PRKG1

Summary

Gene Symbol: PRKG1
Description: protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I
Alias: AAT8, PKG, PRKG1B, PRKGR1B, cGK, cGK 1, cGK1, cGKI, cGKI-BETA, cGKI-alpha, cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. pmc Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated by MAPK and SAPK2/p38, and may mediate activation of CREB
    M Deak
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Departments of Biochemistry, Anatomy and Physiology, University of Dundee, Scotland
    EMBO J 17:4426-41. 1998
  2. pmc Nitration of tyrosine 247 inhibits protein kinase G-1α activity by attenuating cyclic guanosine monophosphate binding
    Saurabh Aggarwal
    From the Pulmonary Disease Program, Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912
    J Biol Chem 289:7948-61. 2014
  3. pmc Persistent eNOS activation secondary to caveolin-1 deficiency induces pulmonary hypertension in mice and humans through PKG nitration
    You Yang Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and 2Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:2009-18. 2009
  4. ncbi Binding and phosphorylation of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha
    K Yuasa
    Discovery Research Laboratory, Tanabe Seiyaku Co Ltd, 2 50 Kawagishi 2 chome, Toda, Saitama 335 8505, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:4897-905. 2000
  5. ncbi cGMP-dependent protein kinase I beta physically and functionally interacts with the transcriptional regulator TFII-I
    Darren E Casteel
    Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0652, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32003-14. 2002
  6. ncbi Identification of the interface between cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ibeta and its interaction partners TFII-I and IRAG reveals a common interaction motif
    Darren E Casteel
    Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0652, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:38211-8. 2005
  7. ncbi Phosphorylation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase
    P Komalavilas
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama, Birmingham 35294 0019
    J Biol Chem 269:8701-7. 1994
  8. ncbi A study on the complexes between human erythrocyte enzymes participating in the conversions of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate
    K V Fokina
    A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Russia
    Arch Biochem Biophys 345:185-92. 1997
  9. ncbi Molecular determinants of the interaction between the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate (IRAG) and cGMP kinase Ibeta
    A Ammendola
    Institut fur Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Technischen Universitat Munchen, Biedersteiner Strasse 29, D 80802 München, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:24153-9. 2001
  10. ncbi Activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 by the nitric oxide-cGMP-cGMP-dependent protein kinase axis regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in vascular endothelial cells
    Carlos Zaragoza
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, and Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 62:927-35. 2002

Research Grants

  1. cGMP Phosphodiesterase, a Novel Chemoprevention Target
    Gary Piazza; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR BENZODIAZEPINE INDUCED BEHAVIORS
    RAYMOND QUOCK; Fiscal Year: 1999
  3. REGULATION OF THE ANP RECEPTOR/GUANYLYL CYCLASE
    Michael Chinkers; Fiscal Year: 2000
  4. Golgi-associated NO-cGMP Signaling Defect in Muscular Dystrophy
    Gail D Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Peptide Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    Jawaharlal M Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Helmy M Siragy; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Nitric Oxide/cGMP Modulation of Corporal Fibrosis Caused by Neuropraxia
    MONICA GABRIELA FERRINI; Fiscal Year: 2012
  8. Vijay H Shah; Fiscal Year: 2016
  9. Kathryn N Farrow; Fiscal Year: 2016
  10. ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE AND RECEPTOR GENES IN HYPOXIA
    Yiu Fai Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications282 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated by MAPK and SAPK2/p38, and may mediate activation of CREB
    M Deak
    MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Departments of Biochemistry, Anatomy and Physiology, University of Dundee, Scotland
    EMBO J 17:4426-41. 1998
    ..These findings, together with other observations, suggest that MSK1 may mediate the growth-factor and stress-induced activation of CREB...
  2. pmc Nitration of tyrosine 247 inhibits protein kinase G-1α activity by attenuating cyclic guanosine monophosphate binding
    Saurabh Aggarwal
    From the Pulmonary Disease Program, Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia 30912
    J Biol Chem 289:7948-61. 2014
    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase G-1α (PKG-1α) is a downstream mediator of nitric oxide and natriuretic peptide signaling...
  3. pmc Persistent eNOS activation secondary to caveolin-1 deficiency induces pulmonary hypertension in mice and humans through PKG nitration
    You Yang Zhao
    Department of Pharmacology and 2Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:2009-18. 2009
    ..Activation of eNOS in Cav1-/- lungs led to the impairment of PKG activity through tyrosine nitration...
  4. ncbi Binding and phosphorylation of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha
    K Yuasa
    Discovery Research Laboratory, Tanabe Seiyaku Co Ltd, 2 50 Kawagishi 2 chome, Toda, Saitama 335 8505, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:4897-905. 2000
    cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) is a major cellular receptor of cGMP and plays important roles in cGMP-dependent signal transduction pathways...
  5. ncbi cGMP-dependent protein kinase I beta physically and functionally interacts with the transcriptional regulator TFII-I
    Darren E Casteel
    Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0652, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:32003-14. 2002
    ..Binding of G-kinase to TFII-I may position the kinase to phosphorylate and regulate TFII-I and/or factors that interact with TFII-I at the serum-response element...
  6. ncbi Identification of the interface between cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ibeta and its interaction partners TFII-I and IRAG reveals a common interaction motif
    Darren E Casteel
    Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0652, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:38211-8. 2005
    ..Two splice variants of type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG Ialpha and Ibeta) differ only in their N-terminal approximately 100 amino acids, which mediate binding to different ..
  7. ncbi Phosphorylation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase
    P Komalavilas
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama, Birmingham 35294 0019
    J Biol Chem 269:8701-7. 1994
    ..Phosphorylation of IP3 receptor by cGMP kinase may regulate the function of IP3 receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells and contribute to the effect of cGMP to regulate intracellular calcium levels...
  8. ncbi A study on the complexes between human erythrocyte enzymes participating in the conversions of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate
    K V Fokina
    A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Russia
    Arch Biochem Biophys 345:185-92. 1997
    ....
  9. ncbi Molecular determinants of the interaction between the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate (IRAG) and cGMP kinase Ibeta
    A Ammendola
    Institut fur Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Technischen Universitat Munchen, Biedersteiner Strasse 29, D 80802 München, Germany
    J Biol Chem 276:24153-9. 2001
    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) affects the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))-dependent release of intracellular calcium by phosphorylation of IRAG (inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate)...
  10. ncbi Activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 by the nitric oxide-cGMP-cGMP-dependent protein kinase axis regulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in vascular endothelial cells
    Carlos Zaragoza
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, and Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Pharmacol 62:927-35. 2002
    ..the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, or the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor phenyl-1,N (2)- etheno-8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (PET) reduced the ..
