tat

Summary

Gene Symbol: tat
Description: p14
Alias: p14, Tat
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Top Publications

  1. pmc Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early-stage HIV-1 replication
    Renate König
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 135:49-60. 2008
  2. pmc HIV-1 Tat assembles a multifunctional transcription elongation complex and stably associates with the 7SK snRNP
    Bijan Sobhian
    Laboratoire de Virologie Moleculaire, Institut de Genetique Humaine, CNRS UPR1142, Montpellier, France
    Mol Cell 38:439-51. 2010
  3. pmc HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription
    Nanhai He
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mol Cell 38:428-38. 2010
  4. pmc Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity contributes to perturbation of lymphocyte miRNA by HIV-1
    Amy M Hayes
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Center for Retrovirus Research, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, USA
    Retrovirology 8:36. 2011
  5. pmc Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression
    Jonathan Karn
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2:a006916. 2012
  6. pmc Crystal structure of HIV-1 Tat complexed with human P-TEFb
    Tahir H Tahirov
    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 7696, USA
    Nature 465:747-51. 2010
  7. pmc Conserved P-TEFb-interacting domain of BRD4 inhibits HIV transcription
    Dwayne A Bisgrove
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13690-5. 2007
  8. pmc TRIM22 inhibits HIV-1 transcription independently of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, Tat, and NF-kappaB-responsive long terminal repeat elements
    Anna Kajaste-Rudnitski
    Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation, and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132, Milan, Italy
    J Virol 85:5183-96. 2011
  9. pmc Breaking down the barrier: the effects of HIV-1 on the blood-brain barrier
    Marianne Strazza
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Molecular Virology and Translational Neuroscience, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Brain Res 1399:96-115. 2011
  10. pmc Induction of TAK (cyclin T1/P-TEFb) in purified resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes by combination of cytokines
    R Ghose
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 75:11336-43. 2001

Detail Information

Publications218 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early-stage HIV-1 replication
    Renate König
    Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cell 135:49-60. 2008
    ..Taken together, the multiscale approach described here has uncovered multiprotein virus-host interactions that likely act in concert to facilitate the early steps of HIV-1 infection...
  2. pmc HIV-1 Tat assembles a multifunctional transcription elongation complex and stably associates with the 7SK snRNP
    Bijan Sobhian
    Laboratoire de Virologie Moleculaire, Institut de Genetique Humaine, CNRS UPR1142, Montpellier, France
    Mol Cell 38:439-51. 2010
    HIV-1 transactivator Tat has greatly contributed to our understanding of transcription elongation by RNAPII. We purified HIV-1 Tat-associated factors from HeLa nuclear extract and show that Tat forms two distinct and stable complexes...
  3. pmc HIV-1 Tat and host AFF4 recruit two transcription elongation factors into a bifunctional complex for coordinated activation of HIV-1 transcription
    Nanhai He
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mol Cell 38:428-38. 2010
    Recruitment of the P-TEFb kinase by HIV-1 Tat to the viral promoter triggers the phosphorylation and escape of RNA polymerase II from promoter-proximal pausing...
  4. pmc Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity contributes to perturbation of lymphocyte miRNA by HIV-1
    Amy M Hayes
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Center for Retrovirus Research, Ohio State University, Columbus OH, USA
    Retrovirology 8:36. 2011
    ..For instance, miRNA-mediated RNA silencing of HIV-1 translation is antagonized by HIV-1 Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity...
  5. pmc Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression
    Jonathan Karn
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2:a006916. 2012
    Control of HIV-1 gene expression depends on two viral regulatory proteins, Tat and Rev. Tat stimulates transcription elongation by directing the cellular transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb to nascent RNA polymerases...
  6. pmc Crystal structure of HIV-1 Tat complexed with human P-TEFb
    Tahir H Tahirov
    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 7696, USA
    Nature 465:747-51. 2010
    ..The viral protein Tat hijacks the host cell's RNA polymerase II elongation control machinery through interaction with the positive ..
  7. pmc Conserved P-TEFb-interacting domain of BRD4 inhibits HIV transcription
    Dwayne A Bisgrove
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13690-5. 2007
    ..Overexpression of the BRD4 P-TEFb-interacting domain disrupts the interaction between the HIV transactivator Tat and P-TEFb and suppresses the ability of Tat to transactivate the HIV promoter...
  8. pmc TRIM22 inhibits HIV-1 transcription independently of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, Tat, and NF-kappaB-responsive long terminal repeat elements
    Anna Kajaste-Rudnitski
    Viral Pathogens and Biosafety Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation, and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132, Milan, Italy
    J Virol 85:5183-96. 2011
    ..In addition, TRIM22 did not affect Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, these effects were independent of TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity...
  9. pmc Breaking down the barrier: the effects of HIV-1 on the blood-brain barrier
    Marianne Strazza
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Molecular Virology and Translational Neuroscience, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Brain Res 1399:96-115. 2011
    ..cells in both the periphery and the CNS give rise to elevated levels of viral proteins, including gp120, Tat, and Nef, and of host inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines...
  10. pmc Induction of TAK (cyclin T1/P-TEFb) in purified resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes by combination of cytokines
    R Ghose
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 75:11336-43. 2001
    ..Transcription of the HIV-1 provirus by RNA polymerase II is strongly stimulated by the viral Tat protein...
