SLUG

Summary

Gene Symbol: SLUG
Description: snail family transcriptional repressor 2
Alias: SLUG, SLUGH, SLUGH1, SNAIL2, WS2D, zinc finger protein SNAI2, neural crest transcription factor SLUG, protein snail homolog 2, slug (chicken homolog), zinc finger protein, snail family zinc finger 2, snail homolog 2
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 as novel parameters of disease aggressiveness in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma
    Sivan Elloul
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    Cancer 103:1631-43. 2005
  2. pmc Canonical Wnt signaling regulates Slug activity and links epithelial-mesenchymal transition with epigenetic Breast Cancer 1, Early Onset (BRCA1) repression
    Zhao Qiu Wu
    Division of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16654-9. 2012
  3. pmc Angiopoietin-like protein 1 suppresses SLUG to inhibit cancer cell motility
    Tsang Chih Kuo
    Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Clin Invest 123:1082-95. 2013
  4. doi MicroRNA-1 targets Slug and endows lung cancer A549 cells with epithelial and anti-tumorigenic properties
    Eiji Tominaga
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, Nishitokyo shi, Tokyo, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 319:77-88. 2013
  5. pmc Stress-induced cellular transcription factors expressed in trigeminal ganglionic neurons stimulate the herpes simplex virus 1 ICP0 promoter
    Devis Sinani
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln, and Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
    J Virol 87:13042-7. 2013
  6. ncbi Raf 1 represses expression of the tight junction protein occludin via activation of the zinc-finger transcription factor slug
    Z Wang
    Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Oncogene 26:1222-30. 2007
  7. doi Transforming growth factor-β1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and integrin α3β1-mediated cell migration of HSC-4 human squamous cell carcinoma cells through Slug
    Daishi Saito
    Division of Cellular Biosignal Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Iwate Medical University, Nishitokuta, Yahaba Cho, Iwate 028 3694, Japan
    J Biochem 153:303-15. 2013
  8. pmc The zinc-finger protein slug causes desmosome dissociation, an initial and necessary step for growth factor-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition
    P Savagner
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Cell Biol 137:1403-19. 1997
  9. pmc Human Slug is a repressor that localizes to sites of active transcription
    K Hemavathy
    Program in Molecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5087-95. 2000
  10. ncbi The SLUG zinc-finger protein represses E-cadherin in breast cancer
    Karen M Hajra
    Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Cancer Res 62:1613-8. 2002

Research Grants

  1. Molecular regulation of breast cancer growth
    Marsha A Moses; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. NFkB Targets and Neural Crest Development
    MICHAEL WILLIAM KLYMKOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. EMT, Extravasation and metastasis by N-Cadherin signaling
    Rachel B Hazan; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Creation of adult epithelial stem cells from differentiated epithelial
    Robert A Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Cellular Repair of Kidney Injury
    Lloyd G Cantley; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. Keratinocyte Activation by Slug-induced Calprotectin
    Donna F Kusewitt; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. Role of Slug in Regulation of Hematopietic Stem Cells
    Wen Shu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2010
  8. Wen Shu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2015
  9. Jianfei Qi; Fiscal Year: 2015
  10. Role of JMJD1A in hypoxia-induced EMT and prostate cancer stem cells
    Jianfei Qi; Fiscal Year: 2012

Detail Information

Publications216 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 as novel parameters of disease aggressiveness in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma
    Sivan Elloul
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    Cancer 103:1631-43. 2005
    ..For the current study, the authors analyzed the relation between the expression of Snail, Slug, and Sip1; the expression of MMP-2 and E-cadherin; and clinical parameters in patients with metastatic ovarian and ..
  2. pmc Canonical Wnt signaling regulates Slug activity and links epithelial-mesenchymal transition with epigenetic Breast Cancer 1, Early Onset (BRCA1) repression
    Zhao Qiu Wu
    Division of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Internal Medicine, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16654-9. 2012
    Slug (Snail2) plays critical roles in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs operative during development and disease. However, the means by which Slug activity is controlled remain unclear...
  3. pmc Angiopoietin-like protein 1 suppresses SLUG to inhibit cancer cell motility
    Tsang Chih Kuo
    Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Clin Invest 123:1082-95. 2013
    ..suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by reducing the expression of the zinc-finger protein SLUG. A microRNA screen revealed that ANGPTL1 suppressed SLUG by inducing expression of miR-630 in an integrin α(1)β(1)..
  4. doi MicroRNA-1 targets Slug and endows lung cancer A549 cells with epithelial and anti-tumorigenic properties
    Eiji Tominaga
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, Nishitokyo shi, Tokyo, Japan
    Exp Cell Res 319:77-88. 2013
    ..These structural and tumorigenic properties induced by miR-1 were associated with the reduced expression of Slug, which was a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin or an inducer of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
  5. pmc Stress-induced cellular transcription factors expressed in trigeminal ganglionic neurons stimulate the herpes simplex virus 1 ICP0 promoter
    Devis Sinani
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska Lincoln, and Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
    J Virol 87:13042-7. 2013
    ..Three dexamethasone-induced transcription factors, Krüppel-like factor 15, Slug, and SPDEF, stimulated the herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) promoter more than 150-fold...
  6. ncbi Raf 1 represses expression of the tight junction protein occludin via activation of the zinc-finger transcription factor slug
    Z Wang
    Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Oncogene 26:1222-30. 2007
    ..a minimal segment of the occludin promoter in concert with upregulation of the transcriptional repressor, Slug without influencing the well-documented transcriptional repressor, Snail...
  7. doi Transforming growth factor-β1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and integrin α3β1-mediated cell migration of HSC-4 human squamous cell carcinoma cells through Slug
    Daishi Saito
    Division of Cellular Biosignal Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Iwate Medical University, Nishitokuta, Yahaba Cho, Iwate 028 3694, Japan
    J Biochem 153:303-15. 2013
    ..In addition, the expression levels of the EMT-related transcription factor Slug was significantly upregulated on TGF-β1 stimulation...
  8. pmc The zinc-finger protein slug causes desmosome dissociation, an initial and necessary step for growth factor-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition
    P Savagner
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Cell Biol 137:1403-19. 1997
    ..We tested for a central role in EMT of a zinc-finger protein called Slug. Slug mRNA and protein levels were increased transiently in FGF-1-treated NBT-II cells...
  9. pmc Human Slug is a repressor that localizes to sites of active transcription
    K Hemavathy
    Program in Molecular Medicine, Department of Cell Biology and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:5087-95. 2000
    Snail/Slug family proteins have been identified in diverse species of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The proteins contain four to six zinc fingers and function as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators...
