TLR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: TLR2
Description: toll like receptor 2
Alias: CD282, TIL4, toll-like receptor 2, toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein 4
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Induction of direct antimicrobial activity through mammalian toll-like receptors
    S Thoma-Uszynski
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Molecular Biology Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 291:1544-7. 2001
  2. ncbi Hepatitis C core and nonstructural 3 proteins trigger toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathways and inflammatory activation
    Angela Dolganiuc
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:1513-24. 2004
  3. ncbi HMGB1 signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2
    Man Yu
    Laboratories of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Shock 26:174-9. 2006
  4. ncbi Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response
    Philip T Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:1770-3. 2006
  5. ncbi Membrane sorting of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimers at the cell surface determines heterotypic associations with CD36 and intracellular targeting
    Martha Triantafilou
    Infection and Immunity Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 281:31002-11. 2006
  6. pmc Phagosomal signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi in human monocytes involves Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR8 cooperativity and TLR8-mediated induction of IFN-beta
    Jorge L Cervantes
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3683-8. 2011
  7. pmc Cellular trafficking of lipoteichoic acid and Toll-like receptor 2 in relation to signaling: role of CD14 and CD36
    Nadra J Nilsen
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Trondheim, Norway
    J Leukoc Biol 84:280-91. 2008
  8. ncbi Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains
    Y Xu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Nature 408:111-5. 2000
  9. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 mediates persistent chemokine release by Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected vascular smooth muscle cells
    Xin Yang
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:2308-14. 2005
  10. doi TLR2 - promiscuous or specific? A critical re-evaluation of a receptor expressing apparent broad specificity
    Ulrich Zahringer
    Division of Immunochemistry, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Parkallee 1 40, 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:205-24. 2008

Research Grants

  1. Phagosomal Signals Shape Inflammatory Responses to Borrelia Burgdorferi
    Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. HIV-1 regulation by MTb: pathogen and host factor
    Anne Goldfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Counter-Regulation of TLR-Driven Mucosal Inflammation
    Erik P Lillehoj; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. Haichao Wang; Fiscal Year: 2016
  5. Henry W Murray; Fiscal Year: 2014
  6. Xiaoyu Hu; Fiscal Year: 2014
  7. Innate Immunity in Acne Vulgaris
    Jenny J Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. CD180 and the Macrophage Response to Legionella pneumophila
    Thomas R Hawn; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Innate Immune Bacterial Recognition and Osteoclastogenesis
    Caroline A Genco; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Hepatic drug metabolism in inflammation
    Romi Ghose; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications372 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Induction of direct antimicrobial activity through mammalian toll-like receptors
    S Thoma-Uszynski
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Molecular Biology Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 291:1544-7. 2001
    ..Here, we show that TLR2 activation leads to killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both mouse and human macrophages, ..
  2. ncbi Hepatitis C core and nonstructural 3 proteins trigger toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathways and inflammatory activation
    Angela Dolganiuc
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:1513-24. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLRs in innate immune cell activation by core and NS3 proteins...
  3. ncbi HMGB1 signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2
    Man Yu
    Laboratories of Biomedical Science, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Shock 26:174-9. 2006
    ..Here we demonstrate that in human whole blood, neutralizing antibodies against Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but not TLR2 or receptor for advanced glycation end product) dose-dependently attenuate HMGB1-induced IL-8 release...
  4. ncbi Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response
    Philip T Liu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Science 311:1770-3. 2006
    ..These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection...
  5. ncbi Membrane sorting of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimers at the cell surface determines heterotypic associations with CD36 and intracellular targeting
    Martha Triantafilou
    Infection and Immunity Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 281:31002-11. 2006
    ..b>TLR2 seems to be the most promiscuous TLR receptor able to recognize the most diverse set of pathogen-associated ..
  6. pmc Phagosomal signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi in human monocytes involves Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR8 cooperativity and TLR8-mediated induction of IFN-beta
    Jorge L Cervantes
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3683-8. 2011
    ..We demonstrate that live Bb induces transcription of TLR2 and TLR8, whereas IRS957 interferes with their transcriptional regulation...
  7. pmc Cellular trafficking of lipoteichoic acid and Toll-like receptor 2 in relation to signaling: role of CD14 and CD36
    Nadra J Nilsen
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Trondheim, Norway
    J Leukoc Biol 84:280-91. 2008
    ..of inflammatory responses caused by Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, via activation of TLR2. Localization of TLR2 in relation to its coreceptors may be important for function...
  8. ncbi Structural basis for signal transduction by the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains
    Y Xu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
    Nature 408:111-5. 2000
    ..mutation) abolishes the host immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and mutation of the equivalent residue in TLR2, Pro681His, disrupts signal transduction in response to stimulation by yeast and gram-positive bacteria...
  9. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 mediates persistent chemokine release by Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected vascular smooth muscle cells
    Xin Yang
    Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:2308-14. 2005
    ..whether monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) release is stimulated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that are exposed to or infected by C pneumoniae and whether toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4 mediate these effects.
  10. doi TLR2 - promiscuous or specific? A critical re-evaluation of a receptor expressing apparent broad specificity
    Ulrich Zahringer
    Division of Immunochemistry, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Parkallee 1 40, 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:205-24. 2008
    Of all pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in innate immunity, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes the structurally broadest range of different bacterial compounds known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
  11. pmc TLR1/2, TLR7, and TLR9 signals directly activate human peripheral blood naive and memory B cell subsets to produce cytokines, chemokines, and hematopoietic growth factors
    Sudhanshu Agrawal
    Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, Medical Sciences I, C 240, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    J Clin Immunol 31:89-98. 2011
    ..B cells in response to direct and exclusive signaling provided by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands Pam3CSK (TLR1/TLR2), Imiquimod (TLR7), and GpG-ODN2006 (TLR9)...
  12. pmc The regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 by miR-143 suppresses the invasion and migration of a subset of human colorectal carcinoma cells
    Haiyan Guo
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai Third People s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200019, PR China
    Mol Cancer 12:77. 2013
    The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-driven tissue response may promote neoangiogenesis and tumour growth by mechanisms that are poorly understood.
  13. doi Microbiota and epigenetic regulation of inflammatory mediators in type 2 diabetes and obesity
    M Remely
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, UZA 2 2D541, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Benef Microbes 5:33-43. 2014
    ..We evaluated changes of the gut microbiota and epigenetic DNA methylation of TLR2 and TLR4 in three groups of subjects: type 2 diabetics under glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist therapy, obese ..
  14. doi Human TLRs 10 and 1 share common mechanisms of innate immune sensing but not signaling
    Yue Guan
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, B103 CLSL MC110, 601 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Immunol 184:5094-103. 2010
    ..TLR6, both of which mediate immune responses to a variety of microbial and fungal components in cooperation with TLR2. The generation and analysis of chimeric receptors containing the extracellular recognition domain of TLR10 and the ..