  11. ncbi Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ibeta is mediated by an extensive amino-terminal leucine zipper motif, and dimerization modulates enzyme function
    Robyn Richie-Jannetta
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 0615, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:50070-9. 2003
    ..In PKG Ibeta this includes eight Leu/Ile heptad repeats, and in the present study, deletion and site-directed mutagenesis ..
  12. ncbi The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits Rap 1 activation in human platelets via cGMP-dependent protein kinase I
    Oliver Danielewski
    Institute for Biochemistry II, University of Frankfurt Medical School, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 93:319-25. 2005
    ..Four lines of evidence suggest that NO/cGMP effects are mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI): (i) Rap 1 inhibition correlated with cGKI activity as measured by the phosphorylation state of VASP, an ..
  13. ncbi Isolated regulatory domains of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha and Ibeta retain dimerization and native cGMP-binding properties and undergo isoform-specific conformational changes
    Robyn Richie-Jannetta
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 0615, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:6977-84. 2006
    Molecular mechanisms that provide for cGMP activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) are unknown. PKGs are dimeric; each monomer contains a regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) domain...
  14. doi Activation of protein kinase G Increases the expression of p21CIP1, p27KIP1, and histidine triad protein 1 through Sp1
    Bo Cen
    Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cancer Res 68:5355-62. 2008
    The anticancer role of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) has become of considerable interest, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully established...
  15. pmc Effects of cyclic GMP and analogues on neurogenic transmission in the rat tail artery
    S Ouedraogo
    , URA 600, , Illkirch, France
    Br J Pharmacol 112:867-72. 1994
    ..isoquinolinesulphonamide dihydrochloride (H-89; 100 nM) but not by the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors, Rp-8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-bromo-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM) or Rp-8-(4-..
  16. ncbi Nitric oxide prevents the IFN-gamma/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity in a protein kinase G-independent manner
    H S So
    Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk, Korea
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 23:321-34. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the preventive effect of SNP on IFN-gamma/LPS-induced cell death is mediated by a protein kinase G (PKG)-independent manner.
  17. pmc Molecular analysis of POP2 gene, a gene required for glucose-derepression of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    A Sakai
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 20:6227-33. 1992
    ....
  18. ncbi Cloning and expression of a cDNA copy of the viral K28 killer toxin gene in yeast
    M J Schmitt
    , , Germany
    Mol Gen Genet 246:236-46. 1995
    ..In vitro translational analysis of the M28(+)ssRNA in vitro transcript identified the primary gene product of M28 as a K28 preprotoxin of 38 kDa (M-p38)...
  19. pmc Effects of cyclic AMP and analogues on neurogenic transmission in the rat tail artery
    S Ouedraogo
    , C N R S URA 600, , Illkirch, France
    Br J Pharmacol 111:625-31. 1994
    ..By contrast they were unaffected by the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, 8-bromo-guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-8-bromo-cyclic GMPS; 10 microM)...
  20. ncbi [1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of a case of phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency]
    M Ito
    Department of Pediatrics, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
    No To Hattatsu 24:244-9. 1992
    ..The reason of the reduction of alanine levels was uncertain. A compensatory mechanism for energy supply to the muscle tissue was considered...
  21. ncbi Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG): antiparasitic activity of a PKG inhibitor
    Carmen A Diaz
    Department of Human and Animal Infectious Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Co Inc, P O Box 2000, Rahway, NJ 07065 0900, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 146:78-88. 2006
    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has been biochemically and genetically validated in Toxoplasma gondii as a primary target responsible for the antiparasitic activity of the trisubstituted pyrrole 4-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(1-..
  22. ncbi Regulation of K-Cl cotransport: from function to genes
    N C Adragna
    Department of Pharmacology, Wright State University, School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435 0002, USA
    J Membr Biol 201:109-37. 2004
    ..by lithium (Li) in low-K sheep red blood cells (LK SRBCs), and the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway as well as the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated mechanism in VSMCs...
  23. ncbi Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase (gap operon) from mesophilic Bacillus megaterium: comparison with corresponding sequences from thermophilic Bacill
    B S Schläpfer
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland
    Gene 122:53-62. 1992
    ..megaterium TIM at high enzyme concentrations. Heat treatment seems to be responsible for the conversion of two differently active conformations or the induction of a new quaternary structure...
  24. ncbi [Regulatory effect of protein kinase C and protein kinase G on calcium sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle cells following hemorrhagic shock]
    Tao Li
    State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Department 2, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, the Third Military University, Chongqing 400042, China
    Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 19:257-60. 2007
    To observe the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase G (PKG) on calcium desensitization following hemorrhagic shock in rats.
  25. ncbi Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: involvement of protein kinase G 1 beta, serine 116 phosphorylation and lipid structures
    Theresa A John
    Division of Neonatology, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, California 90502, USA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 35:148-58. 2008
    1. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is important for vascular homeostasis. The role of protein kinase G (PKG) in regulation of NOS3 activity was studied in primary cultures of newborn lamb lung microvascular endothelial cells (..
  26. doi Altered nitric oxide calcium responsiveness of aortic smooth muscle cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats depends on low expression of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase type I
    Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
    Department of Pharmacology, Viale Pieraccini, 6 University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Hypertens 27:1258-67. 2009
    The nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)/cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) pathway has been extensively investigated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as a possible pathogenetic factor...
  27. ncbi Use of beta-lactamase as a secreted reporter of promoter function in yeast
    C P Cartwright
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Worcester 01655
    Yeast 10:497-508. 1994
    ....
  28. ncbi [Immobilization of penicilin G acylase on polyacrylonitrile fiber]
    H Xian
    Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
    Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 41:475-80. 2001
    ..The hydrolysis conversion of PGK in the range of 2.5%-12.5% (W/V) were over 98% for the immobilized PGA. The operation stability of immobilized PGA treated with DTT was better than that of immobilized PGA untreated...
  29. pmc Identification, sequence analysis, and expression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum gene cluster encoding the three glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, and triosephosphate isomerase
    B J Eikmanns
    Institut für Biotechnologie 1 des Forschungszentrums Jülich GmbH, Germany
    J Bacteriol 174:6076-86. 1992
    ..On the basis of codon usage analysis of gap, pgk, tpi, and previously sequenced genes from C. glutamicum, a codon preference profile for this organism which differs significantly from those of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis is presented...
  30. ncbi Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by cyclic GMP and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in contractile vascular smooth muscle cells
    P Komalavilas
    Department of Pathology, Division of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0019, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:34301-9. 1999
    ..protein kinase mediator of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) promotes modulation to the contractile phenotype in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC)...