  11. ncbi HIV-1 Tat induces the expression of the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene by binding to the IL6 leader RNA and by interacting with CAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (NF-IL6) transcription factors
    C Ambrosino
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School, University of Reggio Calabria, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
    J Biol Chem 272:14883-92. 1997
    ..Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Tat activity on the expression of the IL6 gene...
  12. pmc A genome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of jurkat T-cells for human proteins contributing to productive HIV-1 replication
    Man Lung Yeung
    Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0460, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:19463-73. 2009
    ..We discuss the similarities and differences between our shRNA findings for HIV-1 using a spreading infection assay in human Jurkat T-cells and results from other investigators who used siRNA-based screenings in HeLa or 293T cells...
  13. pmc New insights into the control of HIV-1 transcription: when Tat meets the 7SK snRNP and super elongation complex (SEC)
    Nanhai He
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 6:260-8. 2011
    ..P-TEFb, a human transcription elongation factor and co-factor for activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the viral Tat protein...
  14. ncbi A novel CDK9-associated C-type cyclin interacts directly with HIV-1 Tat and mediates its high-affinity, loop-specific binding to TAR RNA
    P Wei
    Regulatory Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099, USA
    Cell 92:451-62. 1998
    The HIV-1 Tat protein regulates transcription elongation through binding to the viral TAR RNA stem-loop structure...
  15. pmc Perturbation of host nuclear membrane component RanBP2 impairs the nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus -1 preintegration complex (DNA)
    Ruonan Zhang
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15620. 2010
    ..RanBP2 could be a potential target for efficient inhibition of HIV...
  16. pmc FBI-1, a factor that binds to the HIV-1 inducer of short transcripts (IST), is a POZ domain protein
    D J Morrison
    Undergraduate Program, Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:1251-62. 1999
    ..transcriptional start site, while the synthesis of full-length transcripts is activated by the viral activator Tat. Tat binds to the RNA element TAR, which is encoded largely between the two IST half-elements...
  17. pmc STAT1 signaling modulates HIV-1-induced inflammatory responses and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier
    Anathbandhu Chaudhuri
    Center for Neurovirology and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5215, USA
    Blood 111:2062-72. 2008
    ..Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to attenuate HIV-1-induced BBB compromise and as such improve clinical outcomes...
  18. pmc SMAD proteins of oligodendroglial cells regulate transcription of JC virus early and late genes coordinately with the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Michelle R Stettner
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23501, USA
    J Gen Virol 90:2005-14. 2009
    ..The Tat protein of HIV-1 has been implicated in activation of the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in HIV-1-..
  19. pmc HIV-1 inhibits autophagy in bystander macrophage/monocytic cells through Src-Akt and STAT3
    Jennifer Van Grol
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e11733. 2010
    ..Blockade of autophagy was dependent on Src-Akt and STAT3 triggered by HIV-1 Tat and IL-10...
  20. pmc HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr: relevance in the pathogenesis of HIV and potential for therapeutic intervention
    Michael Kogan
    Department of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Retrovirology 8:25. 2011
    ..In view of the pivotal functions of Vpr in virus infection, replication, and persistence of infection, this protein represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
  21. doi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of Ras/c-Raf/MEK1/2, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways
    Xiaolei Zhu
    State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, People s Republic of China
    J Mol Biol 410:1035-51. 2011
    ..Previously, we reported that HIV-1 Tat protein induced KSHV replication by modulating the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription ..
  22. pmc Activation of HIV transcription by the viral Tat protein requires a demethylation step mediated by lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1)
    Naoki Sakane
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002184. 2011
    The essential transactivator function of the HIV Tat protein is regulated by multiple posttranslational modifications...
  23. pmc HIV-1 Tat-induced microgliosis and synaptic damage via interactions between peripheral and central myeloid cells
    Shao Ming Lu
    Center for Neural Development and Disease, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23915. 2011
    ..during acute neuroinflammation we injected a single dose of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (Tat) or control vehicle into hippocampus of wild-type or chimeric C57Bl/6 mice genetically marked to distinguish ..
  24. doi MiR-217 is involved in Tat-induced HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) transactivation by down-regulation of SIRT1
    Hong Sheng Zhang
    College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Beijing University of Technology, Pingleyuan 100, District of Chaoyang, Beijing, China
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1823:1017-23. 2012
    ..The Tat protein is fundamental to viral gene expression...
  25. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus protein Tat induces synapse loss via a reversible process that is distinct from cell death
    Hee Jung Kim
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Neurosci 28:12604-13. 2008
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat), a protein released by virus-infected cells, on synapses between hippocampal neurons using an imaging-based assay ..
  26. ncbi The T cell activation factor NF-ATc positively regulates HIV-1 replication and gene expression in T cells
    S Kinoshita
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA
    Immunity 6:235-44. 1997
    ..certain NF-AT(Rel) family members productively bind the kappaB regulatory elements, synergize with NF-kappaB and Tat in transcriptional activation of HIV-1, and enhance HIV-1 replication in T cells...
  27. pmc Transcription elongation factor P-TEFb is required for HIV-1 tat transactivation in vitro
    Y Zhu
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 USA
    Genes Dev 11:2622-32. 1997
    ..In addition, we found that PITALRE associated with the activation domain of HIV-1 Tat, indicating that P-TEFb is a Tat-associated kinase (TAK)...
  28. pmc Cloning and characterization of a novel cellular protein, TDP-43, that binds to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR DNA sequence motifs
    S H Ou
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 75235, USA
    J Virol 69:3584-96. 1995
    ..from nucleotides -18 to +80, is critical for the activation of gene expression by the transactivator protein, Tat. RNA transcribed from TAR forms a stable stem-loop structure which serves as the binding site for both Tat and ..
