Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: sialoadhesin
Description: sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 1
Alias: CD169, SIGLEC-1, dJ1009E24.1, sialoadhesin, sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 1, sialoadhesin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 1
Publications172 found, 100 shown here
- Siglec-1 on monocytes is a potential risk marker for monitoring disease severity in coronary artery diseaseYi song Xiong
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University and Clinical Immunology Center of PLA, 415 Feng Yang Road, Huang Pu District, Shanghai 200003, People s Republic of China
Clin Biochem 42:1057-63. 2009..Siglec-1 has long been considered as an important biomarker of the activation of monocyte/macrophage and a type I interferon-specific imprint, but its role in atherosclerosis has not been elucidated...
- Characterization of human sialoadhesin, a sialic acid binding receptor expressed by resident and inflammatory macrophage populationsA Hartnell
Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, Oxford, United Kingdom
Blood 97:288-96. 2001b>Sialoadhesin is a macrophage-restricted cellular interaction molecule and a prototypic member of the Siglec family of sialic acid binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins. So far, it has only been characterized in rodents...
- Cutting edge: CD43 functions as a T cell counterreceptor for the macrophage adhesion receptor sialoadhesin (Siglec-1)T K van den Berg
Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, Institute for Immunology and Inflammation, Faculty of Medicine, Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Immunol 166:3637-40. 2001b>Sialoadhesin (Siglec-1) is a macrophage-restricted sialic acid-binding receptor that mediates interactions with hemopoietic cells, including lymphocytes. In this study, we identify sialoadhesin counterreceptors on T lymphocytes...
- Human rhinoviruses inhibit the accessory function of dendritic cells by inducing sialoadhesin and B7-H1 expressionStefanie Kirchberger
Institute of Immunology and Institute of Biochemistry, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
J Immunol 175:1145-52. 2005..In contrast, expression of inhibitory B7-H1 molecules was up-regulated and R-DC de novo expressed sialoadhesin (Sn)...
- A macrophage marker, Siglec-1, is increased on circulating monocytes in patients with systemic sclerosis and induced by type I interferons and toll-like receptor agonistsMichael R York
Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
Arthritis Rheum 56:1010-20. 2007..In this study we examined gene expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to better understand the dysregulation of the immune system in this disease...
- Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 expression in inflammatory and resident monocytes is a potential biomarker for monitoring disease activity and success of therapy in systemic lupus erythematosusRobert Biesen
Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
Arthritis Rheum 58:1136-45. 2008..This study was undertaken to establish a feasible biomarker for IFN effects with respect to disease activity and effectiveness of IFN-suppressive therapy in SLE patients...
- Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivityHans Rempel
Department of Laboratory Medicine at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 3:e1967. 2008..expression analysis of CD14(+) monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1), a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic ..
- Siglec-1 is a novel dendritic cell receptor that mediates HIV-1 trans-infection through recognition of viral membrane gangliosidesNuria Izquierdo-Useros
AIDS Research Institute IrsiCaixa, Institut d Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain
PLoS Biol 10:e1001448. 2012..Here we show that the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1, CD169), which is highly expressed on mature DCs, specifically binds HIV-1 and vesicles carrying sialyllactose...
- Interferon-inducible mechanism of dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 dissemination is dependent on Siglec-1/CD169Wendy Blay Puryear
Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 9:e1003291. 2013..Here, we demonstrate that the type I IFN-inducible Siglec-1, CD169, is the DC receptor that captures HIV in a GM3-dependent manner...
- Sialoadhesin (CD169) expression in CD14+ cells is upregulated early after HIV-1 infection and increases during disease progressionAntoinette C van der Kuyl
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
PLoS ONE 2:e257. 2007b>Sialoadhesin (CD169, siglec-1 or Sn) is an activation marker seen on macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases and in tumours, and on subsets of tissue macrophages...
- Myelin-associated glycoprotein binding to gangliosides. Structural specificity and functional implicationsR L Schnaar
Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 845:92-105. 1998..Ig) superfamily members either failed to bind gangliosides (CD22) or bound with less stringent specificity (sialoadhesin), whereas a modified form of MAG (bearing three of its five extra-cellular Ig-like domains) bound only GQ1b ..
- The sialoadhesin (CD169) expressing a macrophage subset in human proliferative glomerulonephritisYohei Ikezumi
Division of Pediatrics, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Asahimachi Dori, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:2704-13. 2005b>Sialoadhesin (Sn; CD169) is a lectin-like receptor whose expression is restricted to subsets of tissue and inflammatory macrophages...
- Sialoadhesin, myelin-associated glycoprotein and CD22 define a new family of sialic acid-dependent adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamilyS Kelm
Biochemisches Institut II, University of Kiel, Germany
Curr Biol 4:965-72. 1994..the selectins, the only well-characterized vertebrate sialic acid-dependent adhesion molecules are CD22 and sialoadhesin; CD22 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed by B lymphocytes and sialoadhesin is a ..
