Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: SFRP2
Description: secreted frizzled related protein 2
Alias: FRP-2, SARP1, SDF-5, secreted frizzled-related protein 2, SARP-1, sFRP-2, secreted apoptosis related protein 1, testicular tissue protein Li 170
Publications163 found, 100 shown here
- Methylation changes in faecal DNA: a marker for colorectal cancer screening?Hannes M Müller
Department of General and Transplant Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Lancet 363:1283-5. 2004..By use of MethyLight analysis of faecal DNA from three independent sets of patients, we identified SFRP2 methylation as a sensitive single DNA-based marker for identification of colorectal cancer in stool samples (..
- sFRP2 suppression of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling mediates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) self-renewal promoting engraftment and myocardial repairMaria P Alfaro
Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
J Biol Chem 285:35645-53. 2010..Secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) has recently been highlighted as a key mediator of MSC-driven myocardial and wound repair...
- Autocrine/paracrine secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 induces cellular resistance to apoptosis: a possible mechanism of mammary tumorigenesisJia Lin Lee
Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
J Biol Chem 279:14602-9. 2004..The secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) was detected in primary culture of canine mammary gland tumors but not in normal mammary tissues...
- Combination analysis of hypermethylated Wnt-antagonist family genes as a novel epigenetic biomarker panel for bladder cancer detectionShinji Urakami
Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Clin Cancer Res 12:2109-16. 2006..We hypothesized that combined methylation analysis of Wnt-antagonist genes could improve their use as a panel of biomarkers for diagnosing and staging of bladder cancers...
- Detection of aberrant methylation in fecal DNA as a molecular screening tool for colorectal cancer and precancerous lesionsZhao Hui Huang
Oncology Institute of Wuxi, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 200 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214062, Jiangsu Province, China
World J Gastroenterol 13:950-4. 2007..To investigate the feasibility of detecting methylated fecal DNA as a screening tool for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and precancerous lesions...
- SFRP2 methylation in fecal DNA--a marker for colorectal polypsMichael Oberwalder
Department of General and Transplant Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Int J Colorectal Dis 23:15-9. 2008..Recently, our study group was able to demonstrate SFRP2 methylation as the most sensitive single DNA-based marker in stool for identification of CRC...
- Frequent epigenetic inactivation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) by promoter methylation in human gastric cancerY Y Cheng
Institute of Digestive Disease, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Br J Cancer 97:895-901. 2007..Among the four SFRPs, only SFRP2 was significantly downregulated in gastric cancer as compared to adjacent non-cancer samples (P<0.01)...
- Frequent epigenetic inactivation of SFRP genes in hepatocellular carcinomaHideyasu Takagi
First Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, S1, W16, Chuo Ku, Sapporo 060 8543, Japan
J Gastroenterol 43:378-89. 2008..Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), though mutation of three of its components, CTNNB1, AXIN1, and AXIN2, is observed substantially less often...
- Promoter hypermethylation of the SFRP2 gene is a high-frequent alteration and tumor-specific epigenetic marker in human breast cancerJürgen Veeck
Molecular Oncology Group, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Mol Cancer 7:83. 2008..b>SFRP2 is a further Wnt inhibitor whose expression was recently found being downregulated in various malignancies...
- SFRP1 and SFRP2 suppress the transformation and invasion abilities of cervical cancer cells through Wnt signal pathwayMing Tzeung Chung
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
Gynecol Oncol 112:646-53. 2009..Recently, we have shown that SFRP1 and SFRP2 are frequently downregulated through promoter hypermethylation...
- Epigenetic dysregulation of secreted Frizzled-related proteins in multiple myelomaE Jost
Medizinische Klinik IV, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Germany
Cancer Lett 281:24-31. 2009..Among 76 primary patient samples, the frequency of aberrant methylation was 35.5% for SFRP1, 52.6% for SFRP2, 1.3% for SFRP4 and 6.9% for SFRP5...
- The SFRP family of WNT inhibitors function as novel tumor suppressor genes epigenetically silenced in medulloblastomaP N Kongkham
Division of Neurosurgery, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8
Oncogene 29:3017-24. 2010..Using a genome-wide approach, we identified the secreted frizzled-related protein 1, 2 and 3 (SFRP1, SFRP2 and SFRP3) family of WNT inhibitors as putative tumor suppressor genes silenced by promoter region methylation in ..
- Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signalingZofia Von Marschall
Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 400:299-304. 2010..Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic β-catenin levels and its nuclear ..
- The role of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression in prostate cancerGillian O'Hurley
Department of Pathology, RCSI Education and Research Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Histopathology 59:1240-8. 2011..In this study, we investigated the prostatic tissue expression of secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP)-2...