  29. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein inhibits the SIRT1 deacetylase and induces T cell hyperactivation
    Hye Sook Kwon
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:158-67. 2008
    ..We find that the viral transactivator Tat promotes hyperactivation of T cells by blocking the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent ..
  30. doi Transient-mediated fate determination in a transcriptional circuit of HIV
    Leor S Weinberger
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0314, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Nat Genet 40:466-70. 2008
    ..model system, we directly quantify transcriptional feedback strength and its effects on both the duration of HIV-1 Tat transcriptional pulses and the fate of HIV-infected cells...
  31. pmc Acetylation of cyclin T1 regulates the equilibrium between active and inactive P-TEFb in cells
    Sungyoo Cho
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    EMBO J 28:1407-17. 2009
    ..NF-kappaB-mediated activation of the interleukin-8 promoter but continues to synergize normally with the HIV Tat protein to transactivate the HIV long terminal repeat...
  32. pmc Chromatin dynamics associated with HIV-1 Tat-activated transcription
    Rebecca Easley
    The George Washington University Medical Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1799:275-85. 2010
    ..Here, we focus on chromatin remodeling, especially in relation to the transactivator Tat, and review the most important and newly emerging studies that investigate remodeling mechanisms...
  33. pmc Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 inhibits antiviral IFN-beta signaling to enhance HIV-1 replication in macrophages
    Lisa Nowoslawski Akhtar
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Immunol 185:2393-404. 2010
    ....
  34. pmc Follicular dendritic cells and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in CD4+ T cells
    Tyler C Thacker
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Room C 211A BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
    J Virol 83:150-8. 2009
    ..Therefore, in addition to providing an important reservoir of infectious virus, FDCs increase HIV production, contributing to a tissue microenvironment that is highly conducive to HIV transmission and expression...
  35. pmc NF-κB/Rel: agonist and antagonist roles in HIV-1 latency
    Jonathan K L Chan
    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:12-8. 2011
    ..To discuss recent advances in our understanding of the diverse roles of NF-κB/Rel family members in HIV-1 latency...
  36. doi Structural and functional insights into IκB-α/HIV-1 Tat interaction
    Luigi Vitagliano
    Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, 80134 Naples, Italy
    Biochimie 93:1592-600. 2011
    ..blocks the HIV-1 expression and replication in a NF-κB-independent manner by directly binding to the virus-encoded Tat transactivator...
  37. pmc The HIV-1 Tat protein has a versatile role in activating viral transcription
    Atze T Das
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 85:9506-16. 2011
    It is generally acknowledged that the Tat protein has a pivotal role in HIV-1 replication because it stimulates transcription from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter by binding to the TAR hairpin in the nascent RNA transcript...
  38. doi HIV-1 Tat protein increases the permeability of brain endothelial cells by both inhibiting occludin expression and cleaving occludin via matrix metalloproteinase-9
    Ruifen Xu
    Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi an Jiaotong University, Xi an, China
    Brain Res 1436:13-9. 2012
    ..Previous studies have proven that the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) alters TJ protein expression...
  39. pmc Production of interferon α by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is dependent on induction of autophagy
    Dejiang Zhou
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:1258-67. 2012
    ..This research examined the roles of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and autophagy in IFN-α production by pDCs during HIV-1 infection...
  40. pmc Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication
    Ferdinand Roesch
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Virus et Immunite, Departement de Virologie, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002792. 2012
    ..Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter...
  41. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and methamphetamine affect the release and activation of matrix-degrading proteinases
    Katherine Conant
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurovirol 10:21-8. 2004
    ..The current study investigates the effects of the HIV-1-encoded protein Tat, and the drug of abuse methamphetamine, on MMP release from brain derived cells...
  42. pmc Simvastatin protects against amyloid beta and HIV-1 Tat-induced promoter activities of inflammatory genes in brain endothelial cells
    Ibolya E Andras
    Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 593 Wethington Bldg, 900 S Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 73:1424-33. 2008
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that Abeta and HIV-1 protein Tat can potentiate their proinflammatory effects at the brain endothelium level...
  43. pmc Arginine methylation increases the stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat
    Haran Sivakumaran
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia
    J Virol 83:11694-703. 2009
    Arginine methylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein downregulates its key function in viral-gene transactivation...
  44. doi Functions of Tat: the versatile protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Bizhan Romani
    Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 91:1-12. 2010
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat is a multifunctional protein that contributes to several pathological symptoms of HIV-1 infection as well as playing a critical role in virus replication...
  45. pmc Chemokine control of HIV-1 infection: beyond a binding competition
    Yuntao Wu
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
    Retrovirology 7:86. 2010
    ..This new study suggests that a diverse group of chemokines may also affect HIV infection through synergistic or antagonistic interaction with the viral coreceptor signaling pathways...
  46. doi Multiple levels of PKR inhibition during HIV-1 replication
    Guerline Clerzius
    Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Rev Med Virol 21:42-53. 2011
    ..The viral Tat protein also counteracts PKR activation by several mechanisms...
  47. pmc Toll-like receptor expression and activation in astroglia: differential regulation by HIV-1 Tat, gp120, and morphine
    Nazira El-Hage
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Richmond, USA
    Immunol Invest 40:498-522. 2011
    In this study, we aimed to determine whether morphine alone or in combination with HIV-1 Tat or gp120 affects the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by astrocytes and to assess whether TLRs expressed by astrocytes function in the ..