- Characterization of circulating human osteoclast progenitors: development of in vitro resorption assayM Husheem
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland
Calcif Tissue Int 76:222-30. 2005..monocytes generated few tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells (TRACP+ MNC), and CD169(+) monocytes generated no TRACP+ MNC...
- Sialoadhesin and CD163 join forces during entry of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virusHanne Van Gorp
Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
J Gen Virol 89:2943-53. 2008..To date, two PRRSV receptors have been identified on primary macrophages, heparan sulphate for binding and sialoadhesin for binding and internalization...
- Involvement of sialoadhesin in entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophagesNathalie Vanderheijden
Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Flanders Interuniversity Institute of Biotechnology VIB, 5830 AA Boxmeer, The Netherlands
J Virol 77:8207-15. 2003..Amino acid sequence identities ranging from 56 to 91% with mouse sialoadhesin, a macrophage-restricted receptor, were obtained with four p210 peptides...
- Contrasting effects of steroids and mizoribine on macrophage activation and glomerular lesions in rat thy-1 mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritisYohei Ikezumi
Department of Pediatrics, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Japan
Am J Nephrol 31:273-82. 2010..In addition, clinical studies have suggested that the ability of mizoribine (MZR) to suppress steroid-resistant proliferative glomerulonephritis may operate via inhibiting pro-inflammatory macrophage activation...
- Expression and function of sialoadhesin in rat alveolar macrophagesK Frei
Institute of Histology and Embryology, University of Vienna, Schwarzspanierstrasse 17, A 1090, Vienna, Austria
Immunol Lett 71:167-70. 2000..The mφ-restricted sheep erythrocyte receptor sialoadhesin (Sn) is a member of the immunglobulin superfamily and binds specifically to sialic acid-containing structures ..
- Quantitative changes of sialoadhesin and CD163 positive macrophages in the implantation sites and organs of porcine embryos/fetuses during gestationU U Karniychuk
Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Placenta 30:497-500. 2009..quantification of the macrophages carrying two entry mediators that play a crucial role in PRRSV replication, sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163, in the implantation sites and organs of embryos/fetuses during gestation...
- Organic dust-induced activation, adhesion to substrate and expression of intercellular adhesion molecules in THP-1 monocytesKarin Burvall
The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Lung and Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Box 287, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Life Sci 80:1598-607. 2007..b>Sialoadhesin, a macrophage marker, was detected in dust-stimulated adherent THP-1 cells but not in the parental monocytes...
- Molecular analysis of sialoside binding to sialoadhesin by NMR and site-directed mutagenesisP R Crocker
Department of Biochemistry, Wellcome Trust Building, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, U K
Biochem J 341:355-61. 1999The molecular interactions between sialoadhesin and sialylated ligands have been investigated by using proton NMR...
- OB-BP1/Siglec-6. a leptin- and sialic acid-binding protein of the immunoglobulin superfamilyN Patel
Molecular Biology Department, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
J Biol Chem 274:22729-38. 1999..Comparisons to other known Siglec family members (CD22, CD33, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and sialoadhesin) show that OB-BP1, OB-BP2/Siglec-5, and CD33/Siglec-3 constitute a unique related subgroup with a high level of ..
- Cell-specific glycoforms of sialoadhesin and CD45 are counter-receptors for the cysteine-rich domain of the mannose receptorL Martinez-Pomares
Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RE, Scotland
J Biol Chem 274:35211-8. 1999..In this paper we report the identification of two of these ligands as sialoadhesin (Sn), an Mo-specific membrane molecule, and the leukocyte common antigen, CD45...
- Identification of sialoadhesin as a dominant lymph node counter-receptor for mouse macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 1Yosuke Kumamoto
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
J Biol Chem 279:49274-80. 2004..One of the predominant components was sialoadhesin (Sn, Siglec-1)...
- Gene expression profiling of porcine alveolar macrophages after antibody-mediated cross-linking of Sialoadhesin (Sn, Siglec-1)Sem Genini
Parco Tecnologico Padano CERSA, Lodi, Italy
J Recept Signal Transduct Res 28:185-243. 2008b>Sialoadhesin (Sn) is the prototypic member of the Siglecs, a family of receptors mainly involved in cell-cell interactions. For several Siglecs, but not for Sn, intracellular signaling functions have been described...
- The potential role of sialoadhesin as a macrophage recognition molecule in health and diseaseP R Crocker
ICRF Laboratories, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, UK
Glycoconj J 14:601-9. 1997b>Sialoadhesin is a macrophage-restricted transmembrane glycoprotein of 185 kDa that mediates cell-cell interactions through recognition of Neu5Ac alpha2,3Gal in glycoconjugates...
