TLR9

Summary

Gene Symbol: TLR9
Description: toll like receptor 9
Alias: CD289, toll-like receptor 9
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Bruton's tyrosine kinase is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-binding protein that participates in nuclear factor kappaB activation by Toll-like receptor 4
    Caroline A Jefferies
    Cytokine Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 278:26258-64. 2003
  2. ncbi TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome
    Eicke Latz
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building 308, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:190-8. 2004
  3. ncbi Distinct functions between toll-like receptors 3 and 9 in retinal pigment epithelial cells
    Nobuyuki Ebihara
    Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Ophthalmic Res 39:155-63. 2007
  4. pmc TLR1/2, TLR7, and TLR9 signals directly activate human peripheral blood naive and memory B cell subsets to produce cytokines, chemokines, and hematopoietic growth factors
    Sudhanshu Agrawal
    Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, Medical Sciences I, C 240, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    J Clin Immunol 31:89-98. 2011
  5. pmc Functional effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, 7, 9, RIG-I and MDA-5 stimulation in nasal epithelial cells
    Lotta Tengroth
    Division of ENT Diseases, Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 9:e98239. 2014
  6. doi Scavenger receptor A1 is required for sensing HCMV by endosomal TLR-3/-9 in monocytic THP-1 cells
    Kok Hooi Yew
    Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children s Mercy Hospitals, Kansas City, MO, United States
    Mol Immunol 47:883-93. 2010
  7. doi Glomerular expression of toll-like receptor-9 in lupus nephritis but not in normal kidneys: implications for the amplification of the inflammatory response
    E D Papadimitraki
    Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Inflammation, Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Medical School, University of Crete, Voutes, Heraklion, Greece
    Lupus 18:831-5. 2009
  8. doi Tonsillar TLR9 expression and efficacy of tonsillectomy with steroid pulse therapy in IgA nephropathy patients
    Daisuke Sato
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 27:1090-7. 2012
  9. doi Toll-like receptor 9, NOD2 and IL23R gene polymorphisms influenced outcome in AML patients transplanted from HLA-identical sibling donors
    A H Elmaagacli
    Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany
    Bone Marrow Transplant 46:702-8. 2011
  10. doi Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2 stimulates the innate immune response through Toll-like receptor 9 in Caco-2 cells and increases intestinal crypt Paneth cell number in biobreeding diabetes-prone rats
    Sandra D K Kingma
    Department of Pediatrics, Shands Hospital and University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Nutr 141:1023-8. 2011

Research Grants

  1. Type I interferon in LPS/CpG-induced lethal toxic shock
    Jean van Seventer; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. Cellular and Molecular Effectors of Synovitis
    Paul J Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. STUART MICHAEL LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2016
  4. Yong Jun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2014
  5. Akiko Iwasaki; Fiscal Year: 2015
  6. Role of Polymorphonuclear Phagocytes in Malaria Sepsis
    Ricardo Gazzinelli; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. Activation of NKT cells by cytomegalovirus
    Mitchell Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2015
  9. TLR2 and the Tubercle Granuloma
    Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Virus interference with Toll like Receptor Response on Dendritic Cells
    Elina I Zuniga; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications271 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Bruton's tyrosine kinase is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-binding protein that participates in nuclear factor kappaB activation by Toll-like receptor 4
    Caroline A Jefferies
    Cytokine Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 278:26258-64. 2003
    ..Our findings implicate Btk as a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-binding protein that is important for NFkappaB activation by TLR4...
  2. ncbi TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome
    Eicke Latz
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lazare Research Building 308, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 5:190-8. 2004
    Microbial DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have found that TLR9 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages...
  3. ncbi Distinct functions between toll-like receptors 3 and 9 in retinal pigment epithelial cells
    Nobuyuki Ebihara
    Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Ophthalmic Res 39:155-63. 2007
    ..However, CpG-DNA motif enhanced phagocytosis in RPE cells. These results may indicate that TLR 3 and 9 play a distinct role in the inflammatory response that clears viruses from the retina...
  4. pmc TLR1/2, TLR7, and TLR9 signals directly activate human peripheral blood naive and memory B cell subsets to produce cytokines, chemokines, and hematopoietic growth factors
    Sudhanshu Agrawal
    Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, Medical Sciences I, C 240, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    J Clin Immunol 31:89-98. 2011
    ..signaling provided by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands Pam3CSK (TLR1/TLR2), Imiquimod (TLR7), and GpG-ODN2006 (TLR9)...
  5. pmc Functional effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, 7, 9, RIG-I and MDA-5 stimulation in nasal epithelial cells
    Lotta Tengroth
    Division of ENT Diseases, Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 9:e98239. 2014
    ..Even though TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 are all known to respond to viral stimulation, their potential role in chronic airway inflammation ..
  6. doi Scavenger receptor A1 is required for sensing HCMV by endosomal TLR-3/-9 in monocytic THP-1 cells
    Kok Hooi Yew
    Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children s Mercy Hospitals, Kansas City, MO, United States
    Mol Immunol 47:883-93. 2010
    ..These findings reveal a novel mechanistic insight into an interrelationship between SR-A1 and TLR-3/-9 signaling in HCMV-exposed monocytes...
  7. doi Glomerular expression of toll-like receptor-9 in lupus nephritis but not in normal kidneys: implications for the amplification of the inflammatory response
    E D Papadimitraki
    Laboratory of Autoimmunity and Inflammation, Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Medical School, University of Crete, Voutes, Heraklion, Greece
    Lupus 18:831-5. 2009
    ..Activation of TLR-9 expressing glomerular cells by endogenous nucleic acids (nucleosomes) may amplify the inflammatory response...
  8. doi Tonsillar TLR9 expression and efficacy of tonsillectomy with steroid pulse therapy in IgA nephropathy patients
    Daisuke Sato
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 27:1090-7. 2012
    ..We previously demonstrated the important role of mucosal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation in the pathogenesis of murine IgAN...
  9. doi Toll-like receptor 9, NOD2 and IL23R gene polymorphisms influenced outcome in AML patients transplanted from HLA-identical sibling donors
    A H Elmaagacli
    Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany
    Bone Marrow Transplant 46:702-8. 2011
    We evaluated the influence of gene polymorphisms of TLR9 (T1237C; T1486C), IL23R (A1142G), and NOD2 SNP8 (R702W), SNP12 (G908R) and SNP13 (1007fs) on outcome of hematopoietic SCT in a homogenous group of 142 AML patients after non-T-cell-..