  48. pmc Varying modulation of HIV-1 LTR activity by Baf complexes
    Rachel Van Duyne
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
    J Mol Biol 411:581-96. 2011
    ..Additionally, cdk9/cyclin T in the presence of Tat is able to phosphorylate Baf53 in vitro, implying that this posttranslationally modified form relieves the ..
  49. pmc PPARα and PPARγ protect against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 overexpression via caveolae-associated ERK and Akt signaling
    Wen Huang
    Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
    FASEB J 25:3979-88. 2011
    ..confirmed in MMP-9-deficient mice exposed to PPARα or PPARγ agonist and injected with the HIV-1-specific protein Tat into cerebral vasculature...
  50. pmc HIV-1 Tat protein promotes neuronal dysfunction through disruption of microRNAs
    J Robert Chang
    Department of Neurology, Molecular Studies of Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:41125-34. 2011
    ..Therefore, using primary cultures and neuronal cell lines, we examined the impact of a viral protein (HIV-1 Tat) on the expression of miRNAs due to its characteristic features such as release from the infected cells and taken ..
  51. doi Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef suppresses Hsp70-mediated Tat activation
    Ryuichi Sugiyama
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2 17 1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275 0016, Japan
    FEBS Lett 585:3367-71. 2011
    ..In this study, we report that Nef suppressed LTR-driven transcription only in the presence of HIV-1 Tat, which was localized to the cytoplasm and degraded by the proteasome...
  52. pmc LSD1 cooperates with CTIP2 to promote HIV-1 transcriptional silencing
    Valentin Le Douce
    University of Strasbourg, EA4438, Institute of Parasitology, Strasbourg, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:1904-15. 2012
    ..Finally, our data suggest that LSD1-induced H3K4 trimethylation is linked to hSET1 recruitment at the integrated provirus...
  53. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat activates NF-κB via physical interaction with IκB-α and p65
    Giuseppe Fiume
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Catanzaro Magna Graecia, Viale Europa Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:3548-62. 2012
    ..We report that in single round HIV-1 infection, or single-pulse PMA stimulation, the HIV-1 Tat transactivator activated NF-κB by hijacking the inhibitor IκB-α and by preventing the repressor binding to the ..
  54. pmc HIV-1 Tat triggers nuclear localization of ZO-1 via Rho signaling and cAMP response element-binding protein activation
    Yu Zhong
    Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    J Neurosci 32:143-50. 2012
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific protein trans-activator of transcription (Tat) can contribute to the dysfunction of brain endothelial cells and HIV trafficking into the brain by disrupting tight junction (TJ) integrity at ..
  55. ncbi Cooperative interaction of C/EBP beta and Tat modulates MCP-1 gene transcription in astrocytes
    Selvajothi Abraham
    Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, Temple University, 1900 North 12th Street, 015 96, Room 203, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 160:219-27. 2005
    ..Earlier studies showed that HIV-1 Tat protein is able to induce transcription of the MCP-1 promoter in astrocytic cells...
  56. doi Genetic and functional heterogeneity of CNS-derived tat alleles from patients with HIV-associated dementia
    Daniel Cowley
    Centre for Virology, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, 3004 Victoria, Australia
    J Neurovirol 17:70-81. 2011
    ..b>Tat-encoding mRNA has been detected in the CNS of HIV-1 infected individuals and its neurotoxic effects in the CNS are ..
  57. ncbi The histone acetyltransferase, hGCN5, interacts with and acetylates the HIV transactivator, Tat
    E Col
    Laboratoire de Biologie du Stress Oxydant, Faculte de Pharmacie, Domaine de la Merci, 38700 La Tronche Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 276:28179-84. 2001
    ..specifically interacts with and acetylates the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivator protein, Tat. The interaction between Tat and hGCN5 is direct and involves the acetyltransferase and the bromodomain regions of ..
  58. ncbi HIV-1-Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ AKT-dependent survival pathways in Kaposi's sarcoma cells
    Maria Chiara Deregibus
    Cattedra di Nefrologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna Università di Torino, Centro Ricerca Medicina Sperimentale CeRMS, Italy
    J Biol Chem 277:25195-202. 2002
    In this study we found that Tat protected vincristine-treated Kaposi's sarcoma cells from apoptosis and from down-regulation of several anti-apoptotic genes such as AKT-1, AKT-2, BCL2, BCL-XL, and insulin-like growth factor I and induced ..
  59. pmc HIV-tat induces formation of an LRP-PSD-95- NMDAR-nNOS complex that promotes apoptosis in neurons and astrocytes
    Eliseo A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology and Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3438-43. 2007
    ..Here we show that the HIV-encoded protein tat triggers formation of a macromolecular complex involving the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP),..
  60. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protein Tat induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated neurotoxicity
    Lara Buscemi
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 501 N Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 26:661-70. 2007
    ..The HIV-1 protein Tat has been shown to be directly and indirectly neurotoxic...
  61. pmc HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization
    John P Norman
    Center for Neural Development and Disease, The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3731. 2008
    ..We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to ..
  62. pmc Expression of a protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor, cdNIPP1, increases CDK9 threonine 186 phosphorylation and inhibits HIV-1 transcription
    Tatiana Ammosova
    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, DC 20001, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:3798-804. 2011
    ..Our previous studies showed that HIV-1 Tat protein binds to PP1 through the Tat Q(35)VCF(38) sequence, which is similar to the PP1-binding RVXF motif and that ..