  10. ncbi The SLUG zinc-finger protein represses E-cadherin in breast cancer
    Karen M Hajra
    Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Cancer Res 62:1613-8. 2002
    ..Two zinc-finger transcription factors known to bind E-box elements, SLUG and SNAIL, repressed E-cadherin-driven reporter gene constructs containing wild-type promoter sequences but not ..
  11. pmc Snail mediates E-cadherin repression by the recruitment of the Sin3A/histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)/HDAC2 complex
    Hector Peinado
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 24:306-19. 2004
    ..Our results establish a direct causal relationship between Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin and the modification of chromatin at its promoter...
  12. ncbi Induction of stem cell factor/c-Kit/slug signal transduction in multidrug-resistant malignant mesothelioma cells
    Alfonso Catalano
    Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona 60131, Italy
    J Biol Chem 279:46706-14. 2004
    ..Here, we identified a pathway that involves stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit/Slug in mediating multidrug resistance of MM cells...
  13. ncbi Slug Expression in the E-cadherin preserved tumors is related to prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    Yasuto Uchikado
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Digestive Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kagoshima University, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890 8520, Japan
    Clin Cancer Res 11:1174-80. 2005
    ..b>Slug, a member of the snail family of transcriptional factors, is a newly identified suppressive transcriptional factor ..
  14. pmc Regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by the SLUG repressor protein in human breast cells
    Manish K Tripathi
    Division of Cancer Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Meharry Medical College, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:17163-71. 2005
    ..We explored whether the E2-box-binding repressor protein SLUG, which is of similar molecular size, is involved in the silencing process...
  15. ncbi The transcriptional repressor Snail promotes mammary tumor recurrence
    Susan E Moody
    Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
    Cancer Cell 8:197-209. 2005
    ..In aggregate, our observations strongly implicate Snail in the process of breast cancer recurrence...
  16. ncbi Slug regulates integrin expression and cell proliferation in human epidermal keratinocytes
    Frances E Turner
    School of Biosciences and School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK
    J Biol Chem 281:21321-31. 2006
    ..In this paper, we have analyzed the role of a transcriptional repressor called Slug in the regulation of adhesion molecule expression and function in epidermal keratinocytes...
  17. ncbi SLUG (SNAI2) overexpression in embryonic development
    P A Pérez-Mancera
    Laboratorio 13, Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular del Cancer, CSIC Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
    Cytogenet Genome Res 114:24-9. 2006
    The Snail-related zinc-finger transcription factor, SLUG (SNAI2), is critical for the normal development of neural crest-derived cells and loss-of-function SLUG mutations have been proven to cause piebaldism and Waardenburg syndrome type ..
  18. pmc Jagged1-mediated Notch activation induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through Slug-induced repression of E-cadherin
    Kevin G Leong
    Department of Medical Biophysics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3, Canada
    J Exp Med 204:2935-48. 2007
    ..However, the reason that Jagged1 and/or Notch overexpression portends a poor prognosis is unknown. We identify Slug, a transcriptional repressor, as a novel Notch target and show that elevated levels of Slug correlate with ..
  19. pmc In vivo binding to and functional repression of the VDR gene promoter by SLUG in human breast cells
    Mukul K Mittal
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immune Response, Meharry Medical College, 1005 D B Todd Jr Boulevard, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 372:30-4. 2008
    ..We have shown here that the transcriptional repressor protein SLUG inhibits the expression of VDR in human breast cancer cells...
  20. pmc ERalpha suppresses slug expression directly by transcriptional repression
    Yin Ye
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 129 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Biochem J 416:179-87. 2008
    ..pathways in breast cancer are the ER (oestrogen receptor) ligand activation pathway and the E-cadherin snai1 slug EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) pathway...
  21. doi Slug (SNAI2) down-regulation by RNA interference facilitates apoptosis and inhibits invasive growth in neuroblastoma preclinical models
    Roberta Vitali
    Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Research Center Casaccia, Rome, Italy
    Clin Cancer Res 14:4622-30. 2008
    We assessed the relevance of Slug (SNAI2) for apoptosis resistance and invasion potential of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
  22. pmc Snail and Slug promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition through beta-catenin-T-cell factor-4-dependent expression of transforming growth factor-beta3
    Damian Medici
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 19:4875-87. 2008
    ..Here, we show that Snail and Slug promote formation of beta-catenin-T-cell factor (TCF)-4 transcription complexes that bind to the promoter of the ..
  23. doi Tumor-induced upregulation of Twist, Snail, and Slug represses the activity of the human VE-cadherin promoter
    Dayami Lopez
    Don and Erika Wallace Comprehensive Breast Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 9416, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 482:77-82. 2009
    ..microvascular EC exposed to CM showed a downregulation in VE-cadherin promoter activity and upregulation of Twist, Slug, and Snail expression...
  24. doi Slug is a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor-beta1-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and invasion of oral cancer cells
    Mathew J Joseph
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Cell Biochem 108:726-36. 2009
    ..is the best characterized and the most extensively studied member of this family, the role and regulation of Slug (Snai2) in oral cancer progression is less well understood...
  25. pmc Expression analysis of E-cadherin, Slug and GSK3beta in invasive ductal carcinoma of breast
    Chandra P Prasad
    Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
    BMC Cancer 9:325. 2009
    ..Recent findings from our laboratory confirm that active Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is critically involved in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) of breast...
  26. doi Comprehensive analysis of the independent effect of twist and snail in promoting metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Muh Hwa Yang
    Institutes of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hepatology 50:1464-74. 2009
    ..2% and 51.5% of primary HCC samples, respectively. Overexpression of Snail, Twist, or Slug, the major regulators of EMT, was identified in 56.9%, 43.1%, and 51.4% of primary HCCs, respectively...
  27. doi ERalpha signaling through slug regulates E-cadherin and EMT
    Y Ye
    Department of Pathology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557 0350, USA
    Oncogene 29:1451-62. 2010
    ..When ERalpha was overexpressed in the ERalpha-negative lines, 17beta-estradiol (E2) decreased slug and increased E-cadherin...
  28. pmc Slug inhibits proliferation of human prostate cancer cells via downregulation of cyclin D1 expression
    Jun Liu
    Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Prostate 70:1768-77. 2010
    b>Slug is a transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family and is implicated in metastasis of tumors, but its role in cell proliferation of prostate cancers is unclear.
  29. pmc SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas
    Hong Wei Yang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    BMC Cancer 10:301. 2010
    ..Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known...