  10. doi Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2 stimulates the innate immune response through Toll-like receptor 9 in Caco-2 cells and increases intestinal crypt Paneth cell number in biobreeding diabetes-prone rats
    Sandra D K Kingma
    Department of Pediatrics, Shands Hospital and University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Nutr 141:1023-8. 2011
    ..TLR7 and TLR9 expression levels were induced 4...
  11. doi Differences in TLR9-dependent inhibitory effects of H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 secretion and NF-kappa B/I kappa B-alpha system activation by genomic DNA from five Lactobacillus species
    Yukihiro Hiramatsu
    Fukuoka University, 8 19 1 Nanakuma, Jonan ku, Fukuoka 814 0180, Japan
    Microbes Infect 15:96-104. 2013
    ..Furthermore, suppression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a specific receptor of bacterial DNA, expression by RNAi abolished the decrease of H(2)O(2)-induced IL-8 ..
  12. doi Association of TLR polymorphisms with development of tuberculosis in Indonesian females
    K Kobayashi
    Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Tissue Antigens 79:190-7. 2012
    ..between TB susceptibility in a classified Indonesian female group and rs352139, an SNP located in the intron of TLR9, using the genotype (P = 2.76E-04) and recessive (AA vs AG+GG, P = 2.48E-04, odds ratio = 1...
  13. doi Genetic association of Toll-like-receptor 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms with Plasmodium falciparum blood infection levels
    Madhumita Basu
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019, West Bengal, India
    Infect Genet Evol 10:686-96. 2010
    ..Our results support a genetic role of TLR4 and TNF-alpha in controlling the blood infection level in mild malaria...
  14. pmc MicroRNA-7-regulated TLR9 signaling-enhanced growth and metastatic potential of human lung cancer cells by altering the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3/Akt pathway
    Lin Xu
    Department of Immunology, Zunyi Medical College, Guizhou 563000, China Department of Medical Physics, Zunyi Medical College, Guizhou 563000, China
    Mol Biol Cell 24:42-55. 2013
    ..Our previous data showed that TLR9 signaling could enhance the growth and metastatic potential of human lung cancer cells...
  15. pmc Toll-like receptor 9 gene mutations and polymorphisms in Japanese ulcerative colitis patients
    Kaori Fuse
    Department of Gastroenterology and Rheumatology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima 960 1295, Japan
    World J Gastroenterol 16:5815-21. 2010
    To investigated gene mutations and polymorphisms of TLR9 in Japanese ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.
  16. doi Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B and related hepatocellular carcinoma
    Ning Xu
    Key Laboratory of Health Ministry, Institute of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310031, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 29:239-44. 2008
    ....
  17. doi Role of atopic status in Toll-like receptor (TLR)7- and TLR9-mediated activation of human eosinophils
    Anne Mansson
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Allergy Research, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Malmo University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    J Leukoc Biol 85:719-27. 2009
    ..Herein, we investigated the expression and function of TLR7 and TLR9 in purified eosinophils from peripheral blood and assessed their role in allergic airway inflammation...
  18. ncbi Augmentation of T(H)-1 type response by immunoactive AT oligonucleotide from lactic acid bacteria via Toll-like receptor 9 signaling
    Takeshi Shimosato
    Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori Amamiyamachi 1 1, Aoba ku, Sendai shi 981 8555, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 326:782-7. 2005
    ..However, in our previous study, we found that TLR9 potentially recognizes not only CpG ODN but also non-CpG ODN such as AT ODN...
  19. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9 mediates CpG-DNA signaling
    Tsung Hsien Chuang
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 71:538-44. 2002
    ..b>TLR9-deficient mice were shown to exhibit a nonresponsive phenotype-to-bacterial DNA and CpG-ODN...
  20. doi Bacterial DNA activates endothelial cells and promotes neutrophil adherence through TLR9 signaling
    Driss El Kebir
    Research Center, Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 182:4386-94. 2009
    b>TLR9 detects bacterial DNA (CpG DNA) and elicits both innate and adoptive immunity. Recent evidence indicates that TLR9 is expressed in more diverse cell types than initially thought...
  21. ncbi Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells
    Jongdae Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0663, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 8:1327-36. 2006
    ..b>TLR9 activation through apical and basolateral surface domains have distinct transcriptional responses, evident by NF-..
  22. doi Expression of toll-like receptor 9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with different hepatitis B and C viral loads
    Jian Zhou
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 29:313-7. 2009
    ..The protein and mRNA levels of TLR9 were detected by using flow cytometry and real-time PCR...
  23. ncbi Common human Toll-like receptor 9 polymorphisms and haplotypes: association with atopy and functional relevance
    B Berghöfer
    Institute for Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Langhansstrasse 7, D 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Clin Exp Allergy 35:1147-54. 2005
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a pattern-recognition receptor that detects unmethylated CpG motifs prevalent in bacterial and viral DNA...
  24. doi Recognition of nucleic acid and nucleic acid analogs by Toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9
    Stefan Bauer
    Institut fur Immunology, Philipps Universitat Marburg, BMFZ, Hans Meerweinstr 2, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:315-28. 2008
    ..However, a role in the generation or perpetuation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has also been suggested...
  25. doi Cultured human melanocytes express functional toll-like receptors 2-4, 7 and 9
    Ning Yu
    Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, PR China
    J Dermatol Sci 56:113-20. 2009
    ..However, the mechanisms of recognition of microbes by melanocytes have not yet been fully established...
  26. doi TLR9 expressed on plasma membrane acts as a negative regulator of human B cell response
    Thomas Guerrier
    EA2216 Immunologie et Pathologie, LabEx IGO, SFR ScInBioS, Université de Brest et Université Européenne de Bretagne, Brest, France
    J Autoimmun 51:23-9. 2014
    ..Unlike others, those such as TLR9, that recognize nucleic acids, are confined to the endosomal compartment and are scarce on the cell surface...
  27. doi EBV lytic-phase protein BGLF5 contributes to TLR9 downregulation during productive infection
    Michiel van Gent
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 186:1694-702. 2011
    ..The viral dsDNA sensor TLR9 is expressed on B cells, a natural target of EBV infection...
  28. doi Expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome
    Yu Zhong Wang
    Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, PR China
    Neuroimmunomodulation 19:60-8. 2012
    ..We therefore investigated the expression of TLR2, 4 and 9 in the peripheral circulation of GBS patients as well as healthy controls...
  29. doi Toll-like receptor-9 agonists increase cyclin D1 expression partly through activation of activator protein-1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells
    Ruan Min
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomotology, Shanghai, China
    Cancer Sci 103:1938-45. 2012
    ..Pharmacologic inhibition of the TLR-9/AP-1/cyclin D1 pathway may be a new therapeutic approach for prevention as well as treatment of OSCC...
