TK1

Summary

Gene Symbol: TK1
Description: thymidine kinase 1
Alias: TK2, thymidine kinase, cytosolic, thymidine kinase 1 soluble isoform
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi [Lipoprotein lipase and serum thymidine kinase level in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and their correlations with other prognostic factors]
    Wei Xu
    Department of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing 210029, China
    Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 30:8-12. 2009
  2. doi A novel G-quadruplex motif modulates promoter activity of human thymidine kinase 1
    Richa Basundra
    Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, CSIR, Delhi, India
    FEBS J 277:4254-64. 2010
  3. doi Tumor 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) uptake by PET correlates with thymidine kinase 1 expression: static and kinetic analysis of (18)F-FLT PET studies in lung tumors
    J Scott Brockenbrough
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195 7115, USA
    J Nucl Med 52:1181-8. 2011
  4. pmc Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1)
    D Y Huang
    Institute of Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, No 1 Section 1 Jen Ai Road, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Biochem J 356:829-34. 2001
  5. ncbi The modulation of radiation-induced cell death by genistein in K562 cells: activation of thymidine kinase 1
    Min Ho Jeong
    Research Supporting Center for Medical Science BK21 program, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
    Cell Res 14:295-302. 2004
  6. ncbi Hiding human thymidine kinase 1 from APC/C-mediated destruction by thymidine binding
    Po Yuan Ke
    Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    FASEB J 21:1276-84. 2007
  7. doi High thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) expression is a predictor of poor survival in patients with pT1 of lung adenocarcinoma
    Yan Xu
    Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, 305 Zhongshangdong Road, Nanjing, 210002, Jiangsu Province, China
    Tumour Biol 33:475-83. 2012
  8. ncbi Mutation analysis in the coding sequence of thymidine kinase 1 in breast and colorectal cancer
    S I Gilles
    Laboratoire de Transfert d Oncologie Biologique, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
    Int J Biol Markers 18:1-6. 2003
  9. pmc Elevated levels of thymidine kinase 1 peptide in serum from patients with breast cancer
    Lena Carlsson
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
    Ups J Med Sci 114:116-20. 2009
  10. doi The proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 level is high in normal kidney tubule cells compared to other normal and malignant renal cells
    Pengcheng Luo
    Department of Nephrology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
    Pathol Oncol Res 16:277-83. 2010

Detail Information

Publications199 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi [Lipoprotein lipase and serum thymidine kinase level in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and their correlations with other prognostic factors]
    Wei Xu
    Department of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing 210029, China
    Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 30:8-12. 2009
    ..To investigate lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and serum thymidine kinase (TK) levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and their correlations with other prognostic factors...
  2. doi A novel G-quadruplex motif modulates promoter activity of human thymidine kinase 1
    Richa Basundra
    Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, CSIR, Delhi, India
    FEBS J 277:4254-64. 2010
    ..a characteristic potential G-quadruplex-forming sequence element within the promoter of human thymidine kinase 1 (TK1)...
  3. doi Tumor 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) uptake by PET correlates with thymidine kinase 1 expression: static and kinetic analysis of (18)F-FLT PET studies in lung tumors
    J Scott Brockenbrough
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195 7115, USA
    J Nucl Med 52:1181-8. 2011
    ..parameters of 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET and the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67, and the protein expression and enzymatic activity of thymidine kinase-1 (TK1) in surgically resected lung lesions.
  4. pmc Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1)
    D Y Huang
    Institute of Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, No 1 Section 1 Jen Ai Road, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Biochem J 356:829-34. 2001
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that human cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) polypeptide can form a complex with p21(Waf1)...
  5. ncbi The modulation of radiation-induced cell death by genistein in K562 cells: activation of thymidine kinase 1
    Min Ho Jeong
    Research Supporting Center for Medical Science BK21 program, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
    Cell Res 14:295-302. 2004
    ..We identified human thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), which is cell cycle regulatory gene and confirmed expression of TK1 mRNA by Northern blot analysis...
  6. ncbi Hiding human thymidine kinase 1 from APC/C-mediated destruction by thymidine binding
    Po Yuan Ke
    Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    FASEB J 21:1276-84. 2007
    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a key cytosolic enzyme in the salvage pathway for dTTP synthesis. In mitotic exit, human TK1 (hTK1) is degraded via the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1 pathway to limit dTTP production...
  7. doi High thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) expression is a predictor of poor survival in patients with pT1 of lung adenocarcinoma
    Yan Xu
    Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, 305 Zhongshangdong Road, Nanjing, 210002, Jiangsu Province, China
    Tumour Biol 33:475-83. 2012
    In this study, we explore the association of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) expression in tumour tissues with clinical pathological parameters and prognosis in patients with pathological T1 (pT1) lung adenocarcinoma...
  8. ncbi Mutation analysis in the coding sequence of thymidine kinase 1 in breast and colorectal cancer
    S I Gilles
    Laboratoire de Transfert d Oncologie Biologique, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
    Int J Biol Markers 18:1-6. 2003
    We report the first mutational study of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) performed in human solid tumors. We sequenced cDNAs representing the complete coding region of TK1 in human breast (n=22) and colorectal (n=26) cancer...
  9. pmc Elevated levels of thymidine kinase 1 peptide in serum from patients with breast cancer
    Lena Carlsson
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
    Ups J Med Sci 114:116-20. 2009
    ..These assays are difficult to adapt to random access instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new immunological sandwich assay for detection of TK peptides in serum from breast cancer patients...