- PECAM-1 and leukosialin (CD43) expression correlate with heightened inflammation in rat adjuvant-induced arthritisM V Volin
Lakeside Division, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Exp Mol Pathol 66:211-9. 1999..b>Sialoadhesin synovial tissue lining cell expression is decreased after adjuvant injection...
- Siglecs, sialic acids and innate immunityP R Crocker
The Wellcome Trust Biocentre, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, Dundee, UK
Trends Immunol 22:337-42. 2001..Until three years ago, only four Siglecs were known, namely sialoadhesin, CD22, myelin-associated glycoprotein and CD33...
- Porcine arterivirus infection of alveolar macrophages is mediated by sialic acid on the virusPeter L Delputte
Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgium
J Virol 78:8094-101. 2004Recently, we showed that porcine sialoadhesin (pSn) mediates internalization of the arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in alveolar macrophages (Vanderheijden et al., J. Virol. 77:8207-8215, 2003)...
- Innate immune responses to replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in isolated Swine alveolar macrophagesTahar Ait-Ali
Roslin Institute, Roslin, Midlothian, United Kingdom
Viral Immunol 20:105-18. 2007..Preliminary investigation suggests that the PRRSV coreceptor, sialoadhesin, may not be responsible for the Landrace macrophage phenotype as its abundance and localisation were comparable ..
- A four-gene biomarker predicts skin disease in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosisG Farina
Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
Arthritis Rheum 62:580-8. 2010..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skin gene expression might serve as a more objective surrogate outcome measure to supplement skin score evaluations...
- Targeted imaging of tumor-associated M2 macrophages using a macromolecular contrast agent PG-Gd-NIR813Marites P Melancon
Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Biomaterials 31:6567-73. 2010..Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that PG-Gd-NIR813 colocalized with CD68 (marker for macrophages) and CD169 (marker for activated macrophages), but not with CD163 (residential macrophages)...
- Antigen delivery to macrophages using liposomal nanoparticles targeting sialoadhesin/CD169Weihsu C Chen
Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
PLoS ONE 7:e39039. 2012b>Sialoadhesin (Sn, Siglec-1, CD169) is a member of the sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin (siglec) family expressed on macrophages...
- SIGLEC1 and SIGLEC7 expression in circulating monocytes of patients with multiple sclerosisS Malhotra
Centre d esclerosi multiple de Catalunya, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Spain
Mult Scler 19:524-31. 2013..Sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are cell surface receptors that recognize sialic acids and may attenuate immune responses and reduce inflammation...
- Sialoadhesin ligand expression identifies a subset of CD4+Foxp3- T cells with a distinct activation and glycosylation profileDana Kidder
Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
J Immunol 190:2593-602. 2013b>Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin expressed selectively on macrophage subsets...
- Targeted delivery of lipid antigen to macrophages via the CD169/sialoadhesin endocytic pathway induces robust invariant natural killer T cell activationNorihito Kawasaki
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, and Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:7826-31. 2013..CD169 is known as sialoadhesin (Sn), a macrophage-specific adhesion and endocytic receptor of the siglec family that recognizes sialic acid ..
- Evaluation of viral peptide targeting to porcine sialoadhesin using a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccination-challenge modelKaren Ooms
Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium Electronic address
Virus Res 177:147-55. 2013..As such, targeting sialoadhesin (Sn)-expressing macrophages, abundantly present in spleen and lymph nodes where they appear to be strategically ..
- Sialoadhesin deficiency does not influence the severity of lupus nephritis in New Zealand Black x New Zealand White F1 miceDana Kidder
Arthritis Res Ther 15:R175. 2013..Recent flow cytometric and transcriptomic studies identified Sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169) as an important interferon-induced blood monocyte biomarker in diseased patients...
- A human-specific mutation limits nonhuman primate efficacy in preclinical xenotransplantation studiesJoshua P Waldman
1 Department of Urology, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 2 Address correspondence to Michael A Rees, M D, Ph D, University of Toledo Medical Center, Department of Urology, Mail Stop 1091, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614
Transplantation 97:385-90. 2014..5% of the original value. Subsequently, erythrocyte binding has been shown to involve N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) on the surface of human erythrocytes and sialoadhesin on the surface of the porcine Kupffer cells.
- Peripheral prion disease pathogenesis is unaltered in the absence of sialoadhesin (Siglec-1/CD169)Barry M Bradford
The Roslin Institute and R D SVS, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK
Immunology 143:120-9. 2014..b>Sialoadhesin is an MNP-restricted cell adhesion molecule that binds sialylated glycoproteins...
