PRM2

Summary

Gene Symbol: PRM2
Description: protamine 2
Alias: CT94.2, protamine-2, cancer/testis antigen family 94, member 2, sperm histone P2, sperm protamine P2, testicular secretory protein Li 40
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The genes for protamine 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2) and transition protein 2 (TNP2) are closely linked in the mammalian genome
    W Engel
    Institut für Humangenetik der Universität, Gottingen, FRG
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 61:158-9. 1992
  2. ncbi The structural organization of sperm chromatin
    Susan M Wykes
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:29471-7. 2003
  3. doi Use of spermatozoal mRNA profiles to study gene-environment interactions in human germ cells
    Joost O Linschooten
    Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mutat Res 667:70-6. 2009
  4. ncbi [Advances in identification of semen stains]
    Guang Yao Fan
    School of Forensic Medicine, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, China
    Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 16:735-40. 2010
  5. doi Comparative genomics reveals gene-specific and shared regulatory sequences in the spermatid-expressed mammalian Odf1, Prm1, Prm2, Tnp1, and Tnp2 genes
    Kenneth C Kleene
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA 02125, USA
    Genomics 92:101-6. 2008
  6. ncbi Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in mice
    C Cho
    Gamete Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Genet 28:82-6. 2001
  7. ncbi Protamine-1 and -2 mRNA in round spermatids is associated with RNA-binding proteins
    Klaus Steger
    Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Frankfurter Strasse 98, 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 117:227-34. 2002
  8. ncbi Nuclear matrix interactions at the human protamine domain: a working model of potentiation
    Rui Pires Martins
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 4820, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:51862-8. 2004
  9. pmc Role of transcription factor Kar4 in regulating downstream events in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway
    Ron Lahav
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 1014, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:818-29. 2007
  10. ncbi Quantitative assessment of transition proteins 1, 2 spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein transcripts in spermatozoa from normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men
    Piotr Jedrzejczak
    Department of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego St, 60 781 Poznan, Poland
    Arch Androl 53:199-205. 2007

Research Grants

  1. GENETIC MECHANISMS THAT POTENTIATE HUMAN SPERMATOGENESIS
    STEPHEN KRAWETZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Evolution of vertebrate sensory genes
    Jianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The genes for protamine 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2) and transition protein 2 (TNP2) are closely linked in the mammalian genome
    W Engel
    Institut für Humangenetik der Universität, Gottingen, FRG
    Cytogenet Cell Genet 61:158-9. 1992
    The genes for two protamines (PRM1 and PRM2) and for two transition proteins (TNP1 and TNP2) have been characterized in several mammalian species...
  2. ncbi The structural organization of sperm chromatin
    Susan M Wykes
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:29471-7. 2003
    ..We have shown previously that the chromatin domain containing the two human protamines PRM1 and PRM2 and the transition protein TNP2 forms a DNase I-sensitive conformation in pachytene spermatocytes, a requisite ..
  3. doi Use of spermatozoal mRNA profiles to study gene-environment interactions in human germ cells
    Joost O Linschooten
    Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Mutat Res 667:70-6. 2009
    ..High expression of the germ cell specific gene protamine 2 (PRM2) was observed in spermatozoal mRNA isolates by Q-PCR, which was absent in reference mRNA isolates ..
  4. ncbi [Advances in identification of semen stains]
    Guang Yao Fan
    School of Forensic Medicine, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, China
    Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 16:735-40. 2010
    ..of transcriptomics and epigenetics, many semen-specific mRNA markers, such as protamine-1 (PRM1) and -2 (PRM2), have been applied to semen and semen stain identification...
  5. doi Comparative genomics reveals gene-specific and shared regulatory sequences in the spermatid-expressed mammalian Odf1, Prm1, Prm2, Tnp1, and Tnp2 genes
    Kenneth C Kleene
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, MA 02125, USA
    Genomics 92:101-6. 2008
    The comparative genomics of the Odf1, Prm1, Prm2, Tnp1, and Tnp2 genes in 13-21 diverse mammalian species reveals striking similarities and differences in the sequences that probably function in the transcriptional and translational ..
  6. ncbi Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in mice
    C Cho
    Gamete Biology Section, Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Genet 28:82-6. 2001
    ..We disrupted the coding sequence of one allele of either Prm1 or Prm2 in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from 129-strain mice, and injected them into blastocysts from C57BL/6-strain ..
  7. ncbi Protamine-1 and -2 mRNA in round spermatids is associated with RNA-binding proteins
    Klaus Steger
    Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Frankfurter Strasse 98, 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 117:227-34. 2002
    RNA-binding proteins in round spermatids have previously been assigned to the coding sequence of Prm1- and Prm2-mRNA...
  8. ncbi Nuclear matrix interactions at the human protamine domain: a working model of potentiation
    Rui Pires Martins
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 4820, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:51862-8. 2004
    ..region, the nuclear matrix is considered the primary candidate regulating the opening of the multigenic PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 human protamine domain...