  30. doi Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism modulates phenotypic expression in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis
    Pierre Alexandre Krayenbuehl
    Division of Internal Medicine, Medical Clinic and Policlinic, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:835-41. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that it might be modified by factors involved in the cellular immune response, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) or nucleotide oligomerization domain proteins (NODs)...
  31. ncbi The T-1237C polymorphism of the Toll-like receptor-9 gene is associated with chronic kidney disease in a Han Chinese population
    Kuo Cheng Lu
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    Tohoku J Exp Med 225:109-16. 2011
    ..In the Han Chinese population, those who carry the C and A alleles at SNPs T-1237C and G1635A in the TLR-9 gene appear to be more susceptible to the development of CKD...
  32. doi The expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 and T-bet in circulating B and T cells in newly diagnosed, untreated systemic lupus erythematosus and correlations with disease activity and laboratory data in a Chinese population
    Ou Wu
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Anhui Medical University, Anhui, PR China
    Immunobiology 214:392-402. 2009
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays a controversial role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). T-bet may be involved in the processes between the initiation of TLR9 activation and the antibodies' production...
  33. doi Expression of toll-like receptor TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-9 is increased in placentas from patients with preeclampsia
    Antonio Pineda
    Unidad de Medicina Familiar, Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social, Estado de Mexico
    Arch Med Res 42:382-91. 2011
    ..We undertook this study to determine if there are changes in the expression and localization of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-3 and TLR-9 in preeclamptic term placentas as compared with normal placentas...
  34. ncbi Blockade of Lyn kinase upregulates both canonical and non-canonical TLR-3 pathways in THP-1 monocytes exposed to human cytomegalovirus
    K H Yew
    Children s Mercy Hospitals, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Acta Virol 55:243-53. 2011
    ..Thus, the observed shift away from TNF-α to robust IFN-β and IL-12p35 induction may offer opportunities for therapeutic interventions...
  35. pmc Leucine-rich repeat 11 of Toll-like receptor 9 can tightly bind to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides, and the positively charged residues are critical for the high affinity
    Xichun Pan
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Third Military Medical University, 400038 Chongqing, China
    J Biol Chem 287:30596-609. 2012
    b>TLR9 is a receptor for sensing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG ODN). The extracellular domain (ECD) of human TLR9 (hTLR9) is composed of 25 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) contributing to the binding of CpG ODN...
  36. pmc Expressions of Toll-like receptors 3, 4, 7, and 9 in cervical lesions and their correlation with HPV16 infection in Uighur women
    Ayshamgul Hasimu
    Department of Pathology, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, P R China
    Chin J Cancer 30:344-50. 2011
    ..of TLRs expression in cervical carcinogenesis in Uighur women, we detected the expressions of TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 in 25 normal cervical tissues, 64 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues, and 63 cervical squamous cell ..
  37. doi The (-1486T/C) promoter polymorphism of the TLR-9 gene is associated with end-stage knee osteoarthritis in a Chinese population
    Sui Lung Su
    School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Orthop Res 30:9-14. 2012
    ..The present results demonstrate that TLR-9 polymorphisms, in particular T-1486C is significantly associated with OA. TLR-9 gene polymorphisms may play a role in the etiology of knee OA...
  38. ncbi Toll-like receptor 9 binds single-stranded CpG-DNA in a sequence- and pH-dependent manner
    Mark Rutz
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Hygiene and Immunology, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 34:2541-50. 2004
    ..Here, we demonstrate that TLR9 binds directly and sequence-specifically to single-stranded unmethylated CpG-DNA containing a phosphodiester ..
  39. pmc TLR9 expression in glioma tissues correlated to glioma progression and the prognosis of GBM patients
    Chao Wang
    Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
    BMC Cancer 10:415. 2010
    Our study aims to evaluate the expression of TLR9 in glioma tissues, examine the association between TLR9 expression, clinicopathological variables, and glioma patient outcome, we further characterized the direct effects of TLR9 agonist ..
  40. ncbi Lack of association of Toll-like receptor 9 gene polymorphism with Behçet's disease in Japanese patients
    A Ito
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    Tissue Antigens 70:423-6. 2007
    ..Genetic polymorphisms within the TLR9 gene have been reported to be associated with a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases...
  41. doi Polymorphisms in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 are associated with total serum IgE
    M A Tewfik
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
    Allergy 64:746-53. 2009
    ..We sought to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and total serum IgE level...
  42. ncbi Toll-like-receptor gene polymorphisms in a Tunisian population with Behçet's disease
    I Ben Dhifallah
    Medicine University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 27:S58-62. 2009
    ..In this report, we investigated the possible association between BD patients and genetic variations within the TLR 2, 4 and 9 genes in a Tunisian population...
  43. ncbi Activation of TLR-9 induces IL-8 secretion through peroxynitrite signaling in human neutrophils
    Levente Jozsef
    Research Center, Maisonneuve Rosemont Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 176:1195-202. 2006
    ..Enhanced ONOO- formation represents a mechanism by which bacterial DNA may contribute to prolongation and amplification of the inflammatory response...
  44. ncbi Live Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response through Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in species-specific patterns
    Trine H Mogensen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skejby Hospital, Brendstrupgaardsvej, DK 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
    J Leukoc Biol 80:267-77. 2006
    ..It is interesting that the ability of S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis to activate TLR9 was severely attenuated when bacteria had been heat-inactivated prior to stimulation of the cells...
  45. pmc Study of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 in breast carcinomas and their association with metastasis
    Salome Gonzalez-Reyes
    Unidad de Investigacion, Fundación Hospital de Jove, Gijon, Spain
    BMC Cancer 10:665. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR3, 4 and 9 in breast cancer...
  46. ncbi Genetic variation in toll-like receptor 9 and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus
    Philip L De Jager
    Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 54:1279-82. 2006
    ..This variability in activation threshold may, in turn, affect an individual's susceptibility to SLE. This study assessed the role of genetic variation within the TLR-9 gene in susceptibility to SLE...
  47. pmc Genetic variations of Toll-like receptor 9 predispose to systemic lupus erythematosus in Japanese population
    Kayoko Tao
    Department of Immunology and Parasitology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3 18 15 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
    Ann Rheum Dis 66:905-9. 2007
    ..Signalling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a mediator of innate immune responses, has a role in activation of dendritic cells and autoreactive B cells.
  48. ncbi Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 9 influence the clinical course of HIV-1 infection
    Pierre Yves Bochud
    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington State, USA
    AIDS 21:441-6. 2007
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a key role in innate immunity and mutations in the genes encoding these receptors have been associated with increased or decreased susceptibility to infections...
