PTPN22

Summary

Gene Symbol: PTPN22
Description: protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22
Alias: LYP, LYP1, LYP2, PEP, PTPN22.5, PTPN22.6, PTPN8, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 22, PEST-domain phosphatase, hematopoietic cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase 70Z-PEP, lymphoid-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 8
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Association of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase R620W variant with rheumatoid arthritis, but not Crohn's disease, in Canadian populations
    Mark Van Oene
    Ellipsis Biotherapeutics Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arthritis Rheum 52:1993-8. 2005
  2. pmc Comparative genetic analysis of inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes implicates multiple loci with opposite effects
    Kai Wang
    Center for Applied Genomics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 19:2059-67. 2010
  3. pmc The PTPN22 allele encoding an R620W variant interferes with the removal of developing autoreactive B cells in humans
    Laurence Menard
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 George Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:3635-44. 2011
  4. pmc Structure, inhibitor, and regulatory mechanism of Lyp, a lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase implicated in autoimmune diseases
    Xiao Yu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19767-72. 2007
  5. pmc Cutting edge: the PTPN22 allelic variant associated with autoimmunity impairs B cell signaling
    Adrian F Arechiga
    Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 182:3343-7. 2009
  6. pmc Identification of a variant form of tyrosine phosphatase LYP
    Shaofeng Wang
    Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 11:78. 2010
  7. doi The -1123G>C variant of PTPN22 gene promoter is associated with latent autoimmune diabetes in adult Chinese Hans
    Fang Liu
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Affiliated Sixth People s Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Center of Diabetes, Shanghai Institute for Diabetes, Shanghai 200233, China
    Cell Biochem Biophys 62:273-9. 2012
  8. pmc Risk for myasthenia gravis maps to a (151) Pro→Ala change in TNIP1 and to human leukocyte antigen-B*08
    Peter K Gregersen
    Robert S Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Ann Neurol 72:927-35. 2012
  9. ncbi A functional variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is associated with type I diabetes
    Nunzio Bottini
    Program of Signal Transduction, Cancer Research Center, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Genet 36:337-8. 2004
  10. ncbi Association of the single nucleotide polymorphism C1858T of the PTPN22 gene with type 1 diabetes
    Martha B Ladner
    Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA
    Hum Immunol 66:60-4. 2005

Research Grants

  1. BioThrax Schedule Optimization for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Anthrax
    Robert Hopkins; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. Lymphoid Tyrosine Phosphatase and Type I Diabetes
    Nunzio Bottini; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Replication-deficient rabies vectors against rabies infection
    James P McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2012
  4. Generation of Novel Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccines
    BERNHARD F DIETZSCHOLD; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. Second Generation Rabies Vaccines
    James McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. Human Rabies Virus Vaccine Development
    James McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2009
  7. Analyzing The Joint Susceptibility Genes for Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Diabetes
    Yaron Tomer; Fiscal Year: 2012
  8. Human Rabies Virus Vaccine Development
    James P McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2012
  9. Host-pathogen competition in IFN mediated antiviral defense
    DOUGLAS CRAIG HOOPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. Nunzio Bottini; Fiscal Year: 2016

Detail Information

Publications315 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Association of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase R620W variant with rheumatoid arthritis, but not Crohn's disease, in Canadian populations
    Mark Van Oene
    Ellipsis Biotherapeutics Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Arthritis Rheum 52:1993-8. 2005
    A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) has recently been identified as a functional variant associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes,..
  2. pmc Comparative genetic analysis of inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes implicates multiple loci with opposite effects
    Kai Wang
    Center for Applied Genomics, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 19:2059-67. 2010
    ..Additionally, we show that T1D risk alleles residing at the PTPN22, IL27, IL18RAP and IL10 loci protect against CD...
  3. pmc The PTPN22 allele encoding an R620W variant interferes with the removal of developing autoreactive B cells in humans
    Laurence Menard
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 George Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:3635-44. 2011
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene polymorphisms are associated with many autoimmune diseases...
  4. pmc Structure, inhibitor, and regulatory mechanism of Lyp, a lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase implicated in autoimmune diseases
    Xiao Yu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19767-72. 2007
    ..tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) has generated enormous interest because a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene (PTPN22) encoding Lyp produces a gain-of-function mutant phosphatase that is associated with several autoimmune diseases, ..
  5. pmc Cutting edge: the PTPN22 allelic variant associated with autoimmunity impairs B cell signaling
    Adrian F Arechiga
    Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 182:3343-7. 2009
    b>PTPN22 is a gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase Lyp. A missense mutation changing residue 1858 from cytosine to thymidine (1858C/T) is associated with multiple autoimmune disorders...
  6. pmc Identification of a variant form of tyrosine phosphatase LYP
    Shaofeng Wang
    Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    BMC Mol Biol 11:78. 2010
    ..LYP (also known as PTPN22) is an intracellular enzyme initially found to be predominately expressed in lymphocytes...
  7. doi The -1123G>C variant of PTPN22 gene promoter is associated with latent autoimmune diabetes in adult Chinese Hans
    Fang Liu
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Affiliated Sixth People s Hospital, Shanghai Clinical Center of Diabetes, Shanghai Institute for Diabetes, Shanghai 200233, China
    Cell Biochem Biophys 62:273-9. 2012
    The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes for lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase...
  8. pmc Risk for myasthenia gravis maps to a (151) Pro→Ala change in TNIP1 and to human leukocyte antigen-B*08
    Peter K Gregersen
    Robert S Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Ann Neurol 72:927-35. 2012
    ..The objective of this study is to comprehensively define the genetic basis of early onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG)...
  9. ncbi A functional variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase is associated with type I diabetes
    Nunzio Bottini
    Program of Signal Transduction, Cancer Research Center, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Genet 36:337-8. 2004
    We report that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene (PTPN22) encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a suppressor of T-cell activation, is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D)...
  10. ncbi Association of the single nucleotide polymorphism C1858T of the PTPN22 gene with type 1 diabetes
    Martha B Ladner
    Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, USA
    Hum Immunol 66:60-4. 2005
    The PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase N22) gene encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase Lyp...
  11. ncbi A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) confers susceptibility to generalised vitiligo
    I Canton
    Division of Clinical Sciences North, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    Genes Immun 6:584-7. 2005
    ..Recently, the missense R620W polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene, which encodes lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), has been associated with susceptibility to ..
  12. doi In silico replication of the genome-wide association results of the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium
    Hui Qi Qu
    Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H4H 2P4
    Hum Mol Genet 19:2534-8. 2010
    ..This study replicated T1D association with at least as many of these novel loci as expected from the power of our sample size, thus supporting the validity of the new discoveries...