  10. doi The proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 level is high in normal kidney tubule cells compared to other normal and malignant renal cells
    Pengcheng Luo
    Department of Nephrology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
    Pathol Oncol Res 16:277-83. 2010
    The activity of the proliferation related enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) was reported to be 3-fold higher in extracts from normal kidney tissue as compare to renal carcinoma extracts [3]...
  11. pmc Mass action models versus the Hill model: an analysis of tetrameric human thymidine kinase 1 positive cooperativity
    Tomas Radivoyevitch
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Biol Direct 4:49. 2009
    ..In contrast, models based on the equilibrium concept of mass action can suggest mechanisms of cooperativity, but there are often many such models and often many with too many parameters...
  12. doi Serum thymidine kinase 1 concentration as a prognostic factor of chemotherapy-treated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients
    Zhu Lin Pan
    Department No 411, PLA Hospital, Shanghai, 200081, China
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 136:1193-9. 2010
    ..This study was performed to examine possible use of thymidine kinase 1 concentration in serum (STK1) for prognosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients following chemotherapy treatment...
  13. doi Serum thymidine kinase 1 correlates to clinical stages and clinical reactions and monitors the outcome of therapy of 1,247 cancer patients in routine clinical settings
    Yan Chen
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research, Fujian Cancer Hospital of Fujian Medical University Teaching Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian 350014, China
    Int J Clin Oncol 15:359-68. 2010
    ..Thymidine kinase 1 in serum (STK1) has been found to be a reliable proliferation marker in clinical trials. In this study, we examined the significance of STK1 in routine clinical settings...
  14. doi Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a prognostic factor in oesophageal, cardial and lung carcinomas
    Zhishan Li
    Department of Thoracic Surgery Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, PR China
    Eur J Cancer Prev 19:313-8. 2010
    ..Our results show that STK1 is a useful marker for prognosis in patients with oesophageal, cardial and lung carcinomas...
  15. ncbi Elevated serum thymidine kinase 1 predicts risk of pre/early cancerous progression
    Shouqing Huang
    Healthy Centre of the Affiliated Second Hospital, Fujian Chinese Tradition Medicine University, Fuzhu, China
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 12:497-505. 2011
    ..Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) is a reliable proliferation marker for prognosis, monitoring tumour therapy, relapse and detection of malignancies. In this study we investigate the use of STK1 in health screening...
  16. ncbi Diverging substrate specificity of pure human thymidine kinases 1 and 2 against antiviral dideoxynucleosides
    B Munch-Petersen
    Department of Biochemistry I, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 266:9032-8. 1991
    The two thymidine (dThd) kinases in human cells, the cytosolic, S-phase-specific TK1 and the mitochondrial, constitutively expressed TK2 were purified to homogeneity as judged from sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis...
  17. ncbi Human cytosolic thymidine kinase. Purification and physical characterization of the enzyme from HeLa cells
    J L Sherley
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205
    J Biol Chem 263:375-82. 1988
    ..3) Mouse LTK- cells transformed with this clone express a cytosolic thymidine kinase activity, as well as a novel Mr = 24,000 polypeptide detectable with immune serum raised against the purified human enzyme...
  18. ncbi Valine, not methionine, is amino acid 106 in human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1). Impact on oligomerization, stability, and kinetic properties
    D Berenstein
    Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 275:32187-92. 2000
    Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) cDNA from human lymphocytes was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized with respect to the ATP effect on thymidine affinity and oligomerization...
  19. ncbi Clinical value of thymidine kinase in patients with cervical carcinoma
    R Fujiwaki
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shimane Medical University, Izumo, Japan
    Oncology 61:47-54. 2001
    ..Our purpose was to determine the clinical value of thymidine kinase (TK), which is an important pyrimidine pathway enzyme involved in salvage DNA synthesis, in patients with cervical carcinoma...
  20. ncbi Perturbation of ATP-induced tetramerization of human cytosolic thymidine kinase by substitution of serine-13 with aspartic acid at the mitotic phosphorylation site
    Chia Lung Li
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1 Jen Ai Road First Section, Taipei, Taiwan ROC
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 313:587-93. 2004
    Human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) is tightly regulated in the cell cycle by multiple mechanisms...
  21. pmc Mitotic degradation of human thymidine kinase 1 is dependent on the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-CDH1-mediated pathway
    Po Yuan Ke
    Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No 1, Section 1 Jen Ai Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Mol Cell Biol 24:514-26. 2004
    ....
  22. ncbi Effect of valine 106 on structure-function relation of cytosolic human thymidine kinase. Kinetic properties and oligomerization pattern of nine substitution mutants of V106
    Hanne Frederiksen
    Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
    Eur J Biochem 271:2248-56. 2004
    ..of amino acid 106 on the enzymatic properties of the cell-cycle-regulated human cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is investigated...
  23. pmc Structures of thymidine kinase 1 of human and mycoplasmic origin
    Martin Welin
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17970-5. 2004
    Cytosolic thymidine kinase 1, TK1, is a well known cell-cycle-regulated enzyme of importance in nucleotide metabolism as well as an activator of antiviral and anticancer drugs such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)...
  24. doi Thymidine kinase 1 is a potential marker for prognosis and monitoring the response to treatment of patients with breast, lung, and esophageal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
    E He
    Sino Swed Molecular Bio Medicine Research Institute, Shenzhen, China
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29:352-8. 2010
    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is converting thymidine to thymidine monophosphate, and is related to DNA replication and cell proliferation. The use of the TK1 protein levels as a proliferation marker in malignancies is here summarized...
