Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: RBP4
Description: retinol binding protein 4
Alias: MCOPCB10, RDCCAS, PRBP, RBP, plasma retinol-binding protein, retinol binding protein 4, plasma, retinol-binding protein 4, interstitial
Publications193 found, 100 shown here
- The cAMP-HMGA1-RBP4 system: a novel biochemical pathway for modulating glucose homeostasisEusebio Chiefari
Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica G Salvatore, Catanzaro, Italy
BMC Biol 7:24. 2009..Also, the hypothesis that increased insulin sensitivity in Hmga1-deficient mice could be related to the deficit of an insulin resistance factor is discussed...
- Retinol-binding protein-4 attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS1 and ERK1/2 in primary human adipocytesAnita Ost
Department of Cell Biology and Diabetes Research Centre, Linkoping University, SE58185 Linköping, Sweden
FASEB J 21:3696-704. 2007..Animal models and patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit elevated levels of circulating retinol-binding protein (RBP4), and RBP4 can induce insulin resistance in mice. However, little is known about how RBP4 affects insulin signaling...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 and prediction of incident coronary events in healthy men and womenZiad Mallat
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unit 689, Hopital Lariboisiere, 75010 Paris, France
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:255-60. 2009Recent studies reported that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has a causal role in insulin resistance and suggested that its circulating levels may predict cardiovascular disease. However, the latter assumption has not yet been tested.
- The metabolic role of retinol binding protein 4: an updateG A Christou
Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Horm Metab Res 44:6-14. 2012Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP(4)) is regarded as a novel cardiometabolic risk factor, which is secreted mainly by the hepatocytes and also by the adipose tissue...
- Circulating retinol-binding protein 4, cardiovascular risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease in elderlyErik Ingelsson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Atherosclerosis 206:239-44. 2009Our aim was to examine relations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) to cardiovascular risk factors, and prevalent metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large community-based sample of elderly.
- Retinol-binding protein 4 in human obesityJurgen Janke
Franz Volhard Clinical Research Center Haus 129, Charite Campus Buch, Wiltbergstr 50, 13125 Berlin, Germany
Diabetes 55:2805-10. 2006..as glucose sensors and regulate systemic glucose metabolism through release of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4). This model has not been validated in humans...
- Effects of retinol binding protein-4 on vascular endothelial cellsKohzo Takebayashi
Department of Internal Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 408:58-64. 2011..The effects of RBP4 on nitric oxide (NO) and insulin-stimulated endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion and on phosphorylation (p) of Akt, ..
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, but not with insulin resistance, in men with type 2 diabetes or coronary artery diseaseM von Eynatten
Department of Nephrology, Technical University Munich, Ismaningerstr 22, 81675, Munich, Germany
Diabetologia 50:1930-7. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin resistance and body fat distribution in nonobese subjects without type 2 diabetesShai Gavi
Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 8154, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1886-90. 2007..Adipose tissue is responsible for releasing various adipokines that have been related to insulin resistance. Understanding the relationship of these adipokines to insulin resistance may foster the development of new treatments for diabetes...
- An RBP4 promoter polymorphism increases risk of type 2 diabetesM van Hoek
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Diabetologia 51:1423-8. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), originally known for retinol transport, was recently identified as an adipokine affecting insulin resistance...
- Liver retinol transporter and receptor for serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4)Philomena Alapatt
Molecular Medicine Program and Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
J Biol Chem 288:1250-65. 2013..in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4)...
- Plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective analysis among women in the nurses' health studyQi Sun
Departments of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
Circulation 127:1938-47. 2013Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may play an important role in the origin of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Few prospective data are available on the relationship between RBP4 and coronary heart disease (CHD)...
- Coronary artery disease is associated with higher epicardial retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lower glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 levels in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissueAntonio Salgado-Somoza
Cardiovascular Division, Sanitary Research Institute, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 76:51-8. 2012Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), produced by adipocytes and hepatocytes, contributes to an unfavourable lipid profile and insulin resistance, which can contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD)...