  9. pmc Role of transcription factor Kar4 in regulating downstream events in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway
    Ron Lahav
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 1014, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:818-29. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the induction of Kar4 by pheromone is necessary for the delayed temporal induction of KAR3 and PRM2, genes required for efficient nuclear fusion during mating...
  10. ncbi Quantitative assessment of transition proteins 1, 2 spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein transcripts in spermatozoa from normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men
    Piotr Jedrzejczak
    Department of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego St, 60 781 Poznan, Poland
    Arch Androl 53:199-205. 2007
    ..histone H1-like protein (HILS1), transition proteins 1 and 2 (TNP1 and TNP2), and protamines 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2) contribute to considerable dense packing of spermatid chromatin during spermiogenesis...
  11. pmc Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1) for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification
    Yan Xu
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Science Evidence, Key Laboratory of Forensic Evidence and Science Technology, Ministry of Public Security, Institute of Forensic Science, Shanghai Public Security Bureau, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 9:e100123. 2014
    ..porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal ..
  12. doi Genome-wide analysis reveals artificial selection on coat colour and reproductive traits in Chinese domestic pigs
    Chao Wang
    Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China
    Mol Ecol Resour 15:414-24. 2015
    ..Five genes (PRM1, PRM2, TNP2, GPR149 and JMJD1C) related to reproductive traits were found to have high haplotype similarity in Chinese ..
  13. doi Regeneration of Leydig cells in ectopically autografted adult mouse testes
    Himesh Makala
    Laboratory for the Conservation of Endangered SpeciesCentre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India
    Reproduction 149:259-68. 2015
    ..Expression of germ cell-specific proteins such as POU5F1, DAZL, TNP1, TNP2, PRM1 and PRM2 revealed that, although proliferating and differentiating spermatogenic germ cells such as spermatogonia, ..
  14. doi A commercial human protamine-2 antibody used in several studies to detect mouse protamine-2 recognizes mouse transition protein-2 but not protamine-2
    Matthias Eckhardt
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 11, Bonn 53115, Germany
    Mol Hum Reprod 21:825-31. 2015
    ..A commercial antibody generated against human protamine-2 (PRM2) has been described to cross-react with mouse PRM2 and in fact has been used in several studies to detect mouse ..
  15. doi Testicular cell-conditioned medium supports embryonic stem cell differentiation toward germ lineage and to spermatocyte- and oocyte-like cells
    Syed M Shah
    Embryo Biotechnology Lab, Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India
    Theriogenology 86:715-29. 2016
    ..highest expression of primordial germ cell-specific (DAZL, VASA, and PLZF), meiotic (SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2, and PRM2), spermatocyte-specific (BOULE and TEKT1), and oocyte-specific genes (GDF9 and ZP2/3) for a culture period of 14 ..
  16. pmc Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice
    Naoki Takeda
    Division of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Resource Development and Analysis, Kumamoto University, 2 2 1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    Sci Rep 6:27409. 2016
    ..Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced...
  17. pmc Premature translation of protamine 1 mRNA causes precocious nuclear condensation and arrests spermatid differentiation in mice
    K Lee
    University of Washington, Department of Genetics, Seattle 98195 7360, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:12451-5. 1995
    ..caused precocious condensation of spermatid nuclear DNA, abnormal head morphogenesis, and incomplete processing of Prm2 protein...
  18. ncbi Multiplex mRNA profiling for the identification of body fluids
    Jane Juusola
    Graduate Program in Biomolecular Sciences, University of Central Florida, P O Box 162366, Orlando, FL 32816 2366, USA
    Forensic Sci Int 152:1-12. 2005
    ..deaminase (PBGD) for blood, statherin (STATH) and histatin 3 (HTN3) for saliva, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) for semen, and human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1) and mucin 4 (MUC4) for vaginal secretions...
  19. ncbi Sperm nuclear histone to protamine ratio in fertile and infertile men: evidence of heterogeneous subpopulations of spermatozoa in the ejaculate
    Xiaoyang Zhang
    St Mary s Hospital, 3830 Lacombe Ave, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1M5
    J Androl 27:414-20. 2006
    ..The relative histone (H2B) to protamine (PRM1 + PRM2) and PRM1 to PRM2 ratios were estimated by densitometric analysis of the AU gels...
  20. doi In vitro culture and differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatogonia
    B Xie
    Animal Reproduction Institute, Guangxi University, Nanning, China
    Reprod Domest Anim 45:275-82. 2010
    ..The expression of the spermatid-specific marker gene (PRM2) was identified after 30 days of culture by RT-PCR...
  21. doi Protamine 3 shows evidence of weak, positive selection in mouse species (genus Mus)--but it is not a protamine
    Juan Martin-Coello
    Reproductive Ecology and Biology Group, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Biol Reprod 84:320-6. 2011
    ..Many mammals have two protamine genes (PRM1 and PRM2) located in a gene cluster, which appears to evolve fast...