- Sequence comparisons of plasmids pBJS-O of Spiroplasma citri and pSKU146 of S. kunkelii: implications for plasmid evolutionBharat D Joshi
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, 246 NRC, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
BMC Genomics 6:175. 2005..citri BR3-3X harbors a plasmid, pBJS-Original (pBJS-O), that encodes the spiroplasma adhesion related protein 1 (SARP1), a protein implicated in binding of the pathogen to cells of its leafhopper vector, Circulifer tenellus. The S...
- [Study of gene expression difference in lung carcinogenesis by cDNA microarray]Zai Mei Peng
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China
Ai Zheng 23:150-4. 2004....
- Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is cleaved into its two natural dentin matrix products by three isoforms of bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1)Zofia Von Marschall
Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases Branch, NIDCR, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA
Matrix Biol 29:295-303. 2010..of BMP1/mTLD activity (procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer-1, PCPE-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein-2, sFRP2) were tested for their abilities to modulate BMP1-mediated processing of both DSPP and another SIBLING family ..
- SARP, a new alternatively spliced protein phosphatase 1 and DNA interacting proteinGareth J Browne
Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK
Biochem J 402:187-96. 2007..Alternative mRNA splicing produces several isoforms of SARP from a single human gene at locus 11q14. SARP1 and/or SARP2 (92-95 kDa) are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with high levels in testis and sperm, where ..
- Impaired Wnt signaling in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells from p53/c-fos double mutant miceShalini Singh
Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
Am J Pathol 177:2055-66. 2010..Furthermore, the identification of both survivin and sfrp2 through promoter and expression analyses suggested that increased resistance to apoptosis was associated with the ..
- Cryptic plasmid pSKU146 from the wall-less plant pathogen Spiroplasma kunkelii encodes an adhesin and components of a type IV translocation-related conjugation systemRobert E Davis
Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Plasmid 53:179-90. 2005..One ORF encodes a 96 kDa protein, SkARP1, that is highly similar to SARP1 adhesin involved in attachment of Spiroplasma citri to insect vector gut membrane...
- Characterization of Spiroplasma citri adhesion related protein SARP1, which contains a domain of a novel family designated sarpinM Berg
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Gene 275:57-64. 2001..The S. citri adhesion related protein P89 (SARP1) was purified by immunoprecipitation using anti-SARP1 monoclonal antibodies...
- Aberrant methylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes in aging liver, chronic hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinomaNaoshi Nishida
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine and Charles A Sammons Cancer Center, Dallas, TX, USA
Hepatology 47:908-18. 2008..HIC-1, CASP8, GSTP1, SOCS1, RASSF1A, p16, APC), which was significantly higher than group 2 (CDH1, RUNX3, RIZ1, SFRP2, MINT31) and group 3 markers (COX2, MINT1, CACNA1G, RASSF2, MINT2, Reprimo, DCC) (P < 0.0001)...
- Lithium chloride regulates the proliferation of stem-like cells in retinoblastoma cell lines: a potential role for the canonical Wnt signaling pathwayAmanda K Silva
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Mol Vis 16:36-45. 2010..In this study, we investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) regulates proliferation of retinoblastoma cancer stem-like cells...
- Investigation of mRNA expression for secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in chick embryosChung Tien Lin
Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bio Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
J Reprod Dev 53:801-10. 2007The roles of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in organ development of vertebrate animals are not well understood. We investigated expression of sFRP2 during embryogenesis of Arbor Acre broiler chicken eggs...
- Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) is highly expressed in canine mammary gland tumors but not in normal mammary glandsJia Lin Lee
Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bio Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, ROC
Breast Cancer Res Treat 84:139-49. 2004..and 10 normal mammary glands (MGs) were obtained from surgically excised specimens and analyzed for expression of SFRP2, beta-catenin, and cyclin D1...
- Molecular and physiological characterization of RV remodeling in a murine model of pulmonary stenosisTakashi Urashima
Department of Pediatrics Cardiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H1351-H1368. 2008..RV but not in the afterloaded LV, including clusterin, neuroblastoma suppression of tumorigenicity 1, Dkk3, Sfrp2, formin binding protein, annexin A7, and lysyl oxidase...
- Sequential DNA methylation changes are associated with DNMT3B overexpression in colorectal neoplastic progressionAshraf E K Ibrahim
Department of Pathology, Division of Molecular Histopathology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK
Gut 60:499-508. 2011..mixed-effects modelling was used in this study to understand the onset and patterns of the methylation changes of SFRP2, IGF2 DMR0, H19, LINE-1 and a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) marker panel, and they were correlated with ..
- Altered expression of secreted frizzled-related protein-2 in retinitis pigmentosa retinasS E Jones
Department of Pharmacology, The Rayne Institute, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1297-301. 2000..To identify changes in gene expression associated with the degenerative state in RP retinas, expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes was performed using a gridded array technique...