  49. doi Association study of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the exon 2 region of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) gene with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus among Chinese
    Chang Juan Xu
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, 230032 Hefei, Anhui, People s Republic of China
    Mol Biol Rep 36:2245-8. 2009
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays an important role in the induction and regulation of the innate immune system or adaptive immune responses...
  50. doi Association of the toll-like receptor 2 A-16934T promoter polymorphism with severe atopic dermatitis
    D Y Oh
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Allergie Centrum Charité, CCM, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Allergy 64:1608-15. 2009
    ..A genetically determined defective function of pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been proposed as a candidate mechanism in the pathogenesis of AD...
  51. doi A multi-centre study of candidate genes for wheeze and allergy: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase 2
    J Genuneit
    Institute of Epidemiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:1875-88. 2009
    ..We investigated their associations with wheeze and allergy in a case-control sample from Phase 2 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood...
  52. doi Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR9 are highly associated with susceptibility to bacterial meningitis in children
    Marieke S Sanders
    Department of Pathology, Laboratory for Immunogenetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 52:475-80. 2011
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes bacterial DNA leading to intracellular inflammatory signaling...
  53. ncbi Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9): frequencies, pairwise linkage disequilibrium, and haplotypes in three U.S. ethnic groups and exploratory case-control disease association studies
    Ross Lazarus
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Genomics 81:85-91. 2003
    b>TLR9 is a mammalian Toll-like receptor homologue that appears to function as an innate immune pattern recognition protein for motifs that are far more common in bacterial than in mammalian DNA...
  54. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of the human TLR9 gene
    Fumihiko Takeshita
    Section of Retroviral Immunology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 173:2552-61. 2004
    To clarify the molecular basis of human TLR9 (hTLR9) gene expression, the activity of the hTLR9 gene promoter was characterized using the human myeloma cell line RPMI 8226...
  55. ncbi Common polymorphisms of toll-like receptors 4 and 9 are associated with the clinical manifestation of malaria during pregnancy
    Frank P Mockenhaupt
    Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Berlin, Germany
    J Infect Dis 194:184-8. 2006
    ..In 304 primiparous Ghanaian women, we examined whether common TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms influence susceptibility to and manifestation of malaria during pregnancy...
  56. doi TLR9 signaling promotes tumor progression of human lung cancer cell in vivo
    Tao Ren
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, East Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
    Pathol Oncol Res 15:623-30. 2009
    b>Toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) was identified mainly in cells of the immune system, and CpG oligonucleotides (CpG ODN), which induces signaling through TLR9, are currently under investigation as adjuvants in clinical therapies against cancer...
  57. pmc A naturally occurring variant in human TLR9, P99L, is associated with loss of CpG oligonucleotide responsiveness
    Andriy V Kubarenko
    Department of Toll like Receptors and Cancer, German Cancer Research Centre DKFZ, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 285:36486-94. 2010
    ..For example, TLR9 is activated by microbial DNA and also by short therapeutic CpG-containing oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN)...
  58. ncbi The toll-like receptor repertoire of human B lymphocytes: inducible and selective expression of TLR9 and TLR10 in normal and transformed cells
    Emer Bourke
    Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, Italy
    Blood 102:956-63. 2003
    ..High-density, resting, and low-density activated tonsillar B cells expressed TLR9 and TLR10 mRNA transcripts at the highest levels. Expression was higher in activated B cells than in resting cells...
  59. ncbi Sequence-specific potent induction of IFN-alpha by short interfering RNA in plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR7
    Veit Hornung
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Ziemssenstr 1, 80336 Munchen, Germany
    Nat Med 11:263-70. 2005
    ..siRNA, when complexed with cationic liposomes, induced systemic immune responses in the same range as the TLR9 ligand CpG, including IFN-alpha in serum and activation of T cells and dendritic cells in spleen...
  60. ncbi Genetic polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 9 influence the immune response to CpG and contribute to hyper-IgM in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Kentaro Kikuchi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Autoimmun 24:347-52. 2005
    ..is an innate immune response and can be induced with CpG-B with concurrent up-regulation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Based on these observations, we performed a two-tier study...
  61. pmc Properties regulating the nature of the plasmacytoid dendritic cell response to Toll-like receptor 9 activation
    Cristiana Guiducci
    Dynavax Technologies Corporation, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1999-2008. 2006
    ..Activation of TLR9 by the multimeric CpG-A occurs in transferrin receptor (TfR)-positive endosomes and leads exclusively to IFN-alpha ..
  62. doi Study of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in prostate carcinomas and their association with biochemical recurrence
    Salome Gonzalez-Reyes
    Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital de Jove, Gijon, Spain
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 60:217-26. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical relevance of TLR3, 4, and 9 in prostate cancer...
  63. pmc Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in psoriasis enables keratinocyte reactivity against TLR9 ligands
    Shin Morizane
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 132:135-43. 2012
    ..In culture, normal human keratinocytes exposed to LL-37 increased TLR9 expression...
  64. pmc Hepatitis B virus impairs TLR9 expression and function in plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Isabelle E Vincent
    INSERM, U871, Lyon, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e26315. 2011
    ..b>TLR9 is a sensor of viral and bacterial DNA motifs and activates the IRF7 transcription factor which leads to type I IFN ..
  65. pmc Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations
    Jennifer A Greene
    Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USA
    Malar J 8:50. 2009
    ..Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic...
  66. doi Cigarette smoke induces CXCL8 production by human neutrophils via activation of TLR9 receptor
    E Mortaz
    Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 36:1143-54. 2010
    ..Here we investigate whether cigarette smoke induces TLR9 signalling in human neutrophils...
  67. pmc TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria
    Nadia A Sam-Agudu
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:548-55. 2010
    ..The TLR9 C allele at -1237 and G allele at 1174 were strongly linked, and among children with CM, those with the C allele at ..
  68. pmc Genetic variation of TLR-4, TLR-9 and TIRAP genes in Iranian malaria patients
    Sedigheh Zakeri
    Malaria and Vector Research Group, Biotechnology Research Center, Institut Pasteur Iran, Tehran, Iran, Pasteur Avenue, POBOX 1316943551, Tehran, Iran
    Malar J 10:77. 2011
    ....
  69. ncbi [The correlation between polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 9 and susceptibility to gastric cancer]
    Hong mei Zeng
    Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research Ministry of Education, Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142, China
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 45:588-92. 2011
    To explore the relationship between the polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR9 and the susceptibility to gastric cancer.
  70. pmc Involvement of Toll-like Receptor 9 polymorphism in cervical cancer development
    Andrzej Roszak
    Department of Radiotherapy and Gynecological Oncology, Greater Poland Cancer Center, Poznan, Poland
    Mol Biol Rep 39:8425-30. 2012
    The role played by the polymorphism located in Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) as a risk factor of cervical cancer remains elusive...