  15. pmc Increased toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and TLR ligands in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects
    Mohan R Dasu
    Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA
    Diabetes Care 33:861-8. 2010
    ..Thus, in the present study, we examined TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, their ligands, and signaling in monocytes of recently diagnosed type 2 ..
  16. pmc Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis
    Mattias Fransson
    Department of Oto Rhino Laryngology, Malmo University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    Respir Res 6:100. 2005
    ..The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen...
  17. doi Glucocorticoids enhance Toll-like receptor 2 expression in human keratinocytes stimulated with Propionibacterium acnes or proinflammatory cytokines
    Michio Shibata
    Shiseido Research Center, Yokohama, Japan
    J Invest Dermatol 129:375-82. 2009
    ..In acne vulgaris, TLR2 activation by Propionibacterium acnes (P...
  18. doi Pro-osteogenic phenotype of human aortic valve interstitial cells is associated with higher levels of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and enhanced expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2
    Xiaoping Yang
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 53:491-500. 2009
    ..Our aim was to determine whether aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) and pulmonary valve interstitial cells (PVICs) differ in expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4, response to TLR agonists, and osteogenic phenotypic changes...
  19. doi A rare polymorphism in the gene for Toll-like receptor 2 is associated with systemic sclerosis phenotype and increases the production of inflammatory mediators
    J C A Broen
    Department of Rheumatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Rheum 64:264-71. 2012
    ..To investigate whether polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes, previously reported to be associated with immune-mediated diseases, are involved in systemic sclerosis (SSc)...
  20. pmc Biglycan induces the expression of osteogenic factors in human aortic valve interstitial cells via Toll-like receptor-2
    Rui Song
    Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32:2711-20. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that soluble BGN induces the osteogenic response in human aortic valve interstitial cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 and mediates the proosteogenic effect of oxLDL...
  21. doi Functional polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 alter the risk for colorectal carcinoma in Europeans
    Pedro Pimentel-Nunes
    Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cardiovascular Research and Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal
    Dig Liver Dis 45:63-9. 2013
    ..Colon carcinogenesis is associated with increased expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4...
  22. pmc Epstein-Barr virus induces MCP-1 secretion by human monocytes via TLR2
    Eric Gaudreault
    Viral Immunology Laboratory, CHUL Research Center CHUQ, 2705 Boul Laurier, Room T 1 49, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Virol 81:8016-24. 2007
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus infecting the majority of the human adult population in the world. TLR2, a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, has been implicated in the immune responses to different viruses ..
  23. pmc Involvement of TLR2 in recognition of acute gammaherpesvirus-68 infection
    François Michaud
    Laboratory of Innate Immunology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Research Center and Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 5:e13742. 2010
    ..We previously reported the implication of TLR2 in the recognition of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by human monocytes...
  24. ncbi Non-LPS components of Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulate cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent pathways
    Mihai G Netea
    Department of Medicine, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Immunol 32:1188-95. 2002
    ..In contrast, incubation of PBMC with an anti-TLR2 blocking antibody significantly inhibited the production of TNF by 67 % and of IL-1beta by 72 %. In conclusion, C...
  25. pmc Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleosome-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) gene polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk
    Katie A Ashton
    Discipline of Medical Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Australia
    BMC Cancer 10:382. 2010
    ..For these reasons, the aim of the study was to assess the frequency of polymorphic variants in TLR and NOD genes in an Australian endometrial cancer population...
  26. ncbi Crystal structure of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer induced by binding of a tri-acylated lipopeptide
    Mi Sun Jin
    Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon, Korea 305 701
    Cell 130:1071-82. 2007
    b>TLR2 in association with TLR1 or TLR6 plays an important role in the innate immune response by recognizing microbial lipoproteins and lipopeptides...
  27. doi The role of toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and -4) and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) in human term and preterm labor
    Refaat E Youssef
    Ninewells Hospital and School of Medicine, Dundee, United Kingdom
    Reprod Sci 16:843-56. 2009
    ..To define the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR-2, TLR-4) and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in pregnant human myometrium...
  28. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 promote central nervous system neuroinflammation in progressive EAE
    Mauricio F Farez
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 10:958-64. 2009
    ..In mice, 15-HC activated microglia, macrophages and astrocytes through a pathway involving Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1)...
  29. ncbi Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated signaling by Tollip
    Guolong Zhang
    Section of Immunobiology, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:7059-65. 2002
    ..Here we report that Tollip also associates directly with TLR2 and TLR4 and plays an inhibitory role in TLR-mediated cell activation...
  30. pmc Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CD14 in biopsy samples of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: upregulated expression of TLR2 in terminal ileum of patients with ulcerative colitis
    Lenka Frolova
    Department of Immunology and Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    J Histochem Cytochem 56:267-74. 2008
    ..We investigated expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and their transmembrane coreceptor CD14 in biopsy samples from patients with IBD and in non-inflamed gut ..
  31. pmc Increased levels of ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in type 1 diabetes
    S Devaraj
    Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Diabetologia 52:1665-8. 2009
    ..We have shown increased Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 expression and signalling in monocytes from type 1 diabetic patients...
  32. doi Significant association between toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms and gallbladder cancer
    Kshitij Srivastava
    Department of Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
    Liver Int 30:1067-72. 2010
    ..The present study was undertaken to examine the potential association of two polymorphisms in TLR2 and TLR4 genes with gallbladder cancer (GBC) susceptibility.
  33. pmc Human integrin α(3)β(1) regulates TLR2 recognition of lipopeptides from endosomal compartments
    Meghan L Marre
    Graduate Program in Immunology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e12871. 2010
    ..Adaptors and co-receptors that mediate this process, as well as the mechanisms by which these adaptors and co-receptors function, are still being discovered...
  34. ncbi Localization of TLR2 and MyD88 to Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions. Evidence for signaling by intracellular TLR2 during infection with an obligate intracellular pathogen
    CATHERINE M O'CONNELL
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:1652-9. 2006
    ..Finally, we show that both TLR2 and MyD88 co-localize with the intracellular chlamydial inclusion, suggesting that TLR2 is actively engaged in ..
  35. doi Innate immune responses to Mycobacterium ulcerans via toll-like receptors and dectin-1 in human keratinocytes
    Hye Mi Lee
    Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea
    Cell Microbiol 11:678-92. 2009
    ..In addition, TLR2, Dectin-1 and, to an extent, TLR4 are essential for the MU-mediated expression of CXCL8, CCL2 and LL-37 in ..
  36. ncbi The 19-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein induces macrophage apoptosis through Toll-like receptor-2
    Martin Lopez
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Medicine and Science, The Research Institute of the Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Immunol 170:2409-16. 2003
    ....
  37. ncbi High mobility group box 1 protein interacts with multiple Toll-like receptors
    Jong Sung Park
    Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Box C272, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 E Ninth Ave, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290:C917-24. 2006
    ..energy transfer (FRET) and immunoprecipitation to directly investigate cell surface interactions of HMGB1 with TLR2, TLR4, and RAGE. FRET images in RAW264...