- Mapping the distinctive populations of lymphatic endothelial cells in different zones of human lymph nodesSaem Mul Park
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
PLoS ONE 9:e94781. 2014..antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the sinuses could be clearly distinguished from LECs by their expression of CD169, and their lack of expression of PROX1 and STAB2, or endothelial markers such as CD144...
- Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cellsXinwei Yu
Department of Chemistry and The Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nat Commun 5:4136. 2014..of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) viral particles, mediates interactions between HIV-1 and Siglec1/CD169, a protein expressed on dendritic cells (DCs)...
- P735Regulation of macrophage polarization by extracellular RNA: The role of sialoadhesin-1H A Cabrera-Fuentes
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute for Biochemistry, Giessen, Germany
Cardiovasc Res 103:S135. 2014..Nevertheless, a significant down-regulation of M2 markers was found. Sialoadhesin-1 (SN-1) is a membrane-anchored basic protein, predominantly expressed on macrophages and involved in cellular ..
- HIV-1 capture and transmission by dendritic cells: the role of viral glycolipids and the cellular receptor Siglec-1Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
AIDS Research Institute IrsiCaixa, Institut d Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain
PLoS Pathog 10:e1004146. 2014..In contrast, DC-SIGN, long considered to be the main receptor for DC capture of HIV-1, plays a minor role in mature DC-mediated HIV-1 capture and trans-infection. ..
- Specific deletion of LDL receptor-related protein on macrophages has skewed in vivo effects on cytokine production by invariant natural killer T cellsRoman Covarrubias
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
PLoS ONE 9:e102236. 2014..We also show that CD169+ MΦs, known to present antigen to iNKT cells, exhibited increased expression of LRP compared to CD169- MΦs...
- In vivo detection of macrophage recruitment in hind-limb ischemia using a targeted near-infrared fluorophoreJung Sun Yoo
Smart Humanity Convergence Center, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, Korea Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
PLoS ONE 9:e103721. 2014..In the histologic analysis, MF800-positive cells also expressed the macrophage markers CD68 and CD169. NIRF imaging showcased the potential of using MF800 to understand macrophage behavior in vivo, characterize ..
- Identification of the porcine sialoadhesin gene promoter region and its cell-specific expression in porcine alveolar macrophage cellsW Sun
College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Genet Mol Res 13:9615-21. 2014..In this study, the transcription initiation site for sialoadhesin (Siglec-1), which is a porcine alveolar macrophage-specific gene, was determined by 5' rapid amplification of ..
- Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection by recombinant adenovirus- and/or exosome-delivered the artificial microRNAs targeting sialoadhesin and CD163 receptorsLi Zhu
College of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Co innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China
Virol J 11:225. 2014..b>Sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 are the two key receptors for PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)..
- Dexamethasone targeted directly to macrophages induces macrophage niches that promote erythroid expansionMario Falchi
National AIDS Center, New York, NY, USA Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Haematologica 100:178-87. 2015..3%; 3:1 positive and negative for CD169)...
- Bone Marrow Macrophages Contribute to Diabetic Stem Cell Mobilopathy by Producing Oncostatin MMattia Albiero
Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padova, Italy
Diabetes 64:2957-68. 2015..We show that patients with diabetes have increased M1 macrophages, whereas diabetic mice have increased CD169(+) BMMΦ with SC-retaining activity. Depletion of BMMΦ restored SC mobilization in diabetic mice...
- Lymph Node Macrophages Restrict Murine Cytomegalovirus DisseminationHelen E Farrell
Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland and Royal Children s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
J Virol 89:7147-58. 2015..Most acutely infected PLN cells were CD169(+) subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM). Replication-deficient MCMV also reached them, indicating direct infection...
- PRRSV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells express high levels of SLA-DR and CD80/86 but do not stimulate PRRSV-naïve regulatory T cells to proliferateIrene M Rodríguez-Gómez
Institute of Immunology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Veterinarplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria
Vet Res 46:54. 2015..For CD163 and CD169, which are involved in PRRSV-entry into host cells, our results show that prior to infection porcine moDCs express ..
- High CD204+ tumor-infiltrating macrophage density predicts a poor prognosis in patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladderBo Wang
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
Oncotarget 6:20204-14. 2015..assessed by immunohistochemistry in tissues from 302 UCB patients using CD68 as a pan-Mφ marker, and CD204 and CD169 as robust pro- and anti-tumoral Mφ phenotype markers, respectively...
- Three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections for analysis of the microvasculature of the white pulp and the marginal zone in the human spleenSatoshi Kusumi
Division of Microscopic Anatomy, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
Biomed Res 36:195-203. 2015..The accumulation of sialoadhesin-positive macrophages was also observed around the vascular network, suggesting an important role for this ..
- Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3-Deficient Dendritic Cells Modulate Splenic Responses to Ischemia-Reperfusion InjuryAmandeep Bajwa
Division of Nephrology, Center for Immunity, Inflammation and Regenerative Medicine, and
J Am Soc Nephrol 27:1076-90. 2016..Additionally, S1pr3(-/-) BMDC-dependent protection required CD169(+)marginal zone macrophages and the macrophage-derived chemokine CCL22 to increase splenic CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(REG)s...
- Retroviruses use CD169-mediated trans-infection of permissive lymphocytes to establish infectionXaver Sewald
Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
Science 350:563-7. 2015..b>CD169/Siglec-1, an I-type lectin that recognizes gangliosides, captures the virus...
- Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies with Specificity for Rhesus Macaque CD200, CD200R and MincleSiddappa N Byrareddy
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America
PLoS ONE 10:e0140689. 2015..We conclude that these mAbs may have potential to be used as adjunctive therapeutic agents to control/inhibit SIV/HIV infection. ..
- Sialoadhesin promotes neuroinflammation-related disease progression in two mouse models of CLN diseaseJanos Groh
Department of Neurology, Developmental Neurobiology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany
Glia 64:792-809. 2016..We now investigated the role of the inflammation-related cell adhesion molecule sialoadhesin (Sn) in Ppt1(-/-) and Cln3(-/-) mice, a model of the most frequent form, CLN3 disease...
- SCS macrophages suppress melanoma by restricting tumor-derived vesicle-B cell interactionsFerdinando Pucci
Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Science 352:242-6. 2016..show that endogenous tEVs efficiently disseminate via lymphatics and preferentially bind subcapsular sinus (SCS) CD169(+) macrophages in tumor-draining lymph nodes (tdLNs) in mice and humans...
- Establishing Porcine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Systems for Studying the Interaction with PRRSV-1Helen Singleton
Virology Department, Animal and Plant Health AgencySurrey, UK Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of SurreySurrey, UK
Front Microbiol 7:832. 2016..MoMØ susceptibility was significantly increased by dexamethasone and IL-10 with an accompanying increase in CD163/CD169 expression, MoDC supported only a minimal replication of PRRSV These findings underline the high variability in ..
- Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymusPredrag Novakovic
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Vet Res 47:76. 2016..The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal-fetal interface in order ..
- Access of HIV-2 to CD169-dependent dendritic cell-mediated trans infection pathway is attenuatedSuzanne D G Kijewski
Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA Electronic address
Virology 497:328-36. 2016..We hypothesized that reduced interaction of HIV-2 with CD169, the primary HIV-1 attachment factor on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that targets captured virus ..
- IL-18 and Subcapsular Lymph Node Macrophages are Essential for Enhanced B Cell Responses with TLR4 Agonist AdjuvantsAnthony L Desbien
Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98102
J Immunol 197:4351-4359. 2016..b>CD169+ SIGNR1+ subcapsular medullary macrophages are the primary cells to take up GLA-SE after ..
- Monoclonal antibody binding to the macrophage-specific receptor sialoadhesin alters the phagocytic properties of human and mouse macrophagesMarjorie De Schryver
Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene LMPH, University of Antwerp UA, Antwerp 2610, Belgium Electronic address
Cell Immunol . 2016b>Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on macrophages in steady state conditions, but during inflammation, Sn can be upregulated both on macrophages and on circulating monocytes...
- Differential expression of beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase and sialoglycans in normal and cirrhotic liver and hepatocellular carcinomaYi Cao
Tumor Immunology Program, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
Lab Invest 82:1515-24. 2002..hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using a new ST6Gal I-specific mAb and recombinant fusion proteins of CD22 and sialoadhesin recognizing alpha2,6- or alpha2,3-sialylated glycans in immunohistology and flow cytometry...
- Glycopeptides as oligosaccharide mimics: high affinity sialopeptide ligands for sialoadhesin from combinatorial librariesKoen M Halkes
Carlsberg Laboratory, Center for Solid Phase Combinatorial Chemistry, Gamle Carlsberg Vej 10, DK 2500 Valby, Denmark
J Comb Chem 5:18-27. 2003..libraries were screened against the recombinant binding domain (SnD1) of a sialic acid binding Ig-like protein, sialoadhesin (Siglec-1)...
- Recognition of sialylated meningococcal lipopolysaccharide by siglecs expressed on myeloid cells leads to enhanced bacterial uptakeClaire Jones
The Wellcome Trust Biocentre, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
Mol Microbiol 49:1213-25. 2003..Several siglecs, including sialoadhesin (Sn, siglec-1) and siglec-5, bind to NeuAcalpha2,3Gal, a terminal capping structure that can also be displayed ..
- Chemically defined sialoside scaffolds for investigation of multivalent interactions with sialic acid binding proteinsStacey A Kalovidouris
California NanoSystems Institute and the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
J Org Chem 68:8485-93. 2003..These newly constructed bioactive sialic acid-based structures were differentially recognized by sialoadhesin, a mammalian macrophage sialic acid binding protein...