  31. ncbi Sulindac independently modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathways
    Pamela L Rice
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center Denver, CO, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 5:746-54. 2006
    ..simultaneously (a) increase cellular cyclic GMP and subsequently activate cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG); (b) activate c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK); (c) inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2); and ..
  32. ncbi The phosphoglycerate kinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus overlap by 8-bp. Isolation, sequencing of the genes and expression in Escherichia coli
    C E Jones
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College, London, England
    Eur J Biochem 233:800-8. 1995
    ..Unlike bacterial GraP-DH enzymes, S. solfataricus GraP-DH was able to use both NAD+ and NADP+ as cofactors, but exhibited a marked preference for NADP+...
  33. pmc Roles for soluble guanylate cyclase and a thiol oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization of protein kinase G in pulmonary artery relaxation to hydrogen peroxide
    Boon Hwa Neo
    Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299:H1235-41. 2010
    ..with a nitric oxide/cGMP-independent thiol oxidation/subunit dimerization-elicited activation of protein kinase G (PKG), we investigated whether this mechanism participates in the relaxation of BPAs to H(2)O(2)...
  34. ncbi Involvement of cyclic GMP and protein kinase G in the regulation of apoptosis and survival in neural cells
    Ronald R Fiscus
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Epithelial Cell Biology Research Center, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China
    Neurosignals 11:175-90. 2002
    Our current understanding of nitric oxide (NO), cyclic GMP (cGMP) and protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathways in the nervous systems has its origins in the early studies conducted on vascular tissues during the late 1970s and early to ..
  35. pmc Toxoplasma gondii cyclic GMP-dependent kinase: chemotherapeutic targeting of an essential parasite protein kinase
    Robert G K Donald
    Department of Human and Animal Infectious Disease Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Merck and Co, Inc, Rahway New Jersey 07065, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 1:317-28. 2002
    ..The presumptive molecular target of this compound in E. tenella is cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Native PKG purified from T. gondii has kinetic and pharmacologic properties similar to those of the E...
  36. ncbi Interactions between cGMP- and cAMP-pathways are involved in the regulation of penile smooth muscle tone
    Stefan Uckert
    Hanover Medical School, Department of Urology, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    World J Urol 22:261-6. 2004
    ..or the cAMP-pathway, as well as inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA; cAMP-dependent kinase) and protein kinase G (PKG; cGMP-dependent kinase), the present study was undertaken to further delineate the functional relation between ..
  37. pmc Complex interactions of NO/cGMP/PKG systems on Ca2+ signaling in afferent arteriolar vascular smooth muscle
    Susan K Fellner
    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7545, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298:H144-51. 2010
    Little is known about the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and the cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) system on Ca(2+) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of resistance vessels in general and afferent arterioles in ..
  38. ncbi Endogenous nitric oxide generation linked to ryanodine receptors activates cyclic GMP / protein kinase G pathway for cell proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from embryonic hippocampus
    Masanori Yoneyama
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Hirakata, Osaka 573 0101, Japan
    J Pharmacol Sci 115:182-95. 2011
    Nitric oxide (NO) activates the cyclic GMP (cGMP) / protein kinase G (PKG) pathway during physiological processes in numerous types of cells...
  39. pmc Stabilization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: contribution of 3'UTR of its mRNA
    Hassan Sellak
    University of South Alabama, College of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    J Biochem 149:433-41. 2011
    The type-I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-I) expression regulation is not yet completely understood...
  40. pmc Impaired relaxation of stomach smooth muscle in mice lacking cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I
    L Ny
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    Br J Pharmacol 129:395-401. 2000
    1. Guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-dependent kinase I (cGKI) is a major receptor for cyclic GMP in a variety of cells. Mice lacking cGKI exhibit multiple phenotypes, including severe defects in smooth muscle function...
  41. ncbi Protein kinase G-induced activation of K(ATP) channels reduces contractility of human prostate tissue
    John M Haynes
    The Prostate Research Co Operative, Victorian College of Pharmacy, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
    Prostate 66:377-85. 2006
    Human cultured prostatic stromal cells respond to protein kinase G (PKG) activators and the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) by opening ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) to reduce nifedipine-sensitive ..
  42. pmc Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, tadalafil, protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion through protein-kinase g-dependent generation of hydrogen sulfide
    Fadi N Salloum
    Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 23298, USA
    Circulation 120:S31-6. 2009
    Tadalafil is a novel long-acting inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5. Because cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling plays a key role in cardioprotection, we hypothesized that PKG activation with tadalafil would limit myocardial ..
  43. doi Beta-adrenergic receptors link NO/sGC/PKG signaling to BDNF expression during the consolidation of object recognition long-term memory
    Cristiane R Furini
    Centro de Memoria, Instituto do Cérebro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul and Instituto Nacional de Neurociência Translacional, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
    Hippocampus 20:672-83. 2010
    The nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway is important for memory processing, but the identity of its downstream effectors as well as its actual participation in the consolidation of nonaversive ..
  44. ncbi The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase works as an arsenate reductase in human red blood cells and rat liver cytosol
    Zoltan Gregus
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Toxicology Section, University of Pecs, Medical School, Pecs, Hungary
    Toxicol Sci 85:859-69. 2005
    ..Although GAPDH is exclusively responsible for reduction of AsV in human erythrocytes, its role in AsV reduction in vivo remains to be determined...
  45. pmc Role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in the contractile response to exogenous nitric oxide in rat cardiac myocytes
    Joanne Layland
    Department of Cardiology, GKT School of Medicine, King s College London Denmark Hill Campus, Bessemer Road, London SE5 9PJ, UK
    J Physiol 540:457-67. 2002
    ..Here we investigate the role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in the contractile response to exogenous NO in rat ventricular myocytes...
  46. ncbi Activation of the small GTPase Rac1 by cGMP-dependent protein kinase
    Yali Hou
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CB2510, Augusta, GA 30912 2100, USA
    Cell Signal 16:1061-9. 2004
    Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is widely appreciated as having diverse roles in a variety of cell types...
  47. pmc Protein kinase G regulates the basal tension and plays a major role in nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation of porcine coronary veins
    H Qi
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
    Br J Pharmacol 152:1060-9. 2007
    ..The present study was to determine the role of protein kinase G (PKG) in the regulation of the basal tension and nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation of coronary veins.
  48. pmc KMUP-1 attenuates isoprenaline-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats through NO/cGMP/PKG and ERK1/2/calcineurin A pathways
    Jwu Lai Yeh
    Department and Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan
    Br J Pharmacol 159:1151-60. 2010
    ..To determine whether KMUP-1, a novel xanthine-based derivative, attenuates isoprenaline (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats, and if so, whether the anti-hypertrophic effect is mediated by the nitric oxide (NO) pathway...