  38. ncbi Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is recognized by Toll-like receptors and NOD2
    Gerben Ferwerda
    Department of Internal Medicine and Nijmegen University Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Leukoc Biol 82:1011-8. 2007
    ..M. paratuberculosis stimulated human TLR2 (hTLR2)-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells predominantly and hTLR4-CHO cells modestly...
  39. pmc Microbial patterns signaling via Toll-like receptors 2 and 5 contribute to epithelial repair, growth and survival
    Renat Shaykhiev
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division for Pulmonary Diseases, Philipps Universtät Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 3:e1393. 2008
    ..Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and microbial patterns signaling via TLR2 and TLR5 induce a set of non-immune epithelial responses including cell migration, wound repair, proliferation, and ..
  40. doi Clinical relevance of TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and FcgammaRIIA gene polymorphisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection
    Fang Fang Yuan
    Research and Development, Australian Red Cross Blood Service Endeavour, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 86:268-70. 2008
    ..In the present study, polymorphisms in several candidate genes, including TLR2-Arg/Gln753, TLR4-Asp/Gly299, TLR4-Thr/Ile399, CD14-159C/T and FcgammaRIIA-R/H131, were examined in 85 children with ..
  41. ncbi A polymorphism in human TLR2 is associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculous meningitis
    N T T Thuong
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Genes Immun 8:422-8. 2007
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates recognition of M. tuberculosis and initiates the innate immune response to infection...
  42. doi Pathogen specific cytokine release reveals an effect of TLR2 Arg753Gln during Candida sepsis in humans
    Tobias Woehrle
    University of Ulm, Experimental Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, Steinhoevelstr 9, Ulm 89075, Germany
    Cytokine 41:322-9. 2008
    ..b>TLR2 heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6 to recognize multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of fungi, ..
  43. pmc Gamma interferon secretion by human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells after stimulation with antibody against the T-cell receptor plus the Toll-Like receptor 2 agonist Pam3Cys
    Carl O Deetz
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Infect Immun 74:4505-11. 2006
    ..Analysis of expanded Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cell lines showed the abundant presence of TLR2 mRNA, implying that these receptors are important for cell differentiation or function...
  44. ncbi Activation of human neutrophils with Helicobacter pylori and the role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the response
    Lourdes Alvarez-Arellano
    Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Hospital de Pediatria, Centro Medico Nacional SXXI, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 51:473-9. 2007
    ..Our aim was to study the response of human neutrophils to H. pylori and to elucidate the role of TLR2 and TLR4. Neutrophils from healthy H. pylori-negative volunteers were cocultured with H. pylori 26695 strain...
  45. pmc Toll-like receptor 2 is upregulated by hog confinement dust in an IL-6-dependent manner in the airway epithelium
    K L Bailey
    Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Section, Deptartment of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 5300, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L1049-54. 2008
    ..A key mediator in inflammation is Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). We investigated the role of TLR2 in pulmonary inflammation induced by hog confinement dust...
  46. pmc DNA demethylation-dependent enhancement of toll-like receptor-2 gene expression in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells involves SP1-activated transcription
    Takashi Furuta
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 862 0973, Japan
    BMC Mol Biol 9:39. 2008
    ..We have recently shown that decreased methylation of the toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) promoter leads to an apparent CF-related up-regulation of TLR2...
  47. pmc Mycobacterium abscessus and M. avium trigger Toll-like receptor 2 and distinct cytokine response in human cells
    Elizabeth P Sampaio
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 1684, USA
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 39:431-9. 2008
    ..MAB also triggered a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated response that led to TNF-alpha production by human monocytes...
  48. doi TLR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms alter mucosal cytokine and chemokine patterns in Mexican patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases
    Alejandra Trejo-de la O
    Unidad de Investigacion en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital de Pediatria, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico
    Clin Immunol 129:333-40. 2008
    ..We aimed to evaluate the association of TLR2/R753Q and TLR4/D299G/T399I SNPs with gastroduodenal diseases; and study the effect of SNPs on cytokine and ..
  49. doi Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 genes influence susceptibility to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma
    M Kerkhof
    Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Thorax 65:690-7. 2010
    ..Epidemiological studies have reported adverse effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of asthma. Laboratory studies have suggested that innate immune responses are involved...
  50. doi Regulation of cytokine secretion in human CD127(+) LTi-like innate lymphoid cells by Toll-like receptor 2
    Natasha K Crellin
    Department of Immunology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Immunity 33:752-64. 2010
    ..Whereas TLR2 signaling induced IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22 expression in a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner, IL-23 ..
  51. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins directly regulate human memory CD4(+) T cell activation via Toll-like receptors 1 and 2
    Christina L Lancioni
    Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Infect Immun 79:663-73. 2011
    ..Lipoprotein-induced T cell costimulation was inhibited by blocking antibodies to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR1, indicating that human CD4(+) T cells can use TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers to directly respond to M...
  52. pmc Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharides induce inflammatory responses via TLR2 and TLR4-MD-2
    Susu M Zughaier
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 89:469-80. 2011
    ..CPS induced inflammatory responses via TLR2- and TLR4-MD-2...
  53. doi Variant Toll-like receptor4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) and Toll-like receptor2 (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp alleles) in colorectal cancer
    Homa Davoodi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 10:91-9. 2011
    ..study was to determine whether there was a correlation between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly; Thr399Ile) and TLR2 (Arg677Trp; Arg753Gln) genes and risk of colorectal cancer...
  54. doi Biofilm formation and Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4, and NF-kappaB expression in sinus tissues of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis
    Yan Sun
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China
    Am J Rhinol Allergy 26:104-9. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of biofilms in CRS patients and investigate the biofilm-related Toll-like receptor (TLR) and downstream NF-kappaB expression in sinus tissues of patients with CRS...
  55. doi Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to asthma and allergic rhinitis: a case-control analysis
    Yousri M Hussein
    Medical Biochemistry Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
    Cell Immunol 274:34-8. 2012
    The aim of the study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) may modify relative risk for development of asthma or allergic rhinitis...
  56. doi SNAPIN: an endogenous Toll-like receptor ligand in rheumatoid arthritis
    Bo Shi
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 2909, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 71:1411-7. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to identify endogenous TLR ligands expressed in RA synovial tissue (ST) based on their ability to bind the extracellular domains of TLR2 or TLR4.
  57. pmc Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 independently deliver triacylated lipoproteins to Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 and enhance formation of the ternary signaling complex
    Diana Rose E Ranoa
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:9729-41. 2013
    Bacterial lipoproteins are the most potent microbial agonists for the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily, and this pattern recognition event induces cellular activation, leading to host immune responses...