  25. pmc Regulation and functional contribution of thymidine kinase 1 in repair of DNA damage
    Yen Ling Chen
    Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen Ai Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan
    J Biol Chem 285:27327-35. 2010
    ..Here we investigated the regulation of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) in response to DNA damage and found that genotoxic insults in tumor cells cause up-regulation and nuclear ..
  26. ncbi 2', 3'-Dideoxycytidine represses thymidine kinases 1 and 2 expression in T-lymphoid cells
    Tieran Han
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine M862, P O Box 019132, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
    Life Sci 74:835-42. 2004
    ..To explore molecular mechanisms of the reduced TK activity in H9-ddC cells, the mRNA expression of TK1 and TK2 and western blot analysis of TK1 protein were performed...
  27. pmc Binding of ATP to TK1-like enzymes is associated with a conformational change in the quaternary structure
    Dario Segura-Peña
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, 900 South Ashland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
    J Mol Biol 369:129-41. 2007
    ..Though ATP is known to be the preferred phosphoryl donor for TK1-like enzymes, its exact binding mode and effect on the oligomeric state has not been analyzed...
  28. doi Reversible tetramerization of human TK1 to the high catalytic efficient form is induced by pyrophosphate, in addition to tripolyphosphates, or high enzyme concentration
    Birgitte Munch-Petersen
    Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, Denmark
    FEBS J 276:571-80. 2009
    Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide metabolism, catalyzing the first step in the synthesis of dTTP by transfer of a gamma-phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate to the 5'-hydroxyl ..
  29. ncbi Mitochondrial thymidine kinase and the enzymatic network regulating thymidine triphosphate pools in cultured human cells
    Chiara Rampazzo
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58B, Padova I 35131, Italy
    J Biol Chem 282:34758-69. 2007
    In non-proliferating cells mitochondrial (mt) thymidine kinase (TK2) salvages thymidine derived from the extracellular milieu for the synthesis of mt dTTP...
  30. ncbi Structure of the substrate complex of thymidine kinase from Ureaplasma urealyticum and investigations of possible drug targets for the enzyme
    Urszula Kosinska
    Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala Biomedical Centre, Sweden
    FEBS J 272:6365-72. 2005
    ..were investigated and are discussed in the light of the substrate binding pocket, in comparison with human TK1. Kinetic differences between Uu-TK and human TK1 were observed that may be explained by structural differences...
  31. ncbi Evaluation of pyrimidine metabolising enzymes and in vitro uptake of 3'-[(18)F]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ([(18)F]FLT) in pancreatic cancer cell lines
    Ulrike Seitz
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Ulm, Robert Koch Strasse 8, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 29:1174-81. 2002
    ..Thus, we propose [(18)F]FLT as a promising tracer for positron emission tomography that might overcome current limitations in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer...
  32. ncbi A non-radiometric method for measuring serum thymidine kinase activity in malignant lymphoma in dogs
    Henrik P von Euler
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, P O Box 7037, S 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
    Res Vet Sci 80:17-24. 2006
    ..The TK-ELISA assay, because of its relative simplicity, will permit measurement of TK in cases of ML in dogs to become a routine procedure...
  33. doi Unchanged thymidine triphosphate pools and thymidine metabolism in two lines of thymidine kinase 2-mutated fibroblasts
    Miriam Frangini
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy
    FEBS J 276:1104-13. 2009
    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine in mitochondria...
  34. ncbi Validation of FLT uptake as a measure of thymidine kinase-1 activity in A549 carcinoma cells
    Janet S Rasey
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Nucl Med 43:1210-7. 2002
    ..We tested the accuracy with which FLT uptake predicted the activity of cytosolic thymidine kinase-1 (TK(1)), an enzyme that is upregulated before and during DNA synthesis...
  35. ncbi Deoxyribonucleoside kinases belonging to the thymidine kinase 2 (TK2)-like group vary significantly in substrate specificity, kinetics and feed-back regulation
    Wolfgang Knecht
    Section of Molecular Microbiology, BioCentrum DTU, Building 301, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK 2800, Denmark
    J Mol Biol 315:529-40. 2002
    ..deoxyribonucleoside kinases belonging to three phylogenetic sub-families have been found: (i) thymidine kinase 1 (TK1)-like enzymes, which are strictly pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside-specific kinases; (ii) TK2-like enzymes, which ..
  36. ncbi Concentration of thymidine kinase 1 in serum (S-TK1) is a more sensitive proliferation marker in human solid tumors than its activity
    Qimin He
    Department of Oncology Clinic Research Laboratory, KFC, Floor 5, Karolinska University Hospital, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Oncol Rep 14:1013-9. 2005
    ..We investigate thymidine kinase 1 concentration in serum (S-TK1) as a potential tumor marker...
  37. doi Thymidine kinase 1 expression in atypical ductal hyperplasia significantly differs from usual ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ: A useful tool in tumor therapy management
    Hong Guan
    Department of Pathology, Shenzhen Second Hospital, Shenzhen, P R China
    Mol Med Rep 2:923-9. 2009
    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of DNA precursors...
  38. ncbi Effect of p53 activation on cell growth, thymidine kinase-1 activity, and 3'-deoxy-3'fluorothymidine uptake
    Jeffrey L Schwartz
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Box 356069, Seattle, WA 98195 6069, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 31:419-23. 2004
    ..We conclude that a functional p53 response is required to maintain the normal relationship between TK1 activity and S phase percentage following radiation exposure.
