Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PHI 1
Description: protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 14B
Alias: PHI-1, PLCB3N, PNG, SOM172, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14B, phospholipase C beta-3 neighboring gene protein, phospholipase C-beta-3 neighbouring gene protein
Publications191 found, 100 shown here
- Effect of naltrexone treatment on insulin secretion, insulin action and postprandial thermogenesis in obesityR Vettor
Istituto di Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, , Italy
Horm Metab Res 26:188-94. 1994..measured blood glucose, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations and evaluated the following parameters: first (phi 1) and second (phi 2) phase of beta-cell sensitivity, insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness...
- Comparison of the insulinotropic activity of glucagon-superfamily peptides in rat pancreas perfusionS Suzuki
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Horm Metab Res 24:458-61. 1992....
- A curious coincidence: mosquito biodiversity and the limits of the Japanese encephalitis virus in AustralasiaStephane Hemmerter
Institute for the Biotechnology of Infectious Diseases, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
BMC Evol Biol 7:100. 2007..is also responsible for the establishment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in southern Papua New Guinea (PNG) as well as its incursions into northern Australia...
- Failure of chloroquine prophylaxis for falciparum malaria in pregnant women in Madang, Papua New GuineaB J Brabin
Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Papua New Guinea
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 84:1-9. 1990..living under conditions of year-round transmission of malaria in a rural coastal area of Madang, Papua New Guinea (PNG), were followed while attending mobile antenatal clinics and receiving chloroquine prophylaxis (300 mg base weekly)...
- Nutrition, infection and child growth in Papua New GuineaS J Ulijaszek
Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Coll Antropol 24:423-9. 2000Growth patterns of populations in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have traditionally shown considerable variation, with the greatest difference lying between coastal and highland populations...
- Mortality in a rural area of Madang Province, Papua New GuineaJ S Moir
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83:305-19. 1989..programme undertaken by the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research near the town of Madang, northern PNG, a three-year study of mortality was conducted in a rural population of approximately 16,500 people...
- A mark-recapture experiment with the filariasis vector Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New GuineaJ D Charlwood
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 81:429-36. 1987A capture-recapture experiment with the filariasis vector Anopheles punctulatus from Papua New Guinea (PNG) is described...
- Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi in sago starch from Papua New GuineaA R Greenhill
Environmental and Public Health Microbiology Research Group, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
Lett Appl Microbiol 47:342-7. 2008To assay sago starch from Papua New Guinea (PNG) for important mycotoxins and to test fungal isolates from sago for mycotoxin production in culture.
- Village distance from urban centre as the prime modernization variable in differences in blood pressure and body mass index of adults of the Purari delta of the Gulf Province, Papua New GuineaStanley J Ulijaszek
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, UK
Ann Hum Biol 32:326-38. 2005..geographical proximity of villages to an urban centre and other modernization variables are associated with variation in blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) of adults of the Purari delta of the Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- The ameliorating effects of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine-induced amnesia in ratsM T Hsieh
Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Medical College, Taiwan, R O C
Phytother Res 14:375-7. 2000..of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs administered orally for 1 week-Panax ginseng (PG), Panax notoginseng (PNG), Dioscorea opposita (DO), Gastrodia elata (GE), Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Acorus gramineus (AG), Coptis chinensis (..
- Surgical capability and surgical pathology in Papua New Guinea in the year 2000D A Watters
Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Melbourne, Geelong Hospital, Victoria, Australia
ANZ J Surg 71:274-80. 2001Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a country of 4.5 million people with an annual health budget of only 96 million Kina (1K = US$0.35). There are 19 hospitals in the country and national surgeons are now staffing most of these hospitals...
- The effect of bacteria on the sensitivity of microalgae to copper in laboratory bioassaysJacqueline L Levy
Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Mailbag 7, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234, Australia
Chemosphere 74:1266-74. 2009..closterium, P. subcapitata or for Chlorella sp. (PNG isolate). At pH 5.7, the axenic Chlorella sp...
- Glycophorin C (Gerbich antigen blood group) and band 3 polymorphisms in two malaria holoendemic regions of Papua New GuineaSheral S Patel
Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
Am J Hematol 75:1-5. 2004..In Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Gerbich-negative phenotype is caused by an exon 3 deletion in the glycophorin C gene (GYPCDeltaex3) while ..