  58. doi Association between genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and schizophrenia in the Korean population
    Won Sub Kang
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130 701, Republic of Korea
    Gene 526:182-6. 2013
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in innate immunity by sensing a variety of pathogens and inducing an acquired immunity...
  59. doi The protective effect of trefoil factor 3 on the intestinal tight junction barrier is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 via a PI3K/Akt dependent mechanism
    Nan Lin
    Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 440:143-9. 2013
    ..In the present study, we show that TFF3 and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) are functionally linked and modulate intestinal epithelial permeability via a mechanism that involves the PI3K/Akt ..
  60. doi Toll-like receptor 2 (P631H) mutant impairs membrane internalization and is a dominant negative allele
    G E Etokebe
    Immunology Laboratory, Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Norway
    Scand J Immunol 71:369-81. 2010
    We have sequenced 416 Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) alleles in 208 subjects in a tuberculosis case-control study in Croatian Caucasian population...
  61. ncbi [The levels of expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in neutrophils are associated with the prognosis of ischaemic stroke patients]
    David Brea
    Laboratorio de Investigación en Neurociencias Clínicas, Departamento de Neurologia, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna, Espana
    Rev Neurol 52:12-9. 2011
    ..Nevertheless, the role played by neutrophils and the expression of their innate immunity receptors TLR2 and TLR 4 (toll-like receptors 2 and 4) in cerebral ischaemia is still not fully understood.
  62. doi STAT3-driven upregulation of TLR2 promotes gastric tumorigenesis independent of tumor inflammation
    Hazel Tye
    Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Cancer Cell 22:466-78. 2012
    ..Genetic and therapeutic targeting of TLR2 inhibited gastric tumorigenesis, but not inflammation, characterized by reduced proliferation and increased ..
  63. pmc A novel polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 gene and its potential association with staphylococcal infection
    E Lorenz
    Department of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA
    Infect Immun 68:6398-401. 2000
    The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has gained importance as a major mammalian receptor for lipoproteins derived from the cell wall of a variety of bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans...
  64. pmc Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 is up-regulated in monocytes from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Jaume Pons
    Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital Son Dureta, Institut Universitari d Investigacions en Ciències de la Salut, Palma Mallorca, Spain
    Respir Res 7:64. 2006
    ..Given the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the induction of inflammatory responses we investigated the involvement of TLRs in COPD pathogenesis...
  65. doi Human NK cells directly recognize Mycobacterium bovis via TLR2 and acquire the ability to kill monocyte-derived DC
    Emanuela Marcenaro
    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Genova, Genova, Italy
    Int Immunol 20:1155-67. 2008
    ..receptor (TLR)2 mAb inhibited NK cell responses to BCG, suggesting that NK cells may express a functional TLR2, which plays a role in their mechanism of direct BCG recognition...
  66. pmc A pooled investigation of Toll-like receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
    Mark P Purdue
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20892, USA
    Carcinogenesis 30:275-81. 2009
    ..Thirty-six tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 gene cluster were genotyped...
  67. pmc Treponema denticola suppresses expression of human {beta}-defensin-3 in gingival epithelial cells through inhibition of the toll-like receptor 2 axis
    Ji Eun Shin
    Department of Oromaxillofacial Infection and Immunity, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 2 Yeongeon Dong, Jongno gu, Seoul 110 749, South Korea
    Infect Immun 78:672-9. 2010
    ..Knockdown of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) via RNA interference abolished the suppressive effect of T. denticola on the expression of HBD-3. Heat-killed T...
  68. doi Identification of haplotype tag SNPs within the entire TLR2 gene and their clinical relevance in patients with major trauma
    Ke Hong Chen
    State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Surgery Research, Chongqing, China
    Shock 35:35-41. 2011
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling plays a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune response and the development of sepsis and subsequent organ dysfunction after trauma...
  69. pmc TLR2 ligand induces protection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling
    Chen Lu
    Department of Surgery, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
    J Immunol 187:1458-66. 2011
    This study examined the effect of TLR2 activation by its specific ligand, Pam3CSK4, on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
  70. ncbi Transcriptional regulation of the human toll-like receptor 2 gene in monocytes and macrophages
    Viola Haehnel
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    J Immunol 168:5629-37. 2002
    ..To define the proximal promoter, the full 5'-sequence and transcriptional start sites of TLR2 mRNA were determined...
  71. pmc TLR2 is mobilized into an apical lipid raft receptor complex to signal infection in airway epithelial cells
    Grace Soong
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 113:1482-9. 2004
    ..We demonstrate that TLR2 is enriched in caveolin-1-associated lipid raft microdomains presented on the apical surface of airway epithelial ..
  72. pmc Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations
    Jennifer A Greene
    Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USA
    Malar J 8:50. 2009
    ..Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic...
  73. doi Toll-like receptor 2/6 stimulation promotes angiogenesis via GM-CSF as a potential strategy for immune defense and tissue regeneration
    Karsten Grote
    Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, 30165, Hannover, Germany
    Blood 115:2543-52. 2010
    ..Because many of these processes implicate angiogenesis, we here elucidated the role of a TLR2/6-dependent pathway on angiogenesis using the TLR2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide of 2 kDa (MALP-2), a ..
  74. doi Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi by NOD2 is central for the induction of an inflammatory reaction
    Marije Oosting
    Department of Medicine, Nijmegen Institute of Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 201:1849-58. 2010
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in the recognition of Borrelia bacteria, the causative agent of Lyme disease, but the existence and importance of additional receptors in this process has been hypothesized...
  75. ncbi Lipoteichoic acid induces HO-1 expression via the TLR2/MyD88/c-Src/NADPH oxidase pathway and Nrf2 in human tracheal smooth muscle cells
    I Ta Lee
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
    J Immunol 181:5098-110. 2008
    ..levels, mRNA expression, and promoter activity were attenuated by transfection with dominant negative mutants of TLR2 and MyD88, by pretreatment with the inhibitors of c-Src (PP1), NADPH oxidase (diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) ..
  76. pmc Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses
    Philip T Liu
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e5810. 2009
    ..In humans, activation of Toll-like receptor 2/1 (TLR2/1) on monocytes induces a vitamin D dependent antimicrobial activity against intracellular mycobacteria...
  77. doi Peptidoglycan enhances IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblasts via TLR2 receptor, focal adhesion kinase, Akt, and AP-1- dependent pathway
    Yung Cheng Chiu
    Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    J Immunol 183:2785-92. 2009
    ..PGN-mediated IL-6 production was attenuated by TLR2 small interfering RNA and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 small interfering RNA...
  78. ncbi Glucocorticoids synergistically enhance nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via a negative cross-talk with p38 MAP kinase
    Tsuyoshi Shuto
    Gonda Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, House Ear Institute, and the Department of Otolaryngology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90057, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:17263-70. 2002
    ..They recognize the microbial ligands via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on the surface of epithelial cells. TLR2 has gained importance as a major receptor for a variety of microbial ligands...