  22. doi Identification of potential regulatory elements in the 5' and 3' UTRs of 12 translationally regulated mRNAs in mammalian spermatids by comparative genomics
    Tamzid A Chowdhury
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125, USA
    J Androl 33:244-56. 2012
    ..delayed translational activation in spermatids was constructed for the Acev2, Akap3, Akap4v2, Gapdhs, Odf1, Prm1, Prm2, Prm3, Smcp, Spata18, Tnp1, and Tnp2 mRNAs...
  23. doi Evaluation of forensic examination of extremely aged seminal stains
    Hiroaki Nakanishi
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2 1 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan Department of Forensic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama, Saitama 350 0495, Japan Electronic address
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 16:303-7. 2014
    ..In addition, the mRNA levels of the semen-specific proteins semenogelin 1 (SEMG1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) were investigated. STRs were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ PCR Amplification Kit...
  24. doi A preliminary study on epigenetic changes during boar spermatozoa cryopreservation
    Changjun Zeng
    Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya an, Sichuan Province 625014, PR China Electronic address
    Cryobiology 69:119-27. 2014
    ..In this study, mRNA expression and protein levels of epigenetic-related genes (Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Jhdm2a, Kat8, Prm1, Prm2 and IGF2) in fresh and cryopreserved boar spermatozoa were evaluated using qRT-PCR and ELISA...
  25. doi 324 TESTIS-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION OF Oct4-EGFP TRANSGENE IN PIG
    M Nowak-Imialek
    Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Mariensee, Germany
    Reprod Fertil Dev 27:251. 2014
    ..5, THY-1, SALL4, and GFRα1) and differentiated (BOLL and PRM2) germ cells. Markers specific for Sertoli cells (vimentin) and Leydig cells (LHCGR) were not observed...
  26. doi Expression of sperm-specific protamines impairs bacterial and eukaryotic cell proliferation
    Katharina Günther
    Biomedical Research Center, Molecular Andrology, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Schubert Str 81, 35392, Giessen, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 143:599-609. 2015
    ..coli and HeLa cells by protamine expression. Follow-up studies on the molecular effect of protamines on proliferative cells may, in the future, open new avenues to investigate effective and specific treatments of cancer cells...
  27. doi The Role of Protamine 2 Gene Expression and Caspase 9 Activity in Male Infertility
    Adel A Zalata
    Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
    J Urol 195:796-800. 2016
    ..The aim of this study was to give insight into the role of PRM2 gene expression and caspase 9 activity in the pathogenesis of male infertility.
  28. doi Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) induces buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell differentiation into germ cells
    Syed Mohmad Shah
    Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132001, Haryana, India Electronic address
    Biochimie 119:113-24. 2015
    ..days led to maximum induction of germ lineage genes like DAZL, VASA, PLZF (PGC-specific); SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2 (Meiotic genes); BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers); GDF9, ZP2 and 3 (Oocyte markers)...
  29. pmc Re-visiting the Protamine-2 locus: deletion, but not haploinsufficiency, renders male mice infertile
    Simon Schneider
    Institute of Pathology, Department of Developmental Pathology, University of Bonn Medical School, Bonn, Germany
    Sci Rep 6:36764. 2016
    ..In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio...
  30. ncbi Separation of spermatogenic cells from adult transgenic mouse testes using unit-gravity sedimentation
    Susan M Wykes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, and Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State University, C S Mott Center, 275 E Hancock, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Mol Biotechnol 25:131-8. 2003
    ..These include the transition proteins and the protamines. The two human protamines PRM1 and PRM2, and transition protein TNP2, are encoded by a single chromatin domain bounded by two regions of matrix attachment...
  31. ncbi Molecular cloning of protamine-2 and expression with aging in Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata)
    Sung Sook Yu
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484 8506, Japan
    Primates 45:147-50. 2004
    ..Macaca fuscata) by means of differential display PCR, and we have cloned, sequenced and characterized protamine-2 (PRM2) of Japanese monkey...
  32. doi Quantitative analysis of sperm mRNA in the pig: relationship with early embryo development and capacitation
    Jae Yeon Hwang
    Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Animal Biotechnology Major, and Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 921, Korea
    Reprod Fertil Dev 25:807-17. 2013
    ..study, we investigated differences in the abundance of selected mRNAs coding for MYC, CYP19, ADAM2, PRM1 and PRM2 in purified porcine spermatozoa depending on embryo cleavage rate and capacitation (n=20 semen samples)...
  33. pmc Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development
    Jin Sun
    Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders Ministry of Education, Bio X Institutes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 8:e75750. 2013
    ..other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and ..
  34. pmc The transacting factor CBF-A/Hnrnpab binds to the A2RE/RTS element of protamine 2 mRNA and contributes to its translational regulation during mouse spermatogenesis
    Nanaho Fukuda
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003858. 2013
    ..In CBF-A knockout mice, expression of protamine 2 (PRM2) was reduced and the Prm2 mRNA was prematurely translated in a subset of elongating spermatids...
