Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Tim 3
Description: hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2
Alias: CD366, HAVcr-2, KIM-3, TIM3, TIMD-3, TIMD3, Tim-3, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2, T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin family member 3, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 3, T-cell membrane protein 3, kidney injury molecule-3
Publications183 found, 100 shown here
- Age-related expansion of Tim-3 expressing T cells in vertically HIV-1 infected childrenRavi Tandon
Hawaii Center for AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
PLoS ONE 7:e45733. 2012..Targeting Tim-3 may serve as a novel therapeutic approach to improve immune control of virus replication and mitigate age related T cell exhaustion...
- Expression of human TIM-1 and TIM-3 on lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus patientsY Wang
Institute of Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China
Scand J Immunol 67:63-70. 2008..These data suggest that TIM-1 and TIM-3/TIM-3L are involved in the pathogenesis of SLE...
- Identification of Tapr (an airway hyperreactivity regulatory locus) and the linked Tim gene familyJ J McIntire
Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pediatrics and the Howard Hughes Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5208, USA
Nat Immunol 2:1109-16. 2001..The human homolog of TIM-1 is the hepatitis A virus (HAV) receptor, which may explain the inverse relationship between HAV infection and the development of atopy...
- Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune diseaseLaurent Monney
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 415:536-41. 2002..Tim-3 may have an important role in the induction of autoimmune diseases by regulating macrophage activation and/or function...
- Tim-3 inhibits T helper type 1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses and promotes immunological toleranceAlberto Sanchez-Fueyo
Division of Immunology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nat Immunol 4:1093-101. 2003..Our data indicate that the Tim-3 pathway provides an important mechanism to down-regulate T(H)1-dependent immune responses and to facilitate the development of immunological tolerance...
- Interaction of Tim-3 and Tim-3 ligand regulates T helper type 1 responses and induction of peripheral toleranceCatherine A Sabatos
Department of Neurology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Immunol 4:1102-10. 2003..These data indicate that interaction of Tim-3 with Tim-3 ligand may serve to inhibit effector T(H)1 cells during a normal immune response and may be crucial for the induction of peripheral tolerance...
- T Cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) and TIM-1 molecules are differentially expressed on human Th1 and Th2 cells and in cerebrospinal fluid-derived mononuclear cells in multiple sclerosisMohsen Khademi
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuroimmunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
J Immunol 172:7169-76. 2004..These data imply the differential expression of human TIM molecules by Th1 and Th2 cells and may suggest their differential involvement in different phases of a human autoimmune disease...
- The polymorphisms of Th1 cell surface gene Tim-3 are associated in a Korean population with rheumatoid arthritisSoo Cheon Chae
Genome Research Center for Immune Disorders, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Chonbuk 570 749, Korea
Immunol Lett 95:91-5. 2004..001 ands 0.003, respectively) between RA patients and non-RA controls were significantly different. These results strongly suggest that -574T>G and 4259G>T polymorphism of the Tim-3 might be associated with susceptibility to RA...
- Genetic variants of the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 but not the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 gene are associated with asthma in an African American populationPei Song Gao
Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:982-8. 2005..The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin ( TIM ) proteins and their genetic variants have been suggested to play a role in regulating allergic diseases...
- Association of atopy and eczema with polymorphisms in T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase gene cluster in chromosome 5 q 33Penelope E Graves
Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ 85724 5030, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 116:650-6. 2005....
- The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunityChen Zhu
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Immunol 6:1245-52. 2005..These data suggest that the Tim-3-galectin-9 pathway may have evolved to ensure effective termination of effector T(H)1 cells...
- [Study on relationship between polymorphism sites of TIM-3 and allergic asthma in a population of adult Hans from Hubei province of China]Cai cheng Zhang
Immunology Laboratory, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P R China
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 23:74-7. 2006....
- Dysregulated T cell expression of TIM3 in multiple sclerosisKen Koguchi
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Exp Med 203:1413-8. 2006..MS) (n = 72) and four control subjects (n = 32) and assessed their cytokine profiles and expression levels of TIM3 and related molecules...
- Genetic association studies between the T cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) gene locus and childhood atopic dermatitisNatalie S Page
Institute for Immunology and Allergy Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 141:331-6. 2006..We have tested whether TIM gene polymorphisms are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) in an Australian cohort...
- A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9Philipp S van de Weyer
Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351:571-6. 2006..Given the role of TIM proteins in autoimmunity and cancer, the conserved SH2 binding domain surrounding Y265 could represent a possible target site for pharmacological intervention...
- TIM-3 is expressed in melanoma cells and is upregulated in TGF-beta stimulated mast cellsZoltan Wiener
Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
J Invest Dermatol 127:906-14. 2007..In conclusion, the immunoregulatory molecule TIM-3 in TGF-beta-stimulated mast cells and melanoma cells may support the survival of this tumor type...