  71. ncbi Association study of Toll-like receptor 9 gene polymorphism in Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    J W Hur
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, The Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea
    Tissue Antigens 65:266-70. 2005
    ..b>TLR9 is potentially associated with autoimmune diseases, because it participates in the production of pro-inflammatory ..
  72. pmc Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-2'-deoxy-7-deazaguanosine motif as potent toll-like receptor 9 agonists
    Ekambar R Kandimalla
    Hybridon, Inc, 345 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6925-30. 2005
    ..All three IMOs activated HEK293 cells expressing TLR9 but not TLR3, -7, or -8...
  73. ncbi Expansion of toll-like receptor 9-expressing B cells in active systemic lupus erythematosus: implications for the induction and maintenance of the autoimmune process
    Eva D Papadimitraki
    University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Greece
    Arthritis Rheum 54:3601-11. 2006
    ..This study was undertaken to examine the expression and function of various TLRs in subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  74. ncbi Expression of toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, and 9 genes in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle
    Tetsuya Hirata
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    J Reprod Immunol 74:53-60. 2007
    ..We have examined the gene expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in endometrial tissues by real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization...
  75. pmc Expression of Toll-like receptor 9 in nose, peripheral blood and bone marrow during symptomatic allergic rhinitis
    Mattias Fransson
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Allergy Research, Department of Oto Rhino Laryngology, Malmo University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    Respir Res 8:17. 2007
    ..Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a receptor for unmethylated CpG dinucleotides found in bacterial and viral DNA...
  76. ncbi TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms and Crohn's disease in a New Zealand Caucasian cohort
    Jiwon Hong
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 22:1760-6. 2007
    ..Here we examined the association between candidate disease-susceptibility polymorphisms in the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genes and CD in a New Zealand Caucasian population.
  77. ncbi Signaling by Toll-like receptors 8 and 9 requires Bruton's tyrosine kinase
    Sarah L Doyle
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Department of Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Biol Chem 282:36953-60. 2007
    ..single-stranded RNA from viruses or host ribonucleoproteins and synthetic imidazoquinolines such as R848, whereas TLR9 senses unmethylated CpG motifs in viral and bacterial DNA and in host DNA...
  78. doi Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to pulmonary aspergillosis
    A Carvalho
    School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
    J Infect Dis 197:618-21. 2008
    ..We investigated the association between polymorphisms in the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 genes and susceptibility to noninvasive forms of pulmonary aspergillosis...
  79. doi Toll-like receptors and CD14 genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma in Tunisian children
    J Lachheb
    Homeostasis and Cell Dysfunction Unit Research 99 UR 08 40, Medicine University of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
    Tissue Antigens 71:417-25. 2008
    ..Six single nucleotide polymorphisms TLR2 (+2408 G-->A), TLR4 (+1196 C-->T), TLR4 (+896 A-->G), TLR9 (-1237 T-->C), TLR9 (-1486 T-->C) and CD14 (-159 C-->T) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction ..
  80. doi Divergent TLR7 and TLR9 signaling and type I interferon production distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic AIDS virus infections
    Judith N Mandl
    Graduate Program in Population Biology, Ecology and Evolution, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nat Med 14:1077-87. 2008
    ..Such a vicious cycle of continuous virus replication and immunopathology is absent in natural sooty mangabey hosts...
  81. doi Patients with chronic hepatitis B infection display deficiency of plasmacytoid dendritic cells with reduced expression of TLR9
    Qing Xie
    Department of Infectious Disease, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Microbes Infect 11:515-23. 2009
    ..The frequency of pDCs and TLR9 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined, using flow cytometry...
  82. doi IFN-alpha amplifies human naive B cell TLR-9-mediated activation and Ig production
    L Giordani
    Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicine Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    J Leukoc Biol 86:261-71. 2009
    ....
  83. doi SIGIRR inhibits toll-like receptor 4, 5, 9-mediated immune responses in human airway epithelial cells
    Chun Zhang
    Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037, People s Republic of China
    Mol Biol Rep 38:601-9. 2011
    ..In conclusion, SIGIRR can inhibit TLR4, 5, and 9-mediated immune responses in HAEC and may be a valuable therapeutic target for the prevention of ALI/ARDS...
  84. ncbi Association of TLR9 gene polymorphisms with lupus nephritis in a Chinese Han population
    Xu Jie Zhou
    Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, and Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 28:397-400. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to associate common variants in the TLR9 gene with susceptibility to lupus nephritis in the Chinese population to further ascertain whether it is a ..
  85. pmc Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleosome-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) gene polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk
    Katie A Ashton
    Discipline of Medical Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Australia
    BMC Cancer 10:382. 2010
    ..For these reasons, the aim of the study was to assess the frequency of polymorphic variants in TLR and NOD genes in an Australian endometrial cancer population...
  86. pmc IFN-α production by human mononuclear cells infected with varicella-zoster virus through TLR9-dependent and -independent pathways
    Hong Ren Yu
    Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan
    Cell Mol Immunol 8:181-8. 2011
    ..We also found that Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was involved in VZV-induced IFN-α production because inhibitory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide inhibited IFN-α ..
  87. pmc Comprehensive genetic assessment of a functional TLR9 promoter polymorphism: no replicable association with asthma or asthma-related phenotypes
    Nancy E Lange
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    BMC Med Genet 12:26. 2011
    Prior studies suggest a role for a variant (rs5743836) in the promoter of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in asthma and other inflammatory diseases...
  88. pmc The rs5743836 polymorphism in TLR9 confers a population-based increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
    A Carvalho
    Life and Health Sciences Research Institute, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
    Genes Immun 13:197-201. 2012
    ..Adequate anti-tumoral responses are known to depend on TLR9 function, such that the use of its synthetic ligand is being targeted as a therapeutic strategy...
  89. doi Toll-like receptor 9 mediates oral bacteria-induced IL-8 expression in gingival epithelial cells
    Youngsook Kim
    Department of Oromaxillofacial Infection and Immunity, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Immunol Cell Biol 90:655-63. 2012
    ..Both normal and immortalized human gingival epithelial (HOK-16B) cells expressed TLR9 intracellularly and showed enhanced IL-8 expression in response to CpG-oligonucleotide...
  90. pmc The C allele of rs5743836 polymorphism in the human TLR9 promoter links IL-6 and TLR9 up-regulation and confers increased B-cell proliferation
    Agostinho Carvalho
    Life and Health Sciences Research Institute ICVS, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
    PLoS ONE 6:e28256. 2011
    ..Analysis of the human TLR9 promoter revealed that the C allele of the rs5743836 polymorphism generates several regulatory sites, including an ..