  30. pmc The E-cadherin repressor slug and progression of human extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma
    Ke Jun Zhang
    General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qing Dao, Shandong Province, 266003, China
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 29:88. 2010
    This study explored the expression and function of Slug in human extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma (EHC) to identify its role in tumor progression.
  31. pmc Expression of Slug is regulated by c-Myb and is required for invasion and bone marrow homing of cancer cells of different origin
    Barbara Tanno
    Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Research Center Casaccia, Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, 00123 Rome, Italy
    J Biol Chem 285:29434-45. 2010
    ..Slug (SNAI2, Snail2) is involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition in physiological and in pathological contexts...
  32. doi Slug regulates proliferation and invasiveness of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo
    Kejun Zhang
    General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, People s Republic of China
    Med Oncol 28:1089-100. 2011
    b>Slug is a transcription factor and E-cadherin repressor, which has recently been demonstrated to be important for cancer cells to down-regulate epithelial markers and up-regulate mesenchymal markers in order to become motile and invasive...
  33. doi Expression and importance of zinc-finger transcription factor Slug in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland
    Yaling Tang
    State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No 14 Sec 3 Renminnan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    J Oral Pathol Med 39:775-80. 2010
    It has been reported that zinc-finger transcription factor Slug plays a critical role in tumor proliferation and differentiation, relapse, invasion, metastasis, and decreased survival...
  34. pmc Expression of transcription factors snail, slug, and twist in human bladder carcinoma
    Qinchao Yu
    Department of Urology Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shan Dong Province, 266403, China
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res 29:119. 2010
    b>Slug, snail, and twist are transcription factors that regulate the expression of tumor suppressors such as E-cadherin. In this study, we aimed to examine the expression of these transcription factors in human bladder carcinoma.
  35. pmc SLUG-induced elevation of D1 cyclin in breast cancer cells through the inhibition of its ubiquitination
    Mukul K Mittal
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA and
    J Biol Chem 286:469-79. 2011
    ..We report here that the metastasis regulator protein SLUG inhibits the expression of UbcH5c directly through chromatin remodeling and thus, among other downstream effects, ..
  36. pmc Snail2 is an essential mediator of Twist1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastasis
    Esmeralda Casas
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0636, USA
    Cancer Res 71:245-54. 2011
    ..A group of transcription factors, including Twist1, Snail1, Snail2, ZEB1, and ZEB2, have been shown to induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), thus promoting tumor ..
  37. pmc Expression of Snail2 in long bone osteosarcomas correlates with tumour malignancy
    Amir Shaya Sharili
    Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, Camden, London NW1 0TU, UK
    Tumour Biol 32:515-26. 2011
    b>Snail2 is a marker of malignancy in epithelial tumours; however, in sarcomas, it is not known if this protein is present...
  38. pmc Slug expression enhances tumor formation in a noninvasive rectal cancer model
    E Ramsay Camp
    Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    J Surg Res 170:56-63. 2011
    ..Transcriptional regulators such as Slug mediate EMT, working in part to repress E-cadherin transcription...
  39. pmc Transcriptional activation of ZEB1 by Slug leads to cooperative regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotype in melanoma
    Christian Wels
    Cancer Biology Unit, Department of Dermatology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria
    J Invest Dermatol 131:1877-85. 2011
    The E-box-binding zinc finger transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 are important repressors of E-cadherin, contributing to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary epithelial cancers...
  40. pmc Slug down-regulation by RNA interference inhibits invasion growth in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    Peng Tang
    Department of Surgery, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shan Dong Province, People s Republic of China
    BMC Gastroenterol 11:60. 2011
    ..We assessed the relevance of Slug in measuring the invasive potential of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo in immunodeficient mice.
  41. doi Expression of Snail and Slug in renal cell carcinoma: E-cadherin repressor Snail is associated with cancer invasion and prognosis
    Shuji Mikami
    Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    Lab Invest 91:1443-58. 2011
    ..The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of Snail, Slug and their associations with cancer invasion and prognosis in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs)...
  42. pmc The transcription factors Snail and Slug activate the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in breast cancer
    Archana Dhasarathy
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26514. 2011
    The transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are situated at the core of several signaling pathways proposed to mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT, which has been implicated in tumor metastasis...
  43. pmc SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis
    Berna Uygur
    Center for Molecular Medicine, MMC Research Institute, Maine Medical Center, Scarborough, ME 04074, USA
    Mol Cancer 10:139. 2011
    b>SLUG is a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family that plays a role in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Mechanisms by which SLUG promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancers remain elusive.
  44. pmc Human cancer cells express Slug-based epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression signature obtained in vivo
    Dimitris Anastassiou
    Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    BMC Cancer 11:529. 2011
    ..The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
  45. pmc Interplay between β1-integrin and Rho signaling regulates differential scattering and motility of pancreatic cancer cells by snail and Slug proteins
    Mario A Shields
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:6218-29. 2012
    ..In this study, we examine the role of Slug (Snai2) in regulating pancreatic cancer cell scattering in three-dimensional type I collagen...
  46. pmc Slug and Sox9 cooperatively determine the mammary stem cell state
    Wenjun Guo
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Cell 148:1015-28. 2012
    ..We have identified two TFs, Slug and Sox9, that act cooperatively to determine the mammary stem cell (MaSC) state...
  47. pmc High motility of triple-negative breast cancer cells is due to repression of plakoglobin gene by metastasis modulator protein SLUG
    Charvann K Bailey
    Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:19472-86. 2012
    ..cells are highly motile and metastatic and are characterized by high levels of the metastasis regulator protein SLUG. Using isogenic breast cancer cell systems we have shown here that high motility of these cells is directly ..
  48. pmc Slug expression during melanoma progression
    Stephanie H Shirley
    Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Science Park, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
    Am J Pathol 180:2479-89. 2012
    b>Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest...
  49. pmc Krüppel-like factor 4, a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma cells reverts epithelial mesenchymal transition by suppressing slug expression
    Ze Shiang Lin
    National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan
    PLoS ONE 7:e43593. 2012
    ..Associated with this, we found that expression of Slug, a critical epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factor, was significantly down-regulated ..
  50. pmc Correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells
    Elisabetta Lambertini
    Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 44121, Italy
    BMC Cancer 12:445. 2012
    ..Breast cancer and its metastatic progression is mainly directed by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenomenon supported by specific transcription factors and miRNAs...