  49. pmc Phosphorylation of TRPC6 channels at Thr69 is required for anti-hypertrophic effects of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition
    Motohiro Nishida
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8582, Japan
    J Biol Chem 285:13244-53. 2010
    ..Although activation of protein kinase G (PKG) inhibits TRPC6 channel activity and cardiac hypertrophy, respectively, it is unclear whether PKG suppresses ..
  50. doi Protein kinase G type Ialpha activity in human ovarian cancer cells significantly contributes to enhanced Src activation and DNA synthesis/cell proliferation
    Elaine L Leung
    Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada
    Mol Cancer Res 8:578-91. 2010
    Previously, we showed that basal activity of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway protects against spontaneous apoptosis and confers resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human ovarian ..
  51. ncbi cAMP-dependent vasodilators cross-activate the cGMP-dependent protein kinase to stimulate BK(Ca) channel activity in coronary artery smooth muscle cells
    R E White
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912 2300, USA
    Circ Res 86:897-905. 2000
    ..myocytes from coronary arteries by "cross-activation" of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G, PKG)...
  52. ncbi Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase activation and induction by exisulind and CP461 in colon tumor cells
    L Liu
    Cell Pathways, Inc, Horsham, Pennsylvania 19044, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:583-92. 2001
    These studies report on the activation and induction of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) by exisulind and analogs and test the hypothesis that PKG is involved in the induction of apoptosis in colon tumor cells...
  53. ncbi Dual effects of spinally delivered 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (8-bromo-cGMP) in formalin-induced nociception in rats
    Irmgard Tegeder
    Pharmazentrum Frankfurt, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 332:146-50. 2002
    ..mono-phosphate (cGMP) analog, 8-bromo-cGMP on nociception and cGMP dependent protein kinase I (protein kinase G; PKG-I) expression in lumbar spinal cord. Intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of low doses of 8-bromo-cGMP (0.1-0...
  54. pmc Increased effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on contractility and calcium regulation in murine hearts overexpressing cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I
    Kai C Wollert
    Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Br J Pharmacol 140:1227-36. 2003
    ..regulation in wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKG ITG). 2...
  55. ncbi Modulation of Ca2+ sensitivity by cyclic nucleotides in smooth muscle from protein kinase G-deficient mice
    Johan Bonnevier
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Martinsried, Munich 82152, Germany
    J Biol Chem 279:5146-51. 2004
    ..We have explored cGMP- and cAMP-dependent relaxation of smooth muscle using PKG-deficient mice (cGKI-/-)...
  56. ncbi Phasic cardiovascular responses to mevinphos are mediated through differential activation of cGMP/PKG cascade and peroxynitrite via nitric oxide generated in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla by NOS I and II isoforms
    J Y H Chan
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Neuropharmacology 48:161-72. 2005
    ..the contribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) cascade and peroxynitrite in this process...
  57. ncbi Nicorandil opens mitochondrial K(ATP) channels not only directly but also through a NO-PKG-dependent pathway
    Atsushi Kuno
    Dept of Physiology, MSB 3070, College of Medicine University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 102:73-9. 2007
    ..We recently found that nitric oxide (NO) opened K(ATP) channels in rabbit hearts by a protein kinase G (PKG) mechanism...
  58. ncbi Association of CD38 with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA and Lck is essential for the internalization and activation of CD38
    So Young Rah
    Department of Biochemistry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 561 182, Republic of Korea
    J Biol Chem 282:5653-60. 2007
    ..Activation of CD38 in lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells involves interleukin-8 (IL8)-mediated protein kinase G (PKG) activation and results in an increase in the sustained intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), cADP-..
  59. ncbi Resistance to the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate/protein kinase G pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells from the obese Zucker rat, a classical animal model of insulin resistance: role of oxidative stress
    I Russo
    Diabetes Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 10043 Orbassano TO, Italy
    Endocrinology 149:1480-9. 2008
    ..biochemical basis of this phenomenon, we aimed to identify defects of the NO/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from OZR and lean Zucker rats (LZR) by measuring: 1) NO ..
  60. doi The ANP-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway induces a phagocytic phenotype but decreases inflammatory gene expression in microglial cells
    Mariela Susana Borán
    Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    Glia 56:394-411. 2008
    ..We have recently demonstrated that stimulation of the cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway by NO or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates cytoskeleton dynamics and motility in rat astrocytes ..
  61. ncbi The mechanism by which the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opening and H2O2 inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition
    Alexandre D T Costa
    Department of Biology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97201 0751, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:20801-8. 2006
    ..that includes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, guanylyl cyclase, protein kinase G (PKG), and the mitochondrial K(ATP) channel (mitoK(ATP))...
  62. ncbi Phosphorylation of threonine residue 276 is required for acute regulation of serotonin transporter by cyclic GMP
    Sammanda Ramamoorthy
    Department of Neurosciences, Division of Neuroscience Research, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425
    J Biol Chem 282:11639-47. 2007
    ..The molecular mechanisms of protein kinase G (PKG)-mediated SERT regulation and the site of transporter phosphorylation were investigated...
  63. ncbi Immunohistochemical distribution of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 in human prostate tissue
    Eginhard S Waldkirch
    Hannover Medical School, Department of Urology, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Eur Urol 52:495-501. 2007
    ..Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase-1 (cGKI) has been identified as one of the downstream targets for cGMP...
  64. doi Activation of MEK1/ERK1/2/iNOS/sGC/PKG pathway associated with peroxynitrite formation contributes to hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity in endotoxemic rats
    Belma Korkmaz
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey
    Nitric Oxide 24:160-72. 2011
    ..1 (MEK1)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/iNOS/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway associated with peroxynitrite production would contribute to endotoxin-induced decrease in mean blood ..
  65. ncbi cGMP catabolism by phosphodiesterase 5A regulates cardiac adrenergic stimulation by NOS3-dependent mechanism
    Eiki Takimoto
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Circ Res 96:100-9. 2005
    ..blunt this response by coactivating NO synthase (NOS3) to enhance cGMP synthesis and activate protein kinase G (PKG-1). cGMP is also catabolically regulated by phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A)...
  66. ncbi An operon encoding three glycolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase
    P Branny
    Laboratoire d Enzymologie et de Biochimie Structurales du CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Microbiology 144:905-14. 1998
    ....
  67. ncbi Age-related decrease of protein kinase G activation in vascular smooth muscle cells
    C S Lin
    Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1695, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:244-8. 2001
    Protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation is essential for vascular relaxation; however, its quantitative analysis in intact cells has been difficult...
  68. ncbi Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP activate protein kinase G in cavernosal smooth muscle cells: old age is a negative factor
    C S Lin
    Knuppe Molecular Urology Laboratory, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 1695, USA
    BJU Int 89:576-82. 2002
    To investigate protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) expression and activation in cavernosal smooth muscle cells (CSMC) of young and old rats.