  79. ncbi Diminished expression and function of TLR in lymphatic filariasis: a novel mechanism of immune dysregulation
    Subash Babu
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 175:1170-6. 2005
    ..To assess the contribution of TLR in mediating this dysregulation, we examined the expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 on B cells and monocytes of filaria-infected and uninfected individuals...
  80. pmc The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Maxine Caws
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000034. 2008
    ..The study provides evidence that M. tuberculosis genotype influences clinical disease phenotype and demonstrates, for the first time, a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of tuberculosis...
  81. pmc Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4: roles for CD14, LPS-binding protein, and MD2 as targets for specificity of inhibition
    Clett Erridge
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Univesity of Strathclyde, 204 George St, Glasgow G1 1XW, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 283:24748-59. 2008
    ..degradation, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter activation induced by stimulants of TLR2 and TLR4 (Pam3CSK4 and LPS) but not by stimulants of other TLRs (poly(I...
  82. pmc Induction of TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression by Helicobacter pylori switches cagPAI-dependent signalling leading to the secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α
    Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e19614. 2011
    ..pylori and isogenic cagPAI mutants. H. pylori triggered enhanced TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression in THP-1, HEK293-TLR2 and HEK293-TLR5 cells, but not in the HEK293 control...
  83. ncbi The Arg753GLn polymorphism of the human toll-like receptor 2 gene in tuberculosis disease
    A C Ogus
    Dept of Chest Medicine, Akdeniz University Medical Faculty, Turkey
    Eur Respir J 23:219-23. 2004
    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of the Toll-like receptor family, plays an important role in recognition of, and subsequent immune response activation against, mycobacteria...
  84. ncbi Toll-like receptor 2 and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 are effectors of Mycobacterium avium-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages
    Sushil Kumar Pathak
    Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93 1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Calcutta 700009, India
    J Biol Chem 279:55127-36. 2004
    ..M. avium-triggered signaling originates at the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
  85. pmc Lack of association between Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus
    Catrin E Moore
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Level 4, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU United Kingdom
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:1194-7. 2004
    To investigate a putative link between genetically determined variations in Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and the occurrence of severe Staphylococcus aureus infection, the functional Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism and the GT ..
  86. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced gamma interferon production by natural killer cells requires cross talk with antigen-presenting cells involving Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and the mannose receptor in tuberculous pleurisy
    Pablo Schierloh
    Departamento de Inmunologia, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematologicas, Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Infect Immun 75:5325-37. 2007
    ..tuberculosis reaches its maximum value. Thus, interplay between M. tuberculosis and NK cells/APC triggering IFN-gamma would be expected to play a beneficial role in tuberculous pleurisy by helping to maintain a type 1 profile...
  87. ncbi Epidermal growth factor receptor acts as a negative regulator for bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via an Src-dependent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway
    Fumi Mikami
    Gonda Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, House Ear Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90057, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:36185-94. 2005
    ..Here we show for the first time that EGFR acts as a negative regulator for TLR2 induction by the bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in vitro and in vivo...
  88. pmc Heat shock protein 96 is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis and activates macrophages primarily via TLR2 signaling
    Qi Quan Huang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 182:4965-73. 2009
    ..Recently, we demonstrated increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression and increased response to microbial TLR2 and TLR4 ligands in macrophages from the joints of RA...
  89. pmc Helicobacter pylori induces interleukin-8 secretion by Toll-like receptor 2- and Toll-like receptor 5-dependent and -independent pathways
    Anastasia M Torok
    University of Virginia Health System, P O Box 800734, Charlottesville, VA 22908 0734, USA
    Infect Immun 73:1523-31. 2005
    ..Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR5 have been shown to recognize H...
  90. ncbi Human heat shock protein 60 stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through Toll-like receptors 2 and 4
    Rick de Graaf
    Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, University Hospital Maastricht, P Debyelaan 25, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Microbes Infect 8:1859-65. 2006
    ..Localization of HSP60, TLR2 and TLR4 was studied in failed venous grafts and normal venous tissue by double immunostaining...
  91. pmc The role of Toll-like receptor 2 in inflammation and fibrosis during progressive renal injury
    Jaklien C Leemans
    Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e5704. 2009
    ..Recently, it was shown that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed in the kidney and activated by endogenous danger signals...
  92. pmc Innate immune sensing of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is mediated by TLR2-TLR6, MDA-5 and the NALP3 inflammasome
    Julie Delaloye
    Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Service, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000480. 2009
    ..deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or in the adapter molecules MyD88 and TRIF revealed a critical role for TLR2, TLR6 and MyD88 in the production of IFNbeta-independent chemokines...
  93. doi Engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 on CD4(+) T cells facilitates local immune responses in patients with tuberculous pleurisy
    Xinchun Chen
    Shenzhen Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third Hospital, Shenzhen, China
    J Infect Dis 200:399-408. 2009
    Although it has been recognized that Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains large amounts of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands, their direct effects on CD4(+) T cells and the clinical implications have not been determined.
  94. pmc Up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in dendritic cells in response to HIV type 1 and coinfection with opportunistic pathogens
    Juan C Hernandez
    Grupo Inmunovirología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:1099-109. 2011
    ..In this context, we have evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and myeloid dendritic cells of HIV-1 patients with or without ..
  95. pmc Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 mediates inflammatory responses to oligomerized RrgA pneumococcal pilus type 1 protein
    Alan Basset
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:2665-75. 2013
    ..an ancillary pilus subunit devoid of a lipidation motif, particularly when presented as part of an oligomer, is a TLR2 agonist...
  96. ncbi Maintenance of colonic homeostasis by distinctive apical TLR9 signalling in intestinal epithelial cells
    Jongdae Lee
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0663, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 8:1327-36. 2006
    ..IECs in TLR9-deficient mice, when compared with wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice, display a lower NF-kappaB activation threshold and these mice are highly susceptible to ..
  97. ncbi TLR2 signaling renders quiescent naive and memory CD4+ T cells more susceptible to productive infection with X4 and R5 HIV-type 1
    Sandra Thibault
    Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie, Centre hospitalier de l Universite Laval, and Faculté de Médecine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 179:4357-66. 2007
    ..In this study, we report that engagement of TLR2 in quiescent naive and memory CD4+ T cells leads to the acquisition of an effector-like phenotype...
  98. doi Activation of toll-like receptors 2, 3 or 5 induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 expression with the involvement of MAPKs and NF-kappaB in human epidermal keratinocytes
    Youngae Lee
    Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Exp Dermatol 19:e44-9. 2010
    ..the mRNA and protein expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in human epidermal keratinocytes are induced by ligands for TLR2, TLR3 and TLR5 [Pam3CSK4, Poly(I:C) and flagellin, respectively] in a dose-dependent manner...