  13. doi PTPN22 1858T allele is associated with younger age at onset of type 1 diabetes and is not related to subsequent thyroid autoimmunity
    Olga Kordonouri
    Diabetes Center for Children and Adolescents, Children s Hospital Auf der Bult, Hannover, Germany
    Hum Immunol 71:731-2. 2010
    To evaluate the prevalence of PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism in young type 1 diabetes patients with or without autoimmune thyroiditis. Genotyping was performed in 209 controls and 243 patients diagnosed with diabetes at median age of 8...
  14. pmc Genome-wide association analysis of autoantibody positivity in type 1 diabetes cases
    Vincent Plagnol
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002216. 2011
    ..2q24/IFIH1-IA-2A and PCA, 2q32/STAT4-TPOA, 10p15/IL2RA-GADA, 6q15/BACH2-TPOA, 21q22/UBASH3A-TPOA, 1p13/PTPN22-TPOA, 2q33/CTLA4-TPOA, 4q27/IL2/TPOA, 15q14/RASGRP1/TPOA, and 12q24/SH2B3-GADA and TPOA...
  15. pmc Do non-HLA genes influence development of persistent islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in children with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes?
    Andrea K Steck
    Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA
    Diabetes 58:1028-33. 2009
    Specific alleles of non-HLA genes INS, CTLA-4, and PTPN22 have been associated with type 1 diabetes...
  16. pmc The protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 gene is associated with juvenile and adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathy independent of the HLA 8.1 haplotype in British Caucasian patients
    H Chinoy
    University of Manchester Rheumatic Diseases Centre, Hope Hospital, Salford, UK
    Arthritis Rheum 58:3247-54. 2008
    To examine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 gene (PTPN22) and to study the relationship between PTPN22 and the HLA region in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs).
  17. ncbi Association of the PTPN22*R620W polymorphism with autoimmune myasthenia gravis
    Claire Vandiedonck
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Paris Descartes, France
    Ann Neurol 59:404-7. 2006
    Our objective was to investigate a role of the intracellular tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22*R620W variant in autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG), considering disease heterogeneity.
  18. pmc Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data identifies additional type 1 diabetes risk loci
    Jason D Cooper
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 40:1399-401. 2008
    ..7 x 10(-12)), 10p15 (PRKCQ, P = 3.7 x 10(-9)), 15q24 (CTSH, P = 3.2 x 10(-15)) and 22q13 (C1QTNF6, P = 2.0 x 10(-8))...
  19. pmc Altered B cell homeostasis is associated with type I diabetes and carriers of the PTPN22 allelic variant
    Tania Habib
    Translational Research Program, Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    J Immunol 188:487-96. 2012
    The PTPN22 genetic variant 1858T, encoding Lyp620W, is associated with multiple autoimmune disorders for which the production of autoantibodies is a common feature, suggesting a loss of B cell tolerance...
  20. pmc The autoimmunity-associated gene PTPN22 potentiates toll-like receptor-driven, type 1 interferon-dependent immunity
    Yaya Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Immunity 39:111-22. 2013
    ..A coding polymorphism in the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene is a susceptibility allele for human autoimmune and infectious disease...
  21. doi PTPN22 R620W promotes production of anti-AChR autoantibodies and IL-2 in myasthenia gravis
    Ann Kari Lefvert
    Immunological Research Unit, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, SE 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neuroimmunol 197:110-3. 2008
    In order to investigate the potential involvement of PTPN22 R620W in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG), we performed a case-control study including 409 Swedish MG patients and 1557 normal controls...
  22. doi The PTPN22gain-of-function+1858T(+) genotypes correlate with low IL-2 expression in thymomas and predispose to myasthenia gravis
    W Y Chuang
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Genes Immun 10:667-72. 2009
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) inhibits T-cell activation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production...
  23. doi PTPN22 gene polymorphism (C1858T) is associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of 19,495 cases and 25,341 controls
    Chao Xuan
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266101, P R China
    Ann Hum Genet 77:191-203. 2013
    The protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) gene C1858T polymorphism has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) in relatively small sample sizes...
  24. ncbi The R620W C/T polymorphism of the gene PTPN22 is associated with SLE independently of the association of PDCD1
    M V Prasad Linga Reddy
    Rudbeck Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Section of Medical Genetics, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Genes Immun 6:658-62. 2005
    The gene PTPN22 is located on chromosome 1p13 and encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase called the lymphoid-specific phosphatase (Lyp)...
  25. pmc The PTPN22 C1858T gene variant is associated with proinsulin in new-onset type 1 diabetes
    Lotte B Nielsen
    Department of Paediatrics, Glostrup University Hospital, Denmark
    BMC Med Genet 12:41. 2011
    The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN22) has been established as a type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene...
  26. doi The R620W polymorphism of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 22 gene in autoimmune thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis in the Tunisian population
    Ghazi Chabchoub
    Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine, Sfax, Tunisia
    Ann Hum Biol 36:342-9. 2009
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) is involved in the negative regulation of T-cell responsiveness. The association of a coding variant of the PTPN22 gene (R620W) with a number of autoimmune diseases has been described.
  27. ncbi Cloning and characterization of a lymphoid-specific, inducible human protein tyrosine phosphatase, Lyp
    S Cohen
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Paediatrics, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Blood 93:2013-24. 1999
    ..We also identified an alternative spliced form of Lyp RNA, Lyp2. This isoform encodes a smaller 85-kD protein with an alternative C-terminus...
  28. ncbi Identification of substrates of human protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22
    Jiansheng Wu
    Celera Genomics, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:11002-10. 2006
    ..b>PTPN22 (Lyp), a non-receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase, is expressed exclusively in cells of hematopoietic origin, ..
  29. doi Reduced CD4+T cell activation in children with type 1 diabetes carrying the PTPN22/Lyp 620Trp variant
    Johanna Aarnisalo
    Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, MediCity Research Laboratories, BioCity 4th floor, Tykistokatu 6A, 20520 Turku, Finland
    J Autoimmun 31:13-21. 2008
    The 620Trp variant of the LYP protein, encoded by the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase 22 gene (PTPN22), is associated with autoimmunity. In this study we aimed at characterising the role of this variant on lymphocyte activation...
  30. ncbi Evaluating the role of the 620W allele of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 in Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis
    Philip L De Jager
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Eur J Hum Genet 14:317-21. 2006
    The 620W allele of PTPN22 has been associated with susceptibility to several different forms of chronic inflammatory disease, including Type 1 diabetes (T1D), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and autoimmune ..