  63. ncbi Cell cycle-dependent stimulation of the HIV-1 promoter by Tat-associated CAK activator
    S Nekhai
    Department of Biochemistry, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, 20037, USA
    Virology 266:246-56. 2000
    Activation of the HIV-1 promoter by the virally encoded Tat protein is characterized by efficient processive transcription, mediated by host cell factors that are tethered to the promoter with the Tat-TAR RNA complex...
  64. ncbi Regulation of MCP-1 gene transcription by Smads and HIV-1 Tat in human glial cells
    Selvajothi Abraham
    Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, 1900 North 12th Street, 015 96, Room 203, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Virology 309:196-202. 2003
    ..The enhancement of these cellular proteins in astrocytic cells is mediated, at least in part, by HIV-1 Tat protein...
  65. ncbi HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates inflammatory mediators and induces monocyte invasion into the brain
    Hong Pu
    Department of Surgery Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 24:224-37. 2003
    ..Evidence indicates that a viral gene product, the protein Tat, can markedly contribute to these effects...
  66. pmc Dephosphorylation of CDK9 by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase-1 in Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription
    Tatyana Ammosova
    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, 2121 Georgia Ave, N W Washington, DC 20059, USA
    Retrovirology 2:47. 2005
    HIV-1 Tat protein recruits human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T1, to HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA...
  67. ncbi Acute exposure to ethanol potentiates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-induced Ca(2+) overload and neuronal death in cultured rat cortical neurons
    Eugen Brailoiu
    Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    J Neurovirol 12:17-24. 2006
    ..Either alcohol or HIV alone induces morphological and functional damage to the nervous system. HIV-1 Tat is a potent transcriptional activator of the viral promoter, with the ability to modulate a number of cellular ..
  68. ncbi HIV-1 Tat induces neuronal death via tumor necrosis factor-alpha and activation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by a NFkappaB-independent mechanism
    D R New
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, 14642, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:17852-8. 1998
    ..and release of diffusible factors that result in neuronal cell death, including the HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat. We demonstrate in this report that recombinant Tat1-86 and Tat peptides containing the basic region induce ..
  69. ncbi Cooperative interaction between HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Vpr modulates transcription of the viral genome
    B E Sawaya
    Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:35209-14. 2000
    ..We show that by structural and functional interaction with Tat, a potent viral regulatory protein, Vpr synergistically enhances the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 LTR...
  70. pmc Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is associated with an increase in both NF-kappa B binding and protein kinase C activity in primary human astrocytes
    K Conant
    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 70:1384-9. 1996
    ..Using cultures of primary human fetal astrocytes, we show that exogenous HIV-1 Tat protein, which has been demonstrated to be released from infected cells, is associated with an increase in the ..
  71. ncbi Expression of human immunodeficiency virus type I tat results in down-regulation of bcl-2 and induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells
    K J Sastry
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop 78602, USA
    Oncogene 13:487-93. 1996
    ..Since in the past we and others have demonstrated the capacity of the Tat protein of HIV-1 to modulate the expression of various cellular genes and that Tat secreted by HIV-infected cells ..
  72. ncbi HIV-1 Tat interaction with RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) and a dynamic association with CDK2 induce CTD phosphorylation and transcription from HIV-1 promoter
    Longwen Deng
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D C 20037, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:33922-9. 2002
    Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), Tat protein activates viral gene expression through promoting transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)...
  73. ncbi HIV-Tat protein induces oxidative and inflammatory pathways in brain endothelium
    Michal Toborek
    Department of Surgery, Animal Sciences and Neurology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    J Neurochem 84:169-79. 2003
    ..Mechanisms of injury to BMEC during HIV-1 infection are not fully understood, but the viral gene product Tat may be, at least in part, responsible for this effect...
  74. ncbi Nuclear targeting of protein phosphatase-1 by HIV-1 Tat protein
    Tatyana Ammosova
    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:36364-71. 2005
    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genes is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which induces phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase-II by CDK9/cyclin T1...
  75. pmc Sp1-dependent activation of a synthetic promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein
    J Kamine
    Institute for Molecular Virology, St Louis University Medical Center, MO 63110
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:8510-4. 1991
    The Tat protein coded by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a strong activator of viral gene expression from the long terminal repeat (LTR)...
  76. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein upregulates Bcl-2 gene expression in Jurkat T-cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    G Zauli
    Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Ferrara, Italy
    Blood 86:3823-34. 1995
    The regulatory Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) exerts a pleyotropic activity on the survival and proliferation of different cell types in culture...
  77. ncbi Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein sequentially up-regulates IL-6 and TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in peripheral blood monocytes
    D Gibellini
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Bologna, Italy
    Br J Haematol 88:261-7. 1994
    In this study we evaluated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombinant Tat protein on mRNA expression and protein synthesis of two inflammatory cytokines-interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta ..
  78. ncbi Activation of Bcl-2 promoter-directed gene expression by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein
    Z Wang
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70112, USA
    Virology 257:502-10. 1999
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat transcriptionally activates expression from a number of viral and cellular promoters...
  79. pmc A novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex potentiates Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription
    C A Parada
    Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    EMBO J 18:3688-701. 1999
    The HIV-1-encoded Tat protein controls transcription elongation by increasing processivity of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Here, we have identified a Tat stimulatory activity (Tat-SF) as a novel RNA Pol II-containing complex...