  99. doi Functional assessment of Toll-like receptor 2 and its relevance in patients with Staphylococcus aureus infection of joint prosthesis
    Odette El-Helou
    Division of Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Hum Immunol 72:47-53. 2011
    Staphylococcus aureus induces inflammation in experimental models through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The clinical relevance of this observation is debated...
  100. ncbi Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response
    A Aderem
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Nature 406:782-7. 2000
    ..This reflects a remarkable conservation of function and it is therefore not surprising that studies of the mechanism by which they act has revealed new and important insights into host defence...
  101. ncbi Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide activates cells through a TLR2-dependent mechanism
    C Werts
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nat Immunol 2:346-52. 2001
    ..both these leptospiral outer membrane constituents activate macrophages through CD14 and the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...

Research Grants95

  1. Phagosomal Signals Shape Inflammatory Responses to Borrelia Burgdorferi
    Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Phagocytosis of intact Bb not only enhanced TLR2-mediated, NF-B-dependent responses, it also induced TLR2-independent responses, most notably transcription of ..
  2. HIV-1 regulation by MTb: pathogen and host factor
    Anne Goldfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..through several receptors found in mononuclear phagocytes, including the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, and the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor...
  3. Counter-Regulation of TLR-Driven Mucosal Inflammation
    Erik P Lillehoj; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For example, TLRs with specificity for bacterial peptidoglycan (TLR2), LPS (TLR4), and flagellin (TLR5) activate signaling pathways leading to the production of proinflammatory ..
  4. Haichao Wang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..g., CD36, TLR2, TLR4, or RAGE)-deficient macrophages...
  5. Henry W Murray; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..which reside in an IL-10-based network of deactivating cytokines and then its more proximal initiation by TLR (TLR2) and MAPK (ERK1/2) signal transduction. Aim 3: Analyze how chemo- therapy activates host immune mechanisms...
  6. Xiaoyu Hu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..human monocyte/macrophage activation in response to the prototypic macrophage-activating receptors TLR4 and TLR2. These TLRs elicit strong macrophage activation that serves as a good model for studying macrophage responses to ..
  7. Innate Immunity in Acne Vulgaris
    Jenny J Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..retinoic acid (ATRA) enhances the differentiation of monocytes into CD209+ macrophages and v) ATRA down-regulates TLR2 expression and function by inhibiting P. acnes- induced cytokine production in monocytes...
  8. CD180 and the Macrophage Response to Legionella pneumophila
    Thomas R Hawn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The role of CD180 (RP105), a non-signaling member of the TLR family that regulates TLR2 and TLR4 function, in Legionella pathogenesis is unknown...
  9. Innate Immune Bacterial Recognition and Osteoclastogenesis
    Caroline A Genco; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..TNF- dependent / RANKL-independent mechanism which was dependent on the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor, TLR2 (118). We also reported that TLR2 but not TLR4, was crucial for P...
  10. Hepatic drug metabolism in inflammation
    Romi Ghose; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific Aim 1: Determine whether the cell surface receptors, TLR2 and TLR4 and the critical adaptor proteins (TIRAP, TRIP), are involved in regulation of DMEs and NRs in vivo...
  11. Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..To test these hypotheses, we will 1) determine the effects of periodontitis/LPS on insulin target organs via TLR2 &TLR4 by a) identifying specific sites of inhibition of insulin signaling, and b) determining the expression of ..
  12. Juan C Salazar; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..also induced transcription of interferon-2 (IFN-2) and type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), independently of TLR2. Recent evidence from the investigator's laboratory provides substantial evidence the TLR2-independent ..
  13. HMGB1 and neutrophil efferocytosis.
    JAROSLAW WALDEMAR ZMIJEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the importance of HMGB1 in modulating phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils in the lungs during hemorrhage, TLR2, or TLR4 induced acute lung injury...
  14. MECHANISMS OF ACTIVATION OF ICE-LIKE CYSTEINE PROTEASES
    Emad S Alnemri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is also proposed to characterize novel upstream activators of the ASC pyroptosome and further investigate the role TLR2, TLR4, cryopyrin and caspase-1-mediated proteolysis in macrophage pyroptosis...
  15. Macrophage Produced Phospholipid Transfer Protein (PLTP)
    Linda K Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The first aim will test the hypothesis that MF PLTP disrupts TLR2/1 plasma membrane dimerization and signaling, but not preformed TLR3 dimer mediated signaling in endosomes...
  16. Geert Jan Boons; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..We have found that a three-component vaccine composed of a TLR2 agonist, a promiscuous peptide T-helper epitope and a tumor-associated glycopeptides, can elicit in mice ..
  17. CHRISTINE M BASMAJIAN; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..T cells are co-stimulated with synthetic bacterial ligands recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs), in particular TLR2/1...
  18. Host response to P. carinii in neonatal mice
    Beth A Garvy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neonatal alveolar macrophages can respond to stimuli through the dectin-1 ?-glucan receptor, mannose receptor, or TLR2. 2...
  19. Terry K Means; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..This hypothesis is based on preliminary findings that co-expression of SCARF1 or CD36 with TLR2/6 in HEK293 cells results in enhanced NF:B activation in response to Cryptococcus neoformans stimulation...
  20. Role of Polymorphonuclear Phagocytes in Malaria Sepsis
    Ricardo Gazzinelli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PMNs are the most abundant leukocytes and produce many mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, PMNs express TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 that are critical for the innate immune response to Plasmodium glycolipids and DNA...
  21. Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2015
    In this application we will explore the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is the master regulator controlling both protective and pathologic features of the tubercle granuloma...
  22. TLR2 and the Tubercle Granuloma
    Padmini Salgame; Fiscal Year: 2010
    In this application we will explore the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is the master regulator controlling both protective and pathologic features of the tubercle granuloma...
  23. Ping Wang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We have determined that TLR4, rather than TLR2 or RAGE, serves as CIRP receptor. Biacore(R) biosensor assay showed a high binding affinity (Kd =1...
  24. Alan A Aderem; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..that Sharpin acts at the level of the NEMO-containing IKK complex and controls a novel branch point in the TLR2/NF-?B pathway that is necessary for the production of Th1 cytokines. In this proposal, we will: 1...
  25. MicroRNAs in Epithelial Innate Immunity to C. parvum
    Xian Ming Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..human biliary cryptosporidiosis established by us, we have demonstrated that: (i) two Toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2 and TLR4, and an associated intracellular signaling pathway (NF-kappaB activation) play a central role in C...
  26. Matthew E Poynter; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..We have reported that SAA stimulates the extracellular Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and the intracellular NOD-like receptor, Nlrp3, which are required for the secretion of IL-1[unreadable], a Th17- ..
  27. Innate Immunity and Herpes Simplex Pathogensis
    Robert Finberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..laboratory has demonstrated that HSV induces the production of inflammatory cytokines through its interaction with TLR2. The same viruses also induce the production of interferon through TLR9...
  28. JAVEED ALI SHAH; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..in peripheral blood human monocytes, we found that TOLLIP suppresses TNF and IL-6 production after stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands...