  35. doi 192 IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Oct4-EGFP EXPRESSING CELLS IN TRANSGENIC PIG TESTIS
    M Nowak-Imialek
    Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Mariensee, Germany
    Reprod Fertil Dev 26:210. 2013
    ..5, GFRα1, CD90, SALL4), differentiating germ cells (c-KIT), meiosis (BOLL), spermatids (PRM2), and somatic cells (VIM, LHCGR). All of the genes, including OCT4, UTF1, FGFR3, PGP9...
  36. doi Protamine-1 and -2 polymorphisms and gene expression in male infertility: an Italian study
    D Grassetti
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome La Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Endocrinol Invest 35:882-8. 2012
    ..There are two types of protamines: protamine 1 (P1) and the protamine 2 family (P2, P3, and P4), coded by the genes PRM1 and PRM2.
  37. doi Molecular analysis of cell type-specific gene expression profile during mouse spermatogenesis by laser microdissection and qRT-PCR
    Prabagaran Esakky
    VA St Louis Health Care System, St Louis, MO, USA
    Reprod Sci 20:238-52. 2013
    ..Magea4, Hspa2, Cox6b2, Tnp1, Prm1, and Prm2 are used to differentiate among the microdissected cell populations, namely spermatogonia (group I), spermatocytes (..
  38. doi Differential expression of protamine 1 and 2 genes in mature spermatozoa of normal and motility impaired semen producing crossbred Frieswal (HF×Sahiwal) bulls
    Indrajit Ganguly
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Project Directorate on Cattle ICAR, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh 250 001, India
    Res Vet Sci 94:256-62. 2013
    ..high-quality RNA from mature spermatozoa and to monitor the expression profile of protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) gene in ejaculated spermatozoa of normal (good, % initial progressive motility: 57.61±1...
  39. doi RNA/DNA co-analysis from human saliva and semen stains--results of a third collaborative EDNAP exercise
    C Haas
    Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Forensic Sci Int Genet 7:230-9. 2013
    ..Two novel mRNA multiplexes were used: a saliva triplex (HTN3, STATH and MUC7) and a semen pentaplex (PRM1, PRM2, PSA, SEMG1 and TGM4)...
  40. doi 212 gene expression profile of protamines and transition nuclear proteins in bovine testis
    M A M M Ferraz
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Reprod Fertil Dev 25:254. 2012
    ..In humans and mice, PRM1/PRM2 ratio is important to predict fertility...
  41. ncbi A global but stable change in HeLa cell morphology induces reorganization of DNA structural loop domains within the cell nucleus
    Isy Martínez-Ramos
    Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Apartado Postal 428, C P 50000, Toluca, Edo Mex, Mexico
    J Cell Biochem 96:79-88. 2005
    ..as evidenced by the shift of position relative to the NM of the c-myc locus and the multigene locus PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2, suggesting that both cell and nuclear shape may act as cues in the choice of the potential MARs that ..
  42. doi Comparative study of gene expression in patients with varicocele by microarray technology
    A Oliveira
    Department of Urology, Hospital Geral Sto António, Porto, Portugal
    Andrologia 44:260-5. 2012
    ..expression of the five selected genes: MT1M, PHLDA1 and INSL3 had decreased expression levels and CCIN and PRM2 increased expression levels compared with pre-surgery biopsies...
  43. doi Evaluation of mRNA marker specificity for the identification of five human body fluids by capillary electrophoresis
    Mara L Lennard Richard
    Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit, FBI Laboratory Division, 2501 Investigation Parkway, Quantico, VA 22135, USA
    Forensic Sci Int Genet 6:452-60. 2012
    ..7 (MMP7) for menstrual blood, delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2) for peripheral blood, and protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen. The expression of these markers was examined in each body fluid...
  44. ncbi Impact of protamine transcripts and their proteins on the quality and fertilization ability of sperm and the development of preimplantation embryos
    Magdalena Depa-Martynow
    Division of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Reprod Biol 12:57-72. 2012
    Protamine 1 (PRM1) and 2 (PRM2) are major nuclear proteins in spermatozoa known to bind to chromatin during early spermatogenesis...
  45. ncbi Protamine and fertilin mRNA: potential biomarkers of assisted reproductive technology outcomes
    G T Sukhikh
    V I Kulakov Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
    Bull Exp Biol Med 153:513-5. 2012
    We studied the relationship between the levels of protamines 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2) and fertilin-β (ADAM-2) mRNA expression and outcomes of infertility treatment using assisted reproductive technologies was studied...
  46. doi PRM1 variant rs35576928 (Arg>Ser) is associated with defective spermatogenesis in the Chinese Han population
    Xiao Jin He
    Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
    Reprod Biomed Online 25:627-34. 2012
    ..In order to evaluate the association of PRM1, PRM2, KIT and KITLG variants with susceptibility to severely defective spermatogenesis, 309 male infertility patients (..