- Promotion of tissue inflammation by the immune receptor Tim-3 expressed on innate immune cellsAna C Anderson
Division of Molecular Immunology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 318:1141-3. 2007..Thus, by virtue of differential expression on innate versus adaptive immune cells, Tim-3 can either promote or terminate TH1 immunity and may be able to influence a range of inflammatory conditions...
- Tim-3 expression defines a novel population of dysfunctional T cells with highly elevated frequencies in progressive HIV-1 infectionR Brad Jones
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
J Exp Med 205:2763-79. 2008..Blocking the Tim-3 signaling pathway restored proliferation and enhanced cytokine production in HIV-1-specific T cells. Thus, Tim-3 represents a novel target for the therapeutic reversal of HIV-1-associated T cell dysfunction...
- Blood diffusion and Th1-suppressive effects of galectin-9-containing exosomes released by Epstein-Barr virus-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cellsJihène Klibi
Universite Paris Sud, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 8126, Paris, France
Blood 113:1957-66. 2009....
- Detection of the Tim-3 ligand, galectin-9, inside the allograft during a rejection episodeErika Lamkowski Naka
Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Division of Nephrology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Int Immunopharmacol 9:658-62. 2009..In addition, endothelial cells and fibroblasts can also express galectin-9 according to the local cytokine milieu. Both molecules can act as important regulatory tools in the immune system...
- Immunoactivation in preeclampsia: Vdelta2+ and regulatory T cells during the inflammatory stage of diseaseEva Miko
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Pecs, Medical School, Pecs, Hungary
J Reprod Immunol 80:100-8. 2009..In this study we report a series of observations, which taken together suggest the role of multiple pathways in generating an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response observed in the clinical stage of preeclampsia...
- Negative immune regulator Tim-3 is overexpressed on T cells in hepatitis C virus infection and its blockade rescues dysfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cellsLucy Golden-Mason
Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and National Jewish Hospital, Denver, USA
J Virol 83:9122-30. 2009..These findings have implications for the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches to this common viral infection...
- TIM-3 is expressed on activated human CD4+ T cells and regulates Th1 and Th17 cytokinesWilliam D Hastings
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Eur J Immunol 39:2492-501. 2009..These results suggest that TIM-3 is a negative regulator of human T cells and regulates Th1 and Th17 cytokine secretion...
- T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin-3 allelic variants differentially recognize phosphatidylserine and mediate phagocytosis of apoptotic cellsRosemarie H DeKruyff
Division of Immunology, Children s Hospital Boston, E, Boston, MA, USA
J Immunol 184:1918-30. 2010..These findings establish a new paradigm for TIM proteins as PtdSer receptors and unify the function of the TIM gene family, which has been associated with asthma and autoimmunity and shown to modulate peripheral tolerance...
- T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) mediates natural killer cell suppression in chronic hepatitis BYing Ju
Institute of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong, PR China
J Hepatol 52:322-9. 2010..We therefore investigated the expression and regulatory function of Tim-3 in natural killer (NK) cells in chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection...
- Lymphoma endothelium preferentially expresses Tim-3 and facilitates the progression of lymphoma by mediating immune evasionXiaoyuan Huang
Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, China
J Exp Med 207:505-20. 2010..These findings highlight a novel molecular mechanism that is a potential target for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy and controlling metastatic diseases...
- Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway: regulation of Th1 immunity through promotion of CD11b+Ly-6G+ myeloid cellsValerie Dardalhon
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 185:1383-92. 2010..Our data uncover a novel mechanism by which the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway regulates immune responses and identifies this pathway as a therapeutic target in diseases where myeloid-derived suppressor cells are disadvantageous...
- Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction in melanoma patientsJulien Fourcade
Department of Medicine and Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
J Exp Med 207:2175-86. 2010..Collectively, our findings support the use of Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade together with PD-1-PD-L1 blockade to reverse tumor-induced T cell exhaustion/dysfunction in patients with advanced melanoma...
- Tim-3 expression on PD-1+ HCV-specific human CTLs is associated with viral persistence, and its blockade restores hepatocyte-directed in vitro cytotoxicityRachel H McMahan
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA
J Clin Invest 120:4546-57. 2010....
- Elevated expression of Tim-3 on CD8 T cells correlates with disease severity of pulmonary tuberculosisXinjing Wang
Division of Research, Institute of Tuberculosis, 309 Hospital, 17 Hei Shan Hu Road, Haidian, Beijing 100091, China
J Infect 62:292-300. 2011..In this study, the association of Tim-3 with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was investigated...