  31. pmc Impact of diabetes susceptibility loci on progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes in at-risk individuals of the diabetes prevention trial-type 1 (DPT-1)
    Vincent Butty
    Section on Immunology and Immunogenetics, Joslin Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 57:2348-59. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi Finnish case-control and family studies support PTPN22 R620W polymorphism as a risk factor in rheumatoid arthritis, but suggest only minimal or no effect in juvenile idiopathic arthritis
    M F Seldin
    Rowe Program in Genetics, Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Genes Immun 6:720-2. 2005
    Several studies have identified the PTPN22 allelic variant 1858 C/T that encodes the R620W amino-acid change as a putative susceptibility factor in autoimmune diseases...
  33. pmc A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis
    Ann B Begovich
    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA 94502, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 75:330-7. 2004
    ..Here we report the association of RA susceptibility with the minor allele of a missense SNP in PTPN22 (discovery-study allelic P=6.6 x 10(-4); replication-study allelic P=5...
  34. pmc Genotype analysis of polymorphisms in autoimmune susceptibility genes, CTLA-4 and PTPN22, in an acute anterior uveitis cohort
    Tammy M Martin
    Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA
    Mol Vis 15:208-12. 2009
    ..Protein tyrosine phosphatase type 22 (PTPN22) and Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) are two of these genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ..
  35. pmc Characterization of hematopoietic intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatases: description of a phosphatase containing an SH2 domain and another enriched in proline-, glutamic acid-, serine-, and threonine-rich sequences
    R J Matthews
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110
    Mol Cell Biol 12:2396-405. 1992
    ..The other PTPase, PEP (proline-, glutamic acid-, serine-, and threonine-rich [PEST]-domain phosphatase), is distinguished by virtue of a ..
  36. ncbi Association of PTPN22 haplotypes with Graves' disease
    Joanne M Heward
    Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:685-90. 2007
    A recent study reported associations of a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PTPN22, including rs2476601, with rheumatoid arthritis.
  37. doi Associations of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to Graves' disease in a Japanese population
    Michiko Ichimura
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan
    Thyroid 18:625-30. 2008
    The polymorphism of the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gene, which encodes an important negative regulator of T cell activation, has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) in ..
  38. doi Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL2RA gene are associated with age at diagnosis in late-onset Finnish type 1 diabetes subjects
    Matthew W Klinker
    Max McGee National Research Center for Juvenile Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Immunogenetics 62:101-7. 2010
    ..Using logistic regression, we found that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the INS, PTPN22, and IFIH1 loci were associated with late-onset disease (OR (95%CI) = 0.57(0.47-0.69), p = 2...
  39. doi Testing for linkage and association with rheumatoid arthritis a ptpn22 promoter polymorphism reported to be associated and linked with type 1 diabetes in the Caucasian population
    P Dieude
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:900-1. 2008
  40. ncbi Role of HLA-DRB1 and PTPN22 genes in susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Hungarian patients
    B Pazar
    National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest, Hungary
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 26:1146-52. 2008
    ..The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of polymorphisms in two candidate genes for autoimmunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1 and protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) with JIA in Hungarian patients.
  41. doi No association of PTPN22 R620W gene polymorphism with rheumatic heart disease and systemic lupus erythematosus
    Rahime Aksoy
    Department of Immunology and Allergy diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
    Mol Biol Rep 38:5393-6. 2011
    ..The polymorphism of the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gene, which encodes an important negative regulator of T cell activation, has been reported to be associated with ..
  42. doi The association between the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis update
    Young Ho Lee
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, 126 1, Anam Dong 5 Ga, Seongbuk gu, Seoul, 136 705, Korea
    Mol Biol Rep 39:3453-60. 2012
    The aim of this study was to determine whether the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) C1858T polymorphism confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in populations with different ethnicities...
  43. doi PTPN22 modulates macrophage polarization and susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis
    Hui Hsin Chang
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 191:2134-43. 2013
    b>PTPN22, a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, has been linked to many autoimmune diseases...
  44. pmc The role of PTPN22 C1858T gene polymorphism in diabetes mellitus type 1: first evaluation in Greek children and adolescents
    Styliani Giza
    4th Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Biomed Res Int 2013:721604. 2013
    ..Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp), an inhibitor of T cell activation...
  45. doi PTPN22 gene polymorphism in Takayasu's arteritis
    N Sahin
    Marmara University Medical Faculty, Division of Rheumatology, Istanbul, Turkey
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 47:634-5. 2008
    ..In this study, genetic susceptibility to TA has been investigated by screening the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PTPN22 gene encoding the lymphoid-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase.
  46. doi Association of the PTPN22 gene polymorphism with autoantibody positivity in Turkish rheumatoid arthritis patients
    A Ates
    Department of Rheumatology, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    Tissue Antigens 78:56-9. 2011
    The PTPN22 C1858T gene polymorphism has been recently reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in European and North American ancestry...
  47. doi PTPN22 and myasthenia gravis: replication in an Italian population and meta-analysis of literature data
    Carlo Provenzano
    Institute of General Pathology, Catholic University, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Neuromuscul Disord 22:131-8. 2012
    Polymorphisms in PTPN22 are associated with many autoimmune diseases; while rs2476601 is supposed to play a major role, other experimental data suggest that rs2488457 may be even more important...
  48. ncbi No evidence for association between 1858 C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism of PTPN22 gene and primary Sjögren's syndrome
    M Ittah
    Service de Rhumatologie, Institut Pour la Santé et la Recherche Médicale E 109, Hopital de Bicetre, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Le Kremlin Bicetre, France
    Genes Immun 6:457-8. 2005
    ..Recently, 1858 C/T polymorphism of PTPN22 gene was reported to predispose to these autoimmune diseases...
  49. ncbi C1858T functional variant of PTPN22 gene is not associated with celiac disease genetic predisposition
    Blanca Rueda
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, Armilla, Granada, Spain
    Hum Immunol 66:848-52. 2005
    ..findings have demonstrated that the single nucleotide polymorphism 1858C-->T located at the P1 motif of the PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22) gene has functional relevance and is associated with a variety of ..
  50. ncbi A general autoimmunity gene (PTPN22) is not associated with inflammatory bowel disease in a British population
    N J Prescott
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Division of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, GKT School of Medicine, King s College London, London, UK
    Tissue Antigens 66:318-20. 2005
    ..polymorphism (C1858T) causing an amino acid substitution (R620W) in the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPN22 has been implicated in type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, ..
  51. pmc Lack of association between the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22)*620W allele and systemic sclerosis in the French Caucasian population
    J Wipff
    Rheumatology A Department, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France
    Ann Rheum Dis 65:1230-2. 2006
    The minor allele of the R620W missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2476601) in the PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22) gene has been reported to be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including type ..