  39. ncbi Molecular insight into mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in two patients with novel mutations in the deoxyguanosine kinase and thymidine kinase 2 genes
    Liya Wang
    Department of Molecular Bioscience, Section of Veterinary Medical Biochemistry, SLU, The Biomedical Centre, P O Box 575, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Genet Metab 84:75-82. 2005
    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) are the two key enzymes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) precursor synthesis...
  40. doi Structure, physiological role, and specific inhibitors of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2): present and future
    María Jesús Pérez-Pérez
    Instituto de Química Médica, CSIC, E 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Med Res Rev 28:797-820. 2008
    Human mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside kinase (dNK) that catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyrimidine deoxynucleosides to their corresponding deoxynucleoside 5'-monophosphates by gamma-phosphoryl ..
  41. ncbi Monitoring therapy in canine malignant lymphoma and leukemia with serum thymidine kinase 1 activity--evaluation of a new, fully automated non-radiometric assay
    Henrik P von Euler
    Center of Clinical Comparative Oncology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
    Int J Oncol 34:505-10. 2009
    ..9203x+1.3854 (R2=0.9501). The TK1 levels measured during chemotherapy gave very clear differences between dogs in complete remission and dogs out of ..
  42. doi Induction of thymidine kinase 1 after 5-fluorouracil as a mechanism for 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine flare
    Seung Jin Lee
    Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, Asanbyeongwon gil 86, Songpa Gu, Seoul 138 736, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Pharmacol 80:1528-36. 2010
    ..We investigated the induction of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment as one of mechanisms for [(18)F]FLT flare...
  43. pmc The kinetic effects on thymidine kinase 2 by enzyme-bound dTTP may explain the mitochondrial side effects of antiviral thymidine analogs
    Liya Wang
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Section of Veterinary Medical Biochemistry, SLU, The Biomedical Centre, P O Box 575, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:2552-8. 2011
    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a key enzyme in the salvage of pyrimidine deoxynucleosides needed for mitochondrial DNA synthesis...
  44. ncbi Assignment of TK1 encoding thymidine kinase to Syrian hamster chromosome 9 by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer
    K Islam
    Department of Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 66:177-80. 1994
    We report here the assignment of TK1, the gene for thymidine kinase to Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) chromosome 9 (MAU9) by complementation mapping...
  45. doi Thymidine kinase 2 defects can cause multi-tissue mtDNA depletion syndrome
    Alexandra Götz
    Research Programme of Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Brain 131:2841-50. 2008
    ..Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) has been reported to cause a myopathic form of MDS...
  46. doi Targeted impairment of thymidine kinase 2 expression in cells induces mitochondrial DNA depletion and reveals molecular mechanisms of compensation of mitochondrial respiratory activity
    Joan Villarroya
    Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari de la Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Institut de Recerca l Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 407:333-8. 2011
    ..the first in vitro model to study of mtDNA depletion due to reduced mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 gene (TK2) expression in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in mtDNA depletion syndrome due to TK2 ..
  47. ncbi Treatment of progressive or recurrent pediatric malignant supratentorial brain tumors with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene vector-producer cells followed by intravenous ganciclovir administration
    R J Packer
    Department of Neurology, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    J Neurosurg 92:249-54. 2000
    ..The goal of this Phase I study was to evaluate the safety of in vivo suicide gene therapy in 12 children with recurrent, malignant, supratentorial brain tumors...
  48. doi Comparison of conventional and novel PET tracers for imaging mesothelioma in nude mice with subcutaneous and intrapleural xenografts
    Atsushi B Tsuji
    Diagnostic Imaging Group, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263 8555, Japan
    Nucl Med Biol 36:379-88. 2009
    ..We have established clinically relevant mouse models and evaluated conventional and novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers...
  49. ncbi The clinical significance of thymidine kinase 1 measurement in serum of breast cancer patients using anti-TK1 antibody
    Q He
    Department of Oncology and Pathology, Medical Radiobiology Section, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Biol Markers 15:139-46. 2000
    ..of this study was to develop a new, antibody-based technique for the measurement of cytoplasmic thymidine kinase (TK1) in serum. Both mono- and polyclonal antibodies against S-TK1 were used in dot blot assay...
  50. pmc Cloning and characterization of full-length mouse thymidine kinase 2: the N-terminal sequence directs import of the precursor protein into mitochondria
    L Wang
    Department of Veterinary Medical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, P O Box 575, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Biochem J 351:469-76. 2000
    The subcellular localization of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) has been questioned, since no mitochondrial targeting sequences have been found in cloned human TK2 cDNAs...
  51. ncbi A simple quantitative assay for the activity of thymidine kinase 1 in solid tumors
    J Scott Brockenbrough
    Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 356113, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 34:619-23. 2007
    The activity of the pyrimidine salvage pathway enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is tightly cell cycle regulated and has been investigated as a prognostic indicator of cancer in a variety of tissues...
  52. pmc Tracking cellular stress with labeled FMAU reflects changes in mitochondrial TK2
    Omid S Tehrani
    Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, 4 HWCRC, Detroit, MI 48201 2013, USA
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:1480-8. 2008
    ..Proliferating tissues with high thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) activity retain FLT; however, the mechanism of selective accumulation of FMAU in tumors and certain other tissues ..
  53. doi Serum thymidine kinase 1 concentration in Chinese patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its correlation with other prognostic factors
    Wei Xu
    Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, China
    Int J Hematol 90:205-11. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the serum thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) concentration in Chinese patients with CLL and its correlation with well-established other prognostic factors...
  54. doi Serum thymidine kinase 1 activity in breast cancer
    Benjamin Nisman
    Department of Oncology, Hadassah and Hebrew University Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel
    Cancer Biomark 7:65-72. 2010
    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis and an important proliferation marker...