  47. ncbi The bovine protamine 2 gene: evidence for alternative splicing
    H Kremling
    Institut für Humangenetik der Universität, Gottingen, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1132:133-9. 1992
    b>Protamine 2 (PRM2) is a low molecular weight arginine-rich protein which is present in haploid spermatogenic cells of human and mouse...
  48. ncbi Molecular structure of human protamine P4 (HP4), a minor basic protein of human sperm nuclei
    A Arkhis
    Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Universite Paris Val de Marne, Creteil, France
    Eur J Biochem 200:387-92. 1991
    ..These three protamines exhibit a close structural relationship with mouse protamine mP2. The heterogeneity of protamines in human sperm nuclei is discussed...
  49. ncbi Detection of human spermatid-specific transcripts in peripheral blood lymphocytes of males and females
    R Slomski
    Institut für Humangenetik der Universität, Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany
    Hum Genet 87:307-10. 1991
    We describe the detection of ectopic ("illegitimate") transcripts of the proacrosin and protamine 2 genes, which are specific for human spermatogenesis, in non-cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes...
  50. ncbi Genomic sequences of human protamines whose genes, PRM1 and PRM2, are clustered
    L Domenjoud
    Institut für Humangenetik Universität, Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany
    Genomics 8:127-33. 1990
    ..Using cDNA clones, we have isolated the genes for both human protamines, i.e., protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2), from a human cosmid library...
  51. ncbi Molecular characterization of nuclear basic protein HPI1, a putative precursor of human sperm protamines HP2 and HP3
    A Martinage
    Universite de Lille II, Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer, France
    Eur J Biochem 191:449-51. 1990
    ....
  52. pmc Sequence of human protamine 2 cDNA
    L Domenjoud
    Institut fur Humangenetik, Universitat Gottingen, FRG
    Nucleic Acids Res 16:7733. 1988
  53. ncbi Isolation and amino-acid sequence analysis of human sperm protamines P1 and P2. Occurrence of two forms of protamine P2
    H Ammer
    Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 367:515-22. 1986
    ....
  54. ncbi Disturbances of nuclear condensation in human spermatozoa: search for mutations in the genes for protamine 1, protamine 2 and transition protein 1
    M Schlicker
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Hum Reprod 9:2313-7. 1994
    ..of the structure of three genes which code for germ cell-specific nuclear proteins, namely protamine 1 (PRM1), protamine 2 (PRM2) and transition protein 1 (TNP1) in infertile men with disturbed sperm chromatin condensation...
  55. ncbi A haploid expressed gene cluster exists as a single chromatin domain in human sperm
    S K Choudhary
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Biol Chem 270:8755-62. 1995
    ..The genes for three of these low molecular weight basic nuclear proteins exist as a single linear array of PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 on human chromosome 16p13.2...
  56. ncbi Coordinate expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 multigene locus in human testis
    S M Wykes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine 48201
    DNA Cell Biol 14:155-61. 1995
    ..The expression of the PRM1, PRM2, and TNP2 genes facilitates the compaction and condensation of the genetic material within the developing spermatid...
  57. ncbi Establishment of a partially informative porcine somatic cell hybrid panel and assignment of the loci for transition protein 2 (TNP2) and protamine 1 (PRM1) to chromosome 3 and polyubiquitin (UBC) to chromosome 14
    G Rettenberger
    Abteilung Klinische Genetik, Universitat Ulm, Germany
    Genomics 21:558-66. 1994
    ..polyubiquitin (UBC) to chromosome 14, and the transition protein 2 locus (TNP2) and protamine loci (PRM1 and PRM2) to chromosome 3. Two chromosomal localizations have been further refined by radioactive in situ hybridization...
  58. ncbi Characterization of a human locus in transition
    J E Nelson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201
    J Biol Chem 269:31067-73. 1994
    The spermatid-specific nucleoprotamine genes PRM1 and PRM2 and the transition protein gene TNP2 are clustered at a single site on human chromosome 16p13.2...
  59. ncbi Interaction of human P1 and P2 protamines with DNA
    F Bianchi
    Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer, Lille, France
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:1197-204. 1994
    ..Moreover the binding to DNA was not influenced by the presence of zinc which induces the formation of a zinc-finger structure in protamine P2...
  60. ncbi Amino acid sequence of the human intermediate basic protein 2 (HPI2) from sperm nuclei. Structural relationship with protamine P2
    E Alimi
    Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Université Paris XII Val de Marne, Creteil, France
    Eur J Biochem 214:445-50. 1993
    ..Arkhis, A., Alimi, E., Sautière, P. & Chevaillier, P. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem. 191, 449-451]. Due to this structural similarity, HPI2 must be considered as an intermediate in the maturation of proprotamine HPI1 limited proteolysis...
  61. ncbi Nuclear matrix interactions within the sperm genome
    J A Kramer
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48102, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:11619-22. 1996
    ..DNase I-sensitive genes within the mature sperm nucleus, such as protamine 1, protamine 2, transition protein 2, alpha-globin, and beta-actin, display this intermediate affinity for the sperm nuclear ..