- Retinol-binding protein 4: a new marker of virus-induced steatosis in patients infected with hepatitis c virus genotype 1Salvatore Petta
Cattedra ed Unità Operativa di Gastroenterologia, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Hepatology 48:28-37. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance (IR)...
- Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetesQin Yang
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Nature 436:356-62. 2005..Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in adipose tissue of adipose-Glut4(-/-) mice...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 induces inflammation in human endothelial cells by an NADPH oxidase- and nuclear factor kappa B-dependent and retinol-independent mechanismKrysten M Farjo
Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
Mol Cell Biol 32:5103-15. 2012Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the sole specific vitamin A (retinol) transporter in blood. Elevation of serum RBP4 in patients has been linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetic retinopathy...
- High circulating retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with elevated liver fat but not with total, subcutaneous, visceral, or intramyocellular fat in humansNorbert Stefan
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nephrology, Vascular Disease, and Clinical Chemistry, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Diabetes Care 30:1173-8. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine that induced insulin resistance in mice, and high plasma RBP4 levels were associated with insulin-resistant states in humans...
- Decreased concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 in sera of epithelial ovarian cancer patients: a potential biomarker identified by proteomicsLucie Lorkova
Institute of Pathological Physiology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Oncol Rep 27:318-24. 2012..A-IV confirms previous studies but the identification of significantly decreased levels of RBP4 in ovarian cancer patients represents a novel observation...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 levels and susceptibility to ischaemic events in menJudit Cubedo
Cardiovascular Research Center CSIC ICCC, Barcelona, Spain Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
Eur J Clin Invest 44:266-75. 2014..By applying proteomic approaches, we have detected changes in retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in acute new-onset myocardial infarction patients (AMI) and in high-risk patients with heterozygous familial ..
- Effects of genetic variation in the human retinol binding protein-4 gene (RBP4) on insulin resistance and fat depot-specific mRNA expressionPeter Kovacs
Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Diabetes 56:3095-100. 2007Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a new liver- and adipocyte-derived signal that may contribute to insulin resistance. Therefore, the RBP4 gene represents a plausible candidate gene involved in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.
- Retinol binding protein 4 as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and prediabetic intermediate traitsRebekah L Craig
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, 4701 West, Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 7199, USA
Mol Genet Metab 90:338-44. 2007Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently described as a new adipokine that reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis...
- Raised serum, adipocyte, and adipose tissue retinol-binding protein 4 in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of gonadal and adrenal steroidsBee K Tan
Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2764-72. 2007..Recent studies have shown that serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels increase with obesity...
- RBP4 activates antigen-presenting cells, leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistancePedro M Moraes-Vieira
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Cell Metab 19:512-26. 2014..b>RBP4, a retinol transporter, is elevated in insulin resistance and contributes to increased diabetes risk...
- Circulating Nampt and RBP4 levels in patients with carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA)Gabriela Aust
Department of Surgery, Research Laboratories and Clinic of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Clin Chim Acta 412:1195-200. 2011..Altered adipokine secretion, including increased production of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) may link adipose tissue dysfunction to cardiovascular complications.
- Circulating lipocalin-2 and retinol-binding protein 4 are associated with intima-media thickness and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetesYang Xiao
Diabetes Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, and Institute of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Changsha, Hunan, China
PLoS ONE 8:e66607. 2013The lipocalin family proteins, including lipocalin-2 and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), are adipokines closely associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is not increased in obesity or obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus, but is reduced after relevant reductions in body fat following gastric bypassJ Gomez-Ambrosi
Metabolic Research Laboratory, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 69:208-15. 2008Controversy exists regarding the elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
- Identification of a regulatory SNP in the retinol binding protein 4 gene associated with type 2 diabetes in MongoliaLkhagvasuren Munkhtulga
Division of Human Genetics, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311 1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Hum Genet 120:879-88. 2007Increased levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) in serum is associated with insulin resistance...