  51. ncbi SLUG, a ces-1-related zinc finger transcription factor gene with antiapoptotic activity, is a downstream target of the E2A-HLF oncoprotein
    T Inukai
    Department of Experimental Oncology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
    Mol Cell 4:343-52. 1999
    ..In a search for E2A-HLF-responsive genes, we identified a zinc finger transcription factor, SLUG, whose product belongs to the Snail family of developmental regulatory proteins...
  52. ncbi SLUG (SNAI2) deletions in patients with Waardenburg disease
    Manuel Sanchez-Martin
    Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer IBMCC, Centro de Investigacion del Cancer, CSIC Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Hum Mol Genet 11:3231-6. 2002
    ..The identification of Slugh, a zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in migratory neural crest cells, as the gene responsible for ..
  53. pmc Aberrant expression of the transcription factors snail and slug alters the response to genotoxic stress
    Masahiro Kajita
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:7559-66. 2004
    Snail and Slug are closely related transcriptional repressors involved in embryonic patterning during metazoan development...
  54. pmc Requirement of the Akt/beta-catenin pathway for uterine carcinosarcoma genesis, modulating E-cadherin expression through the transactivation of slug
    Makoto Saegusa
    Department of Pathology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8555, Japan
    Am J Pathol 174:2107-15. 2009
    ..Expression levels of the transcription factor Slug were also significantly up-regulated in the mesenchymal components and strongly correlated with both pAkt and ..
  55. doi p53 controls cancer cell invasion by inducing the MDM2-mediated degradation of Slug
    Shu Ping Wang
    Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
    Nat Cell Biol 11:694-704. 2009
    ..b>Slug, an invasion promoter, exerts its effects by repressing E-cadherin transcription...
  56. doi Slug gene expression supports human osteoblast maturation
    Elisabetta Lambertini
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Section, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 74, 44100, Ferrara, Italy
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:3641-53. 2009
    This study aims to define the function of Slug transcription factor in human normal osteoblasts (hOBs). To date, Slug is considered exclusively a marker of malignancy in bone tissue...
  57. pmc SLUG: a new target of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 in human osteoblasts
    Elisabetta Lambertini
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Section, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 74, 44100 Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    BMC Mol Biol 11:13. 2010
    ..In a search for Lef-1 responsive genes in human osteoblasts, we focused on the transcriptional regulation of the SLUG, a zinc finger transcription factor belonging to the Snail family of developmental proteins...
  58. pmc Slug suppression induces apoptosis via Puma transactivation in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide
    Hoon Suk Cha
    Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 135 710, Korea
    Exp Mol Med 42:428-36. 2010
    ..b>Slug, a highly conserved zinc finger transcriptional repressor, is known to antagonize apoptosis of hematopoietic ..
  59. doi Slug inhibition upregulates radiation-induced PUMA activity leading to apoptosis in cholangiocarcinomas
    Kejun Zhang
    Department of General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, 266003 Qingdao, Shan Dong Province, People s Republic of China
    Med Oncol 28:S301-9. 2011
    Resistance of cholangiocarcinoma to irradiation therapy is a major problem in cancer treatment. Slug, a snail family transcription factor, is a suppressor of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), which has been shown to be ..
  60. doi Slug contributes to the regulation of CXCL12 expression in human osteoblasts
    Roberta Piva
    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, Ferrara, Italy
    Exp Cell Res 317:1159-68. 2011
    ..of a correct expression of CXCL12 in bone cellular context, we analyzed the relationship between CXCL12 and Slug, a transcription factor recently associated with osteoblast maturation...
  61. pmc Role of Slug transcription factor in human mesenchymal stem cells
    Elena Torreggiani
    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Sezione di Biologia Molecolare, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    J Cell Mol Med 16:740-51. 2012
    ..their mineral matrix deposition, and in the expression levels of TFs including Runx2, Sox9, Sox5, Sox6, STAT1 and Slug, all involved in the control of osteochondroprogenitors differentiation program...
  62. doi Egr-1 mediates epidermal growth factor-induced downregulation of E-cadherin expression via Slug in human ovarian cancer cells
    J C Cheng
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Oncogene 32:1041-9. 2013
    ..Interestingly, siRNA depletion of Egr-1 attenuated the EGF-induced expression of Slug, but not that of Snail...
  63. ncbi Human SLUG gene organization, expression, and chromosome map location on 8q
    M E Cohen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland, 21287 3914, USA
    Genomics 51:468-71. 1998
    b>SLUG is a member of the snail family of zinc finger proteins. It is involved in epithelial to mesenchyme cell transition during neurulation and plays a role in limb bud development...
  64. ncbi Modulation of aromatase expression in human breast tissue
    S Chen
    Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 79:35-40. 2001
    ..3 and II is suppressed through the binding of EAR-2, COUP-TFI, and EARgamma to S1, and through the binding of Snail/Slug proteins to their binding site that quenchs the CREaro activity...
  65. ncbi Regulation of Msx genes by a Bmp gradient is essential for neural crest specification
    Celeste Tribulo
    Millennium Nucleus in Developmental Biology, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile
    Development 130:6441-52. 2003
    ..We show that msx1 expression is able to induce all other early neural crest markers tested (snail, slug, foxd3) at the time of neural crest specification...
  66. ncbi Displacement and sweep efficiencies in a DNAPL recovery test using micellar and polymer solutions injected in a five-spot pattern
    Richard Martel
    INRS Eau, Terre et Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite du Quebec, 880 Chemin Sainte Foy, C P 7500, Sainte Foy, Quebec, Canada G1V 4C7
    J Contam Hydrol 75:1-29. 2004
    ..8 pore volumes of actual washing solution injected), slug sizing of the washing solution is critical. It was evaluated by an analytical solution...
  67. ncbi The role of genetic and chemical variation of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in influencing slug herbivory
    Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
    School of Plant Science and CRC for Forestry, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 55, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
    Oecologia 152:82-91. 2007
    ..Individual slug variation (replicates) was the most significant factor in the model; however, alpha-pinene concentration (also ..
  68. ncbi A Ras GAP is essential for cytokinesis and spatial patterning in Dictyostelium
    S Lee
    Department of Biology, Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0634, USA
    Development 124:983-96. 1997
    ..Multicellular development is normal through the mid-slug stage, after which morphological differentiation is very abnormal and no culminant is formed: no stalk cells and ..
  69. doi Seed consumption and dispersal of ant-dispersed plants by slugs
    Manfred Türke
    Institute of Ecology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Oecologia 163:681-93. 2010
    ..Ants, however, can be rare in such moist forests. Motivated by observations of slug feeding on seeds we investigated the seed consumption of two plant species, Anemone nemorosa and Asarum europaeum, ..