  62. ncbi Sequence analysis of the conserved protamine gene cluster shows that it contains a fourth expressed gene
    G Schluter
    Institut für Humangenetik der Universität, Gottingen, Germany
    Mol Reprod Dev 43:1-6. 1996
    ..e., the genes are situated in a head to tail arrangement in the order: protamine 1-protamine 2-transition protein 2...
  63. ncbi Haploid transcripts persist in mature human spermatozoa
    S M Wykes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    Mol Hum Reprod 3:15-9. 1997
    ..Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that human protamines PRM1, PRM2 and transition protein TNP2 transcripts are associated with round and elongating spermatids...
  64. ncbi Binding of nickel(II) and copper(II) to the N-terminal sequence of human protamine HP2
    W Bal
    Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, FCRDC, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 10:906-14. 1997
    ..These results imply HP2 as a likely target for the toxic metals Ni(II) and Cu(II)...
  65. ncbi Mouse protamine genes are candidate targets for the novel orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor
    G C Hummelke
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    Mol Reprod Dev 50:396-405. 1998
    ..The mouse protamine 1 and 2 (Prm1 and Prm2) genes therefore are potential target genes for GCNF regulation...
  66. ncbi Immunoelectron microscopic visualization of intermediate basic proteins HPI1 and HPI2 in human spermatids and spermatozoa
    Y Prigent
    Laboratoire d Histologie, JE MENESR 349, UFR Biomédicale des Saints Pères, Paris, France Jean Pierre
    Reprod Nutr Dev 38:417-27. 1998
    ....
  67. ncbi Genesis of a novel human sequence from the protamine PRM1 gene
    J A Kramer
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 120:467-73. 1998
    The members of the male haploid expressed protamine 1 (PRM1)-->protamine 2 (PRM2)-->transition protein 2 (TNP2) locus exist as a single, coordinately expressed genic domain...
  68. ncbi A double-stranded RNA binding protein required for activation of repressed messages in mammalian germ cells
    J Zhong
    Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    Nat Genet 22:171-4. 1999
    ..Using immunohistological analysis, we determined that the endogenous Prm2 mRNA and a reporter mRNA carrying protamine 1 translational-control elements were translated in a mosaic pattern...
  69. ncbi Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man
    G J Wyckoff
    Committee on Genetics, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Nature 403:304-9. 2000
    ..These results open up opportunities to test the hypothesis that sexual selection plays some role in the molecular evolution of higher primates...
  70. ncbi Temporal control of protein synthesis during spermatogenesis
    R E Braun
    Department of Genetics, Box 357360, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Int J Androl 23:92-4. 2000
    ..Mice mutant for Tarbp2 are defective in proper translational activation of the Prm1 and Prm2 mRNAs and are sterile...
  71. ncbi Round spermatids from infertile men exhibit decreased protamine-1 and -2 mRNA
    K Steger
    Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Giessen, Germany
    Hum Reprod 16:709-16. 2001
    ..Spermatozoa from infertile men are known to exhibit an increased protamine-1 (PRM1) to protamine-2 (PRM2) protein ratio...
  72. ncbi A preliminary report on the implication of RT-PCR detection of DAZ, RBMY1, USP9Y and Protamine-2 mRNA in testicular biopsy samples from azoospermic men
    A Friel
    National Diagnostics Centre, BioResearch Ireland, National University of Ireland, Galway, UK
    Int J Androl 25:59-64. 2002
    ..The study of the expression of such genes in a larger number of patients might be useful in characterizing and identifying subpopulations of azoospermic men...
  73. pmc Accelerated protein evolution and origins of human-specific features: Foxp2 as an example
    Jianzhi Zhang
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Genetics 162:1825-35. 2002
    ..Using comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee, and mouse protein sequences, we identified two genes (PRM2 and FOXP2) with significantly enhanced evolutionary rates in the hominid lineage...
  74. ncbi Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protamine-1 and -2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations
    Hiromitsu Tanaka
    Department of Science for Laboratory Animal Experimentation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita City, Japan
    Mol Hum Reprod 9:69-73. 2003
    ..Analysis of the human protamine-1 (PRM1) and -2 (PRM2) gene sequences in 226 sterile male patients and in 270 proven-fertile male volunteers revealed four single ..
  75. ncbi Protamine 2 deficiency leads to sperm DNA damage and embryo death in mice
    Chunghee Cho
    Department of Life Science, Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology K JIST, Kwangju 500 712, Republic of Korea
    Biol Reprod 69:211-7. 2003
    ..Previously, we have found that disruption of one copy of the gene for either protamine 1 (PRM1) or protamine 2 (PRM2) in the mouse results in a reduction in the amount of the respective protein, abnormal processing of PRM2,..