- Tim-3 expression on peripheral T cell subsets correlates with disease progression in hepatitis B infectionWei Wu
State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006, China
Virol J 8:113. 2011..We investigated Tim-3 expression on peripheral T cell subsets and analyzed the relationship between Tim-3 expression and disease progression in HBV infection...
- Tim-3 negatively regulates IL-12 expression by monocytes in HCV infectionYing Zhang
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, James H Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e19664. 2011....
- Phosphotyrosine-dependent coupling of Tim-3 to T-cell receptor signaling pathwaysJudong Lee
Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Mol Cell Biol 31:3963-74. 2011..These findings should help further the study of Tim-3 function in other physiological settings, such as those that lead to immune exhaustion...
- Tim-3 regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in human CD14+ monocytesYing Zhang
Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, James H Quillen Veterans Administration Medical Center, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA
J Leukoc Biol 91:189-96. 2012..These results suggest that Tim-3 has a role as a regulator of pro- and anti-inflammatory innate immune responses...
- The -1541 C>T and +4259 G>T of TIM-3 polymorphisms are associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in a Chinese Hui populationJ Xu
Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China
Int J Immunogenet 38:513-8. 2011....
- Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9Michelle K Gleason
Adult Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Blood 119:3064-72. 2012..In conclusion, we show that Tim-3 functions as a human NK-cell coreceptor to enhance IFN-γ production, which has important implications for control of infectious disease and cancer...
- TIM-3 expression characterizes regulatory T cells in tumor tissues and is associated with lung cancer progressionXin Gao
Department of Immunology, Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Soochow University, Suzhou, People s Republic of China
PLoS ONE 7:e30676. 2012..This study is to characterize TIM-3 expressing lymphocytes within human lung cancer tissues and establish clinical significance of TIM-3 expression in lung cancer progression...
- Tim-3 marks human natural killer cell maturation and suppresses cell-mediated cytotoxicityLishomwa C Ndhlovu
Hawaii Center for AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Hawaii, John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, 96813, USA
Blood 119:3734-43. 2012..These findings suggest that NK-cell responses may be negatively regulated when NK cells encounter target cells expressing cognate ligands of Tim-3...
- IL-12 upregulates TIM-3 expression and induces T cell exhaustion in patients with follicular B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomaZhi Zhang Yang
Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
J Clin Invest 122:1271-82. 2012..Our findings identify IL-12- and TIM-3-mediated exhaustion of T cells as a mechanism for poor clinical outcome when IL-12 is administered to FL patients...
- T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 gene polymorphisms and renal cell carcinomaChen Cai
Department of Special Clinic, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
DNA Cell Biol 31:1285-9. 2012..4% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.041). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the TIM-3 gene are new risk factors for RCC and that TIM-3 may play important roles in regulating the prognosis of this disease...
- Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway mediates T-cell dysfunction and predicts poor prognosis in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinomaHang Li
Department of Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Hepatology 56:1342-51. 2012..Finally, we show that the numbers of Tim-3(+) tumor-infiltrating cells were negatively associated with patient survival...
- Blockade of Tim-3 signaling restores the virus-specific CD8⁺ T-cell response in patients with chronic hepatitis BWei Wu
State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Eur J Immunol 42:1180-91. 2012..Tim-3 negatively regulates antiviral responses of CD8(+) T cells isolated from CHB patients, and this response is reversed by blocking the Tim-3 pathway...
- T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to pancreatic cancerDanian Tong
Department of Surgery, The Sixth People s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200233, China
Mol Biol Rep 39:9941-6. 2012..07, 95 % CI, 1.41-6.68, p = 0.003). These results suggested polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene could be new risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer...
- Tim-3 negatively regulates cytotoxicity in exhausted CD8+ T cells in HIV infectionAli Sakhdari
Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
PLoS ONE 7:e40146. 2012....
- Tumor-infiltrating DCs suppress nucleic acid-mediated innate immune responses through interactions between the receptor TIM-3 and the alarmin HMGB1Shigeki Chiba
Research Center for Infection Associated Cancer, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
Nat Immunol 13:832-42. 2012..Our findings define a mechanism whereby tumor microenvironments suppress antitumor immunity mediated by nucleic acids...
- Enhanced Tim3 activity improves survival after influenza infectionJOSALYN L CHO
Pulmonary and Critical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
J Immunol 189:2879-89. 2012..T cell Ig and mucin domain 3 (Tim3) is a negative regulator of Th1/Tc1-type immune responses...
- Tim-3-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in human tuberculosis (TB) exhibit polarized effector memory phenotypes and stronger anti-TB effector functionsYueqin Qiu
Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Key Laboratory for Tropical Diseases Control of the Ministry of Education, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China College of Life Sciences, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002984. 2012..This study therefore uncovered a previously unknown mechanism for T-cell immune responses regulated by Tim-3, and findings may have implications for potential immune intervention in TB...