- The frizzled-related sFRP2 gene is a target of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 and activates beta-catenin signaling in mouse intestineElsa Kress
Universite de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, INRA, CNRS, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, 69364 Lyon, France
J Biol Chem 284:1234-41. 2009..We focused on the "cell cycle/cell proliferation" network and, in particular, on the Frizzled-related protein sFRP2, whose expression was greatly increased in response to thyroid hormones...
- The Wnt modulator sFRP2 enhances mesenchymal stem cell engraftment, granulation tissue formation and myocardial repairMaria P Alfaro
Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18366-71. 2008..Specific knockdown of sFRP2 by shRNA in MRL-MSCs decreased their proliferation and their engraftment in and the vascular density of MRL-MSC-..
- Diagnostic and prognostic value of the methylation status of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 in colorectal cancerDong Tang
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
Clin Invest Med 34:E88-95. 2011The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of the methylation status of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) in colorectal cancer (CRC).
- Conditionally immortalized cell line of inducible metanephric mesenchymeZoia B Levashova
Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
Kidney Int 63:2075-87. 2003....
- Brachy-syndactyly caused by loss of Sfrp2 functionRoy Morello
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Cell Physiol 217:127-37. 2008..Here, we show that inactivation of Sfrp2 results in subtle limb defects in mice with mesomelic shortening and consistent shortening of all autopodal ..
- Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are required for normal male sexual development in miceNick Warr
Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxfordshire, UK
Dev Biol 326:273-84. 2009..Using in vivo loss-of-function studies we report here for the first time a redundant role for Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 in embryonic sexual development of the mouse. At 16...
- Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epitheliumMakoto Matsuyama
Vertebrate Body Plan, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Minatojima Minami, Kobe, Japan
PLoS Genet 5:e1000427. 2009..Here, we show that inactivation of Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 leads to reduction in fore-stomach length in mouse embryos, which is enhanced in the presence of the Sfrp5 ..
- SigmaB and SarA independently regulate polysaccharide intercellular adhesin production in Staphylococcus epidermidisL D Handke
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha 68198 6280, USA
Can J Microbiol 53:82-91. 2007..epidermidis. It was further demonstrated, through the over-production of SarA in 1457 sigB, that the loss of sarP1 promoter activity in 1457 sigB has little or no effect on the loss of PIA production in this mutant...
- Epigenetically altered wound healing in keloid fibroblastsShirley B Russell
Center for Human Genetics Research and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
J Invest Dermatol 130:2489-96. 2010..In vivo, decreased expression of SFRP1 and SFRP2 and increased expression of IGFBP5 proteins are observed only in proliferative keloid tissue...
- Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of CpG islands in breast cancer identifies novel genes associated with tumorigenicityVictoria K Hill
Medical and Molecular Genetics, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Cancer Res 71:2988-99. 2011..We identified several individual methylated genes associated with clinical features, including six genes (RECK, SFRP2, UAP1L1, ACADL, ITR, and UGT3A1) that showed statistical significance between methylation and relapse-free ..
- Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus gp160-mediated cell fusion by antibodies against fusion regulatory protein 1S Ohgimoto
Department of Microbiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Japan
J Gen Virol 77:2747-56. 1996..Thus, HIV-mediated cell fusion can be regulated by modification of the FRP-1 system. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that the FRP-1 and FRP-2 systems are interdependent...
- Protease activated receptor-1, PAR1, promotes placenta trophoblast invasion and beta-catenin stabilizationSorina Grisaru-Granovsky
Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
J Cell Physiol 218:512-21. 2009..Enforced expression of Wnt antagonists, Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins; SFRP2 & 5; into HTR-8/Svneo, resulted with a markedly reduced nuclear beta-catenin levels, similar to the effect ..
- Lens morphogenesis is dependent on Pax6-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the lens surface ectodermOndrej Machon
Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14420 Prague 4, Czech Republic
Genesis 48:86-95. 2010..We show that Pax6 directly controls expression of several Wnt inhibitors such as Sfrp1, Sfrp2, and Dkk1 in the presumptive lens...
- Molecular and biological characterization of fusion regulatory proteins (FRPs): anti-FRP mAbs induced HIV-mediated cell fusion via an integrin systemH Ohta
Department of Microbiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Japan
EMBO J 13:2044-55. 1994..FRP-mediated fusion was temperature, cytoskeleton, energy and Ca2+ dependent. These experiments showed a possible regulatory function of cell fusion by an integrin system(s)...
- Forced chondrocyte expression of sonic hedgehog impairs joint formation affecting proliferation and apoptosisS Tavella
Dipartimento di Oncologia, Biologia e Genetica, Universita di Genova, Genova, Italy
Matrix Biol 25:389-97. 2006..Molecular markers of joints, such as Gdf5 and sFrp2 were absent at presumptive joint sites and Tenascin C, a molecule associated with joint formation and expressed in ..