  69. ncbi KCl cotransport regulation and protein kinase G in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells
    N C Adragna
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Wright State University, School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, 45435 0002, USA
    J Membr Biol 187:157-65. 2002
    ..Nitrovasodilators relax smooth muscle via cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G (PKG), a regulator of membrane channels and transporters...
  70. ncbi Progesterone regulates granulosa cell viability through a protein kinase G-dependent mechanism that may involve 14-3-3sigma
    J J Peluso
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, 06030, USA
    Biol Reprod 71:1870-8. 2004
    ..In culture, 8-br-cGMP mimicked P4's antiapoptotic actions. Because cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), the effect of PKG antagonists on P4-regulated SIGC viability was assessed...
  71. ncbi Protein kinase G inhibits basal and stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in neonatal ovine lung microvascular endothelial cells
    T A John
    Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
    Afr J Med Med Sci 39:89-98. 2010
    Protein kinase G (PKG) is abundant in neonatal ovine lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVECs) but its various functions are not known...
  72. pmc Activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway reduces phasic contractions in neonatal rat bladder strips via protein kinase G
    DEBRA E ARTIM
    Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 297:F333-40. 2009
    ..in the lower urinary tract, stimulates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and in turn cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) to modulate a number of downstream targets...
  73. doi Inhibition of protein kinase G activity protects neonatal mouse respiratory network from hyperthermic and hypoxic stress
    Gary A B Armstrong
    Department of Biology, Queen s University, Biosciences Complex, Kingston ON, Canada
    Brain Res 1311:64-72. 2010
    ..Previous research has implicated protein kinase G (PKG) activity in regulating neuronal thermosensitivity of neuronal circuits in invertebrates...
  74. pmc Protein kinase G-dependent mechanisms modulate hypoglossal motoneuronal excitability and long-term facilitation
    Shane A Saywell
    Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, Box 951763, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1763, USA
    J Physiol 588:4431-9. 2010
    ..to adaptive changes in breathing, we hypothesized that cGMP-dependent pathways activating protein kinase G (PKG) modulate motoneuronal inspiratory drive currents and long-term plasticity...
  75. ncbi Protein kinase G phosphorylates Cav1.2 alpha1c and beta2 subunits
    Lin Yang
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Circ Res 101:465-74. 2007
    ..2 current through the actions of cAMP and cGMP. Cardiac cGMP, which activates protein kinase G (PKG), is regulated by nitric oxide (NO), and natriuretic peptides...
  76. pmc Glucose downregulation of PKG-I protein mediates increased thrombospondin1-dependent TGF-{beta} activity in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Shuxia Wang
    Univ of Kentucky, Lexington, 40536, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298:C1188-97. 2010
    ..In mesangial cells, high glucose concentrations depress protein kinase G (PKG) activity, but not PKG-I protein, thereby downregulating transcriptional repression of TSP1...
  77. ncbi Polymorphisms in the coding and noncoding regions of murine Pgk-1 alleles
    P H Boer
    Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada
    Biochem Genet 28:299-308. 1990
    ..A number of other DNA sequence polymorphisms exist between Pgk-1b and Pgk-1a including part of an L1 repeated element unique to Pgk-1a...
  78. ncbi Genomic sequencing and methylation analysis by ligation mediated PCR
    G P Pfeifer
    Molecular Biology Section, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010
    Science 246:810-3. 1989
    ....
  79. ncbi Characterization of cDNAs coding for glucose phosphate isomerase and phosphoglycerate kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO-K1 and identification of defects in R1.1.7, a glycolysis-deficient variant of CHO-K1
    A F Hassan-Walker
    Wellcome Laboratory For Molecular Genetics, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDS, London, UK
    Somat Cell Mol Genet 21:75-81. 1995
    ..Mutations in both genes have been identified in a glycolysis-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line, R1.1.7, derived from CHO-K1 cells...
  80. ncbi Isolation of a partial candidate gene for Menkes disease by positional cloning
    J F Mercer
    Department of Pediatrics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan
    Nat Genet 3:20-5. 1993
    ..Partial sequence of the cDNA shows a unique open reading frame containing putative metal binding motifs which have been found in heavy metal resistance genes in bacteria. This gene is a strong candidate for the Menkes disease gene...
  81. ncbi Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain
    M D Uhler
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 0197
    J Biol Chem 268:13586-91. 1993
    ..The first class (CGKI) of amplification products contained approximately 1...
  82. ncbi Estrogen receptor gene disruption: molecular characterization and experimental and clinical phenotypes
    K S Korach
    Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Recent Prog Horm Res 51:159-86; discussion 186-8. 1996
    ..Mutation in the ER gene is present in the human population. Further characterization of the mice and identification of additional patients will be required to more fully understand the consequences of ER gene mutations...
  83. ncbi Ialpha exon-replacement mice synthesize a spliced HPRT-C(alpha) transcript which may explain their ability to switch to IgA. Inhibition of switching to IgG in these mice
    G Qiu
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655 0122, USA
    Int Immunol 11:37-46. 1999
    ..We discuss the possibility that the strong PGK promoter inserted at the Ig alpha locus may interfere with interaction of the promoters for gamma GL transcripts with the 3' IgH enhancer...
  84. ncbi Analysis of expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase in rabbit heart cells
    R Kumar
    Todd Franklin Cardiac Research Laboratory, Children s Heart Center, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291:967-75. 1999
    We previously showed that stimulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) stimulates L-type calcium current in newborn but not in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes...
  85. ncbi Nitric oxide modulates intracellular translocation of pigment organelles in Xenopus laevis melanophores
    H M Nilsson
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Health and Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden
    Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 47:209-18. 2000
    ..guanylate cyclase (sGC), which leads to increased production of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent kinases (PKG)...
  86. ncbi Regulation of TNF-alpha-induced eotaxin release from cultured human airway smooth muscle cells by beta2-agonists and corticosteroids
    L Pang
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    FASEB J 15:261-269. 2001
    ..was likely at the transcription stage, although experiments with the PKA inhibitors H-89 and Rp-cAMP or the PKG inhibitor KT5823 suggested that none of these kinases was involved...
  87. ncbi Protein kinase G activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channel in cultured human proximal tubule cells
    Kazuyoshi Nakamura
    Department of Physiology II, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka 020 8505, Japan
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 283:F784-91. 2002
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of PKG on this K(+) channel, using the patch-clamp technique...
  88. ncbi Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation provides a biomarker for the action of exisulind and related agents that activate protein kinase G
    Atsuko Deguchi
    Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 1:803-9. 2002
    ..This causes an increase in intracellular levels of cGMP, thus activating the cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG), which then activates pathways that lead to apoptosis...