  91. pmc Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 are highly associated with hearing loss in survivors of bacterial meningitis
    Gijs Th J van Well
    Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Immunology and Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e35837. 2012
    ..We recently described an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR9 with susceptibility to meningococcal meningitis (MM)...
  92. pmc JNK-interacting protein 3 associates with Toll-like receptor 4 and is involved in LPS-mediated JNK activation
    Tetsuya Matsuguchi
    Division of Host Defense, Center for Neural Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
    EMBO J 22:4455-64. 2003
    ..In RAW264.7 cells, JIP3 associates MEKK-1, but not with TAK-1. Finally, JIP3 also associates with TLR2 and TLR9, but not with TLR1 or TLR6...
  93. ncbi Functional cell surface expression of toll-like receptor 9 promotes cell proliferation and survival in human hepatocellular carcinomas
    Junichiro Tanaka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Mie Graduate University School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514 8507, Japan
    Int J Oncol 37:805-14. 2010
    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a pattern-recognition receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in cell survival through recognition of various bacterial and viral components including unmethylated CpG-DNA...
  94. doi Therapeutic targeting of TLR9 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma
    Chiara Brignole
    Experimental Therapy Unit, Laboratory of Oncology, G Gaslini Children s Hospital, Genoa, Italy
    Cancer Res 70:9816-26. 2010
    The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) evolved to cope with pathogens, but it is expressed in a variety of tumors for reasons that are unclear. In this study, we report that neuroblastoma (NB) cells express functional TLR9...
  95. ncbi Human TLR-7-, -8-, and -9-mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda Is IRAK-4 dependent and redundant for protective immunity to viruses
    Kun Yang
    Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, University of Paris René Descartes INSERM U550, Necker Medical School, 75015 Paris, France
    Immunity 23:465-78. 2005
    ..The TLR-7-, TLR-8-, and TLR-9-dependent induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda is strictly IRAK-4 dependent and paradoxically redundant for protective immunity to most viruses in humans...
  96. ncbi The toll-like receptor pathway: a novel mechanism of infection-induced carcinogenesis of prostate epithelial cells
    Shilajit D Kundu
    Department of Urology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Prostate 68:223-9. 2008
    ..Inflammation and infection have been linked to the pathogenesis of many cancers including prostate cancer. Components of bacteria and viruses have been identified within pathological specimens of men with prostate cancer...
  97. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR9 signaling results in HIV-long terminal repeat trans-activation and HIV replication in HIV-1 transgenic mouse spleen cells: implications of simultaneous activation of TLRs on HIV replication
    Ozlem Equils
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Steven Spielberg Pediatric Research Center, Burns and Allen Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    J Immunol 170:5159-64. 2003
    ..In the present study we examined the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR9 in HIV-long terminal repeat (HIV-LTR) trans-activation and assessed whether TLR4 synergized with TLR2 or TLR9 to ..
  98. ncbi CD40-dependent and -independent activation of human tonsil B cells by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides
    Florian Gantner
    Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd, Research Center Kyoto, Respiratory Diseases Research, Japan
    Eur J Immunol 33:1576-85. 2003
    ..We investigated the expression of the CpG receptor, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), in human tonsil B cells, and determined functional responses following stimulation by a well-characterized ..
  99. ncbi p38 activation through Toll-like receptors modulates IFN-gamma-induced expression of the Tap-1 gene only in macrophages
    Alicia A Cecil
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 75:560-8. 2004
    ..In this report, we show that peptidoglycan signaling through TLR2 and bacterial CpG DNA signaling through TLR9 are functionally equivalent at synergizing with IFN-gamma in regulating Tap-1 expression in macrophages...
  100. ncbi Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA with Toll-like receptor 9
    Fumihiko Takeshita
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Food and Drug Administration, Bldg 29A, Rm 3D10, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Semin Immunol 16:17-22. 2004
    ..The signal transduction pathway mediated by the engagement of CpG DNA with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is shared with other members of the TLR family...
  101. pmc A novel splice variant of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase 1 plays a negative regulatory role in Toll/IL-1R-induced inflammatory signaling
    Navin Rao
    Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:6521-32. 2005
    ....

Research Grants69

  1. Type I interferon in LPS/CpG-induced lethal toxic shock
    Jean van Seventer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..k.a, endotoxin), which triggers Toll Receptor (TLR) 4, and certain DNA CpG motifs that trigger TLR9. An essential role for type I IFN in lethal sepsis is strongly suggested by the finding that IFN- beta deficient ..
  2. Cellular and Molecular Effectors of Synovitis
    Paul J Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Project 1 will determine how interactions between CpG-containing oligodeoxyribonucleotides and TLR9 in macrophage/dendritic cells trigger an immune cascade that induces the expression of IFN-gamma and suppresses ..
  3. STUART MICHAEL LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..antigens will be combined with ligands for the pathogen recognition receptors, dectin-1, TLR2, TLR7/8 and TLR9. Delivery systems include cryptococcal antigens directly conjugated to 2-glucans, Pam3CSK4, ssRNA, and CpG, as well ..
  4. Yong Jun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..cells of the immune system3-8 that are specialized in recognizing viral RNA and DNA via endosomal TLR7 and TLR9, respectively...
  5. Akiko Iwasaki; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In previous studies we demonstrated the requirement of TLR9 and TLR7 in the activation and IFN1 secretion in response to double stranded (ds) DNA viruses, herpes simplex ..
  6. Role of Polymorphonuclear Phagocytes in Malaria Sepsis
    Ricardo Gazzinelli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, PMNs express TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 that are critical for the innate immune response to Plasmodium glycolipids and DNA...
  7. Activation of NKT cells by cytomegalovirus
    Mitchell Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..culture with dendritic cells (DC) infected with mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV, a 2-herpesvirus), and this requires TLR9, IL-12 and a particular DC subset...
  8. Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The hypothesis builds on novel findings made in our laboratory. Previously we had reported that TLR9 and TLR2 induce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, in M...
  9. TLR2 and the Tubercle Granuloma
    Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The hypothesis builds on novel findings made in our laboratory. Previously we had reported that TLR9 and TLR2 induce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, in M...
  10. Virus interference with Toll like Receptor Response on Dendritic Cells
    Elina I Zuniga; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) differentially modulates subsequent TLR challenges inhibiting TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 responses and enhancing TLR4 signaling (Zuniga et al. Cell Host &Microbe. 2008)...
  11. Melissa Victoria Fernandez; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..In this application we propose to: (1) Determine the role of TLR7 and TLR9 in HIV-induced activation of IDO;(2) Elucidate the players in the noncanonical NFkB pathway for IDO expression;(3) ...