  70. ncbi Epithelial cell plasticity in development and tumor progression
    J P Thiery
    UMR 144 CNRS, Laboratoire de Morphogenèse Cellulaire et Progression Tumorale, Institut Curie, Paris, France
    Cancer Metastasis Rev 18:31-42. 1999
    ..remodeling whereas the Ras pathway controls the transcription of genes such as the transcription factor Slug which is involved in the internalization of desmosomes...
  71. pmc Synergy between two transcription factors directs gene expression in Dictyostelium tip-organiser cells
    Hong Yu Wang
    College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee, U K
    Int J Dev Biol 54:1301-7. 2010
    cotC requires the transcription factor CudA for its expression in the posterior, prespore cells of the slug, while the expL7 gene requires CudA for its expression in the anterior, tip-organiser region...
  72. ncbi Induction of the prospective neural crest of Xenopus
    R Mayor
    Laboratory of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, UK
    Development 121:767-77. 1995
    ..A related zinc-finger gene called Slug (Xslu) is expressed specifically in this tissue (i.e...
  73. ncbi Effect of osmotic desiccation on longevity and temperature tolerance of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditidae)
    Sukhbir K Grewal
    Department of Entomology, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA
    J Parasitol 89:434-8. 2003
    Limited storage stability severely restricts the biological control potential of slug-parasitic nematodes...
  74. ncbi Programmed cell death and the morphogenesis of the hindbrain roof plate in the chick embryo
    A Lawson
    Department of Anatomy, University of Ghana Medical School, P O Box 4236, Accra, Ghana, West Africa
    Anat Embryol (Berl) 200:509-19. 1999
    ..The pattern of TUNEL labeling and Slug expression in the dorsal midline at stages 10 and 11 differed from that at stages 12-15...
  75. doi Ingestion and excretion of two transgenic Bt corn varieties by slugs
    Corinne Zurbrügg
    Zoological Institute, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Transgenic Res 18:215-25. 2009
    ..potentially be transferred to such organisms by measuring the Cry protein content in the two common agricultural slug pests Arion lusitanicus and Deroceras reticulatum and their feces...
  76. ncbi Pathochemical toxicity of perfluorocarbon-5070, a liquid test performance fluid previously used in dialyzer manufacturing, confirmed in animal experiment
    Bernard Canaud
    Department of Nephrology, Lapeyronie University Hospital, 371 Avenue du Doyen G Giraud, Montpellier, France LR 34295
    J Am Soc Nephrol 16:1819-23. 2005
    ..In a rabbit model, single slug intravenous injections as bolus of increasing doses of PF-5070 were performed...
  77. ncbi Involvement of a Go-type G-protein coupled to guanylate cyclase in the phototransduction cGMP cascade of molluscan simple photoreceptors
    Tsukasa Gotow
    Department of Neurology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka Kagoshima 890 8520, Japan
    Brain Res 1144:42-51. 2007
    Simple photoreceptors, namely photoresponsive neurons, designated as A-P-1, Es-1, Ip-2 and Ip-1, exist in the sea slug Onchidium ganglion...
  78. ncbi Evidence that the Dictyostelium Dd-STATa protein is a repressor that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation and is also required for efficient chemotaxis
    S Mohanty
    Department of Biology, Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0634, USA
    Development 126:3391-405. 1999
    ..In Dd-STATa null strains, slug-like structures are formed but they have an aberrant pattern of gene expression...
  79. ncbi Neural crest induction by paraxial mesoderm in Xenopus embryos requires FGF signals
    Anne Hélène Monsoro-Burq
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Development 130:3111-24. 2003
    ..Using a recombination assay, we show that prospective paraxial mesoderm induces a panel of neural crest markers (Slug, FoxD3, Zic5 and Sox9), whereas the future axial mesoderm only induces a subset of these genes...
  80. ncbi Positive and negative transcriptional regulation of aromatase expression in human breast cancer tissue
    Shiuan Chen
    Department of Surgical Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91006, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 95:17-23. 2005
    ..3 and II is suppressed through the binding of EAR-2, COUP-TFI, and RARgamma to S1, and through the binding of Snail/Slug proteins to their binding site that quenches the CREaro activity...
  81. ncbi Slug is overexpressed in gastric carcinomas and may act synergistically with SIP1 and Snail in the down-regulation of E-cadherin
    C Castro Alves
    Institut fur Pathologie, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstrasse 18, D 81765 Munich, Germany
    J Pathol 211:507-15. 2007
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate the mRNA expression of two EMT regulators-Slug and E12/E47-in primary human gastric carcinomas and to compare this with the expression of E-cadherin and other EMT ..
  82. ncbi Sox10 is required for the early development of the prospective neural crest in Xenopus embryos
    Stella M Honoré
    Millennium Nucleus in Developmental Biology, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile
    Dev Biol 260:79-96. 2003
    ..during some of the earliest steps of neural crest specification, as is shown by the inhibition in the expression of Slug and FoxD3, which are early markers of neural crest specification...
  83. ncbi Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the sea-slug, Aplysia californica: conservation of the gene order in Euthyneura
    Bjarne Knudsen
    Department of Zoology, University of Florida, 223 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, 32611, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 38:459-69. 2006
    We have sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the sea slug, Aplysia californica, an important model organism in experimental biology and a representative of Anaspidea (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda)...
  84. pmc Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life
    Katharina Händeler
    Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany
    Front Zool 6:28. 2009
    Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)...
  85. pmc Trophoblast stem cell maintenance by fibroblast growth factor 4 requires MEKK4 activation of Jun N-terminal kinase
    Amy N Abell
    Department of Pharmacology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7365, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 29:2748-61. 2009
    ..self-renewing conditions in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) display increased expression of Slug, Twist, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), loss of E-cadherin, and hyperinvasion of extracellular matrix, each ..
  86. ncbi Function of identified nerves in orientation to water flow in Tritonia diomedea
    J A Murray
    Friday Harbor Laboratories, WA 98250, USA
    J Comp Physiol A 178:201-9. 1996
    We determined which sensory and motor nerves mediate orientation to flow in the marine slug Tritonia diomedea, and tested the hypothesis that the slug orients to water flow by comparing the intensities of water flow stimulation on each ..
  87. ncbi Multiple functions of Snail family genes during palate development in mice
    Stephen A Murray
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA
    Development 134:1789-97. 2007
    ..Here we report the functions of Snail (Snai1) and Slug (Snai2) genes during palate development in mice...