- HCV-infected hepatocytes drive CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell development through the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathwayXiao J Ji
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, James H Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
Eur J Immunol 43:458-67. 2013....
- The Tim3-galectin 9 pathway induces antibacterial activity in human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosisIsabel Sada-Ovalle
Laboratory of Integrative Immunology, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
J Immunol 189:5896-902. 2012T cell Ig and mucin domain 3 (Tim3) is an inhibitory molecule involved in immune tolerance, autoimmune responses, and antiviral immune evasion...
- HIV infection deregulates Tim-3 expression on innate cells: combination antiretroviral therapy results in partial restorationConstance A M Finney
SAR Laboratories, Sandra Rotman Centre for Global Health, UHN Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:161-7. 2013..Blocking Tim-3 has been proposed as a potential therapeutic intervention in HIV infection. However, a more detailed characterization of Tim-3 expression in the presence of HIV is required before such strategies can be considered...
- Tim-3 expression in cervical cancer promotes tumor metastasisYang Cao
Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China
PLoS ONE 8:e53834. 2013..This present study aims to determine Tim-3 is expressed in cervical cancer cells and to evaluate the role of Tim-3 in cervical cancer progression...
- Differential regulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23 by Tim-3 drives T(H)17 cell development during hepatitis C virus infectionJia M Wang
Hepatitis HCV HIV Program, James H Quillen VA Medical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA
J Virol 87:4372-83. 2013..Our findings suggest that Tim-3-mediated differential regulation of IL-12/IL-23 drives T(H)17 cell development, a milieu favoring viral persistence and autoimmune phenomenon during HCV infection...
- Tim-3 expression defines regulatory T cells in human tumorsJing Yan
State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, P R China
PLoS ONE 8:e58006. 2013..Together, our data indicate that Tim-3-expressing CD4 T cells in human tumors could represent the functional regulatory T cells which contribute to the formation of the immune-suppressive tumor micromilieu...
- The expression of Tim-3 in peripheral blood of ovarian cancerJie Wu
Department of Gynecology, The Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Jinan City, Jinan, China
DNA Cell Biol 32:648-53. 2013....
- Tim-3 on peripheral CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells is involved in the development of gliomaSong Han
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
DNA Cell Biol 33:245-50. 2014..005) or Tim-3⁺CD8⁺ T cells (p<0.001) in glioma patients. Our results suggested that Tim-3 may be involved in the development of glioma...
- The association of TIM-3 gene polymorphism with atopic disease in Korean populationSoo Cheon Chae
Genome Research Center for Immune Disorders, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Korea
Hum Immunol 65:1427-31. 2004..029) was also significantly different. Our results strongly suggest that the -574T > G polymorphism of Tim-3 might be associated with the susceptibility of atopic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis...
- Lack of TIM-3 immunoregulation in multiple sclerosisLi Yang
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 180:4409-14. 2008....
- Possible role of natural killer and natural killer T-like cells in implantation failure after IVFEva Miko
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Pecs, Medical School, Pecs, Hungary
Reprod Biomed Online 21:750-6. 2010..The observed peripheral changes during early pregnancy in the same individual may also have importance in successful embryo implantation...
- Gonadectomy of male BALB/c mice increases Tim-3(+) alternatively activated M2 macrophages, Tim-3(+) T cells, Th2 cells and Treg in the heart during acute coxsackievirus-induced myocarditisSylvia Frisancho-Kiss
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Brain Behav Immun 23:649-57. 2009....
- Cooperation of Tim-3 and PD-1 in CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic viral infectionHyun Tak Jin
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory Vaccine Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14733-8. 2010....
- Immunization with different viral antigens alters the pattern of T cell exhaustion and latency in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected miceSariah J Allen
Center for Neurobiology and Vaccine Development, Ophthalmology Research Laboratories, Department of Surgery, CSMC Burns and Allen Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
J Virol 84:12315-24. 2010..In this study, we have shown for the first time that both PD-1 and Tim-3 contribute to T cell exhaustion and an increase of latency in the TG of latently infected mice...
- [Recent advances in uveitis studies in China]Pei zeng Yang
Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Chongqing Eye Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 46:924-9. 2010..These studies have greatly contributed to the understanding as well as the treatment of this disease...
- SMUCKLER/TIM4 is a distinct member of TIM family expressed by stromal cells of secondary lymphoid tissues and associated with lymphotoxin signalingAlexander N Shakhov
Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, USA
Eur J Immunol 34:494-503. 2004..Unlike TIM1 and TIM3, which were implicated in T cell-mediated functions, SMUCKLER lacks tyrosine phosphorylation motif in its ..