  29. T Cells, Macrophages, Chemokines, and Adiposopathy in Diet-Induced Obesity
    CHRISTIE MITCHELL BALLANTYNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..including adipocytes, T cells, and macrophages and determine if this influence results from activation through TLR2 and/or TLR4. 2...
  30. Investigating gene x environment interaction using human exposures to O3 & LPS
    David B Peden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..glutathione peroxdiase (GPX1), Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and Superoxidase dismutase 2 (SOD2), theCD14 gene promoter, TLR2, TLR4;IL-1 , IL-1R, and the TNF gene promoter...
  31. MARIO TOMAS PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and the receptors Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), and TLR2 are directly involved in the activation of macrophage/monocytes by live B...
  32. Caroline A Genco; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..While several TLRs were detected in platelets, the expression of TLR2 and IL1R in particular were increased in patients with cardiovascular disease...
  33. Gyongyi Szabo; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..danger signals for the host through Toll like receptor 7 and 8 that recognize ssRNA, TLR3 that senses dsRNA or TLR2 that is activated by HCV core and NSS proteins...
  34. Jill A Poole; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..products can act through several pattern-recognition receptors including cell surface Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and the cytosolic nuclear oligomerization domain molecule (NOD2)...
  35. Daping Fan; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Over a dozen TLRs have been identified so far, most of them expressed in atheroma cells, with TLR2 and TLR4 being best documented...
  36. Counteracting microbial immune evasion for the treatment of periodontitis
    MEGAN LAVONNE MCINTOSH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..P. gingivalis is predominantly recognized by TLR2 and this interaction leads to two independent downstream pathways: the TLR2 antimicrobial pathway and the TLR2 ..
  37. Gyongyi Szabo; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..activation by selective MyD88-utilizing TLRs (other than TLR4) involved in recognition of bacterial (TLR2 and TLR5), and viral (TLR7/8) pathogen-derived danger signals Results from these experiments will delineate ..
  38. Group B. Streptococci and Toll-like Receptors
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Lipoproteins induce inflammatory cytokines through interaction with the Toll-like-receptors (TLR) 2 and 6. TLR2 furthermore mediates apoptosis of microglia and neurons in response to GBS which likely contributes to the ..
  39. Role of TLR2 engagement on CD4+ T cells in immunity to M. tuberculosis
    Roxana E Rojas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Human CD4+ T cells can directly recognize mycobacterial lipoproteins via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
  40. Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..challenges the concept that malarial glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-lipid anchors, which are primarily TLR2/CD14 agonists, are the primary cause of systemic inflammation in malaria...
  41. Synergy between TLR2 and IL-22R in airway epithelial cells during MRSA challenge
    Jeremy P McAleer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This suggests a need to develop vaccination and/or treatment strategies. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes peptidoglycan and initiates natural immunity to S. aureus...
  42. Zinaida S Vexler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Repair will be further studied in neonatal ischemic Gal-3 knockout mice bearing the dual luc/gfp reporter under the TLR2 promoter...
  43. STUART MICHAEL LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..recombinant cryptococcal antigens will be combined with ligands for the pathogen recognition receptors, dectin-1, TLR2, TLR7/8 and TLR9...
  44. Yiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..due to their unique ability to activate multiple innate immune pathways in vivo: VV activates cDCs through TLR2, leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and a TLR-independent pathway, resulting in secretion of ..
  45. Role of Toll-like Receptors in Transplant-Induced Reactivation of Cytomegalovirus
    Michael Abecassis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary data suggests a major role for TLR2 in activation of the cellular immune response to allogeneic transplants, and thus, for reactivation of MCMV...
  46. Huizhi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..gingivalis (TLR2)-mediated inflammatory response are not fully understood...
  47. Functions of mammalian PGLYRPs in the cornea
    Shukti Chakravarti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aeruginosa keratitis model. 2a)Test if the PGLYRPs cross talk with innate immune signals (TLR2, 4 and Nod2) in the cornea to up regulate cytokines and b- defensins, and 2b) whether the PGLYRPs expedite corneal ..
  48. TYPE II Enterotoxins as Mucosal Immunomodulators
    Terry D Connell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..holotoxin, the immunostimulatory properties of LT-IIb- B5 depend upon expression of by immunocompetent cells of TLR2. Thus, LT-IIb(T13I) and LT-IIb-B5 utilize independent immunostimulatory mechanisms...
  49. Ashok Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The recent discovery presented in the preliminary data revealed that the retina responds to the TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys by producing the mediators of innate immunity, and that intravitreal injection of Pam3Cys, prior to ..
  50. Opioid Abuse, opportunistic infection and NeuroAIDS
    Sabita Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pneumoniae. To test our hypothesis we will in Specific Aim 1: Determine the role of Toll like receptor (TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9) activation on glial cells as a potential mechanism for the synergistic induction in proinflammatory ..
  51. The role of innate immunity in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
    Philip M Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE)...
  52. Role of Borrelia Integrin binding proteins in Lyme arthritis
    Linden T Hu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Interestingly, the most widely studied receptor for borrelial products, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is not strictly required for the development of arthritis and release of cytokines and chemokines...
  53. Genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer in Latin America
    Eduardo M Tarazona-Santos; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The main goal of this proposal is to test the hypothesis that host genetic variants in TLR2, COX2, IL1B, ILRB, IL8 and IL8RA which are key components of the immune response against H...
  54. Frank C Nichols; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..mediate their effects on bone through engagement of the innate immune system, specifically through Toll Receptor 2 (TLR2) engagement...
  55. Early inflammatory responses to high saturated fat diet
    Christina Camell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of cell types are activated by treatment with saturated fatty-acids and this response is mediated through TLR4 and TLR2. Three days of HSF diet results in neutrophil infiltration of murine adipose tissues, and a single meal induces ..
  56. Phase I: Safety and Tolerance of Lactobactocillus reuteri in Adults
    Jon Marc Rhoads; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..levels of a cytokine panel in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after stimulation by PMA plus ionomycin;TLR2 and TLR4 expression in human PBMC;number of Treg cells in human PBMC;and fecal calprotectin assay...
  57. Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling in islet transplantation
    Bernd Schroppel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In a syngeneic transplant model we will i) directly assess the role of TLR2 on islet cell survival following prolonged culture;ii) test the relevance of TLR2 expression on parenchymal or bone ..
  58. Effects of Allergic Inflammation on TLR2 Signaling and Mycoplasma Infection
    HONG W CHU; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and human primary airway epithelial cell cultures have demonstrated that: 1) Mp activates Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling pathway in mouse lungs including airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs), and human primary ..
  59. Recognition of Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria By Oral Epithelium
    Dana T Graves; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of Aim 2 is to identify differential induction of signalling complexes by identifying molecules that associate with TLR2 on bacterial stimulation. The approach will use immunoaffinity minicolumns and mass-spectroscopy...