  52. pmc Linkage proof for PTPN22, a rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility gene and a human autoimmunity gene
    Laetitia Michou
    GenHotel EA 3886, University Evry Paris 7 Medical School, Member of the AutoCure European Consortium, CP5727, 91057 Evry Genopole Cedex, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1649-54. 2007
    The tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 allele 1858T has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. RA is the most frequent of those multifactorial diseases...
  53. ncbi The PTPN22 promoter polymorphism -1123G>C association cannot be distinguished from the 1858C>T association in a Norwegian rheumatoid arthritis material
    M K Viken
    Institute of Immunology, Faculty Division Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Sognsvannsveien 20, Oslo 0027, Norway
    Tissue Antigens 70:190-7. 2007
    The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gene has, during the last 2 years, been recognized as a susceptibility gene for numerous autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes...
  54. ncbi Contribution of the R620W polymorphism of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 to systemic lupus erythematosus in Poland
    P Piotrowski
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 26:1099-102. 2008
    The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) 1858 C>T poly-morphic variant gene (rs2476601) displays an association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases...
  55. pmc Regulation of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase activity: inhibition of the catalytic domain by the proximal interdomain
    Yingge Liu
    Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Biochemistry 48:7525-32. 2009
    The lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase LYP, encoded by the PTPN22 gene, recently emerged as a major player and candidate drug target for human autoimmunity...
  56. doi Association of PTPN22 C1858T and CTLA-4 A49G polymorphisms with Type 1 Diabetes in Croatians
    Marina Korolija
    Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Molecular Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 86:e54-7. 2009
    In this case-control study the association between the PTPN22 1858T and CTLA-4 49G gene variants and T1D in Croatian population was examined...
  57. doi A PTPN22 promoter polymorphism -1123G>C is associated with RA pathogenesis in Chinese
    Jian Jun Huang
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 510515 Guangzhou, China
    Rheumatol Int 32:767-71. 2012
    The minor allele of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) +1858C>T within the PTPN22 gene has now been unequivocally confirmed as conferring susceptibility to RA in population from Europe and America, but not in ..
  58. pmc Association of the PTPN22 R620W polymorphism with increased risk for SLE in the genetically homogeneous population of Crete
    E Eliopoulos
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
    Lupus 20:501-6. 2011
    ..The functional R620W (C1858T) polymorphism of the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene, a member of the PTPs that negatively regulate T-cell activation, has been recently associated with ..
  59. doi The association between the functional PTPN22 1858 C/T and MIF -173 C/G polymorphisms and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a meta-analysis
    Young Ho Lee
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seongbuk gu, Seoul
    Inflamm Res 61:411-5. 2012
    The aim of this study was to determine whether the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) 1858 C/T (rs2476601) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) -173 C/G polymorphisms confer susceptibility to juvenile ..
  60. pmc No association of PTPN22 polymorphisms with susceptibility to ocular Behcet's disease in two Chinese Han populations
    Qi Zhang
    Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Chongqing Eye Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e31230. 2012
    ..Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) is a key negative regulator of T lymphocytes and polymorphisms of the PTPN22 gene have been shown to be ..
  61. pmc High basal activity of the PTPN22 gain-of-function variant blunts leukocyte responsiveness negatively affecting IL-10 production in ANCA vasculitis
    Yali Cao
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, UNC Kidney Center, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e42783. 2012
    Consequences of expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gain-of-function variant were evaluated in leukocytes from patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) disease...
  62. doi The CTLA-4 +49 A/G, CT60 A/G and PTPN22 1858 C/T polymorphisms and susceptibility to vitiligo: a meta-analysis
    Gwan Gyu Song
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 126 1, Anam Dong 5 Ga, Seongbuk gu, Seoul 136 705, South Korea
    Mol Biol Rep 40:2985-93. 2013
    ..cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) +49 A/G, CT60 A/G, and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) 1858 C/T polymorphisms confer susceptibility to vitiligo...
  63. pmc The autoimmune-predisposing variant of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase favors T helper 1 responses
    Torkel Vang
    Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Hum Immunol 74:574-85. 2013
    The C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism in PTPN22, which is the gene encoding lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), confers increased risk for various autoimmune disorders in Caucasians...
  64. pmc The association between the PTPN22 1858C>T variant and type 1 diabetes depends on HLA risk and GAD65 autoantibodies
    M Maziarz
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7232, USA
    Genes Immun 11:406-15. 2010
    The single nucleotide polymorphism 1858C>T in the PTPN22 gene is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in several populations...
  65. doi Differential association of two PTPN22 coding variants with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
    Lina Marcela Diaz-Gallo
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, Granada, Spain
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 17:2287-94. 2011
    The PTPN22 gene is an important risk factor for human autoimmunity...
  66. ncbi Genetics of type 1 diabetes in Asian and Caucasian populations
    Hiroshi Ikegami
    Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka Sayama, Osaka 589 8511, Japan
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77:S116-21. 2007
    Among candidate genes for type 1 diabetes, HLA, INS, CTLA4, PTPN22 and SUMO4 have been shown to be associated with the disease in Caucasian populations...
  67. pmc Associations between the PTPN22 1858C->T polymorphism and radiographic joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a 10-year longitudinal study
    Benedicte A Lie
    Institute of Immunology, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, N 0027 Oslo, Norway
    Ann Rheum Dis 66:1604-9. 2007
    To investigate whether the PTPN22 1858T risk variant is associated with the rate of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  68. doi Association between PTPN22 C1858T and type 1 diabetes: a replication in continental Italy
    P Saccucci
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    Tissue Antigens 71:234-7. 2008
    The missense PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism recently emerged as an important population-independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases...
  69. doi No association of PTPN22 gene polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis in Turkey
    N Sahin
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Marmara University Medical School, Tophanelioglu cad 13 15, Bağlarbaşı, Uskudar, 34662 Istanbul, Turkey
    Rheumatol Int 30:81-3. 2009
    ..In this study, the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PTPN22 gene was investigated in Turkey...
  70. pmc Allelic variants in the PHTF1-PTPN22, C12orf30 and CD226 regions as candidate susceptibility factors for the type 1 diabetes in the Estonian population
    Konstantinos Douroudis
    Immunology Group, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
    BMC Med Genet 11:11. 2010
    ..The aim of the study was to assess the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes as susceptible markers in the risk of type 1 diabetes in the Estonian population...
  71. doi Association of the PTPN22 gene (-1123G > C) polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese patients
    X Feng
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China
    Tissue Antigens 76:297-300. 2010
    ..at examining the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the protein tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTPN22) with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Chinese population...