- A modified version of galectin-9 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Burkitt and Hodgkin lymphoma cellsShoko Makishi
Division of Molecular Virology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan
Br J Haematol 142:583-94. 2008..hG9NC(null) inhibited the expression of JunD, resulting in the suppression of AP-1. Our results suggest that hG9NC(null) is a potentially suitable agent for the management of BL and HL...
- Th2-driven, allergen-induced airway inflammation is reduced after treatment with anti-Tim-3 antibody in vivoJennifer Kearley
Leukocyte Biology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, England, UK
J Exp Med 204:1289-94. 2007..Thus, blocking Tim-3 function has a beneficial effect during pulmonary inflammation by skewing the Th2 response toward that of a Th1 type, suggesting an important role for Tim-3 in the regulation of allergic disease...
- [Linkage disequilibrium analysis of -1516, -574 and 4259 single nucleotide polymorphisms in TIM-3 gene]Zhi Zhong Chen
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430022 People s Republic of China
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 25:101-4. 2008..To investigate the frequencies of -1516,-574 and 4259 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of T cells immunoglobulin mucin -3(TIM-3) gene in Hubei population and address the question whether they are in linkage disequilibrium(LD) ...
- Insertion/deletion coding polymorphisms in hHAVcr-1 are not associated with atopic asthma in the Japanese populationE Noguchi
Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Genes Immun 4:170-3. 2003..5 Mb from hHAVcr-1 and human TIM3. We screened for mutations in human HAVcr-1 (hHAVcr-1) and in TIM3 and found seven, including two insertion/..
- The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates CD8+ alloreactive T cell and prolongs survival of skin graftFeng Wang
Institute of Organ Transplantation, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Education, 1095 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China
Cell Immunol 250:68-74. 2007..Furthermore, alloreactive CD8+ cytotoxic T cells were sensitive to galectin-9 induced apoptosis both in vitro and vivo, resulting in attenuation of CD8+ alloreactive T cells mediated cytotoxicity and prolonged survival of skin graft...
- Antibodies to T-cell Ig and mucin domain-containing proteins (Tim)-1 and -3 suppress the induction and progression of murine allergic conjunctivitisAtsuki Fukushima
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kochi Medical School, Kohasu, Nankoku city 783 8505, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:211-6. 2007..Thus, treatment with anti-Tim-1 or anti-Tim-3 Ab can suppress both the induction and progression of EC, which could indicate potential preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for allergic diseases such as allergic conjunctivitis...
- Phenotypic differences between Th1 and Th17 cells and negative regulation of Th1 cell differentiation by IL-17Susumu Nakae
Department of Pathology, L 235, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 5324, USA
J Leukoc Biol 81:1258-68. 2007..We also confirmed that IL-12 or IFN-gamma can negatively regulate Th17 cell differentiation. However, these cytokines could not modulate such effects on T cell differentiation in the absence of APC...
- Activation of Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway improves survival of fully allogeneic skin graftsFeng Wang
Institute of Organ Transplantation, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Transpl Immunol 19:12-9. 2008..These observations suggest that Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway plays an important role in the termination of productive Th1-immune response and could lead to developing novel therapies in transplant medicine...
- Functional Th1 cells are required for surgical adhesion formation in a murine modelArthur O Tzianabos
Department of Medicine and Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 180:6970-6. 2008..These data demonstrate that the CD4(+) T cells orchestrating adhesion formation are of the Th1 phenotype and delineate the central role of T-bet, Tim-3, IFN-gamma, and IL-16 in mediating this pathogenic tissue response...
- Role of Tim-3/galectin-9 inhibitory interaction in viral-induced immunopathology: shifting the balance toward regulatorsSharvan Sehrawat
Comparative and Experimental Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
J Immunol 182:3191-201. 2009..Our results indicate that galectin-9 therapy may represent a useful approach to control HSV-induced lesions, the most common cause of infectious blindness in the Western world...
- TIM genes: a family of cell surface phosphatidylserine receptors that regulate innate and adaptive immunityGordon J Freeman
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Immunol Rev 235:172-89. 2010....
- The immunoregulatory role of CD244 in chronic hepatitis B infection and its inhibitory potential on virus-specific CD8+ T-cell functionBijan Raziorrouh
Medical Department II and Institute for Immunology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany
Hepatology 52:1934-47. 2010....
- Molecular genetic analysis of two loci (Ity2 and Ity3) involved in the host response to infection with Salmonella typhimurium using congenic mice and expression profilingVanessa Sancho-Shimizu
Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada
Genetics 177:1125-39. 2007..differences in the Ity2 congenics, leading to the identification of a new candidate gene (Havcr2, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2)...