- An epigenetic marker panel for screening and prognostic prediction of ovarian cancerHer Young Su
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
Int J Cancer 124:387-93. 2009..001). The methylation of SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX1 and LMX1A genes correlated with recurrence and overall survival of ovarian cancer patients...
- FOS proliferating network construction in early colorectal cancer (CRC) based on integrative significant function cluster and inferring analysisLin Wang
Center for Biomedical Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China
Cancer Invest 27:816-24. 2009..In the control, we found no proliferating subnetwork. In CRC, we identified one FOS proliferating module (SFRP2, ADAMTS1, SYNPO2, VIP, ADAM33 inhibition to FOS and MGP, FOSB activation to FOS...
- Comparative genomics on SFRP2 orthologsMasuko Katoh
M and M Medical BioInformatics, Hongo 113 0033, Japan
Oncol Rep 14:783-7. 2005SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5, DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, and WIF1 are soluble modulators of WNT signaling. SFRP2 gene at human chromosome 4q31...
- Hypermethylated SFRP2 gene in fecal DNA is a high potential biomarker for colorectal cancer noninvasive screeningDao Rong Wang
Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu Province, China
World J Gastroenterol 14:524-31. 2008To investigate the feasibility of detecting hypermethylated secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) gene in fecal DNA as a non-invasive screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC).
- Exogenously administered secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) reduces fibrosis and improves cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial infarctionWei He
Mandel Center for Hypertension Research and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:21110-5. 2010b>Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) is known as an inhibitor for the Wnt signaling. In recent studies, Sfrp2 has been reported to inhibit the activity of Xenopus homolog of mammalian Tolloid-like 1 metalloproteinase...
- SFRP2 expression in rabbit myogenic progenitor cells and in adult skeletal musclesJ M Levin
Laboratoire de Différenciation Cellulaire et Croissance, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Montpellier, France
J Muscle Res Cell Motil 22:361-9. 2001..these genes we have identified, cloned, sequenced and studied the expression in muscle of rabbit secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2) mRNA, whose importance in cell fate determination has been well documented...
- Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 regulate anteroposterior axis elongation and somite segmentation during mouse embryogenesisWataru Satoh
Vertebrate Body Plan, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Chuou ku, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
Development 133:989-99. 2006..Here, we show that Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are required for anteroposterior (AP) axis elongation and somitogenesis in the thoracic region during mouse ..
- VDR-mediated inhibition of DKK1 and SFRP2 suppresses adipogenic differentiation of murine bone marrow stromal cellsLuisella Cianferotti
Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
J Cell Biochem 101:80-8. 2007..VDR null cultures was associated with inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mRNA levels for DKK1 and SFRP2 were examined...
- Sfrp1, Sfrp2, and Sfrp5 regulate the Wnt/beta-catenin and the planar cell polarity pathways during early trunk formation in mouseWataru Satoh
Vertebrate Body Plan, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Minatojima Minami, Chuou ku, Kobe, Japan
Genesis 46:92-103. 2008Sfrp is a secreted Wnt antagonist that directly interacts with Wnt ligand. We show here that inactivation of Sfrp1, Sfrp2, and Sfrp5 leads to fused somites formation in early-somite mouse embryos, simultaneously resulting in defective ..
- Epigenetic inactivation of tumor suppressor SFRP2 and point mutation in KRAS proto-oncogene in fistula-associated mucinous type anal adenocarcinoma: report of two casesMetin Sen
Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Turkey
Intern Med 49:1637-40. 2010..The aim of the current study was to clarify whether SFRP2 methylation and K-ras structural mutation in fecal DNA can be found in stool and tumoral tissues of individuals ..
- SFRP2 regulates cardiomyogenic differentiation by inhibiting a positive transcriptional autofeedback loop of Wnt3aArjun Deb
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Mandel Center for Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Research, Department of Medicine, GSRB 2, Box 3178, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Stem Cells 26:35-44. 2008..In this report, we show that in a pluripotent mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cell line, SFRP2 inhibits cardiomyogenic differentiation by regulating Wnt3a transcription...
- Epigenetic regulation of WNT signaling pathway genes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated neoplasiaMashaal Dhir
Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
J Gastrointest Surg 12:1745-53. 2008..This study examined the role of epigenetic silencing of WNT signaling pathway genes in the pathogenesis of IBD-associated neoplasia...
- Expansion of CpG methylation in the SFRP2 promoter region during colorectal tumorigenesisMasanori Takeda
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan
Acta Med Okayama 65:169-77. 2011Secreted frizzled-related protein 2, (SFRP2) is a Wnt inhibitor whose promoter CpGs were recently found to be methylated at high frequency in colorectal cancers (CRCs)...