  55. ncbi Kinetic properties of mutant human thymidine kinase 2 suggest a mechanism for mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy
    Liya Wang
    Department of Veterinary Medical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, P O Box 575, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:6963-8. 2003
    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial (mt) pyrimidine deoxynucleoside salvage enzyme involved in mtDNA precursor synthesis. The full-length human TK2 cDNA was cloned and sequenced...
  56. pmc Plant thymidine kinase 1: a novel efficient suicide gene for malignant glioma therapy
    Zahidul Khan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Molecular Medicine, KarolinskaUniversity Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuro Oncol 12:549-58. 2010
    ..We report here the cloning and successful application of a novel thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) from the tomato plant, with favorable characteristics in vitro and in vivo...
  57. doi Serum thymidine kinase 1 reflects the progression of pre-malignant and malignant tumors during therapy
    Xiao hong Xu
    Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang, P R China
    Mol Med Report 1:705-11. 2008
    ..For example, it could be used for the evaluation of early tumor progression or of tumor progression during therapy in routine clinical settings, as well as for the screening of healthy individuals...
  58. ncbi Loss of P53 heterozygosity is not responsible for the small colony thymidine kinase mutant phenotype in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells
    L Scott Clark
    University of North Carolina Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Mutagenesis 19:263-8. 2004
    ..colony thymidine kinase (Tk) mutant phenotype may be due to a newly induced mutation/deletion in both the Trp53 and Tk1 alleles...
  59. pmc Microarray analysis of mercury-induced changes in gene expression in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells: importance in immune responses
    Wellington K Ayensu
    Cellomics and Toxicogenomics Research Laboratory, NIH RCMI Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 39217, USA Email
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 3:141-73. 2006
    ..in hematopoietin/interferon-class (D200- domain) cytokine receptor activity and thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial TK2 HGNC and related genes...
  60. ncbi Analysis of thymidine kinase gene expression in preimplantation mouse embryos
    D K Lee
    Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea
    Mol Reprod Dev 39:259-67. 1994
    ..4 kb) linked to bacterial lacZ gene (TK2.5lacZ) into the pronucleus of 1-cell and subsequently by histochemical staining with X-gal...
  61. ncbi Proliferation markers for the differential diagnosis of tumor and inflammation
    Aren van Waarde
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
    Curr Pharm Des 14:3326-339. 2008
    ....
  62. ncbi Novel deoxynucleoside-phosphorylating enzymes in mycoplasmas: evidence for efficient utilization of deoxynucleosides
    L Wang
    Department of Veterinary Medical Chemistry, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Microbiol 42:1065-73. 2001
    ..genome; one showed 25% sequence identity to human dGK and the other one had about 26% sequence identity to human TK1. The M. mymySC dGK-like enzyme was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and affinity-purified...
  63. ncbi R5020 and RU486 act as progesterone receptor agonists to enhance Sp1/Sp4-dependent gene transcription by an indirect mechanism
    Aymen Shatnawi
    Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Medical University of Ohio at Toledo, 3035 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43614, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 21:635-50. 2007
    ....
  64. ncbi Substrate/inhibitor specificities of human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinases (TK1 and TK2)
    B Kierdaszuk
    University of Warsaw, Department of Biophysics, Poland
    Adv Exp Med Biol 431:623-7. 1998
    ..with modified sugar moieties toward highly purified deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinases (TK1 and TK2) from human leukemic spleen have been examined...
  65. doi Antimigratory effect of TK1-2 is mediated in part by interfering with integrin alpha2beta1
    Hyun Kyung Kim
    Cancer Research Institute and Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Banpo dong 505, Seocho Ku, Seoul 137 701, Korea
    Mol Cancer Ther 7:2133-41. 2008
    The recombinant two kringle domain of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (TK1-2) has been shown to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell growth despite of sharing a low amino acid sequence homology ..
  66. ncbi Cytosolic thymidine kinase is a specific histopathologic tumour marker for breast carcinomas
    Qimin He
    Department of Oncology Clinical Research Laboratory, Novum, KFC, Karolinska University Hospital, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Oncol 25:945-53. 2004
    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of precursors for DNA, and thus proliferation dependent, has been suggested as a good tumour marker...
  67. pmc Thymidine kinase 1 as a molecular target for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors
    Rolf F Barth
    Department of Pathology, Division of Biostatistics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17493-7. 2008
    ..Target validation was established using the thymidine kinase (TK) 1(+) wild-type, murine L929 cell line and its TK1(-) mutant counterpart, which were implanted s.c. (s.c.) into nude mice. Two intratumoral (i.t...
  68. doi Serum thymidine kinase 1 activity in solid tumor (breast and colorectal cancer) patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy
    M Bolayirli
    Central Biochemistry Laboratory, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
    J Clin Lab Anal 27:220-6. 2013
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changing of TK1 (where TK is thymidine kinase) activity before and after adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast and colorectal cancer.
  69. ncbi [Hepatobiliary gammagraphy in the diagnosis of Dubin-Johnson syndrome in children]
    J Zimácek
    Oddelenie nukleárnej medicíny Fakultnej nemocnice s poliklinikou, Kosice
    Cesk Pediatr 45:197-202. 1990
    ..of the activity of series of blood samples they assessed the half-time of decline of the rapid (Tk1) and slow (Tk2) phase of the curve and the percentage of retention in blood during the 45th minute (R45)...