  76. ncbi Decreased protamine-1 transcript levels in testes from infertile men
    Klaus Steger
    Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Giessen, Germany
    Mol Hum Reprod 9:331-6. 2003
    Infertile men exhibit an aberrant protamine-1 (Prm1) to protamine-2 (Prm2) ratio at both the mRNA and protein level...
  77. ncbi Nucleoprotein transitions during spermiogenesis in mice with transition nuclear protein Tnp1 and Tnp2 mutations
    Ming Zhao
    Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Biol Reprod 71:1016-25. 2004
    ..The transition nuclear proteins, TP1 and TP2, and the protamines, PRM1 and PRM2, are the major nuclear proteins involved in this process...
  78. ncbi Effect of protamine-2 deficiency on ICSI outcome
    M H Nasr-Esfahani
    Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran
    Reprod Biomed Online 9:652-8. 2004
    ..Therefore, it can be concluded that altered P1/P2 ratio effects fertilization rate and embryo quality which subsequently may affect implantation and pregnancy outcome...
  79. ncbi Cellular expression of protamine 1 and 2 transcripts in testicular spermatids from azoospermic men submitted to TESE-ICSI
    Valerie Mitchell
    Spermiologie Biologie de la Reproduction, et unité 422 INSERM, hôpital A Calmette, Boulevard du Professeur Jules Leclercq, CHRU Faculté de Médecine, F 59037, France
    Mol Hum Reprod 11:373-9. 2005
    ..We sought to investigate the expression of protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) transcripts in testicular spermatids from obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermic men with impaired ..
  80. ncbi 15-deoxy Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 suppresses transcription by promoter 3 of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human erythroleukemia cells
    Adrian T Coyle
    Department of Biochemistry, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Ireland
    FEBS J 272:4754-73. 2005
    ..1.7 cell line but had no effect on Prm1 or Prm2 activity or on TPalpha mRNA expression...
  81. ncbi Protamine 2 precursors, protamine 1/protamine 2 ratio, DNA integrity and other sperm parameters in infertile patients
    Nuria Torregrosa
    Human Genetics Research Group, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Hum Reprod 21:2084-9. 2006
    The protamine 1-to-protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2) is altered in the sperm cells of some infertile patients. Also, evidence for increased protamine 2 precursors (pre-P2) in a few patients has been reported...
  82. ncbi [Structure and role of protamines 1 and 2 in spermatogenesis and male infertility]
    Bartosz Kempisty
    Katedra i Zakład Biochemii i Biologii Molekularnej AM im K Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
    Ginekol Pol 77:238-45. 2006
    ..The first transcripts found in spermatozoa included protamine 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2). Protamines are basic polypeptides, which form complex with DNA in spermatids and spermatozoa...
  83. ncbi Identification of novel polymorphisms in the nuclear protein genes and their relationship with human sperm protamine deficiency and severe male infertility
    Vincent W Aoki
    Andrology and IVF Laboratories, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
    Fertil Steril 86:1416-22. 2006
    ....
  84. ncbi Sperm protamine 1/protamine 2 ratios are related to in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates and predictive of fertilization ability
    Vincent W Aoki
    Andrology and IVF Laboratories, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
    Fertil Steril 86:1408-15. 2006
    ..To evaluate whether aberrant sperm P1/P2 ratios are predictive of abnormal fertilizing ability and are related to in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome...
  85. pmc Novel tumor antigens elicit anti-tumor humoral immune reactions in a subset of patients with polycythemia vera
    Zeyu Xiong
    Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Clin Immunol 122:279-87. 2007
    ..We identified two novel PV associated tumor antigens, PV65 (eIF-2alpha) and PV13 (protamine 2)...
  86. ncbi Nuclear organization of the protamine locus
    R P Martins
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 253 C S Mott Center, 275 East Hancock Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 64:1-12. 2007
    The human protamine gene cluster consists of three tightly regulated genes, protamine 1 (PRM1), protamine 2 (PRM2) and transition protein 2 (TNP2)...
  87. ncbi mRNA profiling for body fluid identification by multiplex quantitative RT-PCR
    Jane Juusola
    Graduate Program in Biomolecular Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32816 2366, USA
    J Forensic Sci 52:1252-62. 2007
    ..and beta-spectrin (SPTB) for blood, statherin (STATH) and histatin 3 (HTN3) for saliva, protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) for semen, and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) for menstrual ..
  88. doi Prm3, the fourth gene in the mouse protamine gene cluster, encodes a conserved acidic protein that affects sperm motility
    Pawel Grzmil
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Gottingen, Göttingen D 37073, Germany
    Biol Reprod 78:958-67. 2008
    The protamine gene cluster containing the Prm1, Prm2, Prm3, and Tnp2 genes is present in humans, mice, and rats...
  89. ncbi Evaluation of protamines 1 and 2 transcript contents in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic men
    Bartosz Kempisty
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
    Folia Histochem Cytobiol 45:S109-13. 2007
    ..The key role in this process is played by protamines 1 and 2 (PRM1, PRM2)...