- Yam storage protein dioscorins from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea japonica exhibit distinct immunomodulatory activities in micePei Lan Lin
Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien County 974, Taiwan, Republic of China
J Agric Food Chem 57:4606-13. 2009..Furthermore, Dj-dioscorins enhanced proliferation of CD4(+), CD8(+), and Tim3(+) (Th1) cells in spleen and CD19(+) cells in both spleen and thymus...
- Galectin-9 ameliorates acute GVH disease through the induction of T-cell apoptosisKazuki Sakai
Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan
Eur J Immunol 41:67-75. 2011..In conclusion, Gal-9 ameliorates aGVHD, possibly by inducing T-cell apoptosis, suggesting that gal-9 may be an attractive candidate for the treatment of aGVHD...
- In primed allo-tolerance, TIM-3-Ig rapidly suppresses TGFbeta, but has no immediate effect on Foxp3Poorni A D S Muthukumarana
Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Transpl Int 21:593-7. 2008..Thus, in an ex vivo model of in vivo tolerance to heart allografts, TIM-3-Ig therapy appears to reduce the stable tolerogenic environment by a rapid and specific repression of TGFbeta release...
- The Binding Properties of Glycosylated and Non-Glycosylated Tim-3 Molecules on CD4CD25 T CellsMi Jin Lee
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442 721, Korea
Immune Netw 9:58-63. 2009..In this study, we produced recombinant Tim-3-Ig fusion proteins in different cellular sources and its N-glycosylation mutant forms to evaluate their binding activities to CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...
- Tim3 is upregulated and protective in nephrotoxic serum nephritisAndrea Schroll
Department of Internal Medicine I, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Am J Pathol 176:1716-24. 2010T cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein-3 (Tim3) is mainly expressed on the cell surface of T-helper lymphocytes (T(H)) that negatively regulates T(H)-type 1 (T(H)-1) responses...
- TIM-3: a novel regulatory molecule of alloimmune activationOlaf Boenisch
Transplantation Research Center, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Immunol 185:5806-19. 2010..In summary, TIM-3 is a key regulatory molecule of alloimmunity through its ability to broadly modulate CD4(+) T cell differentiation, thus recalibrating the effector and regulatory arms of the alloimmune response...
- [Expression of human T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3(TIM-3) on eukaryotic cells and establishment of stable transfectant cell line]Sheng tao Zhang
Department of Rheumatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 21:707-9, 713. 2005..To construct eukaryotic expression vector of human T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3(TIM-3) and transfect mammalian cells to establish stable cell line...
- Soluble form of T cell Ig mucin 3 is an inhibitory molecule in T cell-mediated immune responseHui Geng
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, The People s Republic of China
J Immunol 176:1411-20. 2006..Our studies thus define sTim-3 as an immunoregulatory molecule that may be involved in the negative regulation of T cell-mediated immune response...
- Expression of Tim-3 is transiently increased before development of anterior chamber-associated immune deviationYuqin Wang
Uveitis Study Center, Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat Sen University, Ministry of Education, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Guangzhou, China
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 14:151-6. 2006..To assess the expression of T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) in the spleens of BALB/c mice undergoing anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID)...
- T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 crystal structure reveals a galectin-9-independent ligand-binding surfaceErhu Cao
Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Immunity 26:311-21. 2007....
- Stable form of galectin-9, a Tim-3 ligand, inhibits contact hypersensitivity and psoriatic reactions: a potent therapeutic tool for Th1- and/or Th17-mediated skin inflammationHaruna Niwa
Department of Dermatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
Clin Immunol 132:184-94. 2009..This was accompanied by decreased skin lesion levels of IL-17 and IL-22. sGal-9 may be a unique and useful therapeutic tool for the treatment of Th1- and/or Th17-mediated skin inflammation...
- Involvement of T cell Ig Mucin-3 (Tim-3) in the negative regulation of inflammatory bowel diseaseXia Li
Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China
Clin Immunol 134:169-77. 2010..Our data suggest that the Tim-3 pathway is highly involved in the negative regulation of IBD. A better understanding of this pathway may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this disease...
- T-bet, a Th1 transcription factor regulates the expression of Tim-3Ana C Anderson
Department of Neurology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Eur J Immunol 40:859-66. 2010....
- Galectin-9/TIM-3 interaction regulates virus-specific primary and memory CD8 T cell responseSharvan Sehrawat
Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000882. 2010..Our results indicate that manipulating galectin signals, as can be achieved using appropriate sugars, may represent a convenient and inexpensive approach to enhance acute and memory responses to a virus infection...