- Developmental expression patterns of mouse sFRP genes encoding members of the secreted frizzled related protein familyC Leimeister
Department of Physiological Chemistry I, Theodor Boveri Institute Biocenter, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D 97074, Wuerzburg, Germany
Mech Dev 75:29-42. 1998..One of the genes found encodes the secreted frizzled related protein 2 (sFRP2) that is upregulated within 2 days of in vitro development...
- Embryonic myogenesis pathways in muscle regenerationPo Zhao
Center for Genetic Medicine, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
Dev Dyn 229:380-92. 2004..Moreover, antagonists of Wnt signaling, sFRP1, sFRP2, and sFRP4 (secreted frizzled-related proteins) were significantly up-regulated, suggesting active inhibition of ..
- Expression analysis of chick Wnt and frizzled genes and selected inhibitors in early chick patterningSusan C Chapman
MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, Kings College London, New Hunts House, Guy s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Dev Dyn 229:668-76. 2004..members of the Wnt family of secreted signaling factors, their Frizzled receptors and several inhibitors (sFRP1, sFRP2, sFRP3/Frzb1, Crescent/Frzb2, Dkk1, and Cerberus) are involved...
- Axial patterning in cephalochordates and the evolution of the organizerJr Kai Yu
Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California 92037 0202, USA
Nature 445:613-7. 2007..In addition, Wnt-antagonists (for example, Dkks and sFRP2-like) are expressed anteriorly, whereas Wnt genes themselves are expressed posteriorly, consistent with a role for ..
- Frequent epigenetic inactivation of SFRP genes and constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancerM Nojima
First Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan
Oncogene 26:4699-713. 2007..CpG methylation-dependent silencing of SFRP1, SFRP2 and SFRP5 was frequently seen among GC cell lines (SFRP1, 16/16, 100%; SFRP2, 16/16, 100%; SFRP5, 13/16, 81%) and ..
- SFRP1 suppressed hepatoma cells growth through Wnt canonical signaling pathwayYu Lueng Shih
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
Int J Cancer 121:1028-35. 2007..To confirm and extend these findings, the methylation status of the other SFRP members, including SFRP2, SFRP4 and SFRP5, was examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR)...
- Wnt3a binds to several sFRPs in the nanomolar rangeDanuta Wawrzak
Laboratory for Cell Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 357:1119-23. 2007..Here we show, using surface plasmon resonance and purified proteins, that sFRP1, sFRP2, sFRP4, and Frzb bind directly to Wnt3a with affinities in the nanomolar range...
- Structure-function analysis of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 for its Wnt antagonist functionRamesh A Bhat
Women s Health and Musculoskeletal Biology Division, Wyeth Research, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA
J Cell Biochem 102:1519-28. 2007..The structure-function analysis studies of sFRP-1 clearly demonstrate the interaction of several functional domains for its optimal Wnt antagonist function...
- Epigenetic inactivation of secreted Frizzled-related proteins in acute myeloid leukaemiaE Jost
Medizinische Klinik IV, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Br J Haematol 142:745-53. 2008..The frequencies of aberrant methylation among the patient samples were 29% for SFRP1, 19% for SFRP2, 0% for SFRP4 and 9% for SFRP5...
- Genome-wide association study of electrocardiographic conduction measures in an isolated founder population: KosraeJ Gustav Smith
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Heart Rhythm 6:634-41. 2009..Cardiac conduction, as assessed by electrocardiographic PR interval and QRS duration, is an important electrophysiological trait and a determinant of arrhythmia risk...
- Porcine aortic endothelial cell genes responsive to selected inflammatory stimulatorsHye Jung Yeom
Department of Biochemistry, Hanyang University and GenoCheck Co Ltd, Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea
J Vet Med Sci 71:1499-508. 2009..We also found that mRNA species including secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2), structure specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) also ..
- Isorhamnetin-induced anti-adipogenesis is mediated by stabilization of beta-catenin proteinJongsung Lee
Biospectrum Life Science Institute, 101 701 SK Ventium, 522 Dangjung Dong, Gunpo City, 435 833 Gyunggi Do, Republic of Korea
Life Sci 86:416-23. 2010..This study was conducted to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of isorhamnetin during adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hAMSCs)...
- [Significance of the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 expression in earlobe keloid]Zhi Cheng Sun
Department of Plastic Surgery, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 26:369-72. 2010To investigate the expression and the role of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) in the earlobe keloid and find a valid way to treat the keloid with gene therapy.
- The role of calcineurin/NFAT in SFRP2 induced angiogenesis--a rationale for breast cancer treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimusSharareh Siamakpour-Reihani
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e20412. 2011..vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a novel angiogenesis factor, secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2)...
- Effects of aging and anatomic location on gene expression in human retinaHui Cai
Department of Ophthalmology, Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University, New York NY, USA
Front Aging Neurosci 4:8. 2012..peripheral, young, or old retina were identified, including inhibitors of Wnt Signaling Pathway (DKK1, FZD10, and SFRP2) which are preferably expressed in the periphery...