  89. ncbi Ultrastructural localization of phosphoglycerate kinase in adult Clonorchis sinensis
    Sung Jong Hong
    Department of Parasitology, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Tongjak gu, 156 756, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Parasitol Res 90:369-71. 2003
    ..We suggest that PGK plays an essential role in C. sinensis energy production for movement via muscle contraction...
  90. ncbi C-type natriuretic peptide decreases soluble guanylate cyclase levels by activating the proteasome pathway
    Sergio de Frutos
    Department of Physiology, Alcala de Henares University, Madrid, Spain
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1643:105-12. 2003
    ..second messenger, cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG)...
  91. ncbi Synergistic activation of the CMV promoter by NF-kappaB P50 and PKG
    Bin He
    Molecular Oncology Research Institute, New England Medical Center, Tufts University Medical School, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 321:13-20. 2004
    Several DNA binding NF-kappaB subunits are substrates for cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG) and their transactivation from cognate sites is induced by phosphorylation...
  92. ncbi Species- and tissue-dependent effects of NO and cyclic GMP on cardiac ion channels
    Rodolphe Fischmeister
    INSERM U 446, Laboratoire de Cardiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris Sud, 5, rue J B Clement, F 92296 Chatenay Malabry Cedex, France
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 142:136-43. 2005
    ..these effects are mediated by cGMP, through the activity of three main proteins: the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), the cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE2) and the cGMP-inhibited PDE (PDE3)...
  93. ncbi Crystal structure of Thermus caldophilus phosphoglycerate kinase in the open conformation
    Jun Hyuck Lee
    Department of Life Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 350:1044-9. 2006
    ..The binding of 3-PG (or maybe 1,3-BPG) disrupts this salt bridge and, in ternary complex, the formation of new salt bridge between Arg60 and Asp197 stabilizes the closed conformation...
  94. ncbi Characterisation of the gap operon from Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sakei
    Kristine Naterstad
    MATFORSK, Norwegian Food Research Institute, Osloveien 1, N 1430 As, Norway
    Curr Microbiol 54:180-5. 2007
    ..This operon structure has not been reported in any other bacterial species so far. Transcriptional analysis revealed three major transcripts, the mono-cistronic gap and eno and the tetra-cistronic gap-pgk-tpi-eno...
  95. ncbi Temperature-dependent modulation of CaV3 T-type calcium channels by protein kinases C and A in mammalian cells
    Jean Chemin
    Departement de Physiologie, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, CNRS UMR 5203, INSERM U661, Universités de Montpellier 1 et 2, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 3, 141 rue de la Cardonille, Montpellier, France
    J Biol Chem 282:32710-8. 2007
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC (but not PKG) activation induces a potent increase in Ca(V)3.1, Ca(V)3.2, and Ca(V)3.3 currents in various mammalian cell lines...
  96. ncbi Synthesis and biological activity of imidazopyridine anticoccidial agents: Part II
    Andrew Scribner
    SCYNEXIS, Inc, Discovery Chemistry, P O Box 12878, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2878, USA
    Eur J Med Chem 43:1123-51. 2008
    ..Antiparasitic activity is due to inhibition of a parasite specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)...
  97. ncbi cGMP signalling in pre- and post-conditioning: the role of mitochondria
    Alexandre D T Costa
    Department of Biology, Portland State University, PO Box 751, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Cardiovasc Res 77:344-52. 2008
    ..of guanylyl cyclase resulting in increased production of cGMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase G (PKG)...
  98. doi Beta3-adrenoceptors modulate left ventricular relaxation in the rat heart via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway
    T Angelone
    Department of Pharmaco Biology, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende CS, Italy
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 193:229-39. 2008
    ..We also focused on the NOS/NO/cGMP/PKG cascade as the signal transduction mechanism.
  99. doi TOR regulation of AGC kinases in yeast and mammals
    Estela Jacinto
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Biochem J 410:19-37. 2008
    ..kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C-family) kinases, which include PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A), PKG (cGMP-dependent kinase) and PKC (protein kinase C)...
  100. doi Possible participation of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-K+ channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception of melatonin
    Alfonso Hernández-Pacheco
    Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D F, Mexico
    Eur J Pharmacol 596:70-6. 2008
    The possible participation of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G (PKG)-K(+) channel pathway on melatonin-induced local antinociception was assessed during the second phase of the formalin test...
  101. pmc Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide relaxes gastric antral circular smooth muscle of guinea-pig through the cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway
    Chun Yu Cai
    Centralab, the first Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical Universty and Zhongshan Affiliated Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian 116011, Liaoning Province, China
    World J Gastroenterol 14:5461-6. 2008
    To systematically investigate if cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway may participate in dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP)-induced relaxation of gastric circular smooth muscle.

Research Grants67

  1. cGMP Phosphodiesterase, a Novel Chemoprevention Target
    Gary Piazza; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..sulfone was reported to inhibit cGMP PDE and elevate intracellular cGMP levels to activate protein kinase G (PKG)...
  2. SIGNALING PATHWAY FOR BENZODIAZEPINE INDUCED BEHAVIORS
    RAYMOND QUOCK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor complex are mediated by a nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway, i.e...
  3. REGULATION OF THE ANP RECEPTOR/GUANYLYL CYCLASE
    Michael Chinkers; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of PP5, a protein-serine phosphatase that is phosphorylated and activated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and the role of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains in subcellular targeting...
  4. Golgi-associated NO-cGMP Signaling Defect in Muscular Dystrophy
    Gail D Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we find that soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which is activated by NO, and cGMP-activated protein kinase G (PKG) are colocalized with nNOS2 on the Golgi...
  5. Peptide Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    Jawaharlal M Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mediated inhibition of PDE5/cGMP hydrolysis is associated with Ca2+ release, activation of PI3K, protein kinase G (PKG)/PKA signaling, phosphorylation of PDE5, and/or inhibition of cGMP binding of PDE5, and (III) determine therapeutic ..
  6. Helmy M Siragy; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..the hypothesis that PRR expression and activity are downregulated via AT2R-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway and through physical interaction (dimerization) between these two receptors. Aim 3...
  7. Nitric Oxide/cGMP Modulation of Corporal Fibrosis Caused by Neuropraxia
    MONICA GABRIELA FERRINI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Aim 2: To determine the mechanism by which NO and/or cGMP preserves the corporal SMC and to ascertain the roles of PKG (protein kinase G) or PKA (protein kinase A) in this process...
  8. Vijay H Shah; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..nitric oxide (NO) inhibits filopodia formation and HSC-driven vascular tube formation through a protein kinase G (PKG)- dependent pathway, and 4) defects in migration signaling in HSC from animal models of portal hypertension are ..
