB)-beta, elicits the phosphorylation and inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator ..
  82. ncbi Akt2 is implicated in skeletal muscle differentiation and specifically binds Prohibitin2/REA
    Lisa Heron-Milhavet
    Cell Biology Unit, Institut de Genetique Humaine, Montpellier, France
    J Cell Physiol 214:158-65. 2008
    Akt1 and Akt2 are the major isoforms of Akt expressed in muscle cells and muscle tissue. We have performed siRNA silencing of Akt1 and Akt2 in C2 myoblasts to characterize their specific implication in muscle differentiation...
  83. pmc Sex differences in the mechanism of Met5-enkephalin-induced cardioprotection: role of PI3K/Akt
    Zhiping Cao
    Anesthesiology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, Portland, OR 97239 2999, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H302-10. 2008
    ..The incomplete loss of protection in females following the blockade of PI3K suggests that additional factors may facilitate the maintenance or function of activated Akt...
  84. doi Age-related insulin resistance in hypothalamus and peripheral tissues of orexin knockout mice
    H Tsuneki
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Diabetologia 51:657-67. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to reveal the role of orexin in the regulation of insulin sensitivity for glucose metabolism...
  85. doi A novel recurrent chromosomal inversion implicates the homeobox gene Dlx5 in T-cell lymphomas from Lck-Akt2 transgenic mice
    Yinfei Tan
    Human Genetics Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Cancer Res 68:1296-302. 2008
    ..Transgenic mice expressing a constitutively activated form of the cellular homologue Akt2 specifically in immature T cells develop spontaneous thymic lymphomas...
  86. doi Acute stretch promotes endothelial cell proliferation in wounded healing mouse skin
    Carl D Shrader
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506 9128, USA
    Arch Dermatol Res 300:495-504. 2008
    ....
  87. doi Serine 396 of PDK1 is required for maximal PKB activation
    Zoe Moon
    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Cell Signal 20:2038-49. 2008
    Protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) is important for mediating survival and proliferation signals...
  88. pmc In vivo analysis of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt regulation in DNA-PKcs-null mice reveals a role for PKB/Akt in DNA damage response and tumorigenesis
    Banu Surucu
    Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, Basel CH 4058, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 283:30025-33. 2008
    Full activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) requires phosphorylation on Thr-308 and Ser-473. It is well established that Thr-308 is phosphorylated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1)...
  89. doi Akt2 is required for macrophage chemotaxis
    Baogang Zhang
    Cancer Institute and Hospital, Research Center of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, PR China
    Eur J Immunol 39:894-901. 2009
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of PKB/Akt in CSF-1-induced macrophage migration. Disruption of Akt2 expression by small interference RNA impaired chemotaxis of both THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages...
  90. pmc Akt2 and SGK3 are both determinants of postnatal hair follicle development
    Theodora M Mauro
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94107 2140, USA
    FASEB J 23:3193-202. 2009
    ..However, this developmental abnormality is not recapitulated in mice lacking closely related kinases Akt1, Akt2, or Akt3...
  91. pmc Homozygous loss of BHD causes early embryonic lethality and kidney tumor development with activation of mTORC1 and mTORC2
    Yukiko Hasumi
    Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18722-7. 2009
    ....
  92. pmc Differential effects of protein kinase B/Akt isoforms on glucose homeostasis and islet mass
    Francesca Buzzi
    University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 30:601-12. 2010
    ..results in diabetes with insulin resistance and severe failure of beta-cell mass and function, only loss of the PKBbeta isoform leads to a mild metabolic phenotype with insulin resistance...
  93. pmc Akt1 and Akt2 promote peripheral B-cell maturation and survival
    Marco Calamito
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    Blood 115:4043-50. 2010
    ..in the bone marrow (BM) and periphery in chimeras established with fetal liver progenitors lacking Akt1 and/or Akt2. We found that the generation of marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells, 2 key sources of antibacterial antibodies, was ..