- Are insecticide-treated bednets more protective against Plasmodium falciparum than Plasmodium vivax-infected mosquitoes?Moses J Bockarie
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, PO Box 378, Madang, Papua New Guinea
Malar J 5:15. 2006..falciparum or P. vivax. This paper describes the biting cycle of P. falciparum and P. vivax-infected mosquitoes and the impact of an ITN intervention on the proportion of mosquitoes infected with either parasite species...
- The use of isoenzyme electrophoresis in the taxonomy of StrongyloidesM E Viney
Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 84:35-47. 1990..traditional taxonomic methods combined with the discovery of a Strongyloides parasitic in man in Papua New Guinea (PNG) that resembles S...
- User charges and utilisation of obstetric services in the National Capital District, Papua New GuineaA L Benjamin
NCD Health Services, National Capital District, Papua New Guinea
Pac Health Dialog 8:38-43. 2001..However, the scope of this study cannot be used to generalise the trend in PNG because the scenerio in the rural areas will vary from urban.
- Molecular markers of in vivo Plasmodium vivax resistance to amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine: mutations in pvdhfr and pvmdr1Jutta Marfurt
Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
J Infect Dis 198:409-17. 2008..However, data on the molecular correlates involved in the development of resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and their association with the in vivo treatment response are scarce...
- The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New GuineaJutta Marfurt
Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P, O, Box, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
Malar J 7:61. 2008In Papua New Guinea (PNG), combination therapy with amodiaquine (AQ) or chloroquine (CQ) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was introduced as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in 2000.
- In vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional and novel antimalarial drugs in Papua New GuineaRina P M Wong
Fremantle Unit, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia
Trop Med Int Health 15:342-9. 2010Recent clinical studies have shown high rates of malaria treatment failure in endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG), necessitating a change of treatment from chloroquine (CQ) or amodiaquine (AQ) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to the ..
- Population hemoglobin mean and anemia prevalence in Papua New Guinea: new metrics for defining malaria endemicity?Nicolas Senn
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea
PLoS ONE 5:e9375. 2010....
- Enzymatic hydrolysis of pyridoxine-5'-beta-D-glucoside is catalyzed by intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolaseAmy D Mackey
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
J Biol Chem 277:26858-64. 2002An obligatory step in the mammalian nutritional utilization of pyridoxine-5'-beta-D-glucoside (PNG) is the intestinal hydrolysis of its beta-glucosidic bond that releases pyridoxine (PN)...
- A high incidence of polymorphic CYP2C19 variants in archival blood samples from Papua New GuineaHuai Ling Hsu
Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Hum Genomics 3:17-23. 2008..The colonisation of the Pacific Islands is believed to have involved migration through Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hence a high incidence may also be expected in this population...
- Scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), spotted fever (Rickettsia australis) and dengue fever as possible causes of mysterious deaths in the Strickland Gorge area of Southern Highlands and West Sepik Provinces of Papua New GuineaP E Spicer
HMAS Cairns Naval Base, Australia
P N G Med J 50:172-83. 2007..a mysterious haemorrhagic disease and deaths in the remote picturesque Strickland River area of Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
- Beyond risk factors to lived experiences: young women's experiences of health in Papua New GuineaRachael L Hinton
Centre for International Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Rural Remote Health 9:1257. 2009The health of young women in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often examined using individual-based risk factors which are decontextualized from the social and cultural relationships within which women's lives are embedded...
- The relationship between undernutrition and humoral immune status in children with pneumonia in Papua New GuineaAllan W Cripps
School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
P N G Med J 51:120-30. 2008..is a significant risk factor for childhood infectious diseases in developing countries, including Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
- AIDS in Papua New Guinea: situation in the PacificJohn C Caldwell
Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT
J Health Popul Nutr 20:104-11. 2002..to anticipate a major heterosexual epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and probably in the rest of Melanesia...
- Biological activity evaluation of the oils from Laurus nobilis of Tunisia and Algeria extracted by supercritical carbon dioxideHanen Marzouki
Departement de Biologie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Botanique et de Biologie Végétal, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia
Nat Prod Res 23:230-7. 2009..0 MPa, one further extraction at 323.15 K and 24.0 MPa was performed to obtain a mixture of compounds with higher molecular weight. Finally, the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the various extracts has been assayed...
- A rapid situation assessment of drug use in Papua New GuineaDavid McDonald
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
Drug Alcohol Rev 24:79-82. 2005Papua New Guinea (PNG) is an Asia Pacific country that we hear little about in the drug and alcohol area...