- The relationship of novel adipokines, RBP4 and omentin-1, with carotid atherosclerosis severity and vulnerabilityNikolaos P E Kadoglou
Department of Vascular Surgery, Medical School, Attikon University General Hospital, Athens, Greece Electronic address
Atherosclerosis 235:606-12. 2014We investigated the relationship of circulating novel adipokines, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and omentin-1, with advanced carotid atherosclerosis and ultrasound indexes of severity (total plaque area-TPA) and plaque echogenicity and ..
- Retinol-binding protein 4, visceral fat, and the metabolic syndrome: effects of weight lossAlexander Tschoner
Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Division of General Internal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:2439-44. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) has been reported to be associated with visceral-fat accumulation and parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and retinol in a cohort of borderline obese women with and without gestational diabetesBeverly J Tepper
Department of Food Science, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Clin Biochem 43:320-3. 2010To evaluate whether serum RBP4 correlates with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a cohort of borderline obese (BMI>30) pregnant women.
- Serum retinol binding protein-4 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin are interrelated in pancreatic cancer patientsHala O El-Mesallamy
Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Scand J Clin Lab Invest 72:602-7. 2012..We aimed to determine serum retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) and neutophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in pancreatic cancer patients...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and actionRasmus Ribel-Madsen
Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark
Diabetes 58:54-60. 2009..The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate the ..
- A polymorphism in the retinol binding protein 4 gene is not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in several different ethnic groupsMark Hiraoka
University of Hawai i, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women s Health, Honolulu, USA
Hawaii Med J 70:164-7. 2011....
- Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is primarily associated with adipose tissue mass in childrenD Friebe
University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Int J Pediatr Obes 6:e345-52. 2011Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipocytokine that may link obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to discriminate between primary and secondary associations of RBP4 with obesity and related disease.
- Cloning and sequencing of a full length cDNA coding for human retinol-binding proteinV Colantuoni
Nucleic Acids Res 11:7769-76. 1983..Southern and Northern blot analysis suggest that the gene is present in one or few copies per haploid genome and is transcribed in a single mRNA species...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is an independent factor associated with triglycerides and a determinant of very low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein B100 catabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitusBruno Verges
Department of Endocrinology Diabetology, University Hospital, Dijon, France
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32:3050-7. 2012Retinol-binding protein 4 (rbp4) is an adipokine secreted by adipocytes and liver, whose levels are elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma levels of rbp4 and triglycerides are strongly correlated in T2DM...
- Retinol binding protein 4 is associated with adiposity-related co-morbidity risk factors in childrenRushika Conroy
Division of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Children s Hospita of New York, Presbyterian Hospital Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 24:913-9. 2011In adults, elevated levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) have been associated with biochemical markers of adiposity-related co-morbidities including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity...
- Association among retinol-binding protein 4, small dense LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels in dyslipidemia subjectsJia Wu
Department of Biochemistry, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 210002, Nanjing, PR China
Clin Biochem 45:619-22. 2012To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects.
- Macrophages are novel sites of expression and regulation of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4)M Broch
CIBER CB06 03 Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Physiol Res 59:299-303. 2010..Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine associated with parameters of obesity including insulin resistance indices, body mass index, waist ..
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 correlates with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in HIV-infected subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapySang Hoon Han
Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Metabolism 58:1523-9. 2009..Recent studies reported that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is associated with IR, dyslipidemia, and obesity in non-HIV-infected populations...
- Human RBP4 adipose tissue expression is gender specific and influenced by leptinKatarina Kos
Department of Diabetes and Vascular Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 74:197-205. 2011The role of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) in human insulin resistance remains controversial, which may in part be explained by a gender-specific secretion of RBP4 in adipose tissue (AT)...
- Serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, retinol-binding protein 4, and adiponectin concentrations in relation to the development of the metabolic syndrome in Korean boys: a 3-y prospective cohort studyKyung M Choi
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Am J Clin Nutr 93:19-26. 2011Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and adiponectin have been associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in adults.