  12. Ronald P Dematteo; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We have discovered that TLR9, the intracellular receptor that detects hypomethylated bacterial CpG motifs and endogenous DNA, modulates anti-..
  13. Targeted Dendritic Cell Activation through Multi-Adjuvant Liposomes
    Gretchen Jimenez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The innovation is a dual adjuvant system where VesiVax(R) lipid vesicles are formulated with a TLR9 agonist (CpG) and CD40 Ligand fused to the Company's proprietary Hydrophobic Domain (HD) technology...
  14. Immune Mechanisms That Control Ectromelia Virus Infection
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also examine the trafficking to macropinosomes of TLR9, an innate receptor that is required for survival from ECTV challenge...
  15. ANDREW LEE MELLOR; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..responses to nanoparticle cargo DNA were mediated via IFN?[unreadable] and IDO but were not dependent on TLR9 or IFN[unreadable] signaling accordingly, removing TLR9 ligands (CpG motifs) from cargo DNA did not affect ..
  16. Initiation of Immune Response in Chronic Leishmaniasis
    Phillip A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CpG activates dendritic cells by ligating TLR9, and corresponding with the deficit observed in L. mexicana-infected dendritic cells was the finding that L...
  17. HEATHER WINONA STOUT-DELGADO; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..pathogens and represent a major source of type 1 IFN post exposure to viral infections or Toll-Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) or TLR7 specific ligands...
  18. Toll-like receptor 9 proteolytic processing and signaling
    Cynthia A Leifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies suggest that one of these TLRs, TLR9, is a pro-receptor that is activated by proteases in acidic endosomes...
  19. Hidde L Ploegh; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..applicant): A detailed understanding of the trafficking behavior of the endosomal TLRs, as exemplified by that of TLR9, should aid in the design of strategies that improve delivery of antigen to processing compartments in professional ..
  20. Development of TLR8 inhibitors for treatment of autoimmune diseases
    Cristiana Guiducci; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..significantly to sterile inflammation and autoimmunity, with the clearest example being the role played by TLR9 and TLR7 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  21. Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling in islet transplantation
    Bernd Schroppel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..response;iv) confirm and define the specificity of TLR activation by analyzing islet-expressed TLRS, TLR4 and TLR9;v) assess mechanisms and potential mediators using a candidate gene analysis approach...
  22. Sinem Esra Sahingur; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..nucleic acids represent a group of PAMPs that are mainly recognized through intracellular PRRs, including Toll like receptor 9, AIM2 (absent in melanoma-2) for inflammasome and DAI...
  23. Mechanism of H. pylori-induced risk reduction for inflammatory bowel disease
    Jay Luther; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Briefly, by using H. pylori genomic DNA and TLR9 knockout mice and small interfering RNA to knockdown TLR-9, we will examine the role of bacterial DNA-TLR-9 ..
  24. Inhibitors of Toll-like receptors 7 & 9 for treatment of skin inflammation
    FRANCK BARRAT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of both cell types appears due to stimulation by DNA and RNA acting through the innate immune receptors, TLR7 and TLR9. We have developed a series of synthetic oligonucleotides (termed IRS) with sequence motifs strongly inhibitory for ..
  25. Sterile Hepatic Inflammation
    Wajahat Zafar Mehal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..iii) DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes can activate TLR9 on sinusoidal endothelial cells, and cause liver injury...
  26. Akiko Iwasaki; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..for Atg5, a key molecule required for formation of autophagosomes, in the transduction of signaling through TLR9 leading to the activation of type I IFN genes in pDCs upon herpes simplex virus (HSV;TLR9 agonist) infection...
  27. Jatin M Vyas; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..work: 1) Proteomic data indicates that CD82 may be associated with a number of TLRs 2) CpG DNA failed to induce TLR9-dependent, TNF-αsecretion from CD82-/- DCs but other TLR signaling pathways remained intact 3) CD82 is ..
  28. Plasma Serum Based Biomarkers in Sublingual Oral Immunotherapy for Milk Allergy
    John T Schroeder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells (pDCs), predicting that post-OIT/SLIT plasma (with greater IgG4 levels) will augment innate immune responses (TLR9) that are seemingly impaired in allergic individuals...
  29. John Y Kao; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..pylori. Next, the role of IRAK-M in Treg induction will be explored. The role of TLR9 will also be explored using H. pylori DNA stimulation and TLR9 null mice...
  30. HIV-1 regulation by MTb: pathogen and host factor
    Anne Goldfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..receptors found in mononuclear phagocytes, including the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, and the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor...
  31. Qing Yi; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..at the interface of innate and acquired immunity in anti-viral responses by sensing viral infection through TLR7/TLR9 and rapidly producing large amounts of type 1 interferons (IFNs)...
  32. Ekihiro Seki; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Bacterial DNA is recognized by TLR9 that is widely expressed in immune cells including Kupffer cells, resident macrophages in the liver...
  33. Tom Were; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..hemozoin (PfHz) on IgE class switching and cytokine/chemokine B cell expression following activation of TLR9 (CD289)...
  34. STUART KEITH CALDERWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..treatment effectiveness and the degree to which vaccines can be used in combination with adjuvants such as TLR3 and TLR9 agonists as well as inhibitors of co-repressing molecule CTLA4...
  35. Clustered receptor-signaling domains as novel HIV vaccine genetic adjuvants
    GEOFFREY WILLIAM STONE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Certain TLR agonist combinations, such as mixtures of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9 agonists, have been shown to synergistically increase both correlates of immunity and protection from viral ..
  36. Yiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..This can be achieved by conventional dendritic cell (cDC) vaccines co-administered with a TLR9 ligand, CpG in vivo...
  37. Yong Jun Liu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..this proposal will test our central hypotheses: 1) the DExD/H-box helicases DHX36 and DHX9 may represent novel TLR9- independent DNA sensors in pDCs;and 2) the DExD/H helicase family (59 members) may play a much broader role in ..
  38. Opioid Abuse, opportunistic infection and NeuroAIDS
    Sabita Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To test our hypothesis we will in Specific Aim 1: Determine the role of Toll like receptor (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9) activation on glial cells as a potential mechanism for the synergistic induction in proinflammatory cytokine ..
  39. Channe D Gowda; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-[unreadable] and IL-12 and that pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by TLR9/MyD88-mediated signaling play critical roles in the generation of cell-mediated and antibody-mediated protective ..