- The first year of a formal emergency medicine training programme in Papua New GuineaChris Curry
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea and the Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
Emerg Med Australas 16:343-7. 2004To describe a programme catalyzing the development of emergency medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- Fungal colonization of sago starch in Papua New GuineaA R Greenhill
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
Int J Food Microbiol 119:284-90. 2007..including Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from sago starch, and as such storage factors that influence the growth of these and other filamentous fungi might contribute to the safety of traditional sago starch in PNG.
- Vitamin B-6 status indicators decrease in women consuming a diet high in pyridoxine glucosideC M Hansen
Department of Nutrition and Food Management, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331, USA
J Nutr 126:2512-8. 1996Previous research has shown that the pyridoxine glucoside (PNG) form of vitamin B-6 has a reduced bioavailability compared with pyridoxine, but its effect on vitamin B-6 status has not been assessed...
- Socio-economic factors associated with physique of adults of the Purari delta of the Gulf Province, Papua New GuineaS J Ulijaszek
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, UK
Ann Hum Biol 30:316-28. 2003..relationships between components of the modernization process, including experience of urban life, urban connectedness, education, and the nature and diversity of income sources on adult body size in a Papua New Guinea (PNG) population.
- Microsatellite polymorphism within pfcrt provides evidence of continuing evolution of chloroquine-resistant alleles in Papua New GuineaJeana T DaRe
Case Western Reserve University, Wolstein Research Building, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Malar J 6:34. 2007..Previous studies have shown that microsatellite (MS) haplotype variation can be used to study the evolution of CQR polymorphism and to characterize intra- and inter-population dispersal of CQR in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- Evidence of primary transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Western Province of Papua New GuineaChristopher M Gilpin
Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory, Pathology Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Med J Aust 188:148-52. 2008To review patient outcomes and the molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains isolated from patients living in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) seeking treatment in Australia.
- Effect of distal subtotal gastrectomy with preservation of the celiac branch of the vagus nerve to gastrointestinal function: an experimental study in conscious dogsHiroyuki Ando
Department of General Surgical Science and the 21st Century COE Program, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine 3 39 22, Japan
Ann Surg 247:976-86. 2008..To evaluate the effects of distal subtotal gastrectomy with preservation of the celiac branch of the vagus nerve on gastrointestinal function...
- Estimating rainforest biomass stocks and carbon loss from deforestation and degradation in Papua New Guinea 1972-2002: Best estimates, uncertainties and research needsJane Bryan
School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 78, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
J Environ Manage 91:995-1001. 2010..In Papua New Guinea (PNG), which has one of the world's largest remaining areas of tropical forest, we used the best available data to ..
- Molecular analysis of measles virus genome derived from SSPE and acute measles patients in Papua, New GuineaKenji Miki
Department of Neurology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
J Med Virol 68:105-12. 2002..below the age of 20 years for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has been reported from Papua New Guinea (PNG). In a more recent study, we have confirmed this unusual high incidence for Eastern Highlands Province (EHP) of PNG...
- Benefits of routine immunizations on childhood survival in Tari, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New GuineaDeborah Lehmann
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka and Tari, Papua New Guinea
Int J Epidemiol 34:138-48. 2005..This study aimed to determine the effects of diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell-pertussis (DTP), BCG, hepatitis B, and measles vaccines on mortality in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- Analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Papua New GuineaTakashi Ichiyama
Department of Pediatrics, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1 1 1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755 8505, Japan
Cytokine 33:17-20. 2006..Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive inflammatory disease characterized by the persistent infection of the brain by the measles virus. However, the immunological pathophysiology of SSPE is still unclear...
- Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase: NMR characterization of the short hydrogen bond from His187 to uracil O2A C Drohat
Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 9600 Gudelsky Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
Biochemistry 39:11865-75. 2000..The role of this H bond in catalysis by UDG and several approaches to quantify the H bond energy are discussed...
- Burkitt lymphoma in Papua New Guinea--40 years onEvelyn Lavu
Division of Pathology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea, Boroko, Papua New Guinea
Ann Trop Paediatr 25:191-7. 2005..Burkitt lymphoma is common in tropical Africa and Papua New Guinea, where it has been reported to account for 16% of all childhood malignancies...