  60. Role of Endosomal Localization in Toll-like receptor 2 Responses to Borrelia
    Linden T Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a major family of innate pattern recognition receptors. TLR2 recognizes components of bacterial, fungal and viral products including lipoproteins, atypical lipopolysaccarides, ?..
  61. The Role of B Cells and B Cell Toll-like Receptors in Periodontal Disease
    Barbara Nikolajczyk; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Functional analyses demonstrate that B cell TLR2 and TLR4 activation generally results in production of pro- inflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokines...
  62. LH ACTION IN OVARIAN CELL DIFFERENTIATION
    JoAnne S Richards; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specific genes that comprise the innate-immune cell surveillance response system, including the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 and components of this system (C1q, Cd14, and Pdcd1) uniquely expressed in cumulus cells...
  63. JAN S POTEMPA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..While, fimbriae FimA/ Pg LPS targets TLR2, gingipains (RgpA, RgpB) signal through PAR-2. Both the receptors are expressed by human dendritic cells...
  64. A novel role for the TLR signaling adaptor TRAM
    Michael T Berton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, TLR2, and not TLR4, is required for recognition and control of F. tularensis and L. monocytogenes infections in mice...
  65. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK
    Timothy R Billiar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TLR4 and TLR9 are required for the activation of inflammatory signaling, while TLR2 and TLR4 are markedly unregulated and can induce an exaggerated inflammatory response if triggered by microbial ..
  66. Massimo Attanasio; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..performed in my laboratory have unexpectedly revealed that loss of Glis2 results in over expression of Toll like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and other components of the pro-inflammatory TLR/NF- ?B pathway in kidney epithelial cells and in ..
  67. Hajime Sasaki; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Our preliminary studies showed that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/Interleukin-10 (IL-10) double deficient (dKO) mouse infected with common endodontic pathogens exhibits an acute ..
  68. Innate Immunity in Otitis Media Pathogenesis
    David J Lim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our overall hypotheses are: a) NOD2- and TLR2-mediated activation of NF-:B is required for NTHi- induced 2-defensin 2 up-regulation and contributes to NTHi ..
  69. Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..cycle of this grant has identified two novel signaling mechanisms in DCs that induce T regulatory responses: (i) TLR2 mediated activation of ERK MAP kinase which mediates the production of anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 ..
  70. LEE MARK WETZLER; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..presenting cells was directly due to an interaction with the pattern recognition receptor, TOLL-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and requires the TLR adaptor protein MyD88...
  71. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..through the Toll-4 receptor (TLR4), while peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus, and zymosan, signal through TLR2. Third, different microbial stimuli differentially activate DCs to elicit distinct classes of immune responses...
  72. CHRISTINA A FISKE; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Emerging evidence suggests that pathogen recognition receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs), specifically TLR2, and vitamin D play a major role in the immune response to M. tuberculosis...
  73. Jatin M Vyas; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..fumigatus and collaborates with TLR2 and TLR4 in providing critical immune signals that coordinate cytokine secretion and development of the adaptive ..
  74. Jeffrey R Capadona; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Specifically, in cooperation with CD14, both TLR2 and TLR4 have also been shown to become reactive towards serum proteins and necrotic cells...
  75. ROBERT GERD SALOMON; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..measures by testing the hypotheses that: (1) carboxyethyl- or carboxy propyl-pyrrole-promoted angiogenesis via TLR2 receptors on endothelial cells contributes to choroidal neovascularization ("wet AMD"), and that anti-CEP Fab or ..
  76. NEUTROPHIL ACTIVATION IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY
    Edward Abraham; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PI3-K, Akt, and NF-kappaB in neutrophils and participate in the development of ALI after hemorrhage or exposure to TLR2 and TLR4 ligands...
  77. Cagla Tukel; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..within the biofilms of enteric bacteria, is recognized by the innate immune system through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 complex. E. coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) was isolated by the army surgeon Dr...
  78. Rational design of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine to prevent asthma
    Fernando P Polack; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2. Determine whether RSV F vaccines decrease inception of asthma by expanding nTregs through Tlr2 activation and downregulation of Tlr4 expression in respiratory epithelium. Aim 3...
  79. Paul L Bollyky; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..LMW-HA is a Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand;LMW-HA may negatively regulate Treg function at sites of sterile inflammation in the same way ..
  80. Vaccine responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi OspA
    Richard Flavell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important for the initiation of immune responses to pathogens and TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins, including OspA...
  81. Role of Toll-like receptors in Coxiella burnetii infection
    Mark A Jutila; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..burnetii infection. In preliminary studies we have detected differences in bacterial clearance in TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 (Key inflammatory signaling molecule for TLRs 2&4) deficient animals following pulmonary ..
  82. The Microbiome Drives Mast Cell Recruitment in the Skin
    Anna Di Nardo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that TLR2 microbiome products have a unique role in MC recruitment at the outside skin interface and define the environment ..
  83. SHANNON MARGARET WALLET; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Indeed, our preliminary data demonstrates that both human and murine oral epithelial cells respond to TLR2 stimulation in a tolerogenic manner while TLR4 stimulation induces a pro- inflammatory phenotype...
  84. Protection from enteric pathogens by beneficial microbes
    Katherine L Knight; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is deficient in flagellin, a ligand for TLR5, and another is deficient in exopolysaccharide, presumed ligand for TLR2, and in Aim 2 we will use TLR agonists and TLR knockout mice to determine if protection is mediated through TLR...
  85. Alexander S Krupnick; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In the third aim we will characterize how clinically relevant innate immune stimulation through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) prevents CD8+ T cell-mediated lung allograft acceptance.
  86. The Role of Inflammation in Ischemic Organ Injury
    Dianne B McKay; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The study examines the role of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signals in a murine model of renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury...
  87. George Y Liu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..faecalis). We will determine the size of their hyaluronan degradation products and the effect of these products on TLR2, TLR4, and Myd88 signaling...
  88. JONATHAN MICHEAL SPERGEL; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..damage-associated molecular patterns, or DAMPs) can induce the expression of IL-8, ICAM-1, and RANTES through TLR2 and TLR3-dependent signal transduction pathways in the absence of pathogenic stimulation...
  89. Regulation of Inflammation by EGFR in Otitis Media
    Xiangbin Xu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our previous studies showed that Toll- like receptor (TLR2) plays a key role in mediating NTHi-induced inflammatory response;however, blocking TLR2 signaling may result in ..
  90. Role of Spiral Ligament Fibrocytes in Inner Ear Inflammation
    Sung K Moon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Interestingly, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a significant role in recognizing NTHI molecules in the epithelial cells even though it is a Gram-negative ..
  91. TLR Signaling in CD8 T Cell Response to Vaccinia Virus
    Yiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that innate immune recognition of VV is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dependent on MyD88 (a common adaptor for TLR signaling) and that the activation of TLR2-MyD88 pathway is ..