  72. doi Does the relative risk for type 1 diabetes conferred by HLA-DQ, INS, and PTPN22 polymorphisms vary with maternal age, birth weight, or cesarean section?
    Lars C Stene
    Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Pediatr Diabetes 12:91-4. 2011
    ..The objective was to assess whether the relative risk for type 1 diabetes conferred by established susceptibility loci human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ, INS, and PTPN22 differed depending on these perinatal factors.
  73. pmc Association of PTPN22 1858T/T genotype with type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease but not with rheumatoid arthritis in Russian population
    Daria Zhebrun
    Laboratory of Immunology, Almazov Federal Heart, Blood and Endocrinology Center, Saint Petersburg, Russia
    Aging (Albany NY) 3:368-73. 2011
    The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 gene (PTPN22) is an important negative regulator of signal transduction through the T-cell receptors (TCR)...
  74. doi Pancreatic autoantibodies, HLA DR and PTPN22 polymorphisms in first degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes and multiethnic background
    B Barone
    Nutrology Section, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 119:618-20. 2011
    To evaluate the prevalence of pancreatic auto-antibodies (PAb) as well as its relationship with HLA DR B1 and PTPN22 polymorphisms in first degree relatives (FDR) of Brazilian patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiethnic background.
  75. ncbi The functional genetic variation in the PTPN22 gene has a negligible effect on the susceptibility to develop inflammatory bowel disease
    M C Martin
    Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
    Tissue Antigens 66:314-7. 2005
    ..aim of this study was to assess the possible association between the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene 1858C-->T (rs2476601, encoding R620W) polymorphism and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  76. doi PTPN22 gene polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases with special reference to systemic lupus erythematosus disease susceptibility
    V Pradhan
    Department of Autoimmune Disorders, National Institute of Immunohaematology, Indian Council of Medical Research, 13th Floor, KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India
    J Postgrad Med 56:239-42. 2010
    ..Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene, has been found to be associated with several autoimmune diseases like SLE, Grave's disease and Hashimoto ..
  77. ncbi A genome-wide association study identifies KIAA0350 as a type 1 diabetes gene
    Hakon Hakonarson
    Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 448:591-4. 2007
    ..These results indicate that KIAA0350 might be involved in the pathogenesis of T1D and demonstrate the utility of the genome-wide association approach in the identification of previously unsuspected genetic determinants of complex traits...
  78. pmc A loss-of-function variant of PTPN22 is associated with reduced risk of systemic lupus erythematosus
    Valeria Orrú
    Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 18:569-79. 2009
    A gain-of-function R620W polymorphism in the PTPN22 gene, encoding the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase LYP, has recently emerged as an important risk factor for human autoimmunity...
  79. pmc Shared and distinct genetic variants in type 1 diabetes and celiac disease
    Deborah J Smyth
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 359:2767-77. 2008
    ..Since both diseases are associated with the HLA class II genes on chromosome 6p21, we tested whether non-HLA loci are shared...
  80. ncbi The lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase Lyp interacts with the adaptor molecule Grb2 and functions as a negative regulator of T-cell activation
    Ronald J Hill
    Research Department, SUGEN, Inc, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    Exp Hematol 30:237-44. 2002
    ..We have attempted to identify new signaling molecules that are important for the activation response...
  81. doi Association of PTPN22 gene functional variants with development of pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan population
    H Lamsyah
    National Institute of Hygiene, Laboratory of Immunology, Human Genomic Unit, Rabat, Morocco
    Tissue Antigens 74:228-32. 2009
    ..Previous studies showed that several genes may play crucial roles in susceptibility to TB. The PTPN22 gene encodes the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase that has an important regulatory effect on T- and B-cell activation ..
  82. ncbi Replication of an association between the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase locus (LYP/PTPN22) with type 1 diabetes, and evidence for its role as a general autoimmunity locus
    Deborah Smyth
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation JDRF Wellcome Trust WT Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research CIMR, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes 53:3020-3. 2004
    ..Recently, it has been reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 1858C>T, in the gene PTPN22, encoding Arg620Trp in the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), which has been shown to be a negative ..
  83. ncbi Pathways to gene identification in rheumatoid arthritis: PTPN22 and beyond
    Peter K Gregersen
    Robert S Boas Center for Genomics and Human Genetics, The Institute for Medical Research at North Shore LIJ, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Immunol Rev 204:74-86. 2005
    ..A functional variant (R620W) of the intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) has now been conclusively shown to confer approximately two-fold risk for seropositive RA as well as several ..
  84. pmc Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes
    John A Todd
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK
    Nat Genet 39:857-64. 2007
    ..Several regions, including 18q22 and 18p11, showed association with autoimmune thyroid disease. This study increases the number of T1D loci with compelling evidence from six to at least ten...
  85. pmc The PTPN22*C1858T functional polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory polyarthritis but neither this nor other variants spanning the gene is associated with disease outcome
    H Naseem
    ARC Epidemiology Unit, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:251-5. 2008
    The PTPN22 gene has been widely confirmed as a susceptibility gene for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in populations of Northern European descent...
  86. ncbi The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) is associated with high GAD antibody titer in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: Non Insulin Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) Study 3
    Antonio Petrone
    Department of Clinical Science, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Rome, Italy
    Diabetes Care 31:534-8. 2008
    ..Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) has been identified as a new susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases...
  87. ncbi Auto-antibodies, HLA and PTPN22: susceptibility markers for rheumatoid arthritis
    G Orozco
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, Granada, Spain
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 47:138-41. 2008
    ..of auto-antibodies [rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP)], HLA-DRB1 alleles and PTPN22 1858 C/T polymorphism and test the value of their combination as susceptibility markers for rheumatoid arthritis (..
  88. pmc Genetic polymorphisms in PTPN22, PADI-4, and CTLA-4 and risk for rheumatoid arthritis in two longitudinal cohort studies: evidence of gene-environment interactions with heavy cigarette smoking
    Karen H Costenbader
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Arthritis Res Ther 10:R52. 2008
    b>PTPN22, PADI-4, and CTLA-4 have been associated with risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  89. pmc Common variants at CD40 and other loci confer risk of rheumatoid arthritis
    Soumya Raychaudhuri
    Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nat Genet 40:1216-23. 2008
    ..1 x 10(-7) overall), CDK6 (rs42041, P = 0.010 replication, P = 4.0 x 10(-6) overall), PRKCQ (rs4750316, P = 0.0078 replication, P = 4.4 x 10(-6) overall), and KIF5A-PIP4K2C (rs1678542, P = 0.0026 replication, P = 8.8 x 10(-8) overall)...