- A new method for purification of human plasma retinol-binding protein and transthyretinPullakhandam Raghu
Department of Biophysics, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Jamai Osmania, Hyderabad 500 007, India
Biotechnol Appl Biochem 38:19-24. 2003Retinol is transported in the blood bound to a specific carrier protein called retinol-binding protein (RBP), which in turn binds to another protein, transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric, thyroid-hormone-transporting protein...
- Plasma retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations are elevated in human subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetesYoung Min Cho
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul, 110 744, Korea
Diabetes Care 29:2457-61. 2006..Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), a new adipokine, was recently reported to provide a link between obesity and insulin resistance...
- RBP4: a controversial adipokinePrimoz Kotnik
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
Eur J Endocrinol 165:703-11. 2011..Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine suggested to link obesity with its comorbidities, especially insulin resistance,..
- Retinol binding protein 4 expression in humans: relationship to insulin resistance, inflammation, and response to pioglitazoneAiwei Yao-Borengasser
The Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2590-7. 2007Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently found to be expressed and secreted by adipose tissue, and was strongly associated with insulin resistance.
- Plasma retinol binding protein: structure and function of the prototypic lipocalinM E Newcomer
Biochemistry Department, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 0146, USA
Biochim Biophys Acta 1482:57-64. 2000In terms of both structure and biological function, retinol binding protein (RBP) is one of the best characterized members of the lipocalin superfamily. The molecular interactions in which RBP participates are described herein.
- High plasma retinol binding protein-4 and low plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with severity of glucose intolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitusSung Hee Choi
Division of Endocrinology and Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Bundang Ku, Sungnam City, Gyeonggi do 463 707, South Korea
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3142-8. 2008..Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in the future. The role of adipokines in women with pGDM has not been established...
- Elevated serum retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with insulin resistance in older womenJun Bin Suh
Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, 152 703 Korea
Metabolism 59:118-22. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a molecule secreted from adipocytes and hepatocytes, may contribute to insulin resistance and is a potential predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with prediabetes in adults from the general population: the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 StudyChrista Meisinger
Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology II, Neuherberg, Germany
Diabetes Care 34:1648-50. 2011We examined the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, and prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose [i-IFG], isolated impaired glucose tolerance [i-IGT], and combined IFG and IGT) in men and women ..
- Retinol-binding protein-4 in women with untreated essential hypertensionAnna Solini
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Am J Hypertens 22:1001-6. 2009Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine able to modulate the action of insulin in several tissues. A variable degree of insulin resistance characterizes the vast majority of hypertensive (HYP) patients...
- Factors that influence retinol-binding protein 4-transthyretin interaction are not altered in overweight subjects and overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitusSimone K Frey
Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, D 14558 Nuthetal Potsdam Rehbrücke, Germany
Metabolism 58:1386-92. 2009Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine bound in plasma to transthyretin (TTR), which prevents its glomerular filtration and subsequent catabolism in the kidney...
- Regulatory SNP in the RBP4 gene modified the expression in adipocytes and associated with BMILkhagvasuren Munkhtulga
Division of Human Genetics, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:1006-14. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a recently identified adipokine that was involved in insulin resistance...
- Circulating retinol binding protein 4 in critically ill patients before specific treatment: prognostic impact and correlation with organ function, metabolism and inflammationAlexander Koch
Department of Medicine III, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Crit Care 14:R179. 2010..Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) promotes insulin resistance in mice and is systemically elevated in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes...
- Serum retinol-binding protein is more highly expressed in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue and is a marker of intra-abdominal fat massNora Kloting
Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Leipzig, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Cell Metab 6:79-87. 2007..Levels of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4), secreted by fat and liver cells, are increased in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
- Phenotype in retinol deficiency due to a hereditary defect in retinol binding protein synthesisM W Seeliger
University Eye Hospital, Department II, Tubingen, Germany
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:3-11. 1999To describe the phenotype caused by a retinol deficiency in a family with compound heterozygous missense mutations (Ile41Asn and Gly75Asp) in the gene for serum retinol binding protein (RBP).