  40. Screening for Inhibitors of TLR8 for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Robert L Coffman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..significantly t sterile inflammation and autoimmunity, with the clearest example being the role played by TLR9 and TLR7 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  41. TLR9 Mediated Dendritic Cell Responses in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
    Urvashi Bhan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..inflammation induced by SC is substantially reduced in mice deficient in the intracellular toll- like receptor, TLR9. Mechanisms accounting for the altered granulomatous response observed in TLR9- deficient mice have not been ..
  42. Robert F Schwabe; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..receptor 9 in patients, and determine their functional contribution in murine AH models using P2X7, FPR1 and TLR9 knockout mice (Aim 2)...
  43. Edward M Behrens; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..By using repeated TLR9 stimulation, mice develop an MAS-like syndrome. Like fHLH, the disease is mediated by Interferon-gamma (IFN?)...
  44. Innate Immunity and Herpes Simplex Pathogensis
    Robert Finberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The same viruses also induce the production of interferon through TLR9. The mechanism by which HSV stimulates TLRs will be investigated using viral genetics and expression of isolated ..
  45. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK
    Timothy R Billiar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TLR4 and TLR9 are required for the activation of inflammatory signaling, while TLR2 and TLR4 are markedly unregulated and can ..
  46. Invariant NKT cell responses to viral infections and tumors
    AARON JACOB TYZNIK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The first aim in this proposal is to identify the in vivo roles of TLR9, IL-12, and CD1d-rnediated antigen presentation for the activation of iNKT cells by MCMV infection...
  47. Mark J Shlomchik; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..contained in these complexes, and this was dependent on intact Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, most likely via TLR9. These in vitro findings led to the central hypothesis that certain autoantigens (particularly chromatin) can be ..
  48. Marcin Kortylewski; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..We recently demonstrated that ligands for intracellular receptors, such as TLR9, can be used as targeting moieties for cell-specific siRNA delivery...
  49. Yorgo Modis; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Viral RNA is recognized by!TLR3, TLR7 and TLR8, and microbial DNA is recognized by TLR9. Until recently the prevailing paradigm was that TLR9 recognized unmethylated CpG DNA motifs, which are abundant in ..
  50. Tolerance to TLR Ligands in the Intestinal Epithelium
    Anatoly V Grishin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A20 induction may be also responsible for enterocyte tolerance and cross-tolerance to the ligands of TLR3 and TLR9, but not TLR5 ligand flagellin (Fla)...
  51. LEE MARK WETZLER; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..the only licensed adjuvant, Alum (inflammasomes mediated immune activation, other TLR ligands, including CpG DNA (TLR9), and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)(TLR4), and QS-21...
  52. Lee Ann Garrett-Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Recently Toll- like receptor (TLR) signaling, particularly via TLR7 and TLR9, has been implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells to differentiate into ASCs...
  53. Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in Hepatic Fibrogenesis
    Robert F Schwabe; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and CCl4 treatment as models of experimental fibrogenesis, we will define the contribution of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 to hepatic fibrosis in the respective knockout mice and test whether TLR antagonists reduce hepatic fibrogenesis...
  54. Inhibitors of PI3K-delta for Treatment of Skin Inflammation
    Cristiana Guiducci; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Triggering of the innate receptors TLR7 and TLR9 by self nucleic acids in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) precursors and B cells is key in the pathogenesis of SLE,..
  55. Toll-Like Receptors in Systemic Autoimmune Disease
    Ann Marshak-Rothstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example. Tolllike receptors 9 and 7 (TLR9, TLR7) can trigger responses to self nucleic acids...
  56. Novel DNA-Launched Attenuated Vaccine for VEE Virus
    PETER M PUSHKO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recombinant i-DNA clones produced in bacteria contains CpG motifs that activate TLR9 and MyD88-dependent signaling pathways resulting in robust production of cyto- and chemokines, which induce strong ..
  57. Mechanisms underlying sex differences in the pathogenesis of IBD
    THERESA TORRES PIZARRO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..preliminary data, the central hypothesis of the present proposal is that gut microbial ligands signaling through TLR9 promote phenotypic and functional diversity in mucosal Treg populations that contribute to sex differences in ..
  58. HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenesis in vivo
    Lishan Su; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..defects in pOC cells Second, we will define the role of each relevant receptor (CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, BDCA2, TLR7 and TLR9) in pDC activation with specific inhibitors and with genetic approaches...
  59. A model to study human TLR9 function in mice
    Gregory M Barton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..this research plan is to understand the significance of differences between human and mouse Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)...
  60. CTRIP: Molecular phenotypes of rapidly progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Galen B Toews; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary data indicate that TLR9, a hypomethylated CpG DNA receptor, is prominently expressed in surgical lung biopsies (SLB) from rapidly ..
  61. David J Hackam; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We also showed that the homologous receptor for TLR4, namely TLR9 - which recognizes bacterial DNA ("CpG-DNA") - attenuated NEC through the inhibition of TLR4 signaling and a ..
  62. Mechanism of Action of Inhibitory CpG Oligonucleotides
    Petar Lenert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Changing as few as 2 bases converts a strong ST-ODN into an inhibitor (IN-ODN) that blocks TLR9 but not the other TLRs...
  63. Regulation of TLR4 Signaling in Enterocytes in Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Amin Afrazi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We recently discovered a novel TLR4 inhibitory pathway, through treatment with a TLR9 ligand, conferring similar protection, and are awaiting clinical trials, demonstrating that approaches aimed at ..
  64. Mechanisms by which IL-10 limits Toll-like Receptor 9 mediated Macrophage Activat
    Scott Canna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Previous work has shown that repeated stimulation through Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) leads to a syndrome very similar to MAS in wild-type mice...
  65. "Innate intestinal responses in murine toxoplasmosis"
    Fernando Monroy; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..specific aims will be pursued: (1) to evaluate in vivo the intestinal expression and regulation of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 during CWS and T...
  66. Bacterial DNA Internalization in B Lymphocytes
    Mara Gerloni; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..I am interested in answering is whether or not once in the B lymphocyte plasmid DNA will activate the cell through TLR9, the intracellular endosome-associated receptor for CpG motifs in bacterial DNA...
  67. Innate Immune Receptors in Host Responses to Neisseria
    ROBIN INGALLS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This includes TLR2 for the recognition of bacterial lipoproteins and TLR9 for the recognition of bacterial DNA...
  68. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..small synthetic molecules Pam3 Cys, and MALP], the TLR5 stimulus flagellin, the TLR7 stimuli imidazoquinolines, the TLR9 stimulus CpG DNA, and the TLR3 stimulus poly-I-C, as well as classic Th2 inducers such as SEA and filarial proteins...
  69. Genotypic Variation and B. burgdorferi Pathogenesis
    Ira Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have observed a novel and previously undescribed TLR7/TLR9-mediated signaling pathway for B...