- Cancer stem cells: potential target for bioactive food componentsYoung S Kim
Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Nutr Biochem 23:691-8. 2012..critical feedback molecules in the network including dickkopf 1 (DKK-1), secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) ..
- Methylation of Wnt antagonist genes: a useful prognostic marker for myelodysplastic syndromeHong Wang
Department of Hematology, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, No 188 Shi Zi Street, Suzhou, China
Ann Hematol 92:199-209. 2013..6 % for sFRP2, 43.1 % for sFRP4, 50.7 % for sFRP5, 44.4 % for DKK-1, and 69.4 % for DKK-3...
- Widespread resetting of DNA methylation in glioblastoma-initiating cells suppresses malignant cellular behavior in a lineage-dependent mannerStefan H Stricker
Department of Cancer Biology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
Genes Dev 27:654-69. 2013..g., sfrp2)...
- Osteocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor I is essential for determining bone mechanosensitivityK H William Lau
Division of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 305:E271-81. 2013..reduced the loading-induced upregulation of expression of canonical Wnt signaling genes (Wnt10b, Lrp5, Dkk1, sFrp2)...
- The specific methylation characteristics of cancer related genes in Chinese colorectal cancer patientsWenjie Yang
Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China
Tumour Biol 35:8267-79. 2014..Promoter hypermethylation of MLH1, p16, SFRP2, PHD3, KLOTHO, and IGFBP7 was observed in 1.6, 10.9, 97.3, 44.0, 59.8, and 88.6 % of CRC samples, respectively...
- The defect of SFRP2 modulates an influx of extracellular calcium in B lymphocytesYuichi Tokuda
Department of Genomic Medical Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii cho, Kawaramachi Hirokoji, Kamigyo ku, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
BMC Res Notes 7:780. 2014In the Wnt pathway, the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) is thought to act as one of the several competitive inhibitors of Wnt. However, the precise role of SFRP2 is still poorly understood especially in B lymphocytes...
- Exendin-4 protects adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide through the PI3K/Akt-Sfrp2 pathwaysHao Zhou
Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
Free Radic Biol Med 77:363-75. 2014..focusing in particular on mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and PI3K/Akt-secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (Sfrp2) survival signaling...
- Bisulfite-Based DNA Methylation Analysis from Recent and Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Colorectal Tissue SamplesAlexandra Kalmár
2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Szentkirályi utca 46, 1088, Budapest, Hungary
Pathol Oncol Res 21:1149-56. 2015..DNA methylation analysis of MAL, SFRP1 and SFRP2 genes, known to be hypermethylated in CRC, was performed using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-..
- Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 2 (sFRP2) Functions as a Melanogenic Stimulator; the Role of sFRP2 in UV-Induced Hyperpigmentary DisordersMisun Kim
Department of Dermatology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea Chronic Inflammatory Disease Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea Department of Biomedical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea
J Invest Dermatol 136:236-44. 2016In this study, we found that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) is overexpressed in the hyperpigmentary skin of melasma and solar lentigo and in acutely UV-irradiated skin...
- Overexpression of miR-223 Tips the Balance of Pro- and Anti-hypertrophic Signaling Cascades toward Physiologic Cardiac HypertrophyLiwang Yang
From the Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China, Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics
J Biol Chem 291:15700-13. 2016..Using the next generation RNA sequencing, we observed that most of dys-regulated genes (e.g. Atf3/5, Egr1/3, Sfrp2, Itgb1, Ndrg4, Akip1, Postn, Rxfp1, and Egln3) in miR-223-transgenic hearts were associated with cell growth, but ..
- sFRP2 activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cardiac fibroblasts: differential roles in cell growth, energy metabolism, and extracellular matrix remodelingHuey Lin
Department of Biochemistry and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 311:C710-C719. 2016Secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) plays a key role in chronic fibrosis after myocardial infarction and in heart failure...
- Hesperidin derivative-11 inhibits fibroblast-like synoviocytes proliferation by activating Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 in adjuvant arthritis ratsYanhui Liu
School of Pharmacy, Anhui key laboratory of bioactivity of natural products, Anhui Medical University, Meishan Road No 81, 230032 Hefei, China Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University AMU, Anhui Medical University, Meishan Road No 81, 230032 Hefei, China Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, Meishan Road No 81, 230032 Hefei, China
Eur J Pharmacol 794:173-183. 2017..staining demonstrated that HDND-11 was able to up-regulate the expression of Secreted frizzled-related proteins 2 (SFRP2) and diminish DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1) expression...
- Imprinting of tumor-suppressor genes in human placentaIsabelle Guilleret
University Institute of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Epigenetics 4:62-8. 2009..In all placental villi, four TSG promoters-APC, SFRP2, RASSF1A and WIF1-were hypermethylated, whereas all decidua and normal endometrium did not show any methylation...