  70. ncbi Characterization of pig-mink cell hybrids: assignment of the TK1 and UMPH2 genes to pig chromosome 12
    N S Zhdanova
    Developmental Genetics Laboratory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Department, Novosibirsk
    Mamm Genome 5:781-4. 1994
    ..With a set of subclones of two primary hybrid clones, the genes for thymidine kinase-1 (TK1) and uridine 5'-monophosphate hydrolase-2 (UMPH2) were assigned to pig Chromosome (Chr) 12...
  71. ncbi Herpesvirus thymidine kinase transgenes that do not cause male sterility are aberrantly transcribed and translated in the testis
    A R Ellison
    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1442:28-38. 1998
    ..simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) thymidine kinase (tk) gene coupled to the bovine thyroglobulin (bTG) promoter (bTG-tk1 mice) express viral TK at a high level in the thyroid gland, and at an equally high level, ectopically, in the ..
  72. ncbi Substrate/inhibitor properties of human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinases (TK1 and TK2) towards the sugar moiety of nucleosides, including O'-alkyl analogues
    B Kierdaszuk
    University of Warsaw, Department of Biophysics, Poland
    Nucleosides Nucleotides 18:1883-903. 1999
    ..towards highly purified deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinases (tetrameric high-affinity form of TK1, and TK2) from human leukemic spleen...
  73. ncbi Activity of cellular thymidine kinase 1 in PBMC of HIV-1-infected patients: novel therapy marker
    B Groschel
    Institute of Medical Virology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Infection 28:209-13. 2000
    Cellular cytoplasmatic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) catalyzes the intracellular phosphorylation of anti-HIV-1 nucleoside analogs zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) to the corresponding monophosphate form...
  74. ncbi Reversion of mtDNA depletion in a patient with TK2 deficiency
    M R Vila
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, NY, USA
    Neurology 60:1203-5. 2003
    Mutations in the thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) gene cause a myopathic form of the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS)...
  75. ncbi Activity profiles of deoxynucleoside kinases and 5'-nucleotidases in cultured adipocytes and myoblastic cells: insights into mitochondrial toxicity of nucleoside analogs
    Svetlana N Rylova
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, Section of Veterinary Medical Biochemistry, SLU, The Biomedical Center, P O Box 575, Uppsala SE 75123, Sweden
    Biochem Pharmacol 69:951-60. 2005
    ..3T3-L1 adipocytes showed similar activity of mitochondrial thymidine kinase-2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) but 3- to 36-fold lower levels of cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), thymidine ..
  76. ncbi Deoxyribonucleoside kinases: two enzyme families catalyze the same reaction
    Michael P B Sandrini
    Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 35, SE 22732 Lund, Sweden
    Trends Biochem Sci 30:225-8. 2005
    Mammals have four deoxyribonucleoside kinases, the cytoplasmic (TK1) and mitochondrial (TK2) thymidine kinases, and the deoxycytidine (dCK) and deoxyguanosine (dGK) kinases, which salvage the precursors for nucleic acids synthesis...
  77. ncbi Fatal neonatal-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain disease with T cell immunodeficiency
    Janine Reichenbach
    Department of General Paediatrics, JW Goethe University Frankfurt, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
    Pediatr Res 60:321-6. 2006
    ..MtDNA depletion was found by real-time PCR. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the TK2, SUCLA2, DGUOK, and ECGF1 genes. A heterozygous missense mutation was found in POLG1...
  78. ncbi Preparation and biological evaluation of 10B-enriched 3-[5-{2-(2,3-dihydroxyprop-1-yl)-o-carboran-1-yl}pentan-1-yl]thymidine (N5-2OH), a new boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors
    Youngjoo Byun
    Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    J Med Chem 49:5513-23. 2006
    ....
  79. ncbi A defect in the thymidine kinase 2 gene causing isolated mitochondrial myopathy without mtDNA depletion
    E Leshinsky-Silver
    Molecular Genetics Lab, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 12:309-13. 2008
    ..primary defects in mtDNA, in nuclear genes that control mtDNA abundance and structure such as thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), or due to CoQ deficiency...
  80. pmc Human inter-individual variability in metabolism and genotoxic response to zidovudine
    Ofelia A Olivero
    Carcinogen DNA Interactions Section, Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 4255, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 228:158-64. 2008
    ..Finally, when levels of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), the first enzyme in the pathway for incorporation of AZT into DNA, were determined by Western blot analysis in ..
  81. doi Substrate specificity of feline and canine herpesvirus thymidine kinase
    N Solaroli
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Antiviral Res 79:128-32. 2008
    ..TK1) in that TK1 does not phosphorylate BVDU and they also differ from mammalian mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), which, in addition to thymidine and thymidine analogs also phosphorylates dCyd...
  82. pmc Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome due to mutations in the RRM2B gene
    Belen Bornstein
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, CSIC UAM, CIBERER, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain
    Neuromuscul Disord 18:453-9. 2008
    ..with mutations in eight nuclear genes, including enzymes involved in mitochondrial nucleotide metabolism (POLG, TK2, DGUOK, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, PEO1) and MPV17...
  83. doi 5-Bromovinyl 2'-deoxyuridine phosphorylation by mitochondrial and cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK2 and TK1) and its use in selective measurement of TK2 activity in crude extracts
    Liya Wang
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Section of Veterinary Medical Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, Sweden
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 27:858-62. 2008
    ..at low levels complicating accurate determinations, especially in tissues with high cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) activity. Recently, 5-bromovinyl 2 '-deoxyuridine (BvdU) at 0...