  88. doi In vivo quantification of kleptoplastic chlorophyll a content in the "solar-powered" sea slug Elysia viridis using optical methods: spectral reflectance analysis and PAM fluorometry
    João Serôdio
    Departamento de Biologia and CESAM Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810 193, Aveiro, Portugal
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 9:68-77. 2010
    ..The results of this study suggest that, if basic requirements of signal detection and reproducible measuring geometry are verified, these optical methods may be readily applied to other photosynthetic symbioses...
  89. pmc Molecular characterization of the Calvin cycle enzyme phosphoribulokinase in the stramenopile alga Vaucheria litorea and the plastid hosting mollusc Elysia chlorotica
    Mary E Rumpho
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 5735 Hitchner Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
    Mol Plant 2:1384-96. 2009
    ..This alga is the source of plastids for the mollusc (sea slug) Elysia chlorotica which enable the animal to survive for months solely by photoautotrophic CO2 fixation...
  90. ncbi Do earthworms help to sustain the slug predator Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: carabidae) within crops? Investigations using monoclonal antibodies
    W O Symondson
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, PO Box 915, Cardiff CF10 3TL, UK
    Mol Ecol 9:1279-92. 2000
    ..melanarius, helping to sustain it when pest numbers are low but allowing it to perform a 'lying-in-wait' strategy, ready to switch back to feeding on pests when they become available...
  91. ncbi Repetitive DNAs in the slug Milax nigricans: association of ribosomal (18S-28S and 5S rDNA) and (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences in the slug M. nigricans (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata)
    R Vitturi
    Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo, Italy
    Micron 35:255-60. 2004
    Spermatocyte chromosomes of the slug Milax nigricans (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) were studied using silver staining (Ag-NOR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with four repetitive DNA probes [18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, (TTAGGG)n ..
  92. ncbi Evidence that the Dictyostelium STAT protein Dd-STATa plays a role in the differentiation of inner basal disc cells and identification of a promoter element essential for expression in these cells
    Nao Shimada
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba 274 8510, Japan
    Differentiation 73:50-60. 2005
    ..homolog of the metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, is necessary in the slug for correct entry into culmination...
  93. ncbi Paxillin is required for cell-substrate adhesion, cell sorting and slug migration during Dictyostelium development
    Tanya Bukharova
    Wellcome Trust Biocentre, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
    J Cell Sci 118:4295-310. 2005
    ..PaxB is expressed during growth and all stages of development, but expression peaks during slug formation. Using a paxB-gfp knockin strain we show the existence of focal adhesions and characterise their dynamics...
  94. ncbi Modeling and testing of reactive contaminant transport in drinking water pipes: chlorine response and implications for online contaminant detection
    Y Jeffrey Yang
    Water Supply and Water Resources Division, US EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    Water Res 42:1397-412. 2008
    ..CDR) model is numerically simulated to explain the observed chlorine residual loss for a "slug" of reactive contaminants instantaneously introduced into a drinking water pipe of assumed no or negligible wall ..
  95. doi Angiostoma margaretae n. sp (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae), a parasite of the milacid slug Milax gagates Draparnaud collected near Caledon, South Africa
    Jenna L Ross
    Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, UK
    Syst Parasitol 79:71-6. 2011
    Angiostoma margaretae n. sp. (Angiostomatidae) is described from the oesophagus of the slug Milax gagates Draparnaud collected near Caledon in the Western Cape Province of South Africa...
  96. pmc Comparative neurobiology of feeding in the opisthobranch sea slug, Aplysia, and the pulmonate snail, Helisoma: evolutionary considerations
    Margaret M Wentzell
    Department of Biological Sciences and Laboratory of Integrated Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill 60607, USA
    Brain Behav Evol 74:219-30. 2009
    ..that ingests food by rasping or scraping material from the substrate, and Aplysia californica, an opisthobranch sea slug that feeds by using a grasping or seizing motion...
  97. ncbi Water-flow sensitive pedal neurons in Tritonia: role in rheotaxis
    J A Murray
    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195
    J Comp Physiol A 171:373-85. 1992
    We have identified 13 pairs of neurons in the pedal ganglia of the marine nudibranch slug Tritonia diomedea that responded tonically and/or phasically to water-flow directed at the rhinophore sheaths and oral veil tips...
  98. ncbi Altruism and social cheating in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum
    J E Strassmann
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 1892, USA
    Nature 408:965-7. 2000
    ..When starved, 10(4)-10(5) of these cells aggregate into a slug. The anterior 20% of the slug altruistically differentiates into a non-viable stalk, supporting the remaining cells,..
  99. ncbi Synthesis and analysis of combinatorial libraries performed in an automated micro reactor system
    Eduardo Garcia-Egido
    GSK Cambridge Technology Centre, University Chemical Laboratories, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, UKCB2 1EW
    Lab Chip 3:73-6. 2003
    ..The mobility of the reagents and products was achieved using hydrodynamic driven flow. Reaction slug dilution and UV slug detection took place at the outlet...
  100. ncbi SLUG in cancer development
    Pedro Antonio Pérez-Mancera
    Laboratorio 13, Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular del Cancer, CSIC Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
    Oncogene 24:3073-82. 2005
    The SNAIL-related zinc-finger transcription factor, SLUG (SNAI2), is critical for the normal development of neural crest-derived cells and loss-of-function SLUG mutations have been proven to contribute to piebaldism and Waardenburg ..
  101. ncbi Transgenic Arabidopsis leaf tissue expressing a modified oryzacystatin shows resistance to the field slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller)
    A J Walker
    IACR Long Ashton Research Station, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    Transgenic Res 8:95-103. 1999
    ..mutant OC-I delta 86, which is an inhibitor of the major proteinase present in the digestive gland of the slug, Deroceras reticulatum...

Research Grants66

  1. Molecular regulation of breast cancer growth
    Marsha A Moses; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have also determined that the expression level of the transcription factor Slug, known to induce EMT, is increased in NGAL-expressing cells...
  2. NFkB Targets and Neural Crest Development
    MICHAEL WILLIAM KLYMKOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..bHLH transcription factor, while snai/1 and snai/2 encode the related zinc-finger transcription factors Snail1 and Snail2;these three transcription factors are also implicated tumor metastasis...
  3. EMT, Extravasation and metastasis by N-Cadherin signaling
    Rachel B Hazan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression as well as upregulation of the EMT inducing transcription factor, Slug. We hypothesize that EMT, extravasation and metastasis are primarily caused by the non-adhesive FGFR1 stimulating ..
  4. Creation of adult epithelial stem cells from differentiated epithelial
    Robert A Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..epithelium: emerging evidence suggests an essential role for the EMT-inducing Transcription Factors (TF) Snail and Slug in skin morphogenesis...