  9. Kathryn N Farrow; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..that preterm birth combined with exposure to hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial ROS disrupts the critical sGC-cGMP-PKG-PDE5 signaling pathway within the lung, leading to abnormal pulmonary vascular growth and RVH as seen in infants ..
  10. ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE AND RECEPTOR GENES IN HYPOXIA
    Yiu Fai Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on delineating the specific molecular/cellular mechanisms by which natriuretic peptide (NP)-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling antagonizes important hypoxia-induced mitogenic/profibrogenic pathways in lung and in peripheral ..
  11. DAVID ALAN KASS; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Recent studies, many from my laboratory, have revealed how inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 5 to stimulate PKG blocks the progression and even reverses established heart disease...
  12. RGS Regulation of Cardiac Signaling and Hypertrophy
    Ulrike Mende; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..3) To determine whether PKG-induced phosphorylation of RGS2 enhances its inhibitory effect on Gq/11 signaling and thereby provides crosstalk ..
  13. REGULATION OF SEROTONIN TRANSPORTERS
    Randy D Blakely; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In Specific Aim I we evaluate the role of protein kinase G (PKG)-linked signaling pathways in modulation of SERT trafficking and SERT protein/protein interactions as downstream ..
  14. Expression of PKG in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
    Thomas M Lincoln; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cyclic GMP activates a serine/threonine protein kinase, PKG-I, in vascular smooth muscle that leads to increases in normal contractile protein gene expression and suppresses ..
  15. Magnesium's Antihypertensive Effects in Preeclampsia
    CYNTHIA STANDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..mediate vascular relaxation and reduction of blood pressure by activating the vascular NO/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway...
  16. GARY W RUDNICK; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..This position is phosphorylated by a cGMP-dependent enzyme, PKG. As part of the long term goal to understand the structure and function of neurotransmitter transporters, this ..
  17. PRESSURE NATRIURESIS MEDIATED BY EXTRACELLULAR cGMP
    Robert Carey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..cGMP), as opposed to intracellular cGMP, and renal proximal tubule (RPT) cell protein kinase G (PKG) in mediating pressure-natriuresis, to determine whether the nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-..
  18. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Pulmonary Vasodilation After Chronic Hypoxia
    Thomas Resta; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Protein kinase G (PKG) is a prominent target of NO signaling that elicits relaxation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) by decreasing the ..
  19. Satiety signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Leon Avery; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in ASI and in downstream neurons to produce satiety. Aim 1...
  20. Renate B Pilz; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We found that FSS activates the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway, and that PKG activation is necessary for shear-induced Src and Erk activation...
  21. Rakesh C Kukreja; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..of AMPK in activating Sirt1 and PGC-1[unreadable];and d) the potential interplay of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1[unreadable] signal transduction network in attenuation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis/necrosis ..
  22. NO-independent cGMP regulation of vascular remodeling
    David A Tulis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..challenge the traditional notion that cGMP exerts vascular protection through cGMP-dependent protein kinase type (cGKI) and suggest that cGMP may operate via cAMP/cAK to promote vascular protection...
  23. Michael S Wolin; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..exposure to chronic hypoxia through the generation of hydrogen peroxide and its stimulation of cGMP protein kinase (PKG)...
  24. NITRIC OXIDE SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN VASCULAR CELLS
    Michael Mendelsohn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) relaxation by the nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway...
  25. Ethanol-mediated cilia motility dysfunction
    Joseph H Sisson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Two of these kinases, PKA and PKG, are well-described molecules that regulate cell functions including lung cilia...
  26. NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS AS ANTICANCER COMPOUNDS
    Yung Chi Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It should yield novel information for understanding the biochemical determinants of the action of L-OddC, the biochemistry of the enzymes studied and possible novel use of L-OddC for the treatment of solid tumor. ..
  27. PPARy and Uterine Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetic Pregnancy
    Natalia I Gokina; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Hyperglycemia-induced superoxide production up-regulates PDE expression resulting in reduction of NO- cGMP-PKG signaling and development of nitric oxide resistance in diabetic pregnancy (Specific Aim 3)...
  28. Joseph H Sisson; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..on the regulation of nitric oxide (NO), cilia-associated cyclases and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases (PKG &PKA)...
  29. FETAL HYPOXEMIA AND ENDOTHELIUM DERIVED NITRIC OXIDE
    Loren P Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Gene/protein expression of the NOS/cGMP/PKG pathway will be quantified and proteins localized using immunofluorescence in normoxic (NMX) and hypoxic (HPX) ..
  30. Mechanisms of cGMP-Mediated Vasodilation in Perinatal Lung
    J Usha Raj; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and newborn, that in pulmonary vascular relaxation induced by cGMP-elevating agents, cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) plays a primary role...
  31. Daniel J Bonthius; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Using in vitro systems, we have found that pharmacological activation of the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway can prevent alcohol-induced neuronal death. Conversely, blockade of this pathway worsens neuronal losses...
  32. Inhibitors of Trypanosomatid Phosphoglycerate Mutase and Phosphoglycerate Kinase
    MALCOLM DOUGLAS WALKINSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Existing treatments have developed little in the past 50 years, and suffer from toxicity, inefficiency and resistance;the goal of this project is to develop lead drugs that will be suitable for entry into pre-clinical trials. ..
  33. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway in platelets
    Xiaoping Du; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It has been a prevailing concept in the past 30 years that cGMP, by activating the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), inhibits platelet activation...
  34. TARGETING CGMP KINASES TO DEVELOP NEW THERAPEUTICS FOR HYPERTENSIVE DISEASES
    CHOEL WOONG KIM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs) and to use the structural information to design activators specific for PKG. As key receptors for cGMP, PKGs mediate most effects of cGMP elevating drugs such as nitric oxide releasing agents ..
  35. MATURATION OF CEREBROVASCULAR RELAXANT MECHANISMS
    William Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the hypothesis that maturation modulates the relative abundance, distribution, and activity of Protein Kinase G (PKG)...
  36. Transgenic Mouse Model to Address Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders
    RANDY DEAN BLAKELY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..mice, and 3) to establish the sensitivity of SERT Ala56 brain preparations on the C57BL/6J background to in vitro PKG/p38 MAPK stimulation and in vivo stimulation of the native immune system...
  37. Molecular Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction and Extinction
    Noboru Hiroi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This R01 application tests the overall hypothesis that cGMP-dependent protein kinase subtype II (PKG-II), in regions along the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, is a determinant of the rate of extinction of nicotine-..
  38. Protein Kinase G Regulation of Granulosa Cell Viability
    John Peluso; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In this grant application, we demonstrate that PKG [protein kinase G] is involved in maintaining granulosa cell viability...