  80. ncbi HIV-1 Tat induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-mediated monocyte transmigration across a model of the human blood-brain barrier and up-regulates CCR5 expression on human monocytes
    J M Weiss
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Immunol 163:2953-9. 1999
    ..models several aspects of the human blood-brain barrier, we examined the mechanism whereby the HIV-derived factor Tat may facilitate monocyte transmigration...
  81. ncbi HIV-1 Tat protein stimulates in vivo vascular permeability and lymphomononuclear cell recruitment
    M Arese
    Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment and Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Torino, Candiolo Italy
    J Immunol 166:1380-8. 2001
    HIV-1 Tat protein released by infected cells is a chemotactic molecule for leukocytes and induces a proinflammatory program in endothelial cells (EC) by activating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors expressed on both ..
  82. ncbi HIV-1 Tat through phosphorylation of NMDA receptors potentiates glutamate excitotoxicity
    N J Haughey
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Neurochem 78:457-67. 2001
    ..One such HIV-1 protein, Tat, can activate calcium release from IP3-sensitive intracellular pools, induce calcium influx in neural cells, and, ..
  83. ncbi HIV-1 Tat causes apoptotic death and calcium homeostasis alterations in rat neurons
    R Bonavia
    Pharmacology and Neuroscience, National Cancer Research Institute, c o Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 288:301-8. 2001
    We investigated the role of the HIV-1 protein Tat in AIDS-associated dementia, by studying its toxicity on rat cortical and hippocampal neurons in vitro...
  84. ncbi The HLA class II transcriptional activator blocks the function of HIV-1 Tat and inhibits viral replication
    Roberto S Accolla
    Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 32:2783-91. 2002
    ..Here we show that CIITA inhibits HIV-1 LTR transactivation mediated by Tat. The inhibition occurred when CIITA and Tat were transiently expressed in cells after transfection and, most ..
  85. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein directly activates neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at an allosteric zinc-sensitive site
    L Song
    Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurovirol 9:399-403. 2003
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat is neurotoxic and may be involved in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 dementia, in part via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation...
  86. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transcription factor Tat produces elevations in intracellular Ca2+ that require function of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor polyamine-sensitive site
    Rachel L Self
    Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, 115 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 0044, USA
    Brain Res 995:39-45. 2004
    ..Function of the HIV-1 transcription factor Tat, activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, and subsequent rapid rises in free ..
  87. pmc p73 Interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat in astrocytic cells and prevents its acetylation on lysine 28
    Shohreh Amini
    Center for Neurovirology and Cancer Biology, Temple University, 1900 North 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 25:8126-38. 2005
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat is a potent transcriptional activator of the HIV-1 promoter and also has the ability to modulate a number of cellular regulatory circuits including apoptosis...
  88. ncbi HIV-TAT protein upregulates expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 in the blood-brain barrier
    Kentaro Hayashi
    Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:1052-65. 2006
    ..the potential mechanisms of this process, the aim of the present research was to address the hypothesis that HIV Tat protein can contribute to upregulation of MRP expression at the BBB level...
  89. ncbi The human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein transactivator of transcription up-regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by acting at metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 receptors coexisting on human and rat brain noradrenergic neurones
    Fabio Longordo
    Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 317:1097-105. 2006
    We investigated the effects of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) on the release of norepinephrine (NE) from human and rat brain synaptosomes. Tat could not evoke directly release of [3H]NE...
  90. pmc Inhibition of PP2A by LIS1 increases HIV-1 gene expression
    Nicolas Epie
    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University College of Medicine, 520 W Street N W, Washington, DC 20059, USA
    Retrovirology 3:65. 2006
    ..Previously we showed that LIS1 interacts with HIV-1 Tat protein and that this interaction was mediated by WD40 domains of LIS1...
  91. pmc Differences in NMDA receptor expression during human development determine the response of neurons to HIV-tat-mediated neurotoxicity
    E A Eugenin
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Forchheimer 727, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Neurotox Res 19:138-48. 2011
    ..elaboration of inflammatory factors and neurotoxic viral proteins, including the viral transactivating protein tat. We and others demonstrated that tat induces apoptosis in differentiated mature human neurons...
  92. pmc Mechanisms of HIV-tat-induced phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A in human primary neurons: implications for neuroAIDS pathogenesis
    Jessie E King
    Department of Pathology, The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Am J Pathol 176:2819-30. 2010
    ..through elaboration of inflammatory factors and neurotoxic viral proteins, including the viral transactivator, tat. We previously demonstrated that HIV-tat-induced apoptosis in human primary neurons is dependent on N-methyl-D-..
  93. ncbi HIV-1 protein Tat induces apoptosis of hippocampal neurons by a mechanism involving caspase activation, calcium overload, and oxidative stress
    I I Kruman
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40536, USA
    Exp Neurol 154:276-88. 1998
    ..The protein Tat, which is released from HIV-1-infected cells, was recently shown to be toxic toward cultured neurons...
  94. pmc HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 relative Bim
    Dan Chen
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 3206, USA
    EMBO J 21:6801-10. 2002
    ..This is mediated in part through the HIV-1 Tat protein, which is secreted by the infected cells and taken up by uninfected cells...
  95. ncbi Evidence for functional interaction between the HIV-1 Tat transactivator and the TATA box binding protein in vivo
    P Veschambre
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, UMR49 CNRS, France
    J Mol Biol 250:169-80. 1995
    b>Tat strongly activates transcription of the HIV-1 provirus by stimulating both initiation and elongation...