- The lipocalins retinol-binding protein-4, lipocalin-2 and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase correlate with markers of inflammatory activity, alcohol intake and blood lipids, but not with insulin sensitivity in metabolically healthy 58-year-old SwedV Wallenius
Department of Gastrosurgical Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 119:75-80. 2011The lipocalins retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4, lipocalin-2 and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-synthase (L-PGDS) have been suggested to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance and other metabolic co-morbidities...
- The relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein-4, retinol binding protein-4 levels and early diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetesFusun Toruner
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Besevler, 06500 Ankara, Turkey
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 91:203-7. 2011Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein-4 (A-FABP4) and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) have recently been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
- Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the elderlyErik Ingelsson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Diabetes Care 32:733-5. 2009We evaluated associations of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD).
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with impaired glucose regulation and microalbuminuria in a Chinese populationM Xu
Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
Diabetologia 52:1511-9. 2009Increased retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been reported in association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 and its relation to insulin resistance in obese children before and after weight lossThomas Reinehr
Department of Pediatric Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents Datteln, University of Witten Herdecke, Dr F Steiner Strasse 5, Datteln, Germany
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2287-93. 2008There are limited and controversial data concerning the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), weight status, and insulin resistance in obese humans and especially in children.
- Plasma levels and adipose tissue messenger ribonucleic acid expression of retinol-binding protein 4 are reduced during calorie restriction in obese subjects but are not related to diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivityMichaela Vitkova
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Paul Sabatier U858, IFR31, BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:2330-5. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may play a role in the development of insulin resistance.
- Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levelsAndrea Henze
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nutrition, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Diabetes 57:3323-6. 2008It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function...
- Retinol-binding protein 4 is associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with whole body or hepatic insulin resistance in Mexican AmericansAlberto O Chavez
Diabetes Division, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E758-64. 2009Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), a novel protein secreted mainly by adipose tissue, has been associated with insulin resistance in obese subjects and in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
- Characterization of two post-translationally processed forms of human serum retinol-binding protein: altered ratios in chronic renal failureS Jaconi
Clinique de Dermatologie, Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Geneve, Switzerland
J Lipid Res 36:1247-53. 1995Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the specific blood carrier for the transport of retinol (vitamin A) to target tissues...
- Biochemical but not clinical vitamin A deficiency results from mutations in the gene for retinol binding proteinH K Biesalski
Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
Am J Clin Nutr 69:931-6. 1999..In both siblings, plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations were below the limit of detection (<0...
- Clinical implications of serum retinol-binding protein 4 in asthmatic childrenYeo Hoon Park
Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Allergy, BK 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
J Korean Med Sci 24:1010-4. 2009..Total eosinophil count, serum total IgE, serum eosinophil cationic protein, and serum RBP4 were measured in all subjects...
- Insulin resistance in liver cirrhosis is not associated with circulating retinol-binding protein 4Eray Yagmur
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Diabetes Care 30:1168-72. 2007Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been identified as a novel adipokine mediating systemic insulin resistance, and elevated serum RBP4 indicates overt or impending insulin resistance in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is elevated and positively associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal womenChiying An
Department of Endocrinology, First Clinical Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China, 150001
Endocr J 56:987-96. 2009Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which is reported to be correlated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
- The structure of human retinol-binding protein (RBP) with its carrier protein transthyretin reveals an interaction with the carboxy terminus of RBPH M Naylor
Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0146, USA
Biochemistry 38:2647-53. 1999..or retinol, vitamin A is transported to the target cells as all-trans-retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP)...
- Effect of RBP4 gene variants on circulating RBP4 concentration and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese populationC Hu
Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People s Hospital, Shanghai, China
Diabet Med 25:11-8. 2008Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a newly discovered adipokine, which plays a role in insulin resistance and obesity...