  90. pmc Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase and autoimmunity: human genetics rediscovers tyrosine phosphatases
    Stephanie M Stanford
    Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Semin Immunopathol 32:127-36. 2010
    ..focus on the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a critical negative modulator of TCR signaling encoded by the PTPN22 gene...
  91. ncbi Association between protein tyrosine phosphatase 22 variant R620W in conjunction with the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope and humoral autoimmunity to an immunodominant epitope of cartilage-specific type II collagen in early rheumatoid arthritis
    Harald Burkhardt
    Dept of Internal Medicine III, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Arthritis Rheum 54:82-9. 2006
    To analyze the genetic impact of allelic variants of the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) and HLA-DRB1 alleles on IgG autoantibody formation directed toward an immunodominant conformational epitope (C1(III); amino acid residues ..
  92. doi Protein tyrosine phosphatase gene C1858T allele confers risk for rheumatoid arthritis in Hungarian subjects
    Bernadett Farago
    Department of Medical Genetics and Child Development, University of Pecs, Szigeti ut 12, 7624, Pecs, Hungary
    Rheumatol Int 29:793-6. 2009
    The C1858T allele of the PTPN22 gene has been reported to confer risk for RA; but in some reports, the effect was restricted to RF- and/or anti-CCP-seropositive patients. Hungarian RA patients and matched controls were genotyped...
  93. doi PTPN22 allele polymorphisms in 15 Chinese populations
    Z H Zhang
    Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
    Int J Immunogenet 35:433-7. 2008
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) is involved in the negative regulation of T-cell responsiveness...
  94. doi PTPN22 1858C>T polymorphism is strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis but not with a response to methotrexate therapy
    Edyta Majorczyk
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics and Tissue Immunology, Department of Clinical Immunology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław, Poland
    Int Immunopharmacol 10:1626-9. 2010
    b>PTPN22 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22) 1858C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is one of the genetic risk factors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  95. ncbi Sequence requirements for association of protein-tyrosine phosphatase PEP with the Src homology 3 domain of inhibitory tyrosine protein kinase p50(csk)
    A Gregorieff
    McGill Cancer Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada
    J Biol Chem 273:13217-22. 1998
    ..that the inhibitory tyrosine protein kinase p50(csk) is physically associated with the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PEP in hematopoietic cells...
  96. ncbi Characterization of a myeloid tyrosine phosphatase, Lyp, and its role in the Bcr-Abl signal transduction pathway
    Wenwen Chien
    Department of Hematology Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:27413-20. 2003
    ..Surprisingly, a previously cloned "lymphocyte-specific" phosphatase, Lyp, was frequently detected in a number of myeloid cell lines as well as normal granulocytes and monocytes...
  97. ncbi Association of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism of PTPN22, encoding lymphoid protein phosphatase, with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus
    Gisela Orozco
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina, CSIC, Parque Tecnológico de Ciencias de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento s n 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
    Arthritis Rheum 52:219-24. 2005
    To assess the possible association between the PTPN22 gene 1858C-->T polymorphism and the predisposition and clinical expression of 2 systemic autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
  98. ncbi The PTPN22 R620W polymorphism associates with RF positive rheumatoid arthritis in a dose-dependent manner but not with HLA-SE status
    A T Lee
    North Shore LIJ Research Institute, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Genes Immun 6:129-33. 2005
    ..arthritis and a coding single-nucleotide polymorphism in the intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPN22. The disease-associated polymorphism, 1858 C/T (rs2476601), encodes an amino-acid change (R620W) in one of four ..
  99. ncbi Ethnic differences in allele frequency of autoimmune-disease-associated SNPs
    Mikako Mori
    Laboratory for Rheumatic Diseases, SNP Research Center, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 1 7 22 Suehiro cho, Tsurumi ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230 0045, Japan
    J Hum Genet 50:264-6. 2005
    ..erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), and RA; and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) in T1D, RA, and SLE...
  100. ncbi Protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPN22 polymorphism in psoriasis: lack of evidence for association
    Ioana Nistor
    J Invest Dermatol 125:395-6. 2005
  101. pmc PTPN22 genetic variation: evidence for multiple variants associated with rheumatoid arthritis
    Victoria E H Carlton
    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA 94502, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 77:567-81. 2005
    ..single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs2476601) in the hematopoietic-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase gene, PTPN22, has been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...

Research Grants69

  1. BioThrax Schedule Optimization for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Anthrax
    Robert Hopkins; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The most likely use of these doses is for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the event of an anthrax attack...
  2. Lymphoid Tyrosine Phosphatase and Type I Diabetes
    Nunzio Bottini; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..discovered that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase LYP (encoded by the PTPN22 gene) is associated with type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease that arises from T lymphocyte-mediated destruction ..
  3. Replication-deficient rabies vectors against rabies infection
    James P McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..kills approximately 40,000 to 70,000 people per year and over 10 million people receive post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after exposure to potentially infected animals...
  4. Generation of Novel Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccines
    BERNHARD F DIETZSCHOLD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..when the virus has reached the CNS, clinical rabies is developing, and conventional post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with inactivated vaccines is no longer effective...
  5. Second Generation Rabies Vaccines
    James McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..kills approximately 40,000 to 70,000 people per year and over 10 million people receive post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after exposure to potentially infected animals...
  6. Human Rabies Virus Vaccine Development
    James McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..approximately 40,000 to 70,000 people per year and over 10 million people who receive post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after exposure to potentially infected animals...
  7. Analyzing The Joint Susceptibility Genes for Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Diabetes
    Yaron Tomer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..common to AITD &T1D, and identified 3 joint genes for AITD &T1D in linked loci;(2)Determined thatCTLA-4, PTPN22, Insulin VNTR are susceptibility genes for the APS3v (AITD+T1D) phenotype;(3) Discovered a unique HLA-DR pocket ..
  8. Human Rabies Virus Vaccine Development
    James P McGettigan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..estimates RV kills over 55,000 people per year and over 15 million people receive post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after exposure to potentially infected animals...
  9. Host-pathogen competition in IFN mediated antiviral defense
    DOUGLAS CRAIG HOOPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Even where the RV vaccine and pre-formed virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNA) used in post- exposure prophylaxis (PEP) are available, human rabies has re-emerged...
  10. Nunzio Bottini; Fiscal Year: 2016
    For several years we have been studying the molecular actions of the PTPN22 gene product, the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase LYP, which is expressed only in white blood cells and acts as a gatekeeper for T lymphocyte activation...