  96. pmc Three functional classes of transcriptional activation domain
    J Blau
    Molecular Genetics of Differentiation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK
    Mol Cell Biol 16:2044-55. 1996
    ..classes of activation domains: Sp1 and CTF stimulated initiation (type I); human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat fused to a DNA binding domain stimulated predominantly elongation (type IIA); and VP16, p53, and E2F1 stimulated ..
  97. pmc Protein B23 is an important human factor for the nucleolar localization of the human immunodeficiency virus protein Tat
    Y P Li
    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Virol 71:4098-102. 1997
    Nucleolar shuttle protein B23 was found to bind to human immunodeficiency virus protein Tat, and this binding required the nucleolar localization motif of Tat...
  98. ncbi Biochemical and functional interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat transactivator with the general transcription factor TFIIB
    P Veschambre
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR49, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, France
    J Gen Virol 78:2235-45. 1997
    b>Tat strongly stimulates transcription of the human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) provirus by interacting with various cellular transcription factors, including TFIID...
  99. pmc CA150, a nuclear protein associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, is involved in Tat-activated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription
    C Suñé
    Department of Molecular Cancer Biology, Levine Science Research Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 17:6029-39. 1997
    ..HIV-1) gene expression requires specific cellular factors in addition to the virus-encoded trans-activator protein Tat and the RNA element TAR...
  100. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat induces apoptosis and increases sensitivity to apoptotic signals by up-regulating FLICE/caspase-8
    S R Bartz
    Divisions of Molecular Medicine and Basic Science, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Virol 73:1956-63. 1999
    ..The ability to induce apoptosis was attributable to Tat, a viral regulatory protein...
  101. pmc Host-cell positive transcription elongation factor b kinase activity is essential and limiting for HIV type 1 replication
    O Flores
    Department of Biology, Tularik, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7208-13. 1999
    HIV-1 gene expression and viral replication require the viral transactivator protein Tat. The RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation factor P-TEFb (cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T) is a cellular protein kinase that has recently ..

Research Grants52

  1. DELETION MUTAGENESIS WITHIN NONCODING SEGMENTS OF HIV1
    Mark Wainberg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..6. To determine whether these attenuated SIV constructs may protect against subsequent challenge with virulent forms of SIV and SIV/HIV hybrids. ..
  2. 8th International Symposium on NeuroVirology
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The Symposium will also overview ongoing international research efforts in NeuroAIDS, neurovirology, and diseases caused by other non-viral CNS pathogens. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with SLE
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, checkpoints of mitochondrial hyperpolarization could represent novel targets of pharmacological intervention in patients with SLE. ..
  4. Attenuation of astroglial chemokine expression by beta-funaltrexamine: implicatio
    Randall Davis; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This training will lend to the success of these students in their future careers in health related professions. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. Neuronal transport of gp120
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Role of mitochondrial core protein in Hepatitis C Virus pathogenesis
    Melanie Ott; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We anticipate that our studies will help elucidate the mechanisms of how HCV core induces steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. Neurotrophic factors and HIV-mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  8. SIGNIFICANCE OF LOW LEVEL VIREMIA IN PATIENTS ON HAART
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  9. BASIS OF SYNAPTIC PATHOLOGY IN ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    Eliezer Masliah; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will help to better understand the mechanisms of synaptic pathology in AD and to develop potential neuroprotective agents that will operate by enhancing the GT activity. ..
  10. Regulation of mRNA Decapping in Human Cells
    Jeffrey Wilusz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In total, these studies should provide pivotal insights into this important area of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells. ..
  11. Antidepressants and Fibroblast Growth Factor
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Data from this proposal may help elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants in affective disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. Neurodevelopmental Basis(es) of Nicotine Sensitization
    Rosemarie Booze; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Role of SIRT1 as a transcriptional coactivator of HIV-1
    Melanie Ott; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..HIV-1 transcription is uniquely dependent on the action of the viral transactivator Tat. Tat acts as an adaptor protein and recruits important cellular cofactors to the HIV-1 promoter located in the 5-..
  14. 7th International Symposium on NeuroVirology
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It is anticipated that approximately 350 individuals will attend the 7th International Symposium on NeuroVirology with more than 250 abstracts and greater than 50 oral presentations. [unreadable]..
  15. Ethanol Effects on Human Astroglial Chemokine Expression
    Randall Davis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..astrocytes and A172 cells will be stimulated in vitro with LPS, peptidoglycan, cytokines and/or the HIV-1 proteins, Tat and gp120, to induce chemokine production...
  16. Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by DNA Damage
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. MECHANISM OF NON-INTEGRASE-MEDIATED HIV-1 REPLICATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Further aims are to develop gene therapy vectors based on non-integrating retroviruses. ..
  18. MONOCYTE SUBSETS AND AIDS DEMENTIA
    D Pulliam; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  19. Typhoon 8600 Variable Mode Imager Workstation
    Jeffrey Wilusz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. 4th International Symposium on NeuroVirology
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. HIV-Encephalitis and Cocaine Abuse: Mechanism of Synergy and Therapy
    Shilpa J Buch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Relevance: This proposal aims to: a) Explore the role of cocaine in accelerating the development of HFV Dementia and b) Develop therapeutic intervention strategies for the treatment of HAD in cocaine-abusers. ..
  22. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF HIV DNA INTEGRATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF TRANSALDOLASE
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies with the availability of unique reagents and existing model systems will further our knowledge on the role of TAL in the PPP, apoptosis signaling, and related disease processes. ..