  5. Cellular Repair of Kidney Injury
    Lloyd G Cantley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..stimuli that lead to the up-regulation of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors Twist, Snail and Slug in the injured epithelial cell, with subsequent expression of the downstream factor Foxc2 which in turn activates ..
  6. Keratinocyte Activation by Slug-induced Calprotectin
    Donna F Kusewitt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Like calprotectin, the Slug zinc finger transcription factor also is damage-inducible and promotes keratinocyte activation...
  7. Role of Slug in Regulation of Hematopietic Stem Cells
    Wen Shu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Work from this laboratory has shown that in response to DNA damage, the transcription factor Slug is induced by (-irradiation through p53 and protects committed hematopoietic progenitors from apoptosis triggered ..
  8. Wen Shu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Preliminary work from the PI's laboratory suggests that Slug, a zinc-finger transcription factor known to affect cell survival and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a ..
  9. Jianfei Qi; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In Aim 1, we will test the hypothesis that Jmjd1a is recruited by HIF and AR to promoters of Slug and ZEB2, where it triggers H3K9 demethylation and facilitates HIF-mediated transcription of Slug and ZEB2 that in ..
  10. Role of JMJD1A in hypoxia-induced EMT and prostate cancer stem cells
    Jianfei Qi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In Aim 1, we will test the hypothesis that Jmjd1a is recruited by HIF and AR to promoters of Slug and ZEB2, where it triggers H3K9 demethylation and facilitates HIF-mediated transcription of Slug and ZEB2 that in ..
  11. The role of Slug in cutaneous reepithelialization
    Laurie G Hudson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on specific aspects wound healing, and we have obtained evidence that the developmental transcription factor Slug/Snail2 is a key regulator of epithelial outgrowth in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo...
  12. The role of Pdcd4 in colorectal tumor progression
    Hsin Sheng Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..further demonstrated that a decrease in E-cadherin expression correlates with an increase in the protein level of Slug, a transcription repressor for E-cadherin expression...
  13. Matthew E Burow; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..that MEK5-signaling functions through downstream transcription factors to mediate expression of EMT regulators (SLUG, ZEB1, ZEB2) and AKT3...
  14. TGFbeta3 SIGNALING IN DEVELOPMENT OF PALATE
    Ali Nawshad; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..induces both Smad dependent and Smad independent pathways to activate many transcription factors such as Snail, Slug, SIP1 and LEF1...
  15. Secreted Wnt Inhibitors in the Biology of Osteosarcoma
    Bang H Hoang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that secreted Wnt inhibitors modulate the following pro-invasive pathways in OS: (1) Transcriptional repressors Slug and Twist, (2) MMP-2 and 9, and (3) the hepatocyte growth factor receptor Met...
  16. DEVELOPMENTAL GENE PROGRAM
    William Loomis; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of classes based on the stage at which development is blocked such as aggregation, mound formation, tip formation, slug migration, and early culmination of fruiting bodies...
  17. Seema Khurana; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Furthermore, we report that nuclear villin activates the expression of the transcriptional factor Slug to modulate epithelial plasticity and EMT...
  18. Susan M Smith; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We will test the hypothesis that beta- catenin maintains NC cell adhesion and expression ofthe survival factor snail2 (formerly slug)...
  19. Genetic Analysis of Snail Superfamily Genes in Mice
    THOMAS HOOKER GRIDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The studies described in this proposal will further our understanding of the roles played by Snail superfamily genes during mammalian development, and will be relevant to the study of both normal and abnormal human development. ..
  20. Functional Roles of Wnt and Snail2 Target Genes in Neural Crest Development
    Lisa A Taneyhill; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, investigation into the role of known Wnt target genes, such as Snail2 (Slug) allows me to elucidate how Snail2 regulates expression of its molecular targets in the context of neural ..
  21. Antagonism of the Ah Receptor in Controlling Breast Cancer Growth and Invasion
    Jennifer J Schlezinger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3) Constitutively active AhR regulates the expression of multiple genes, including CYP1B1, CK21, and Slug, a master regulator of tumor invasion...
  22. Wen Shu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In the proposed project, we aim to define the role of Slug, an evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, in the regulation of HSC self-renewal...
  23. James V DeGregori; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Follow up studies have shown that inhibition of these SLuG pathways potently synergizes with gefitinib to eliminate NSCLC cells...
  24. Paul A Bunn; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Project 1 investigators also evaluate control of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition by the Slug/Snail/Zeb family of transcriptional repressers and ways to reverse the transition in order to reduce metastases and ..
  25. COBRE in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
    Don Wojchowski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..formation from hES cells;DMA break repair in stem cells and affected microenvironments during lymphomagenesis;Slug as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell survival;and Jagged 1 maintenance of neural stem cell expansion and ..
  26. Functional Roles of Wnt and Snail2 Target Genes in Neural Crest Development
    Lisa Taneyhill; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, investigation into the role of known Wnt target genes, such as Snail2 (Slug) allows her to elucidate how Snail2 regulates expression of its molecular targets in the context of neural ..
  27. Sharmila Shankar; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..of pluripotency maintaining factors (Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2), epithelial mesenchymal (EMT) markers (Zeb-1, Snail, Slug), Bcl-2 and XIAP in pancreatic CSCs;(iii) SFN inhibits the expression of Smo, Ptch as well as effector molecule Gli ..
  28. PROGRESSION OF T CELL LYMPHOMA LINES TO IL2 INDEPENDENCE
    Philip Tsichlis; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of the insulinoma-associated protein, IA-1, the homeobox protein Gsh-1 and the vertebrate members of the Snail-Slug protein family...
  29. GROWTH FACTOR MODULATION OF REEPITHELIALIZATION
    LAURIE HUDSON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will also identify the functional contributions of a growth-factor induced transcription factor (Slug) known to modulate desmosomal integrity in adult epithelium...
  30. Slug Mediates the Acute Cutaneous Response to UVR
    Donna Kusewitt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Slug transcription factor modulates the complete or partial conversion of sessile epithelial cells into migrating fibroblast-like cells during embryonic development, wound healing, and ..
  31. Radioprotective Role of Slug in Bone Marrow Cells
    Wen Shu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Slug is a member of the Slug/Snail superfamily of evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcriptional repressors...
  32. Laboratory Training and Research in Breast Cancer
    MUTHUKUMARAN GUNASEKARAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The specific objectives of the proposed research are: (1) to identify and characterize SLUG-regulated gene promoters by screening a promoter microarray employing the Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation-Guided ..