  11. Human Mab cocktail for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis
    JEFFREY MATTIS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Currently, RIG for PEP is prepared from the sera of rabies virus-immune humans (HRIG) or horses (ERIG)...
  12. Impact of genetic variation TLR/CD14 pathways and smoking in RA
    TED RICHARD MIKULS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..genetic polymorphisms of CD14/TLR genes, factors to be studied will include SE and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22), well characterized risk factors for RA...
  13. JANE MAY LIU; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..screens have previously indicated that energy metabolism pathways, particularly the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS), play a major role in the transition of V...
  14. Richard G Kibbey; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The mtGTP is trapped within the mitochondria and must convert anaplerotic metabolites into PEP by the GTP-dependent mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) that then transmits the ..
  15. Bioinformatics and Population Genetics to Identify Rheumatoid Arthritis Genes
    Soumya Raychaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Genetic studies have thus far identified PTPN22, TNFAIP3, and STAT4 as replicable loci outside the Major Histocompatibility Complex...
  16. Impact of the autoimmunity associated PTPN22 1858T
    Jane Hoyt Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One such genetic variant is the PTPN22 1858T. This variant is associated with T1D, RA, Graves Disease, myasthenia gravis and SLE...
  17. Dragana Ajdic; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In S. mutans, sugar substrates are taken up by ABC transporters and, more commonly, by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTSs)...
  18. Defining the functional impact of T1D genes in mouse and man: a unified strategy
    Jane Hoyt Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies in Aim 2 and 3 will focus on coding variants already identified through the work of genetic studies;PTPN22, SH2B3, TYK2 and IFIH1...
  19. B cell function and phenotype as predictors of therapeutic response to rituximab
    David J Rawlings; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our published and preliminary studies indicate that healthy subjects, who carry the PTPN22 1858T variant allele strongly associated with T1D, exhibit impairment in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal ..
  20. Specificity of Streptococcus mutans sugar transporters
    Dragana Ajdic; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In S. mutans, sugar substrates are taken up by ABC transporters and by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTSs)...
  21. Yaya Wang; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..One such genetic variant is the PTPN22 C1858T, which leads to an Arginine to Tryptophan (R->W) change in the Lymphoid tryrosine phosphatase (Lyp)...
  22. Structure, mechanism and evolution of KDO8P synthase
    DOMENICO GATTI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The first step in the synthesis of KDO is the condensation of arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form KDO 8-phosphate (KDO8P), the phosphorylated precursor of KDO, catalyzed by KDO8P synthase (KDO8PS)...
  23. ALTERNATIVE ROLES FOR PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE CARBOXYKINASE
    Paul Ray; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyzes the following reaction: oxalacetate(OAA) + GTP yields equilibrium PEP + HCO3- + GDP. Large amounts are in liver, kidney, white and brown adipose tissues...
  24. Tibor T Glant; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..2-151.7 Mbp region, including PTPN22) shows the most prominent linkage with RA, after the MHC...
  25. Mechanism of KDO 8-P and DAH 7-P Synthase
    RONALD WOODARD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic 8-phosphate (KDO 8-P) from arabinose 5-phosphate (A 5-P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) catalyzed by the enzyme KDO 8-P synthase (EC 4.1.2...
  26. Proteomics to screen for a protein kinase that uses PEP
    GERALD CARLSON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..greater potential for phosphoryl transfer than ATP occur in our cells; one such compound is phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which has a phosphoryl transfer capability twice that of ATP...
  27. BIOSYNTHESIS OF THE ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE
    DOMENICO GATTI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The reaction, with involves the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) with arabinose 5-(A5P) to yield KDO8P and Pi, is poorly understood at present...
  28. KINETICS AND CHEMISTRY OF ALLOSTERIC INTERACTIONS
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Our objectives are to define the mechanism of action and regulation of the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase of Escherichia coli, and the structural requirements for those functions...
  29. PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE: GLYCOSE PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE SYSTEM
    Saul Roseman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The P-transfer sequence is via 4 proteins: PEP <-> Enzyme I (EI) <-> HPr <-> IIAGlc (or IIIGlc) <-> IICBGlc -> Glc...
  30. EFFECT OF MATERNAL DIABETES ON METABOLISM IN NEWBORNS
    Mulchand Patel; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..injection of glucose at 3 hour intervals starting at birth caused a reduction in the postnatal increase in PEP-carboxykinase activity and synthesis...
  31. Genes and Phenotype (GAP) studies of immunologic and inflammatory pathways
    PETER K contact GREGERSEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose that genetic polymorphisms in intracellular signaling molecules such as Blk, Csk, and PTPN22 influence early B cell development towards increased autoreactivity through lack of negative selection (the "first ..
  32. Mechanisms and Evolutionary Potential of Promiscuous Enzyme Activities
    SHELLEY COPLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 1. To explore the mechanistic basis of the promiscuous activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) synthase and dihydroquinate (DHQ) synthase. Aim 2...
  33. Jason C Mills; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by injection of the CD44 ligand Hyaluronan or block CD44- Hyaluronan interactions with the inhibitor PEP-1. We will determine if CD44 induces STAT3 and/or if it is required for progenitor expansion...
  34. Omega-3 Fatty Acids &Psychoeducational Psychotherapy for Childhood Depression
    Mary A Fristad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We previously developed and tested psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP) for children aged 8-12 with mood disorders...
  35. DERSHUNG YANG; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..for lifestyle weight management for adults with disabilities (particularly, the "Personalized Exercise Program" (PEP) projects: #R04CCR518810 and #R01DD000134) and disability informatics as part of the CDC-funded National Center on ..
  36. David A Hafler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..from genome wide association scans in relationship to regulatory T cell and effector function, investigating the PTPN22, CTLA-4/CD28, CD226/TIGIT, and CDS pathways...
  37. Primary biliary cirrhosis: molecular genetics and microbial pathogenesis
    Jochen Mattner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the B6 CD101 allele on the NOD background mediates enhanced T cell signals through Vav3 activation and/or lack of PTPN22 induction that impair the balance between regulatory and effector T cells and leads to enhanced inflammation and ..
  38. CRYSTAL FULLER LEWIS; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..b>PEP is the standard of care for health care workers who experience an accidental needle stick...
  39. Reducing CVD Risk in Caregivers: A Brief Behavioral Activation Intervention
    Brent T Mausbach; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is to examine the efficacy of a brief Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT), called the Pleasant Events Program (PEP), for reducing biological CVD risk indicators in a sample of spousal Alzheimer caregivers...
  40. Determining the rap1b signaling pathway to integrin activation in platelets
    LUIS ALBERTO PANIAGUA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The lymphopenic DRIyp/lyp animal develops spontaneous T1DM, whereas the DR+/+ does not...