- HCV-specific T cells in HCV/HIV co-infection show elevated frequencies of dual Tim-3/PD-1 expression that correlate with liver disease progressionBahareh Vali
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Eur J Immunol 40:2493-505. 2010..These data demonstrate that co-expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 may play a significant role in HCV-specific T-cell dysfunction, especially in the setting of HIV co-infection...
- Increased Tim-3 expression on peripheral lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis negatively correlates with disease activityYing Liu
Institute of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, PR China
Clin Immunol 137:288-95. 2010..Our results suggest that Tim-3 might participate in the proceeding of RA by its negative regulation on various T cell subsets. Tim-3 might be a potential new marker for assessing severity of RA...
- Targeting Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways to reverse T cell exhaustion and restore anti-tumor immunityKaori Sakuishi
Center for Neurological Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Exp Med 207:2187-94. 2010..We further find that combined targeting of the Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways is more effective in controlling tumor growth than targeting either pathway alone...
- TIM-3 is a promising target to selectively kill acute myeloid leukemia stem cellsYoshikane Kikushige
Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Sciences, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan
Cell Stem Cell 7:708-17. 2010..These data suggest that TIM-3 is one of the promising targets to eradicate AML LSCs...
- Cutting edge: cross-regulation by TLR4 and T cell Ig mucin-3 determines sex differences in inflammatory heart diseaseSylvia Frisancho-Kiss
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Immunol 178:6710-4. 2007..Cross-regulation of TLR4 and Tim-3 occurs during the innate and adaptive immune response. This novel mechanism may help explain why inflammatory heart disease is more severe in males...
- Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway involves the suppression induced by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cellsFeng Wang
Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
Immunobiology 214:342-9. 2009..Furthermore, blocking Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway negated prolonged survival of allogeneic skin grafts induced by CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in vivo. Our results suggest that Tim-3-Galectin-9 pathway involves the function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs...
- The costimulatory role of TIM moleculesROSELYNN RODRIGUEZ-MANZANET
Department of Neurology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Immunol Rev 229:259-70. 2009..The TIM molecules thus have surprisingly broad activities affecting multiple aspects of immunology...
- Down-regulation of interleukin-2 production by CD4(+) T cells expressing TIM-3 through suppression of NFAT dephosphorylation and AP-1 transcriptionMi Jin Lee
Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Youngtongku Wonchondong San 5, Suwon 442 749, Republic of Korea
Immunobiology 217:986-95. 2012..Taken together, these results suggest that IL-2 production by T cells may be downregulated by TIM-3-mediated signals, leading to suppression of NFAT dephosphorylation and AP-1 transcription...
- Increased expression of Tim-3 and its ligand Galectin-9 in rat allografts during acute rejection episodesXinwei Qiao
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 445:542-8. 2014....
- Tim-3 blocking rescue macrophage and T cell function against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV+ patientsIsabel Sada-Ovalle
Laboratorio de Inmunología IntegrativaInstituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Distrito Federal, Mexico
J Int AIDS Soc 18:20078. 2015..Our aim in this study was to analyze the Tim-3 expression profile before and after six months of antiretroviral therapy and the impact of Tim-3 and PD-1 blocking on immunity against M. tuberculosis...
- Zheng W Chen; Fiscal Year: 2015..Aim IV. Determine if rapid increases in Tim-3+ T effector cells by adoptive transferring of Tim-3+ T cells during early Mtb infection can confer immune protection against TB in macaques. ..
- Samuel M Behar; Fiscal Year: 2014..This application addresses the novel and potentially critical role that Tim3, a member of the T cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin domain family of proteins, plays in the defense against ..
- GORDON JAMES FREEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2014..We believe that further study of these molecules will greatly improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, and are likely to lead to novel therapies for asthma and food allergy. ..
- Bruce R Blazar; Fiscal Year: 2016..The fundamental insights gained from these studies will have broad implications relevant to both cancer therapy and treatment of infectious diseases. ..
- Vijay K Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2016..abstract_text> ..
- TIM-3: Galectin-9: A Novel Regulatory Pathway of Alloimmune ActivationNader Najafian; Fiscal Year: 2011..Utilization of unique tools combined with close collaboration of the PI with a team of renowned experts will assure the successful completion of this proposal. ..
- Lishan Su; Fiscal Year: 2016..modulate human T cell function in the liver and spleen/LN in vivo? (ii) What is the role of HBV persistence and PD1/TIM3 in impaired human immune responses in the liver? (iii) Will Ad-LIGHT-HBs vaccination (with HBs clearance mAb and ..
- Modulating Tim-3 to control HIV infectionLishomwa C Ndhlovu; Fiscal Year: 2010..and adaptive immune functions through the study of diverse groups of HIV-1 infected persons, and determine the mechanisms regulating this pathway with the ultimate aim of developing better treatments for HIV-1 infection ..