- Gene methylation of SFRP2, P16, DAPK1, HIC1, and MGMT and KRAS mutations in sporadic colorectal cancerSacide Pehlivan
Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Gaziantep University, Turkey
Cancer Genet Cytogenet 201:128-32. 2010The aim of this study was to investigate the methylation of the SFRP2, P16, DAPK1, HIC1, and MGMT genes, as well as the mutation of amino acid codons 12 and 13 of the KRAS gene in normal and tumor tissue DNA of patients diagnosed with ..
- Gene expression and epigenetic discovery screen reveal methylation of SFRP2 in prostate cancerAntoinette S Perry
Prostate Molecular Oncology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Int J Cancer 132:1771-80. 2013..Methylation frequencies in prostate cancer were 10% (2/20) (SFRP1), 64.86% (48/74) (SFRP2), 0% (0/20) (SFRP4) and 60% (12/20) (SFRP5)...
- sizzled function and secreted factor network dynamicsJianli Shi
Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
Biol Open 1:286-94. 2012..Loss of sizzled expression led to decreases in RNAs encoding the secreted Wnt inhibitor SFRP2 and the secreted BMP inhibitor Noggin; the sizzled morphant phenotype could be rescued by co-injection of RNAs ..
- Wnt signalling regulates myogenic differentiation in the developing avian wingKelly Anakwe
Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College, London SE1 9RT, UK
Development 130:3503-14. 2003..In the chick, the premyogenic cells express the Wnt antagonist Sfrp2, which is downregulated as the cells differentiate, suggesting that Wnts might regulate myogenic differentiation...
- Wnt signaling induces the myogenic specification of resident CD45+ adult stem cells during muscle regenerationAnna Polesskaya
Ottawa Health Research Institute, Molecular Medicine Program, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H 8L6
Cell 113:841-52. 2003..Moreover, injection of the Wnt antagonists sFRP2/3 into regenerating muscle markedly reduced CD45(+) stem cell proliferation and myogenic specification...
- Wnt 3a promotes proliferation and suppresses osteogenic differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cellsGenevieve M Boland
Cartilage Biology and Orthopaedics Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892 8022, USA
J Cell Biochem 93:1210-30. 2004..WNT11, FZD6, SFRP2, and SFRP3 are upregulated during MSC osteogenesis, while WNT9A and FZD7 are downregulated...
- Expression of Frizzleds and secreted frizzled-related proteins (Sfrps) during mammalian lens developmentYongjuan Chen
Save Sight Institute, NSW, Australia
Int J Dev Biol 48:867-77. 2004..Sfrp1- Sfrp5 are expressed and all, except Sfrp2, have similar patterns of expression to each other and to the Fzs during lens development...
- The stomach mesenchymal transcription factor Barx1 specifies gastric epithelial identity through inhibition of transient Wnt signalingByeong Moo Kim
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Dev Cell 8:611-22. 2005..Barx1 directs mesenchymal cell expression of two secreted Wnt antagonists, sFRP1 and sFRP2, and these factors are sufficient replacements for Barx1 function...
- WNT pathways in the neonatal ovine uterus: potential specification of endometrial gland morphogenesis by SFRP2Kanako Hayashi
Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 2471, USA
Biol Reprod 74:721-33. 2006..Secreted FZD-related protein-2 (SFRP2), a WNT antagonist, was not detected in the P0 uterus, but was abundant in the aglandular caruncular areas of the ..
- Aberrant gene methylation is a biomarker for the detection of cancer cells in peritoneal wash samples from advanced gastric cancer patientsMasatsugu Hiraki
Department of Surgery, Saga University Faculty of Medicine, Saga, Japan
Ann Surg Oncol 18:3013-9. 2011..To assess whether gene methylation in peritoneal fluid (PF) is clinically feasible for determining micrometastasis to the peritoneum in gastric cancer...
- Alterations in promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor HIC1, SFRP2, and DAPK1 genes in prostate carcinomasDevran Kilinc
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey
DNA Cell Biol 31:826-32. 2012..in cancer 1 (HIC1), death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16), and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes by using ..
- Change in gene expression profiles of secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) by sodium butyrate in gastric cancers: induction of promoter demethylation and histone modification causing inhibition of Wnt signalingHyunsoo Shin
Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Int J Oncol 40:1533-42. 2012....
- SFRP2 and slug contribute to cellular resistance to apoptosis in hypertrophic scarsLiang Chen
Department of Plastic Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR China
PLoS ONE 7:e50229. 2012..Our previous studies have suggested that secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) is involved in HS formation and that the suppression of SFRP2 promotes apoptosis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts ..