  94. pmc TEAD-1 overexpression in the mouse heart promotes an age-dependent heart dysfunction
    Richard W Tsika
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:13721-35. 2010
    ..These data provide the first in vivo evidence that increased TEAD-1 can induce characteristics of cardiac remodeling associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure...
  95. doi Akt2/PKBbeta-sensitive regulation of renal phosphate transport
    D S Kempe
    Department of Physiology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 200:75-85. 2010
    The protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt is known to stimulate the cellular uptake of glucose and amino acids. The kinase is expressed in proximal renal tubules...
  96. pmc AKT1 and AKT2 maintain hematopoietic stem cell function by regulating reactive oxygen species
    Marisa M Juntilla
    Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Blood 115:4030-8. 2010
    ..HSC function in mice deficient in the 2 isoforms most highly expressed in the hematopoietic compartment, AKT1 and AKT2. Although loss of either isoform had only a minimal effect on HSC function, AKT1/2 double-deficient HSCs competed ..
  97. pmc Appl1 is dispensable for Akt signaling in vivo and mouse T-cell development
    Yinfei Tan
    Cancer Biology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Genesis 48:531-9. 2010
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that Appl1 is dispensable for Akt signaling in vivo and T-cell differentiation...
  98. doi Heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activation by insulin requires PKB (protein kinase B), but not SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 3)
    Véronique Mouton
    Université catholique de Louvain and de Duve Institute, 75 Avenue Hippocrate, Brussels, Belgium
    Biochem J 431:267-75. 2010
    On the basis of transfection experiments using a dominant-negative approach, our previous studies suggested that PKB (protein kinase B) was not involved in heart PFK-2 (6-phosphofructo2-kinase) activation by insulin...
  99. pmc Optimising experimental design for high-throughput phenotyping in mice: a case study
    Natasha A Karp
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
    Mamm Genome 21:467-76. 2010
    ..Consequently, in confirmatory studies, a power analysis along with the 3Rs can provide justification to increase the number of mice used...
  100. doi Sox9 sustains chondrocyte survival and hypertrophy in part through Pik3ca-Akt pathways
    Daisuke Ikegami
    Departments of Bone and Cartilage Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Development 138:1507-19. 2011
    ..Thus, continued expression of Sox9 in differentiated chondrocytes is essential for subsequent hypertrophy and sustains chondrocyte-specific survival mechanisms by binding to the Pik3ca promoter, inducing Akt phosphorylation...

Research Grants6

  1. EXERCISE HYPERTROPHY AND CONTROL OF MYOSIN INDUCTION
    Richard Tsika; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. ALTERED MECHANICAL LOADS AND SKELETAL MUSCLE PHENOTYPE
    Richard Tsika; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Age Related Insulin Resistance, Akt/PKB, and Skeletal Muscle Proteolysis
    Thomas Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A major action of insulin is to suppress skeletal muscle proteolysis, in part, by activating protein kinase B (PKB)...
  4. REGULATION OF INSULIN-GROWTH FACTOR I EXPRESSION
    Peter Rotwein; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..3. To define the mechanisms by which growth hormone activates IGF-I gene transcription. 4. To characterize the nuclear proteins that bind to the IGF-I gene at the growth hormone-regulated DNAse I hypersensitive site, HS7. ..
  5. Control of IGF-I Gene Transcription in Osteoblasts
    Peter Rotwein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. To define mechanisms of termination of hormone-activated IGF-I transcription and down regulation of C/EBPdelta activity in osteoblasts. 4. To evaluate by gene profiling the role of C/EBPdelta in osteoblast biology. ..
  6. The role of Akt in platelet signaling and thrombosis
    Donna Woulfe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In the following 3 Specific Aims, this proposal will test the hypothesis that Akt1 and Akt2 play a critical role in the signaling pathways that lead to platelet aggregation and stabilization of the platelet ..