- Association of serum retinol-binding protein 4 and visceral adiposity in Chinese subjects with and without type 2 diabetesWeiping Jia
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai JiaoTong University Affiliated Sixth People s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:3224-9. 2007Previous studies have shown that adipose-derived serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are increased in insulin-resistant mouse models and in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes...
- Decreased hepatic RBP4 secretion is correlated with reduced hepatic glucose production but is not associated with insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosisMatthias J Bahr
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70:60-5. 2009..This study was designed to determine circulating levels and hepatic production of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in relation to parameters of hepatic and systemic metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis.
- Visceral adiposity is associated with serum retinol binding protein-4 levels in healthy womenJi Won Lee
Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Kangnam P O Box 1217, Seoul, Korea
Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:2225-32. 2007Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been reported to impair insulin sensitivity throughout the body. We investigated the relationship between serum RBP4 levels and adiposity indices as well as metabolic risk variables.
- Circulating retinol-binding protein-4 concentration might reflect insulin resistance-associated iron overloadJose Manuel Fernandez-Real
Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Nutrition Unit, Dr Josep Trueta Hospital, Girona Institute for Biomedical Research, Girona, Spain
Diabetes 57:1918-25. 2008The mechanisms behind the association between retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are not well understood. An interaction between iron and vitamin A status, of which RBP4 is a surrogate, has long been recognized...
- Comparative phenotypic analyses of human plasma and urinary retinol binding protein using mass spectrometric immunoassayUrban A Kiernan
Intrinsic Bioprobes, Inc, Tempe, AZ 85282, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:401-5. 2002..In this work, MSIA is used in the comparative analyses of retinol binding protein (RBP) from the plasma and urine of a small study population...
- Variations of retinol binding protein 4 levels are not associated with changes in insulin resistance during pubertyN Santoro
Department of Pediatrics F Fede Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
J Endocrinol Invest 32:411-4. 2009Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese adults and children...
- Microalbuminuria is a major determinant of elevated plasma retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patientsJ Raila
Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Kidney Int 72:505-11. 2007Plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) may be a new adipokine linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The impact of diabetic nephropathy on plasma RBP4 levels, however, is not known...
- Adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4, and leptin in protracted critical illness of pulmonary originLies Langouche
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Crit Care 13:R112. 2009..Recently, several hormones secreted by adipose tissue have been identified to be involved in overall insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome-related conditions. However, little is known about these adipokines in critical illness...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels in patients with diabetic retinopathyZ Z Li
Department of Endocrinology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China
J Int Med Res 38:95-9. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been reported to be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes...
- Serum retinol-binding protein 4 is reduced after weight loss in morbidly obese subjectsDominik G Haider
Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Wien, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1168-71. 2007Administration of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) impairs insulin sensitivity in animals, and elevated serum concentrations have been associated with insulin resistance in humans.
- Regulation of retinol binding protein 4 production in primary human adipocytes by adiponectin, troglitazone and TNF-alphaH Sell
Diabetologia 50:2221-3. 2007
- Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesityOuliana Ziouzenkova
Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Med 13:695-702. 2007..Here we show that Rald is present in rodent fat, binds retinol-binding proteins (CRBP1, RBP4), inhibits adipogenesis and suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and RXR responses...
- Expression of genes associated with retinoid metabolism in the trout ovarian follicleLiraz Levi
Department of Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel
Biol Reprod 79:570-7. 2008..Therefore, we investigated the expression of six genes (bcmo1, bcdo2, rbp1, lrat, rbp4, and stra6) associated with retinoids and carotenoids in juvenile and adult trout ovaries...
- Increased serum retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations in women with gestational diabetes mellitusTe Fu Chan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital
Reprod Sci 14:169-74. 2007The authors hypothesized that serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) concentrations will be higher in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) subjects...
- Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels relate to inflammation and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseKerry Lee Milner
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Hepatology 49:1926-34. 2009..in inflammation, namely adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP), lipocalin-2, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)...
- Unravelling the molecular control of calvarial suture fusion in children with craniosynostosisAnna K Coussens
Cooperative Research Centre for Diagnostics, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001, Australia
BMC Genomics 8:458. 2007..Expression differences were also analysed between each unfused suture type, between sutures from syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis patients, and between unfused sutures from individuals with and without craniosynostosis...
- Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance-based assays for retinoid and transthyretin binding to retinol-binding protein 4Orzala Sharif
Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation GNF, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
Anal Biochem 392:162-8. 2009Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) is an emerging candidate drug target for type 2 diabetes and lipofuscin-mediated macular degeneration...
- Characterization of a line of pigs previously selected for increased litter size for RBP4 and follistatinC D Blowe
Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 7621, USA
J Anim Breed Genet 123:389-95. 2006..1 marker loci coding for genes known to affect litter size: oestrogen receptor (ESR), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and follistatin (FS)...
- Candidate gene markers for litter size in different German pig linesC Drogemuller
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
J Anim Sci 79:2565-70. 2001..size, the estrogen receptor (ESR) gene, the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene, and the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene, were evaluated for their association with the number of piglets born alive in different German pig lines...
- Retinol binding protein 4--a novel association with early-onset preeclampsiaEdi Vaisbuch
Intramural Division, Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD NIH DHHS, Hutzel Women s Hospital, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Perinat Med 38:129-39. 2010..Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, plays a role in obesity-related disorders, as well as in the regulation of the immune response...
- Elevated retinol-binding protein 4 levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese peopleQibin Qi
Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:4827-34. 2007High retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is thought to be associated with insulin resistance in humans. However, evidence from large-scale populations about the relationship between RBP4 and metabolic diseases is scarce.
- Retinol-binding protein 4 levels in obese children and adolescents with glucose intoleranceD Yeste
Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Hospital Maternoinfantil Vall d Hebron, Autonomous University, and CIBER Rare Diseases CIBER ER, Barcelona, Spain
Horm Res Paediatr 73:335-40. 2010Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is known to be involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance.
- Current status of liver disease in Korea: nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseSang Hoon Park
Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea
Korean J Hepatol 15:S34-9. 2009..the regulation of adipokines, such as downregulation of adiponectin and upregulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and ghrelin...
- Structural modifications of serum transthyretin in rats during protein-energy malnutritionAndrea Henze
University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutritional Science, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Arthur Scheunert Allee 114 116, D 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:3270-4. 2008..as well as other markers of nutritional status as body weight, food consumption, total serum protein and serum RBP4 levels as well as antioxidative capacity were determined...
- Thiazolidinedione addition reduces the serum retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin and sulfonylureaKun Der Lin
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan
Transl Res 151:309-14. 2008Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been found to induce insulin resistance and to be increased in type 2 diabetes...
- Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer diseaseAnn B Goodman
The Massachusetts Mental Health Center Academic Division of Public Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
J Cell Physiol 209:598-603. 2006..This is the first report to suggest that RBP4 is an amenable treatment target in LOAD...
- Mechanistic studies of the immunochemical termination of self-tolerance with unnatural amino acidsJan Grünewald
Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4337-42. 2009..Immunization of mice with a pNO(2)Phe(43) mutant of murine retinol-binding protein (RBP4) also elicited a high titer IgG antibody response, which was cross-reactive with wild-type mRBP4...
- Retinoic acid enhances osteogenesis in cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells: potential mechanisms of retinoid-induced craniosynostosisAaron W James
Hagey Pediatric Regenerative Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
Plast Reconstr Surg 125:1352-61. 2010..The authors used the culture of mouse cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells to probe the potential cellular mechanisms of this teratogen to better elucidate mechanisms of retinoid-induced suture fusion...
- Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulationMing Fu
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Development 137:631-40. 2010..and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4(-/-)) mice...