  24. Ethanol and NOS2 Gene Expression in Human Astrocytes
    Randall Davis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Use of deletion constructs will help identify ethanol-sensitive regions for future studies on trans-acting factors involved in the action of ethanol. ..
  25. HIV Molecular & Clinical Neuroscience Workshop
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  26. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) and HIV transcription
    Melanie Ott; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..HIV transcription is uniquely dependent on the action of the viral transactivator Tat. In addition, integration into the human genome and organization into chromatin is a key regulatory step for HIV-1 ..
  27. Virus-Mosquito mRNA Stability
    Jeffrey Wilusz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In summary, this information will provide fundamental insights into insect molecular biology and virus-host interactions that will provide the groundwork for novel avenues of arbovirus control. ..
  28. Determine the Transcriptional Activity of Non-integrated HIV-1 DNA
    Yuntao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..are to determine the viral DNA template regulating pre-integration transcription, and the involvement of HIV Tat in the initiation of pre- integration transcription...
  29. Genetic and Immunological Impact of the HRES-1/Rab4 Locus in SLE
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Under Specific Aim 3, we will test the hypothesis that the HindIIIG653C allele, alone or in combination with other genetic factors of lupus-associated haplotypes, enhances the expression of HRES-1/Rab4. ..
  30. Targeting Brain Macrophages by a novel lentiviral vector
    Yuntao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The experiment methods for these specific aims are to achieve HIV-1 Tat- and Rev-dependent expression of a cytolytic gene, anthralysin O from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis, in HIV-1 ..
  31. Modulation of Cystatins and Cathepsins in HIV-1 Neuropathogenesis
    Loyda M Melendez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study may elucidate novel targets for diagnosis and therapy. ..
  32. CYTOLYTIC T CELL RESPONSE IN AIDS VACCINE RECIPENTS
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..nonresponders. Antigen processing and presentation will then be studied using cells from non-responders. Finally the ability of HIV-1 specific CTL to lyse newly or chronically infected resting CD4 T cells will be examined. ..
  33. Recruitment and activation of RSK2 by HIV Tat
    Melanie Ott; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The viral transactivator Tat and its cellular interaction partners play a critical role in the regulation of HIV transcription...
  34. LEDGF-Integrase Structural Biology
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. Function and localization of HIV cofactor TAK/P-TEFb
    CHRISTINE HERRMANN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    A critical step in the HIV life cycle is transcription of the HIV genome directed by the transactivator protein Tat. Transactivation by Tat requires the cellular cofactor, TAWP-TEFb, which is composed of the catalytic subunit Cdk9 and ..
  36. HIV 1 PROTEINS AND DRUGS OF ABUSE AND METALLOPROTEASES
    Katherine Conant; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We will also examine the mechanisms by which these substances may affect MMP production, and identify clinically tolerable compounds which may inhibit such production. ..
  37. Mechanisms of in vivo protection from HIV infection
    Harris Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  38. MMPS IN HIV DEMENTIA: EFFECTS ON BBB STRUCTURE/FUNCTION
    Katherine Conant; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Also, the proposed studies will use both primary brain-derived HIV isolates, which differ from laboratory adapted strains, and normal human cells, which also differ significantly from those of rodent or tumor origin. ..
  39. TRANSGENIC MICE--MODEL FOR STUDYING HIV INFECTION OF THE
    Harris Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These in vivo studies will be performed using novel transgenic mouse models that we have recently developed that display productive HIV-1 infection. ..
  40. iNOS Posttranslational Regulation in Cardiac Rejection
    GALEN PIEPER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A better understanding of this molecular process may lead to better strategies to prevent injury cardiac cells in these patients. ..
  41. MOLECULAR TARGETS OF NITRIC OXIDE IN CARDIAC TRANSPLANTS
    GALEN PIEPER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies will provide a novel mechanism to explain the pathogenesis of dyskinesis and graft failure during cardiac transplant rejection. ..
  42. MMPs and Synaptic Injury with HIV/METH
    Katherine Conant; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In parallel studies, METH treated mice that over express HIV-1 Tat or gp120 will be treated with a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, or vehicle control, and CNS tissues will be similarly ..
  43. Role of P-gp in perivascular HIV-1 sanctuary and HAART
    Debasis Mondal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..preliminary data show that human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) express functional P-gp and exposure to the HIV-1 Tat protein or TNF-alpha further enhanced cell surface levels of P-gp...
  44. Transgenic/SCID-hu Mouse Model to Study HIV Therapeutics
    Harris Goldstein; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will also examine the efficacy of Env-directed toxin-treatment to eliminate reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells using our well-established thy/liv- SCID-hu mouse system. ..
  45. Molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction in AIDS
    Francesca Peruzzi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In addition to cellular factors, the viral regulatory protein Tat has received attention due to its unique ability to be secreted by the infected cells, enter into uninfected cells ..
  46. Thrombin signaling and HIV dementia
    Katherine Conant; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. MMPs in neural networking
    Katherine Conant; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results of our studies should improve our understanding of those CNS inflammatory diseases that are characterized by elevated levels of MMPs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. Role of p38 MAPK in IL-4-induced IL-6 expression in vascular endothelium
    Yongwoo Lee; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Alcohol Enhances HIV-1 Induced Cardiac Depression
    Kathleen McDonough; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The expression of the HIV protein, Tat, has global effects on cell function including alterations in cytokine expression, transcription factors, and oxidative state of the cells...