  39. X-CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION IN OPOSSUM DEVELOPMENT
    PAUL SAMOLLOW; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..the 5-BrdU-labeling technique will be used to establish the presence/absence of a late replicating X chromosome in cells of embryonic stages in both species...
  40. Molecular Mechanisms of Portal Hypertension
    Vijay Shah; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..nitric oxide (NO) inhibits filopodia formation and HSC-driven vascular tube formation through a protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent pathway, and 4) defects in migration signaling in HSC from animal models of portal hypertension are ..
  41. CLONALITY IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA AND MYELODYSPLASIA
    Donald Kufe; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Such information could lead to improved prognostic data as well as more effectively timed therapeutic interventions...
  42. PKG-dependent inhibition of the MPT
    Peter Pediaditakis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..with isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with liver cytosol will be employed to assess the involvement of PKG and PKA pathways in regulating onset of the MPT...
  43. Xi Qin Ding; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..We will investigate the role of cGMP- dependent protein kinase (PKG) in cone degeneration...
  44. GENE REGULATION IN SPERMATOGENESIS
    John McCarrey; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Because there is only a single PGK gene in this species, a comparison of this system with the two-gene system in mammals should shed light on both the function and evolution of the mammalian PGK genes...
  45. Jeffrey L Garvin; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..that in THALs flow-stimulated NO reduces flow-induced O2- primarily by activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG);this reduces PKC activity, which in turn prevents flow-induced activation of Nox 4-based NADPH oxidase and ..
  46. Henk L Granzier; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..on posttranslational modifications in titin, including the distint stiffness modulation pathways consisting of PKA/PKG phosphorylation (reduced stiffness) and PKC phosphorylation (increased stiffness), using novel phospho-antibodies ..
  47. The Regulation of CBF by Adenosine
    H Winn; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is ADO receptor-mediated;(4) found that ADO-induced vasodilation probably involves a cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG) and cGMP, and not cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cAMP;(5) determined that ADO receptor manipulations ..
  48. S MURTHY KARNAM; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..and VIP, which induce relaxation of muscle tone through generation of cAMP and/or cGMP and activation of PKA and/or PKG. Our recent studies have shown: (i) that the levels of cAMP and cGMP are regulated via feedback phosphorylation of ..
  49. S MURTHY KARNAM; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The pathways for relaxation via PKA and PKG in longitudinal muscle were also distinct and involved inhibitory phosphorylation of cPLA2 and ADP ribosyl cyclase ..
  50. AGE RELATED CONFORMATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF PROTEIN
    Ari Gafni; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This characterization will be achieved by X-ray crystallography, and by using room temperature phosphorescence to detect conformational changes in real time. ..
  51. Intracelllar Pathways That Silence the Fetal Globin Gene
    Tohru Ikuta; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..showed that an intracellular pathway comprising soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) plays an important role in gamma-globin gene expression in primary erythroblasts...
  52. IMMUNOGENETIC STUDIES OF A SPERM ENZYME PGK-B
    JOHN VANDEBERG; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Finally, we will continue to use the Pgk-2 gene as a marker to map other genes linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mice and to study the organization of genes around the MHC of mice and other mammals...
  53. Cyclic Nucleotides and Fetal Globin Gene Expression
    Tohru Ikuta; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..activating an intracellular pathway comprising soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). This pathway was also found to be essential for the induced expression of the g-globin gene by hemin or butyrate...
  54. Rakesh C Kukreja; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The following new hypotheses will be tested: 1: cGMP dependent protein kinases (PKG) activated by chronic treatment with the long-acting PDE-5 inhibitor, tadalafil plays an essential role in ..
  55. Lisa M Satlin; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..expression is regulated by dietary K intake and fluid shear stress (FSS), and then examine the roles of (B) NO/cGMP/PKG, (C) MAPK, (D) palmitoylation and (E) FSS induced phosphorylation in the regulation of BK channels in the CCD...
  56. Janelle Rowell; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Our lab has reported on one regulatory mechanism of by which PKG phosphorylation inhibits TRPC6 activity...
  57. Histamine Receptor Norepinephrine in Cardiac Dysfunction
    Roberto Levi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will assess whether the catecholamine-releasing effects of natriuretic peptides derive from a cGMP/PKG-mediated prevention of cAMP hydrolysis by PDE3 and whether H3-receptor activation limits these proadrenergic ..
  58. MALCOLM JAMES LOW; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ....
  59. NOELLE D L 'ETOILE; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The key "switch" that turns on olfactory adaptation is the entry of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), EGL-4, into the nucleus of the odor-stimulated sensory olfactory neuron AWC (Lee et al., submitted)...
  60. Genetic Determinants of Hypertensive Heart Disease in CRI
    Daniel L Dries; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The candidate genes of interest are: corin, furin, ANP, BNP, CNP, NPR-A, NPR-B, NPR-C, PKG-I, and NEP...
  61. PDE5A Inhibition Stimulates Stem Cell Survival &Differentiation
    Muhammad Ashraf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..designed to study that inhibition of PDE5A promotes stem cell proliferation, engraftment and differentiation via NO-PKG signaling pathway...
  62. Induction of uterine vascular remodeling by myometrial stretch
    George J Osol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..used to define the structural and functional parameters of the remodeling process, and to determine whether NO-cGMP-PKG signaling contributes its progression by using in vivo NO inhibition, and molecular (eNOS, PKG) and reactivity ..
  63. Exploring Vasomotor Mechanisms using New PKG Inhibitors and cGMP Biosensors
    Wolfgang R Dostmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Understanding of intracellular cGMP signaling dynamics, subsequent activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and its relationship to Ca2+ signals has lagged...
  64. Mark T Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..A second potential common denominator is the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway, which regulates BK channel function directly as well as indirectly through calcium signaling elements that ..
  65. Role of calcium sensitization in diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction
    MICHAEL EDWARD DISANTO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is a simultaneous downregulation of molecules that promote the "calcium desensitization" of smooth muscle (namely PKG-1 and telokin), 2) To determine a) whether similar alterations in the expression/activity of "calcium sensitization/..
  66. Generate and Characterize Knock-In Mice Harboring DRD2 Ser311Cys Polymorphism
    Ya Ping Tang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results from these studies are able to provide a valuable mouse model as well as evidence on whether or how this polymorphism is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ..
  67. Molecular Control of cGMP Signaling by PKGs and PDEs
    Jackie Corbin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The known intracellular receptors that are believed to mediate cGMP effects are cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-gated ion channel proteins, cGMP-binding PDEs (PDE2, PDE5, PDE6, PDE 10, PDE11), and cAMP-dependent protein ..