- Reduction of elevated serum retinol binding protein in obese children by lifestyle intervention: association with subclinical inflammationPrabhakaran Balagopal
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, and Nemours Children s Clinic, 807 Children s Way, Jacksonville, FL 32207, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1971-4. 2007Retinol binding protein (RBP4), secreted primarily from the liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance...
- Tissue specific production of RBP4 and mechanism of insulin resistanceTimothy E Graham; Fiscal Year: 2013DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Background: Serum retinol binding protein (RBP4) concentrations are elevated in insulin resistant states such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, and RBP4 plays a causal role in ..
- RBP4-Transthyretin Interactions in Insulin Resistant StatesTIMOTHY EUGENE GRAHAM; Fiscal Year: 2009..We recently discovered that serum retinol binding protein (RBP4) concentrations are elevated in insulin resistant mice and humans...
- RISK FACTORS FOR CVD IN WOMENJOANN ELISABETH MANSON; Fiscal Year: 2012..may play a key role in vascular disease, through secretion of adipocytokines, including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin, and resistin, which are involved in inflammation and insulin resistance...
- RBP4, Inflammation, and Insulin ResistanceJULIE ELIZABETH NORSEEN; Fiscal Year: 2012..Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is elevated in rodents and humans with obesity and insulin resistance...
- Stimulated by Retinoic Acid (STra6) in Energy HomeostasisLAURA H ZEMANY; Fiscal Year: 2013..Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is elevated in rodents and humans with obesity and insulin resistance...
- GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER REGULATION IN OBESITY AND DIABETESBarbara B Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2013..We discovered that adipose expression and serum levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) are increased in insulin resistant states in humans and rodents In the next cycle, the overall goals will continue ..
- DIETARY PATTERNS AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASEFrank B Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013..the brain-adipose axis (leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), insulin, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 [RBP4], tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 [TNF-R2], and interleukin 6 [IL-6]) among 1,000 healthy NHS II participants who ..
- Obesity Genes, Energy Regulation in Response to Weight-Loss DietsLu Qi; Fiscal Year: 2013..biochemical markers of brain-gut- adipose axis, including leptin, insulin, glucose, ghrelin, GLP-1, adiponectin and RBP4;and 4) adipose gene expression profile...
- Molecular Components Affecting Ocular Retinoid HomeostasisJOHANNES FRIEDERICH VONLINTIG; Fiscal Year: 2012..We also will generate compound knockouts lacking both STRA6 and the serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) to test for the hypothesis that RBP4 triggers the pathological alterations seen in STRA6- deficiency...
- Small molecule drugs for treatment of dry age-related macular degenerationKonstantin Petrukhin; Fiscal Year: 2013..Formation of the tertiary retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)-transthyretin (TTR)-retinol complex in serum is required for retinol uptake from circulation to the RPE...
- 6th International Symposium on FAP Disorders and 5th...Joel Buxbaum; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- TRANSTHYRETIN DEPOSITION IN AGING TRANSGENIC MICEJoel Buxbaum; Fiscal Year: 2004..Investigation of the model may allow us to identify and study such mechanisms which, in turn, may provide insight into aging and offer potential therapeutic targets in more than one form of human amyloidosis. ..
- Walnuts vs. Walnut-Oil, Glucose Homeostasis, PCOSSidika Kasim Karakas; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER REGULATION IN OBESITY AND DIABETESBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2005..Our goal is to find new therapeutic targets to prevent or ameliorate type 2 diabetes. ..
- Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B and Insulin ActionBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2005..Our goal is to find new therapeutic targets to reduce insulin resistance and prevent or ameliorate type 2 diabetes. ..
- FASEB Research Conf: Glucose Transporter BiologyBarbara Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Discovery of Alcohol Exposure Biomarkers via Affinity Mass SpectrometryURBAN KIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2006..The ultimate result of this research will be a validated protein biomarker assay(s) that can be used to screen for alcohol exposure. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..