- GORDON JAMES FREEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2014..These studies will greatly increase our understanding of the function of TIMs in the regulation of T cell responses and tolerance, and characterize a novel and extremely important asthma susceptibility gene family. ..
- Heng Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2016..Specific Aim 3. To examine the protective effects of the Akt/PRAS40 pathway on the pro-inflammatory response of HMGB1 and Cox-2, and the galectin-9/Tim-3 inflammatory pathway. ..
- Zhi Q Yao; Fiscal Year: 2015....
- Vijay K Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2016..The proposed studies will identify the molecular mechanisms by which Tim-3 mediates its inhibitory function, which could be exploited to dampen pathogenic T cells in autoimmune diseases. ..
- The role of NK cells in immunodysregulation by hepatitis C virusJonathan P Moorman; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- T CELL RECOGNITION OF MYELIN IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSISDavid A Hafler; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Mechanisms of Immune Regulation in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis InfectionCHERYL LIANE DAY; Fiscal Year: 2012....
- Thomas Pertel; Fiscal Year: 2014..While boosting Tim-3 signals could dampen autoimmune disease, repressing Tim-3 function could augment immune responses in chronic viral infections (e.g. HIV) and cancer. ..
- Control of Treg exhaustion by OX40Xian Chang Li; Fiscal Year: 2013..In addition, findings from these studies will have broad impacts on other immune-mediated diseases, such as cancer therapies and protective immunity. ..
- Guido Silvestri; Fiscal Year: 2014....
- Role of Th Cell Subsets in Allergic Lung InflammationDALE UMETSU; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will ascertain the precise role of NK T cells in the development of asthma, and greatly enhance our understanding of pathogenic and protective mechanisms in asthma. ..
- FLOW CYTOMETERDavid Horwitz; Fiscal Year: 2002..This new instrument will allow us the flexibility to develop new uses for the flow cytometer as dictated by our current and future users. ..
- ANTITUMOR AND COSTIMULATORY ACTIVITY OF B7 ON T CELLSVijay Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2002..2 and B7.1 plus B7.2 transfected EL-4 cells and test the mechanism by which they inhibit anti-tumor immunity. ..
- 14th International HLA & Immunogenetics Workship (HIWS)John Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2005..The scientific exchange that will take place at the meeting will drive research and maintain international collaboration in immunogenetics for the next 5 years. ..
- Regulation of the MAP kinase pathway in the CD4+ T cellsBinfeng Lu; Fiscal Year: 2007..Aim 2. Study the role of GADD45 protein in mediating the activation of the p38/JNK MAP kinase pathway by cytokines. Aim 3. Study the effect of mutation of GADD45gamma, GADD45beta, or MEKK4 in murine collagen induced arthritis. ..
- Glial Interactions in Premyelinating Oligodendrocyte DestructionJianrong Li; Fiscal Year: 2010..Such fundamental insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neonatal white matter injury will provide new avenues for developing novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of this devastating disorder. ..
- Genetic Basis for susceptibility to Experimental Autoimmune EncephalomyelitisVijay Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- T CELL RESPONSE TO MYELIN PROTEOLIPID PROTEINVijay Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Mechanisms by which Influenza A Protects Against AsthmaDALE UMETSU; Fiscal Year: 2008..We will also learn more about regulatory mechanisms that affect airway inflammation, and how viral infections and the environment affect the development of asthma. ..
- Whole Genome Association Analysis of Hematopoietic Cell Transplant OutcomeJohn Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2008..The third stage will explore genome-genome interactions between recipient and donor. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Immune Regulation by Gadd45b and Gadd45gBinfeng Lu; Fiscal Year: 2010..Relevance: This study will lead to the development of novel strategies targeting these molecules to treat or prevent autoimmune diseases. This study will also reveal new disease markers for autoimmune diseases. ..
- Heterogeneity among human CD4 T lymphocytesDale T Umetsu; Fiscal Year: 2010..We are proposing new paradigms for the pathogenesis of asthma, and these new paradigms should lead to an improved understanding of asthma and to important novel therapies for asthma and allergy. ..
- Oral Tolerance Induced by Encapsulated AllergenDALE UMETSU; Fiscal Year: 2004..These studies therefore, are likely to lead to better methods and therapies that will induce protective immunity and allergen-specific tolerance, which will potentially cure patients with asthma and allergic diseases. ..
- ROLE OF ICOS IN T CELL RESPONSES AND ANTI-TUMOR IMMUNITYGordon Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2004..To examine the expression the expression of ICOS counter-receptor on APC and characterize its molecular structure. SPECIFIC AIM 3. To examine how blocking ICOS signals affect the immune response to murine tumors. ..