  41. JOHN ANTHONY PUTKEY; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..It is les widely recognized that CaM is also regulated by two small proteins, PEP-19 and neurogranin (Ng), which have no known intrinsic activity other than binding to CaM via an IQ motif...
  42. Rectal Indomethacin to Prevent of Post-ERCP Pancreatitis in High Risk Patients
    Badih Joseph Elmunzer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Many pharmacologic agents have been studied in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), however clinical trial results have been disappointing either due to inadequate sample sizes or absence of ..
  43. Eric Meffre; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..were primary to these autoimmune diseases and can be induced in asymptomatic donors by risk alleles such as PTPN22, which interfere with B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and the establishment of central B cell tolerance...
  44. Dissection of cellular interactions in T1DM with integrated functional genomics
    MARTIN JOHN HESSNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BB DRlyp/lyp rats are spontaneously diabetic due to a mutation in the Gimap5 gene, rendering them deficient in regulatory T (..
  45. GENE MAPPING IN WOMEN WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
    Kathy L Moser; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The available data indicate that genes such as HLA Class II alleles and the lymphoid phosphatase PTPN22 are important risk factors for SLE, however it is likely that there are many additional alleles contributing to ..
  46. Marian J Rewers; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..of islet autoantibodies in prospectively followed children including DR,DQ, and DP alleles, insulin gene, and PTPN22 R620W polymorphisms, while some loci have little influence (CTLA4)...
  47. Omega-3 Fatty Acids &Psychoeducational Psychotherapy for Child Bipolar NOS
    Mary A Fristad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP) also has shown promise in treating bipolar spectrum disorders in children aged 8-12 (Fristad, 2006;Fristad, ..
  48. Elucidating modulators of hepatic metabolism by quantitative flux analysis
    Gregory Stephanopoulos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..validation of Metran for hepatocyte CCM flux quantification, and then application to the study of the pyruvate-PEP cycling mechanism, recognized to be of major importance in controlling glucose output in hepatocytes...
  49. Benjamin B Brodey; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..2007). The critical barrier to advances in prodromal and early psychosis (PEP) research and treatment has been the identification of PEP individuals who are at risk of conversion to a psychotic ..
  50. Behavioral Activation/Armodafinil to Treat Fatigue in HIV/AIDS
    Milton L Wainberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and modified by Dr. Daughters as "Behavioral Activation Program for Energy and Productivity, or 'BA- PEP'"...
  51. Jane Hoyt Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..One such genetic variant is the PTPN22 1858T. This variant is associated with T1D, RA, Graves Disease, myasthenia gravis and SLE...
  52. Hyaluronan-mediated regulation of Langerhans cells
    Mark Mummert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recently, we have developed an HA-binding peptide (termed "Pep-1") that binds strongly to HA polymers associated with cutaneous melanoma tumors but weakly to HA in adjacent non-..
  53. Nancy E Suchman; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Materials include: the MTP treatment manual, instructions for conducting PEP - the comparison intervention, treatment fidelity scales and manual, MTP therapist training program, outcome ..
  54. Genomics of Lupus
    JOHN BARKER HARLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of lupus now include ITGAM (CDI lb, CR3), STAT4, BANKl, BLK, HLA-DR, IRF5, FCGR3A, FCGR2A, Clq, Complement C4, and PTPN22, among others...
  55. Culture-Specific, Multimedia Cardiovascular Disease Education for Asian Indians
    Namratha R Kandula; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The overall aim of this research project is to develop and evaluate a multimedia CVD Patient Education Program (PEP) specifically for Asian Indians. Dr...
  56. The Impact of Pertussis Vaccination of Healthcare Workers
    Thomas Talbot; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of pertussis after healthcare-associated exposure to persons with pertussis was post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antibiotics and employee furlough...
  57. Jennifer K Nyborg; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..information and reagents, and the significant contributions of the Biophysics, Protein Expression and Purification (PEP) and Administrative Cores, the results generated from this Program will profoundly impact our understanding of how ..
  58. Thomas J Meade; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..known to be selectively cleaved by MMP-2 over other MMPs will be synthesized and tethered to Co(III)-sb (Co(III)-pep), and fluorescent analogues (Co(III)-flupep) will be synthesized to allow monitoring of their action and ..
  59. Nunzio Bottini; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Thus we will focus on two well-known autoimmunity genes relevant for T cell function, PTPN22 and IL2RA, and use Jurkat T cells as a model cell line...
  60. Dendritic Block Copolymer Micelles as New Targeted Drug Delivery Systems
    Paula T Hammond; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..enhance efficacy in the delivery of cytotoxic drugs in vitro, with specific emphasis on peptide sequence, LyP-1, discovered using phage display methods, which exhibits a highly specific recognition to p32 surface receptors on ..
  61. Depression and Disability in Older Persons: Untangling Complexities
    Lisa C Barry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The research will be conducted using data from the Yale PEP (Precipitating Events Project) Study, an ongoing NIA-funded, longitudinal study of 754 initially non-disabled ..
  62. HTS assay and configuration for inhibitors of the UDP-Mur formation pathway
    Michael McNeil; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We show adequate signal to noise with all substrates below their Km values except phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) which has a very low Km of 5<M...
  63. Xuli Wang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..are based on a synthetic tri-block copolymers of peptide, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) (Pep-b-PEG-b-PTMC)...
  64. Development of a Pediatric Acute Asthma Prediction Rule for severity and outcome
    DONALD HAYES ARNOLD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We hypothesize that an established mathematic model for oximeter Plethysmograph Estimated Pulsus paradoxus (PEP) will provide an effort-independent, real-time, continuous and valid estimate of the severity of airway obstruction ..
  65. Aveolar Macrophage Apoptosis and Pneumocystis
    Chao Hung Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The number of alveolar macrophages is decreased in humans with Pneumocystis pneumonia (Pep)...
  66. Reducing Adverse Self-Medication Behaviors in Older Adults with Hypertension
    Patricia Neafsey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A computer program developed for older adults (Personal Education Program or PEP) will be modified as the next generation PEP, or PEP-NG, to include an interface to allow clients to enter self-..
  67. IMPROVED SECOND ANTIBODY RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER
    ROBERT SHARKEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Previous progress with the streptavidin-MN-14, 111In-DOTA-pep-biotin approach has yielded extraordinarily high tumor/blood ratios with good tumor/nontumor tissue ratios...
  68. Autoantigen delivery to induce tolerance in diabetic ra*
    William Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..BB rats with the lyp/lyp genotype predictably develop diabetes between 60-90 days of age permitting the delivery of islet autoantigens ..