- Saturation transfer difference NMR and computational modeling of a sialoadhesin-sialyl lactose complexAnirban Bhunia
Institute of Chemistry, University of Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Lubeck, Germany
Carbohydr Res 339:259-67. 2004The siglecs are a family of I-type lectins binding to sialic acids on the cell surface. Sialoadhesin (siglec-1) is expressed at much higher levels in inflammatory macrophages and specifically binds to alpha-2,3-sialylated N-acetyl ..
- Characteristics of porcine circovirus-2 replication in lymphoid organs of pigs inoculated in late gestation or postnatally and possible relation to clinical and pathological outcome of infectionRomeo E Sanchez
Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
J Vet Diagn Invest 16:175-85. 2004..piglets were euthanized at 10 days PI, and infected cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage (SWC3+, CD14+, and sialoadhesin [Sa]+ cells) and infected cells bearing lymphocyte markers (CD4+, CD8+, and immunoglobulin M+ cells) were ..
- Study of peptide-sugar non-covalent complexes by infrared atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionizationChristopher E Von Seggern
Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Mass Spectrom 39:736-42. 2004..Peptides were designed to mimic the binding sites of three members of the siglec family: sialoadhesin, MAG and CD22...
- Differential expression of a gene signature for scavenger/lectin receptors by endothelial cells and macrophages in human lymph node sinuses, the primary sites of regional metastasisJ H Martens
Department of Dermatology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Ruprecht Karls University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
J Pathol 208:574-89. 2006..ECs (stabilin-2+, LYVE-1+, DC-SIGNR+, MARCO+, stabilin-1+, MMR+) and sinusoidal Mvarphi (MMR+, DC-SIGN+, sialoadhesin+, CD163+, stabilin-1+ ) showed distinct, but overlapping expression patterns of the signature molecules by ..
- Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BARF1 protein is a decoy receptor for macrophage colony stimulating factor and interferes with macrophage differentiation and activationEveline K Hoebe
Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Viral Immunol 25:461-70. 2012..and significantly reduced expression of macrophage differentiation surface markers such as CD14, CD11b, CD16, and CD169. Macrophages differentiating in the presence of sBARF1 showed impaired responses to lipopolysaccharide and ..
- IFNα and its response proteins, IP-10 and SIGLEC-1, are biomarkers of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosusThomas Rose
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Ann Rheum Dis 72:1639-45. 2013....
- Sialoadhesin - a macrophage-restricted marker of immunoregulation and inflammationAlexander S G O'Neill
Division of Imaging Sciences, King s College London, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
Immunology 138:198-207. 2013b>Sialoadhesin (Sn, also known as Siglec-1 and CD169) is a macrophage-restricted cell surface receptor that is conserved across mammals...
- CD169⁺ macrophages provide a niche promoting erythropoiesis under homeostasis and stressAndrew Chow
Ruth L and David S Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
Nat Med 19:429-36. 2013..We found that specific depletion of CD169(+) macrophages markedly reduced the number of erythroblasts in the bone marrow but did not result in overt anemia ..
- Partial recovery of the damaged rat blood-brain barrier is mediated by adherens junction complexes, extracellular matrix remodeling and macrophage infiltration following focal astrocyte lossC L Willis
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, 11 Hills Beach Road, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA Electronic address
Neuroscience 250:773-85. 2013..matrix, as visualized by laminin and fibronectin, underwent extensive reversible remodeling and perivascular CD169 macrophages become abundant throughout the lesioned inferior colliculus...
- The malnutrition-related increase in early visceralization of Leishmania donovani is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes and altered conduit system flowMarwa K Ibrahim
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2329. 2013..with fewer CD11c(+)dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2(+) macrophages, and CD169(+) subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice...
- Replication characteristics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) European subtype 1 (Lelystad) and subtype 3 (Lena) strains in nasal mucosa and cells of the monocytic lineage: indications for the use of new receptors of PRRSV (LeIlias S Frydas
Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Immunology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, Merelbeke B 9820, Belgium
Vet Res 44:73. 2013..Confocal microscopy demonstrated that for LV, almost all viral antigen positive cells were CD163⁺Sialoadhesin (Sn)⁺, which were mainly located in the lamina propria of the respiratory mucosa...
- The species-specific structure of microanatomical compartments in the human spleen: strongly sialoadhesin-positive macrophages occur in the perifollicular zone, but not in the marginal zoneB Steiniger
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Marburg, Germany
Immunology 92:307-16. 1997..However, sometimes B lymphocytes clearly predominate in the perifollicular area. In addition, strongly sialoadhesin-positive macrophages form sheaths around capillaries in the perifollicular zone...