- Differential gene expression by Osterix knockdown in mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cellsSeung Yoon Park
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, and Medical Institute of Dongguk University, Gyeongju, 780 714, Republic of Korea
Gene 518:368-75. 2013..The expressions of differential genes, such as Sfrp2, Sema3a, Nox4, Rgs4, Zfp521, Has2, Sox6, Scn2a1, Sirpa, and Thbs2, were validated by quantitative real-time PCR...
- Involvement of the HIF-1α and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in the protective effects of losartan on fatty liver graft with ischaemia/reperfusion injuryYing Ying Yang
Graduate Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan
Clin Sci (Lond) 126:163-74. 2014..Simultaneous acute sFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2; a Wnt3a inhibitor) pre-treatment eliminated the losartan-related beneficial ..
- Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are not involved in Wnt/β-catenin signal silencing during lens induction but are required for maintenance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in lens epithelial cellsYuki Sugiyama
Save Sight Institute, The University of Sydney, Australia
Dev Biol 384:181-93. 2013..Secreted frizzled related protein-2 (Sfrp2), a putative Wnt-Fz antagonist, is expressed in lens placode and in lens epithelial cells and has been put forward ..
- 206 estimation of embryo developmental toxicants in human embryonic stem cellE M Jung
Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea
Reprod Fertil Dev 26:217. 2013..by expression of pluripotent ES cell markers (OCT-4, NANOG, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB), secreted frizzled related protein 2(SFRP2), teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 (TDGF1), and phosphatase, and tensin homologue (..
- NANCY DEMORE; Fiscal Year: 2014..vascular cells compared to normal vessels obtained by laser capture microdissection, we identified secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2) as a gene with increased expression in tumor endothelium...
- Regulation of hair cell determination by the Wnt/Calcium signaling pathwayAlain Dabdoub; Fiscal Year: 2012..We further hypothesize that Wnt4 activity is antagonized by a sFRP2 (a Wnt inhibitor) gradient originating from the lateral edge of the cochlea duct, and that this antagonism is ..
- DOROTHY EILEEN VATNER; Fiscal Year: 2016..Secret frizzled related protein 2 (sFRP2) was found as the most up-regulated gene uniquely in this model, indicating that this protein is potentially a ..
- Inhibitors of BMP-1/TLD proteases as novel therapeutics for muscular dystrophySe Jin Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010..of targeting BMP-1/tolloid metalloproteases in mdx mice and to determine whether the BMP-1/tolloid inhibitor, sFRP2, can increase muscle growth either when expressed as a transgene in skeletal muscle or when administered ..
- Arjun Deb; Fiscal Year: 2014..We demonstrate in this proposal that, intra-cardiac injection of Secreted related frizzled protein 2 (Sfrp2), an extracellular Wnt antagonist, 48 hours after myocardial injury, dramatically decreases cardiac scarring...
- Role of Tumor Microenvironment in Ovarian Cancer ProgressionMelissa S Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2012..microenvironment enables and promotes tumor progression and chemoresistance, possibly through the expression of SFRP2. We propose to develop relevant in vitro models to dissect these interactions and to illustrate the specific ..
- Victor J Dzau; Fiscal Year: 2015Several studies have suggested that Secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (Sfrp2), a Wnt pathway inhibitor, is a key mediator of myocardial wound repair and has been shown to inhibit myocyte apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and inhibit ..
- Wnt Signaling in IBD-Related Colon CancerRANDALL HOLCOMBE; Fiscal Year: 2005..However, abnormal expression of other components of the Wnt pathway, including frizzled receptors, SARP1 and disheveled (dvl) have been described...
- Role of Sfrp2 in Cardiac RegenerationArjun Deb; Fiscal Year: 2007..We show here that [unreadable] secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2), a Wnt modulator, inhibits cardiomyogenic differentiation of [unreadable] P19CL6 cells, a ..
- Role of Sfrp2 in Cardiac RegenerationArjun Deb; Fiscal Year: 2010..We show here that secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2), a Wnt modulator, inhibits cardiomyogenic differentiation of P19CL6 cells, a murine ..
- Genetic Interactions at the Cortical Striatal BorderLaura A Cocas; Fiscal Year: 2010..g. Sfrp2 and Dbx1), resulting in an alteration of the LCS and subsequent disruption of amygdala development...
- CATENINS, EPITHELIAL BEHAVIOR AND GENE EXPRESSIONMichael Klymkowsky; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will test whether decreasing the expression of specific SOXs using anti-sense reagents leads to the predicted expansion of TCF regulated target genes and/or increased sensitivity of embryonic cells to Wnt signaling components ..
- NFkB Targets and Neural Crest DevelopmentMICHAEL WILLIAM KLYMKOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2010..Together these observation should have important implications for understanding the behavior of molecular and inductive networks in general and the prevention and/or amelioration of neural crest defects in particular. ..