  84. doi Rana grylio virus thymidine kinase gene: an early gene of iridovirus encoding for a cytoplasmic protein
    Zhe Zhao
    State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China
    Virus Genes 38:345-52. 2009
    ..currently sequenced iridoviruses, and phylogenetic analysis showed that it was much close to cellular TK type 2 (TK2), deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK)...
  85. ncbi Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) indicates an elevated risk for the development of malignant tumours
    Zhiheng Chen
    Healthy Centre of the Third XiangYa Hospital, Zhongnan University, Changsha, PR China
    Anticancer Res 28:3897-907. 2008
    ..The role of serum tumour markers is to reveal tumours not yet visible by imaging techniques. Here we examine the use of serum thymidine kinase 1 protein (STK1) in health screening...
  86. pmc Loss of thymidine kinase 2 alters neuronal bioenergetics and leads to neurodegeneration
    Stefano Bartesaghi
    MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 19:1669-77. 2010
    Mutations of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), an essential component of the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage pathway, can give rise to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes (MDS)...
  87. ncbi Immunohistochemical characterization of pyrimidine synthetic enzymes, thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase, in various types of cancer
    Michiko Shintani
    Laboratory of Pathology, Division of Medical Biophysics, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hyogo, Japan
    Oncol Rep 23:1345-50. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that administration of TAS-102 could be selected on the basis of the immunohistochemical evaluation of TK-1 and TS...
  88. doi Thymidine kinase 1 deficient cells show increased survival rate after UV-induced DNA damage
    T Skovgaard
    Department of Science Systems and Models, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29:347-51. 2010
    ..Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than TK1 positive cells although they have thymidine triphosphate (..
  89. pmc Determinants of individual variation in intracellular accumulation of anti-HIV nucleoside analog metabolites
    Elijah Paintsil
    Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:895-903. 2011
    ....
  90. doi SCA31 is rare in the Chinese population on Taiwan
    Yi Chung Lee
    Department of Neurology, National Yang Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
    Neurobiol Aging 33:426.e23-4. 2012
    ..recently been reported to be associated with a complex penta-nucleotide (TGGAA)n repeat insertion in the introns of TK2 and BEAN...
  91. pmc Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a biomarker for early detection of tumours--a health screening study on 35,365 people, using a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot assay
    Zhi Heng Chen
    Healthy Centre of Third XiangYa Hospital, Zhongnan University, Changsha 410013, China
    Sensors (Basel) 11:11064-80. 2011
    ..2-0.3%. We conclude that serological TK1 protein concentration is a reliable marker for risk assessment of pre/early cancerous progression.
  92. pmc Oxidative stress induced S-glutathionylation and proteolytic degradation of mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2
    Ren Sun
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, Box 575, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 287:24304-12. 2012
    ..Mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a key enzyme in mitochondrial DNA precursor synthesis...
  93. pmc Thymidine kinase 1 upregulation is an early event in breast tumor formation
    Melissa M Alegre
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
    J Oncol 2012:575647. 2012
    Prognostic markers play an important role in our understanding of tumors and how to treat them. Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), a proliferation marker involved in DNA repair, has been shown to have independent prognostic potential...
  94. ncbi Comparison of diagnostic and prognostic performance of two assays measuring thymidine kinase 1 activity in serum of breast cancer patients
    Benjamin Nisman
    Department of Oncology, Hadassah and Hebrew University Medical Centre, P O Box 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Clin Chem Lab Med 51:439-47. 2013
    We compared two recently developed immunoassays for serum thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) activity: one manual assay (DiviTum, Biovica(®)) and one fully automated assay (Liaison, Diasorin(®)).
  95. pmc Detection of differentially methylated gene promoters in failing and nonfailing human left ventricle myocardium using computation analysis
    Christopher A Koczor
    Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Physiol Genomics 45:597-605. 2013
    ..Computationally identified genes (AURKB, BTNL9, CLDN5, and TK1) define a central set of differentially methylated gene promoters that are important in classifying DCM...
  96. doi Molecular and clinical characterization of the myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome caused by mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK2) gene
    Sirisak Chanprasert
    Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mol Genet Metab 110:153-61. 2013
    ..To date, the myopathic form of MDS is mainly caused by mutations in the TK2 gene, which encodes thymidine kinase 2, the first and rate limiting step enzyme in the phosphorylation of ..
  97. doi Differential gene expression in human hepatocyte cell lines exposed to the antiretroviral agent zidovudine
    Jia Long Fang
    Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR, 72079, USA
    Arch Toxicol 88:609-23. 2014
    ..The expression of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) genes that regulate the metabolic activation and deactivation of AZT, ..
  98. doi The phylogenetic distribution and evolution of enzymes within the thymidine kinase 2-like gene family in metazoa
    Anke Konrad
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, 82071, USA
    J Mol Evol 78:202-16. 2014
    ..unexpectedly contain not only the multisubstrate dNKs, related to Drosophila multisubstrate dNK, but also a TK2-like kinase...
  99. pmc The contribution of mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis in preventing the nuclear genome stress
    Ming Hsiang Lee
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan R O C, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Center, S 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden and Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan R O C
    Nucleic Acids Res 42:4972-84. 2014
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that mitochondrial thymidylate synthesis via thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a limiting factor for the repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage in the nuclear compartment in quiescent fibroblasts...