  33. PULMONARY MASS AND HEAT TRANSPORT
    James Grotberg; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..technique underlying this investigation will be the introduction of a localized surfactant bolus (microdroplet or slug) onto the air-liquid interface in animal and hardware models, while video-microscopy and laser interferometric ..
  34. CELLULAR & COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ODOR LEARNING
    Alan Gelperin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..cellular and biophysical model for how the major central site of odor information processing in the terrestrial slug Limax maximus forms odor memories as spatially segregated bands of neurons...
  35. COMMITMENT & DIFFERENTIATION OF CARDIAC CELL PHENOTYPES
    RAYMOND RUNYAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Project 1 will explore the transcription factors Slug and Mox-1 as mediators of cell transformation at three levels...
  36. Synaptic Mechanisms in Drosophila Neurodegeneration
    Kendal Broadie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the last funding cycle, we identified the Drosophila slug-a-bed (slab) gene, which encodes the ceramidase enzyme at the heart of sphingolipid metabolism...
  37. CYCLIC AMP AND CELL DIFFERENTIATION IN DICTYOSTELIUM
    IRA FEIT; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Our methodology involves suppressing cell differentiation by submerging the slug stage and implanting Sephadex particles soaked in the agents tested...
  38. Molecular basis of E-cadherin transcriptional regulation
    Robert Sims; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The DNA-binding proteins Snail and Slug mediate E-cadherin transcriptional repression, and regulate aspects of carcinogenesis and cell survivability...
  39. GENETIC BASIS OF SPATIAL PATTERNING
    Edward Cox; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..During morphogenesis in P. pallidum, spherical masses of cells called whorls pinch off from the base of the slug at regular intervals as the fruiting body culminates...
  40. Transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin in metastasis
    Kevin Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..TGF-beta1 induced transcriptional repressors (TITR) of E-cadherin have been implicated in EMT, including Snail, Slug, ZEB-1 and ZEB-2...
  41. MOLECULAR NETWORKS THAT COORDINATE DIFFERENTIATION
    William Loomis; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Together these studies will help to establish a signal transduction pathway that can serve as a model for studies in other systems. ..
  42. Intercellular signaling during terminal differentiation
    William Loomis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Together these studies will add to the foundation for improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. ..
  43. Functional Genomics of Dictyostelium Development
    William Loomis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Predictions derived from such networks will be tested when microarray analyses are extended to include further developmental mutants. ..
  44. REGULATION OF DEVELOPMENT BY PHOSPHORELAY SIGNALING
    CHARLES SINGLETON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Finally genetic screens for suppressers or synthetic phenotypes will identify new and perhaps novel components of the regulatory pathway, including upstream inputs, phosphorelay regulators, and downstream effectors. ..
  45. Leukemogenic Slug Pathway in Hematopoietic Cell Survival
    A Look; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Recent data from the applicant's laboratory indicate that Slug, an antiapoptotic transcription factor that is aberrantly upregulated in leukemias that express the E2A-HLF ..
  46. Meeting: Development of the Spinal Cord and Neural Crest
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  47. ECTODERMAL PLACODE DEVELOPMENT INTO CRANIAL GANGLIA
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..2) examine the induction and development of the nodose placode. 3) identify molecular markers for other epibranchial placodes. 4) examine the interrelationships of the neural crest and placodes. ..
  48. Modulation of AMPA-Type Receptor Trafficking in Aplysia
    David Glanzman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, the laboratories of the collaborators have the necessary equipment for the proposed research. ..
  49. INDUCTION OF THE NEURAL CREST
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..3. Determine the competence of ectoderm and neural plate to assume a neural crest fate. 4. Determine the competence of neural crest cells to assume a neural tube fate after transplantation into the ventral neural tube. ..
  50. MENTORED ORIENTED RESEARCH CAREER DEVELOPMENT AWARD
    Jared Gollob; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  51. Chemo-prevention of UVB-induced Basal Cell Carcinomas+/*
    Mohammad Athar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  52. ROLE OF ID2 IN CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2. examine the function of E12 in neural crest development and craniofacial patterning. 3. identify and characterize an achaete-scute homolog(s) that potentially interacts with Id2/E proteins. ..
  53. Analysis of Noelin, a Neural Crest Competence Factor
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..3) Generate and characterize the phenotype of Noelin-1 null mutant. (4) Examine the environmental regulation of Noelin-1 expression. ..
  54. Modulators of EMT in Skin Carcinogenesis
    Donna Kusewitt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Based on this similarity and on our own finding that UVR or EGFR activation by endogenous ligands induces Slug, a putative transcription factor that modulates EMT during development and is implicated in disruption of ..
  55. The mechanism of crosslinking by proteins that create adhesive gels
    Andrew Smith; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Once the remarkable natural adhesives used by animals are understood, it may be possible to design adhesives with similar properties that could be used in a wide variety of medical applications. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Molecular analysis of neural crest migration
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..2. The function of the a5 subunit of laminin in early neural crest development. 3. The function of a novel chemokine in neural crest migration. 4. The function of this novel chemokine in limb development. ..
  57. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Long-Term Habituation
    David Glanzman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such an understanding will facilitate the development of treatments of diseases of memory, such as Alzheimer's. ..
  58. Mustard Gas Exposure and Carcinogenesis of the Lung
    Charles Giardina; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, these studies will provide unique insight into the ability of a powerful mutagen to initiate carcinogenesis in humans after a single, high intensity exposure. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Learning in the Zebrafish
    David Glanzman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such an understanding will facilitate the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease and other disorders of memory. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. Genetic approach for transneuronal NA circuitry mapping
    Kwang Soo Kim; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Therefore, these approaches will serve as invaluable tools to elucidate the function and regulation of NA circuitry in the normal and diseased brain. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. INDUCTION OF THE NEURAL CREST
    Marianne Bronner Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..3. Examine the possible role of Notch signaling in cell fate decisions within the neural folds as cells choose between neural crest, neural tube or epidermal fates. ..
  62. Regulation of Src by integrins during metastasis
    Jay Desgrosellier; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  63. Role of p53 and ptc tumor suppressive pathways in BCCs development and prevention
    Mohammad Athar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  64. Disruption and maintenance of extinction and other forms of interference in assoc
    Martha Escobar; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  65. Inhibition of pancreatic beta cell apoptosis by the transcription factor Slug
    JOHN RUKSTALIS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..I have recently identified the expression of the anti-apoptotic transcription factor Slug in pancreatic beta cells and postulate that Slug may act as a prosurvival factor in the pancreas, similar to its ..