- Identification and molecular cloning of p75/AIRM1, a novel member of the sialoadhesin family that functions as an inhibitory receptor in human natural killer cellsM Falco
Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova, Italy
J Exp Med 190:793-802. 1999..The p75/AIRM1 gene is located on human chromosome 19 and encodes a novel member of the sialoadhesin family characterized by three immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains (one NH(2)-terminal V-type and two C2-..
- New animal lectin structuresJ M Rini
Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8, Canada
Curr Opin Struct Biol 9:578-84. 1999The past year has provided the X-ray crystal structures of both the N-terminal domain of sialoadhesin and the extracytoplasmic domain of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor...
- Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human evolution. Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecsE C Brinkman-Van der Linden
Glycobiology Research and Training Center and Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
J Biol Chem 275:8633-40. 2000..Human siglec-1 (sialoadhesin) strongly prefers Neu5Ac over Neu5Gc. Thus, humans have a higher density of siglec-1 ligands than great apes...
- Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcomaMarion Cornelissen
Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
BMC Cancer 3:7. 2003..Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome...
- Diversity in phenotype and steroid hormone dependence in dendritic cells and macrophages in the mouse uterusSarah N Hudson Keenihan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine Unit, Adelaide University, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia
Biol Reprod 70:1562-72. 2004..molecules major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, F4/80, class A scavenger receptor, macrosialin, and sialoadhesin were evident in estrous mice. Cells expressing the costimulatory molecule B7-2 were rarely observed...
- Complex of sialoadhesin with a glycopeptide ligandJens T Bukrinsky
Department of Chemistry, The Carlsberg Laboratory, Gamle Carlsberg Vej 10, DK 2500 Valby, Denmark
Biochim Biophys Acta 1702:173-9. 2004b>Sialoadhesin is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec), expressed on subsets of macrophages. It is a model system for Siglec receptor-mediated cell surface interactions through binding of sialylated glycoconjugates...
- Increased association of Trypanosoma cruzi with sialoadhesin positive mice macrophagesVerônica G Monteiro
Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, 28013 600 Parque Califórnia, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
Parasitol Res 97:380-5. 2005..Some macrophages, present in T. cruzi infected tissues, expresses sialoadhesin (Sn), a receptor that recognizes SA. Thus, the involvement of Sn in the association of T...
- Sialoadhesin promotes the inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitisHui Rong Jiang
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
J Immunol 177:2258-64. 2006..In this study, we investigated the role of the sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin sialoadhesin (Sn, Siglec-1) in a model of interphotoreceptor retinal binding protein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune ..
- Histological differences in new-onset IgA nephropathy between children and adultsYohei Ikezumi
Department of Pediatrics, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Asahimachi Dori, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:3466-74. 2006..We addressed this question by comparing both histology and leucocyte accumulation in biopsies of recently diagnosed childhood and adult IgAN...
- Receptor-determined susceptibility of preimplantation embryos to pseudorabies virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virusB Mateusen
Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics, and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Biol Reprod 76:415-23. 2007..of virus receptors, namely, poliovirus receptor-related 1 (PVRL1; formerly known as nectin 1) for PRV and sialoadhesin for PRRSV...
- Public data mining shows extended linkage disequilibrium around ADAM33M Wjst
Institut fur Epidemiologie, GSF Foschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany
Allergy 62:444-6. 2007..ADAM33 has been described to be the first positional cloned asthma gene. Consecutive association studies have found inconsistent results. At present no functional relevant variation is being known...
- The chemokine receptor CX3CR1 mediates homing of MHC class II-positive cells to the normal mouse corneal epitheliumHolly R Chinnery
School of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:1568-74. 2007....
- Subcapsular sinus macrophages in lymph nodes clear lymph-borne viruses and present them to antiviral B cellsTobias Junt
Immune Disease Institute and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 450:110-4. 2007..Here we identify a population of CD11b+CD169+MHCII+ macrophages on the floor of the subcapsular sinus (SCS) and in the medulla of lymph nodes that capture ..
- A size selective vascular barrier in the rat area postrema formed by perivascular macrophages and the extracellular matrixC L Willis
Medical Research Council Applied Neuroscience Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Neuroscience 150:498-509. 2007..CD163 and CD169 immunoreactive perivascular macrophages were located within lacunae between these two laminin layers...
- Early B-cell activation after West Nile virus infection requires alpha/beta interferon but not antigen receptor signalingWhitney E Purtha
Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Virol 82:10964-74. 2008..experiments demonstrate that B-cell activation after WNV infection was not affected by the loss of F4/80(+) or CD169(+) subcapsular macrophages...
- Comparative genomics indicates the mammalian CD33rSiglec locus evolved by an ancient large-scale inverse duplication and suggests all Siglecs share a common ancestral regionHuan Cao
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust MRC Building Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Immunogenetics 61:401-17. 2009..They are distinguishable from conserved Siglecs, such as Sialoadhesin and MAG, by their rapid evolution...