  100. pmc Deoxypyrimidine monophosphate bypass therapy for thymidine kinase 2 deficiency
    Caterina Garone
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Human Genetics Joint PhD Program, University of Bologna and Turin, Turin, Italy
    EMBO Mol Med 6:1016-27. 2014
    Autosomal recessive mutations in the thymidine kinase 2 gene (TK2) cause mitochondrial DNA depletion, multiple deletions, or both due to loss of TK2 enzyme activity and ensuing unbalanced deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools...
  101. pmc Zidovudine induces downregulation of mitochondrial deoxynucleoside kinases: implications for mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs
    Ren Sun
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:6758-66. 2014
    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) catalyze the initial phosphorylation of deoxynucleosides in the synthesis of the DNA precursors required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and are essential ..

Research Grants25

  1. Acquired mtDNA depletion and nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitors
    William Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pyrimidine NRTIs compete with dThd for phosphorylation to monophosphates (-MP) by thymidine kinase (cytoplasmic TK1 and mitochondrial TK2 isoforms) and to diphosphates (-DP) by thymidylate kinase (TMPK)...
  2. CARDIOMYOPATHY IN AIDS
    William Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2;phosphorylates pyrimidines intramitochondrially) is evaluated with "dominant negative" mutant TGs...
  3. Arnon Lavie; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..To circumvent this, we will employ a modified version of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) as the source for the unique enzymatic activity...
  4. Molecular Determinants Affecting FLT-PET in Colorectal Cancer
    HENRY C MANNING; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..18F]-FLT is monophosphorylated in a reaction catalyzed by the cytosolic enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) which results in intracellular trapping and accumulation...
  5. Imaging Cellular Stress and Treatment Response Using Positron Emission Tomography
    ANTHONY FRANK SHIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This is in contrast to 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT), which is retained by thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) the cytosolic enzyme associated with normal DNA synthesis...
  6. Novel molecular imaging approaches to monitor gene and cell-based therapies
    Shahriar Yaghoubi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our new current PRG being developed is a point mutant (N44D) of the human thymidine kinase 2 (tk2) gene. L-[18F]FMAU and L- [18F]FEAU, two hTK2-N44D substrates, are our new PRPs...
  7. Boronated nucleosides for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors
    Werner Tjarks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of action of 3CTAs is primarily based on their ability to function as substrates of human thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), which is only active in proliferating cells...
  8. ZIDOVUDINE METABOLISM: REBRETRON TREATED HUMAN PATIENTS
    Jose Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, we will describe the effect of REBETRON in the progression of HCV disease (liver histology, HCV-RNA viral titers and ALT level) in HCV-HIV co-infected patients. ..
  9. Nucleoside analogs, mitochondria and AIDS cardiomyopathy
    William Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The TGs: (t) express HIV transactivator protein (Tat) or (2) over-express human TK2 (the mitochondrial thymidine kinase) to be used with HAART protocols...
  10. NUCLEAR IMAGING OF TUMORS--BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL BASIS
    Kenneth Krohn; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. PET Imaging of Breast Cancer via Sigma-2 Receptors
    Robert Mach; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. PET Imaging of Breast Cancer via Sigma-2 Receptors
    Robert Mach; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Radiation-Induced Mutagenesis and Apoptotic Regulation
    Amy Kronenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Over-expression of BCL-2 or BCL-X L increased x-ray-induced mutation at the autosomal TK1 locus in TK6 cells...
  14. DNA Methylation as an Epigenetic Host Factor in HIV/AIDS
    Jianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Labeled Thymidine -- Development as A PET Imaging Agent
    Anthony Shields; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..FLT is retained in cells primarily in its phosphorylated form by the action of thymidine kinase (TK1)...
  16. PET IMAGING OF DRUG KINETICS AND PATHWAYS
    Anthony Shields; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Our proposed study of [F-18]FAU with PET will provide information on the biodistribution of this new therapeutic agent and may provide a way to image tumor TS activity and proliferation. ..
  17. CLINICAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE
    Salvatore DiMauro; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  18. Pirfenidone in Children with PNs in NF1
    Roger Packer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Abstract Not Provided ..
  19. FLT PET to Plan the Best Therapy for Lung Cancer
    Hubert Vesselle; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..At the conclusion of this study, the insight gained in the response of stage III NSCLCs will allow clinicians to plan the best therapy for these patients. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. Lung Cancer Prognosis: FLT PET and DNA Hypermethylation
    Hubert Vesselle; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This prognostic information will permit individualization and optimization of therapy for the 41,000 early stage NSCLC patients undergoing surgical resection each year in the United States. ..
  21. MECHANISMS OF SELECTIVE ACTIONS OF ANTIVIRAL AGENTS
    Ram Agarwal; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These cells also had reduced thymidine kinase (TK) activity, TK2 mRNA, drug influx and nucleoside transport sites...
  22. DEVELOPMENT OF A LIVE ATTENUATED HSV-2 VACCINE
    Mark Prichard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition further in vitro characterization will enable high quality clinical trial material to be produced for IND enabling primate studies and early Phase I human trials. PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: Not Available ..
  23. Molecular Targeting of EGFR for the Treatment of Gliomas
    ROLF BARTH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..second generation drugs BPA and BSH, produce a significant improvement in survival following BNCT compared to that which we have obtained with BSH and BPA in combination, using the F98EGFR and F98EGFRVIII glioma models?" ..
  24. THE BIOLOGY OF LUNG CANCER-- FDG AND FLUOROTHYMIDINE PET
    Hubert Vesselle; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..By performing a biologic grading of resectable NSCLC with FDG PET, we will predict which patients will have a worse outcome. This information will allow individualized therapy. ..
  25. CHILDRENS NATIONAL MEDICAL CENTER
    Roger Packer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....