  90. doi Recovery and stability of RNA in vaginal swabs and blood, semen, and saliva stains
    Mindy Setzer
    Graduate Program in Industrial Chemistry Forensic Track, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 2366, USA
    J Forensic Sci 53:296-305. 2008
    ..had a detrimental effect on the recoverability of blood (3 days), saliva (1 day), semen (7 days), and vaginal secretions (3 days) specific transcripts, with one of the mRNA species (the semen marker PRM2) not being detectable after 1 day.
  91. ncbi Transcripts of aromatase and estrogen receptors and significance of other RNAs in human spermatozoa
    Serge Carreau
    Biochemistry Laboratory, University of Caen, France
    Arch Androl 53:249-55. 2007
    ..levels of transcripts encoding for proteins involved in either nuclear condensation protamines 1 and 2 (Prm1 and Prm2) or in capacitation endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide sythase (nNOS) and c-myc ..
  92. ncbi Identification of genetic variation in the 5' and 3' non-coding regions of the protamine genes in patients with protamine deregulation
    Sue Hammoud
    Andrology and IVF Laboratories, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA
    Arch Androl 53:267-74. 2007
    ..protamine expression, we have sequenced the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of both protamine 1 (P1) and protamine 2 (P2) genes in a population of infertile men with protamine deregulation, men presenting for infertility work-up ..
  93. doi Protamine 2 precursors (Pre-P2), protamine 1 to protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2), and assisted reproduction outcome
    Sara de Mateo
    Human Genetics Research Group, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, and Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Service, Hospital Clinic i Provincial, Barcelona, Spain
    Fertil Steril 91:715-22. 2009
    To determine whether the presence of protamine 2 precursors (pre-P2/P2 ratio) and the protamine 1 to protamine 2 ratio (P1/P2) are related to the assisted reproduction outcome.
  94. ncbi Analysis of selected transcript levels in porcine spermatozoa, oocytes, zygotes and two-cell stage embryos
    Bartosz Kempisty
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medical Sciences, Swiecickiego 6 St 60 781, Poznan, Poland
    Reprod Fertil Dev 20:513-8. 2008
    ..quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (RQ-PCR), we evaluated the presence of clusterin (CLU), protamine 2 (PRM2), calmegin (CLGN), cAMP-response element modulator protein (CREM), methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), linker ..
  95. pmc Characterization of nucleohistone and nucleoprotamine components in the mature human sperm nucleus
    Yan Li
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Wayne, MI 48201, USA
    Asian J Androl 10:535-41. 2008
    ..To simultaneously determine the localization of histones and protamines within human sperm nuclei...
  96. doi Cyclin and protamine as prognostic molecular marker for testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia
    Takahiro Haraguchi
    Department of Organs Therapeutics, Division of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Fertil Steril 91:1424-6. 2009
    The CCNA1, CCNB1, CCNB2, PRM1, and PRM2 messenger RNA transcript ratios were significantly decreased in patients with spermatogenic disorders...
  97. doi Pregnancy-specific {beta}-1-glycoprotein 1 and human leukocyte antigen-E mRNA in human sperm: differential expression in fertile and infertile men and evidence of a possible functional role during early development
    Conrado Avendaño
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 601 Colley Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23507, USA
    Hum Reprod 24:270-7. 2009
    ..We compared PSG1 and HLA-E sperm mRNA levels in fertile and infertile men and we tested the hypothesis that these transcripts are selectively retained in the newly formed zygote...
  98. doi Evaluation of mRNA-based approach for identification of saliva and semen
    Koichi Sakurada
    National Research Institute of Police Science, 6 3 1, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277 0882, Japan
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 11:125-8. 2009
    ..Statherin (STATH) and histatin (HTN3), the selected genes for saliva, and protamin 2 (PRM2) and semenogelin 1 (SEMG1), those selected for semen, showed high specificity to these body fluids...
  99. doi A common haplotype of protamine 1 and 2 genes is associated with higher sperm counts
    F Tüttelmann
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Int J Androl 33:e240-8. 2010
    ..Haploinsufficiency of the protamine 1 (PRM1) or PRM2 gene causes infertility in mice...
  100. pmc Jmjd1a demethylase-regulated histone modification is essential for cAMP-response element modulator-regulated gene expression and spermatogenesis
    Zhaoliang Liu
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas A and M University Health Science Center, Texas 77030, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:2758-70. 2010
    ..of the Crem coactivator Act and their target genes Tnp1 (transition protein 1), Tnp2, Prm1 (protamine 1), and Prm2, all of which are essential for chromatin condensation in spermatids...

Research Grants2

  1. GENETIC MECHANISMS THAT POTENTIATE HUMAN SPERMATOGENESIS
    STEPHEN KRAWETZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Only upon adopting a potentiated open chromatin state can the various members of the multigenic PRM1->PRM2->TNP2 gene cluster be transcribed...
  2. Evolution of vertebrate sensory genes
    Jianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will also help understand human smell and taste variations and disorders. ..