- The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus requires trafficking through CD163-positive early endosomes, but not late endosomes, for productive infectionHanne Van Gorp
Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
Arch Virol 154:1939-43. 2009..Furthermore, it was shown that PRRSV colocalizes with its internalization receptor, sialoadhesin, on the cell surface and beneath the plasma membrane, while CD163 and PRRSV only meet in early endosomes.
- Activation of innate and humoral immunity in the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic miceIsaac M Chiu
Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Immune Disease Institute, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20960-5. 2009..In this study, we characterized robust activation of CD169/CD68/Iba1+ macrophages throughout the PNS in mutant SOD1(G93A) and SOD1(G37R) transgenic mouse models of ALS...
- Fusion proteins for versatile antigen targeting to cell surface receptors reveal differential capacity to prime immune responsesRoland Kratzer
Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 1013, Paris, France
J Immunol 184:6855-64. 2010..Upon s.c. immunization, these complexes were initially taken up by CD169+ lymph node subcapsular sinus macrophages...
- Subcapsular sinus macrophages prevent CNS invasion on peripheral infection with a neurotropic virusMatteo Iannacone
Immune Disease Institute and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 465:1079-83. 2010..Recent work has shown that CD11b(+)CD169(+) macrophages, which populate the subcapsular sinus (SCS) of LNs, are critical for the clearance of viruses from ..
- Susceptible cell lines for the production of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by stable transfection of sialoadhesin and CD163Iris Delrue
Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
BMC Biotechnol 10:48. 2010..constructed CHO and PK15 cell lines recombinantly expressing the PRRSV receptors involved in virus entry into macrophages, sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 (CHOSn-CD163 and PK15Sn-CD163) and evaluated their potential for production of PRRSV.
- Paul S Frenette; Fiscal Year: 2015..We have defined subsets of BM mononuclear phagocytes and showed that CD169+ M[unreadable] regulated the hematopoietic stem cell niche...
- Ronald L Schnaar; Fiscal Year: 2016..This project defines anti-inflammatory sugar molecules and uses them to develop new treatments. (End of Abstract) ..
- Elucidating Non-Virus Encoded HIV Capture through Artificial Virus NanoparticlesBJOERN MARKUS REINHARD; Fiscal Year: 2013..assays Aim2: To develop artificial virus nanoparticles (AVNs) that mimic GM3-mediated HIV-1 capture Aim3: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying GM3-CD169 mediated binding and uptake of HIV-1 particles within DCs using AVNs.
- Lynn Pulliam; Fiscal Year: 2015..variables that could produce the IFN-induced monocyte phenotype, 2) define a new IFN- induced monocyte phenotype, CD169, 3) determine the impact of immune activation on chemotaxis and cytokine elaboration and 4) determine if monocyte ..
- MAMMALIAN SIALIC ACID BINDING PROTEINSJames C Paulson; Fiscal Year: 2010..With the exception of two siglecs (sialoadhesin and myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG)), the cytoplasmic domains contain one or more immuno-receptor tyrosine ..
- Monocyte Brain Infiltration in Acute SIV InfectionUrsula Esser; Fiscal Year: 2006..Identify the tissue origin and characterize brain-infiltrating monocytes in acute SIV infection Specific Aim 2. Define the role of sialoadhesin, CCL2. CX3CL1 and CXCL12 as monocyte migratory triggers [unreadable] [unreadable]
- NEUTROPHIL HOMEOSTASIS IN LUNG INFLAMMATIONBENJAMIN SURATT; Fiscal Year: 2005..responsible for the sequestration of neutrophils in the bone marrow with particular emphasis on macrophage sialoadhesin. Neutrophil retention will be studied using a combination of antibodies, gene-targeted mice, and chimeric ..
- MONOCYTE SUBSETS AND AIDS DEMENTIAD Pulliam; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Reproduction of Transgenic Pigs by Nuclear TransplantationRandall S Prather; Fiscal Year: 2010..The third aim is to determine the methylation profile and transcriptional profile of two different types of stem cells as compared to fetal-derived fibroblast-like cells. ..
- HIV-1 Infection Increases Brain Amyloid BetaLynn Pulliam; Fiscal Year: 2006..We believe that mechanisms derived from these experiments will have implications for long term survivors of HIV-1 infection and hopefully give us new clues for therapeutic strategies against HIV-associated dementia. ..
- Predicting HAD using Monocyte Profiling and NeuroimagingLynn Pulliam; Fiscal Year: 2008..These findings will help us develop a monocyte profile for HIV-1-infected individuals at risk for dementia to receive preventive therapy as well as serve as markers to assess effective therapies. [unreadable] [unreadable]..