- Alpha+ -thalassaemia and pregnancy in a malaria endemic region of Papua New GuineaA O'DONNELL
Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, UK
Br J Haematol 135:235-41. 2006..effect of maternal alpha+ -thalassaemia on pregnancy was assessed in the north coastal region of Papua New Guinea (PNG), where malaria is hyperendemic and alpha+ -thalassaemia is extremely common...
- Emerging zoonotic encephalitis viruses: lessons from Southeast Asia and OceaniaJohn S Mackenzie
Australian Biosecurity CRC, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
J Neurovirol 11:434-40. 2005..virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has spread through the Indonesian archipelago to Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to the islands of the Torres Strait of northern Australia, to Pakistan, and to new areas in the Indian ..
- Spontaneous fermentation of traditional sago starch in Papua New GuineaA R Greenhill
Environmental and Public Health Microbiology Research Group, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
Food Microbiol 26:136-41. 2009Sago starch is an important dietary carbohydrate in lowland Papua New Guinea (PNG). An investigation was conducted to determine whether microbes play a role in its preservation using traditional methods...
- Molecular evolution of fern squalene cyclasesJunichi Shinozaki
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
Chembiochem 11:426-33. 2010..niponica was carried out. Two SCs (PNT and PNG) were obtained...
- Glycophorin C delta(exon3) is not associated with protection against severe anaemia in Papua New GuineaL Tavul
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang and Goroka, Papua New Guinea
P N G Med J 51:149-54. 2008..falciparum lines. The GYPCC delta(exon3) allele reaches high frequencies in two areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG) where malaria is highly endemic...
- Png-1, a nervous system-specific zinc finger gene, identifies regions containing postmitotic neurons during mammalian embryonic developmentJ A Weiner
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0636, USA
J Comp Neurol 381:130-42. 1997..of the zinc finger gene family, containing 6 C2HC fingers, was isolated and named postmitotic neural gene-1, or png-1...
- Increased N-glycosylation and reduced transferrin-binding capacity of transferrin receptor isolated from placentae of diabetic womenM K Georgieff
Division of Neonatology, Department of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, USA
Placenta 18:563-8. 1997..81, P < 0.001). The molecular weight of the monomeric form of TfR prior to treatment with glycopeptidase F (PNG-F) was greater in the diabetic group (P < 0.001) was directly related to the Kd (r = 0.77, P = 0.002)...
- Simple model for the DNA denaturation transitionM S Causo
John von Neumann Institut für Computing NIC, Forschungszentrum Julich, D 52425 Julich, Germany
Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics 62:3958-73. 2000..Numerical and exact analytic results show that the transition is second order in modified models where the self-avoidance is partially or completely neglected...
- The medium-to-long-term outcome of Papua New Guinean children after cardiac surgeryNakapi Tefuarani
Clinical Sciences Division, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea, Boroko, PNG
Ann Trop Paediatr 24:65-74. 2004This study reports the medium-to-long-term outcome in Papua New Guinean (PNG) children selected to undergo cardiac surgery at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in Sydney, Australia between 1978 and 1994...
- Effects of nerve graft on nitric oxide synthase, NAD(P)H oxidase, and antioxidant enzymes in chronic spinal cord injuryYu Shang Lee
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 4066, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 36:330-9. 2004..Recently, we demonstrated that peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) with acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) partially restore hind limb locomotion in adult rats with completely ..
- Motor recovery and anatomical evidence of axonal regrowth in spinal cord-repaired adult ratsYu Shang Lee
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63:233-45. 2004..at T8 (n = 20); and 3) experimental treatment group, spinal cord transection at T8, with peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) and application of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) (n = 14)...
- Antigenic drift in the ligand domain of Plasmodium vivax duffy binding protein confers resistance to inhibitory antibodiesKelley M VanBuskirk
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 0369, USA
J Infect Dis 190:1556-62. 2004..We observed that the PNG-7...
- Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plantsYuan Chuen Wang
Department of Food Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, 402, ROC
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 43:295-300. 2005..24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn...
- Panax notoginseng supplementation enhances physical performance during endurance exerciseMichael T C Liang
Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California 91768, USA
J Strength Cond Res 19:108-14. 2005The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single 1,350-mg dose of Panax notoginseng (PNG) could enhance aerobic capacity, endurance, and mean blood pressure (MAP) in young adults...
- Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: pathogen biology and epidemiologyC A Pilotti
PNG Oil Palm Research Association Inc, P O Box 36, Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea
Mycopathologia 159:129-37. 2005..has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base...
- Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New GuineaIfor L Owen
C o National Agriculture Quarantine and Inspection Authority, Papua New Guinea
Parasitol Int 55:S149-53. 2006There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), ..
- Ethnopharmacological evaluation of the informant consensus model on anti-tuberculosis claims among the ManusRyan J Case
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, MC 781 College of Pharmacy, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
J Ethnopharmacol 106:82-9. 2006..study evaluates use of this model through the analytical ethnopharmacology of Manus Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
- Image distortions in SEM and their influences on EBSD measurementsGert Nolze
Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12205 Berlin, Unter den Eichen 87, Germany
Ultramicroscopy 107:172-83. 2007..As an example a correction procedure is described in detail, based on a repetition of the measurement after a 180 degrees sample rotation...
- The Drosophila PNG kinase complex regulates the translation of cyclin BLeah Vardy
Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
Dev Cell 12:157-66. 2007The Drosophila PAN GU (PNG) kinase complex regulates the developmental translation of cyclin B. cyclin B mRNA becomes unmasked during oogenesis independent of PNG activity, but PNG is required for translation from egg activation...
- Laser-induced fluorescence of NCN in low and atmospheric pressure flamesR J H Klein-Douwel
Applied Molecular Physics, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Opt Lett 33:2620-2. 2008..Excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra are presented, as well as profiles of NCN and CH versus height above burner...
- Adsorption of self-avoiding tethered membranes: A Monte Carlo simulation studyHristina Popova
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
J Chem Phys 129:215103. 2008..A simple analytic model yields also tau(ads) proportional to L(2) while suggesting that the process of adsorption cannot be identified by simple "unrolling."..
- RNAither, an automated pipeline for the statistical analysis of high-throughput RNAi screensNora Rieber
Viroquant Research Group Modeling, University of Heidelberg, Bioquant BQ26, Im Neuenheimer Feld 267, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Bioinformatics 25:678-9. 2009..The results of the analysis are presented as a set of HTML pages. Additionally, all values and plots are available as either text files or pdf and png files.
- Proper use of common image file formats in handling radiological imagesN Faccioli
Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico G B Rossi, Universita di Verona, 37134, Verona, Italy
Radiol Med 114:484-95. 2009..file format" and describe the algorithms and main features of the most common formats (BMP, JPEG, GIF, DICOM, TIF, PNG) and Portable Network Graphics (PNG)...
- Antitreponemal antibodies leading to autoantibody production and protection from atherosclerosis in Kitavans from Papua New GuineaNancy Agmon-Levin
Department of Medicine B, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1173:675-82. 2009..agent antibodies and autoantibodies in a unique non-Westernized population from Kitava, Papua New Guinea (PNG), compared to Western populations...
- Combining peripheral nerve grafts and chondroitinase promotes functional axonal regeneration in the chronically injured spinal cordVeronica J Tom
Department of Neurobiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA
J Neurosci 29:14881-90. 2009..in two grafting paradigms: (1) a peripheral nerve that was grafted to span a chronic injury site or (2) a PNG that bridged a chronic contusion site with a second, more distal injury site...
- A review of the current state of malaria among pregnant women in Papua New GuineaIvo Mueller
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, PO Box 60, Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province 441, Papua New Guinea
P N G Med J 51:12-6. 2008..This paper reviews evidence from studies conducted in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in the last 20 years on the burden and prevention of malaria in pregnancy and highlights gaps in our knowledge of ..
- Naturally-acquired humoral immune responses against the N- and C-termini of the Plasmodium vivax MSP1 protein in endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea using a multiplex assayCarmen Fernandez-Becerra
Barcelona Centre for International Health Research CRESIB, Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Rosello 132, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Malar J 9:29. 2010....
- Common themes in the literature on traditional medicine in Papua New GuineaJoan Macfarlane
Centre for International Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
P N G Med J 52:44-53. 2009A review of the literature on traditional medical practices and beliefs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in order to provide context and background information for the Department of Health's National Policy on Traditional Medicine ..
- High-throughput molecular diagnosis of circumsporozoite variants VK210 and VK247 detects complex Plasmodium vivax infections in malaria endemic populations in Papua New GuineaCara N Henry-Halldin
Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Wolstein Research Building, Room 4 125, 2103 Cornell Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Infect Genet Evol 11:391-8. 2011Malaria is endemic in lowland and coastal regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG), and is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. Infection by P...
- Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverageLaurens Manning
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e932. 2011..Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large ..
- Preclinical evaluation of caprylic acid-fractionated IgG antivenom for the treatment of Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming in Papua New GuineaMariángela Vargas
Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1144. 2011Snake bite is a common medical emergency in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus, inflicts a large number of bites that, in the absence of antivenom therapy, result in high mortality...
- Distribution of the time at which N vicious walkers reach their maximal heightJoachim Rambeau
Laboratoire de Physique Théorique d Orsay, Universite Paris Sud 11 and CNRS, Orsay, France
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 83:061146. 2011..of Dyson's Brownian motion and confront them with numerical simulations of the polynuclear growth model (PNG) and of a model of DPRM on a discrete lattice...
- Genome-wide association study in multiple human prion diseases suggests genetic risk factors additional to PRNPSimon Mead
MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
Hum Mol Genet 21:1897-906. 2012..5 × 10(-7); odds ratio (OR), 2.36], but not in UK sCJD (P = 0.049; OR, 1.24), in German sCJD or in PNG groups...
- Instant noodles as an antifriction device: making the BOP with PPP in PNGFrederick Errington
Trinity College, Hartford, CT
Am Anthropol 114:19-31. 2012Focusing primarily, but not exclusively, on urban and periurban Papua New Guinea (PNG), we discuss the significance of instant ramen noodles to those now known as the “bottom of the pyramid” (BOP)...
- Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Madang, Papua New GuineaM Ballif
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16:1100-7. 2012Madang and surroundings, Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- Exogenous BDNF enhances the integration of chronically injured axons that regenerate through a peripheral nerve grafted into a chondroitinase-treated spinal cord injury siteVeronica J Tom
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
Exp Neurol 239:91-100. 2013..When provided with a growth-promoting substrate such as a peripheral nerve graft (PNG), severed axons regenerate into and through the graft; however, they stop when they reach the glial scar at the ..
- Nursing accounting competencies related to HIV in a Papua New Guinea contextAlistair M Brown
School of Accounting, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 24:e25-34. 2013Nursing administration is an important part of the campaign to eliminate HIV across Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
- Population genetics of the filarial worm wuchereria bancrofti in a post-treatment region of Papua New Guinea: insights into diversity and life historyScott T Small
Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2308. 2013..Our studies of LF in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have shown that it is possible to reduce the prevalence of Wb in humans and mosquitoes through mass drug ..
- [Shared-housing arrangements for care-dependent people in Germany. A literature overview of structures, outcomes and quality management]J Graske
Alice Salomon Hochschule Berlin, Alice Salomon Platz 5, 12627, Berlin, Deutschland
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 56:1410-7. 2013..Since January 2013 SHA is government-funded through the "Pflege-Neuausrichtungs-Gesetz" (PNG). Yet, an overview of the situation of SHA in Germany is not available...
- Fee or free? Trading equity for quality of care for primary health care in Papua New GuineaRohan Sweeney
Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Level 2, Building 75, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
Int Health 4:283-8. 2012Fee charging is common at primary health facilities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and is poorly regulated...
- Quality of antimalarial drugs and antibiotics in Papua New Guinea: a survey of the health facility supply chainManuel W Hetzel
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, EHP, Papua New Guinea Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
PLoS ONE 9:e96810. 2014..In Papua New Guinea (PNG), Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are both endemic and health facilities are the main source of treatment...
- Papua New Guinea vision-specific quality of life questionnaire: a new patient-reported outcome instrument to assess the impact of impaired visionPrakash Paudel
Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 43:202-13. 2015The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new vision-specific quality of life (VS QoL) instrument and to assess the impact of vision impairment and eye disease on the quality of life of adults in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- Men in Papua New Guinea accurately report their circumcision statusParana Hewage Mangalasiri Jayathunge
Cairns Clinical School, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns, 4870, QLD, Australia
PLoS ONE 10:e0123429. 2015..Such data are often generated through self-reported MC status surveys. This study examined self-reported MC status in comparison with genital photographs from men in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
- Tracking the origins of plastic debris across the Coral Sea: A case study from the Ouvéa Island, New CaledoniaChristophe Maes
Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, UMR 6523 CNRS Ifremer IRD UBO, Centre IFREMER de Brest, ZI de la Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane, France UFR Sciences et Techniques, 6 Avenue Le Gorgeu, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 03, France Electronic address
Mar Pollut Bull 97:160-8. 2015..the Ouvéa Island, in the southwest Pacific Ocean, with trademarks from the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
- CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New GuineaRajeev K Mehlotra
Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Electronic address
Infect Genet Evol 36:165-73. 2015..Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the highest adult HIV prevalences in the Asia-Pacific region...
- Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), using multi-locus DNA microsatellitesMaria G Onyango
CSIRO Health and Biosecurity Australian Animal Health Laboratory, 5 Portalington Road, Geelong, Victoria, 3220, Australia
Vet Res 46:108. 2015..and identified as useful for genetic analyses of sampled populations in Australia, northern Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Timor-Leste. Significant (P < 0...
- Survey of the capacity for essential surgery and anaesthesia services in Papua New GuineaJanet Martin
Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical Evidence, Decision Integrity and Clinical Impact MEDICI Centre, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
BMJ Open 5:e009841. 2015To assess capacity to provide essential surgical services including emergency, obstetric and anaesthesia care in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in order to support planning for relevant post-2015 sustainable development goals for PNG.
- The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based SurveyPaul Aia
National Department of Health, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
PLoS ONE 11:e0149806. 2016..Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.
- THE PICNIC GAME: PRESENTATION OF A SITUATION OF OBSERVATION TO ASSESS FAMILY INTERACTIONSNicolas Favez
University of Geneva
Infant Ment Health J 37:235-46. 2016..is to present a situation of observation designed for the assessment of family interactions: The PicNic Game (PNG). In this situation, families are invited to play at having a picnic together...
- Health Services for Gender-Based Violence: Médecins Sans Frontières Experience Caring for Survivors in Urban Papua New GuineaKamalini Lokuge
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Acton, Australia
PLoS ONE 11:e0156813. 2016Levels of gender-based violence in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are high; health services for survivors are limited. Evidence from the few existing health services for survivors can inform improvements in care in this and similar settings.
- Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New GuineaV J Brookes
Faculty of Veterinary Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia
Zoonoses Public Health . 2016The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region...
- Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training toolAndrew Tukana
Discipline of Veterinary Science, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, QLD, Australia
Trop Anim Health Prod 48:1471-81. 2016..objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands...
- Learning Polychronous Neuronal Groups Using Joint Weight-Delay Spike-Timing-Dependent PlasticityHaoqi Sun
Energy Research Institute, Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 Fraunhofer IDM, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798 and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798
Neural Comput 28:2181-212. 2016Polychronous neuronal group (PNG), a type of cell assembly, is one of the putative mechanisms for neural information representation...
- How to do better health reform: a snapshot of change and improvement initiatives in the health systems of 30 countriesJeffrey Braithwaite
Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Level 6, 75 Talavera Rd, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Int J Qual Health Care . 2016..Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Papua New Guinea (PNG), South Africa, the USA, Scotland and Sweden...
- Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activitySamuel Kapia
Department of Agriculture, PNG University of Technology, Private Mail Bag, Lae, Morobe, 411, Papua New Guinea
Environ Monit Assess 188:586. 2016..and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities...
- Measuring the Burden of Surgical Disease Averted by Emergency and Essential Surgical Care in a District Hospital in Papua New GuineaMatthew A R Stokes
School of Medicine, Deakin University, Kings Way, Waurn Ponds, Vic, 3216, Australia
World J Surg . 2016..We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided.
- Multigenic drug resistance among inbred malaria parasitesC Dye
Vector Biology and Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
Proc Biol Sci 264:61-7. 1997..33 and 0.92 for sites in Tanzania and Papua New Guinea (PNG), respectively...
- [Cloning and sequence analysis of a sialidase gene (siaHI) from Bacteroides forsythus ATCC 43037]Ishikura Hiroaki
Department of Hard Tissue Engineering, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University
Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi 69:119-27. 2002..forsythus. The highest amino acid sequence homology was observed between siaHI gene and a part of sialidase gene from Streptococcus pnumoniae. This is the first report on the cloning and expression of the B. forsythus sialidase gene...
- Polymorphism in a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand changes its receptor specificityD C Ghislaine Mayer
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Building 4 Room B1 41, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Exp Med 196:1523-8. 2002..falciparum. In previous studies of BAEBL from two clones, Dd2/Nm from Vietnam and E12 from Papua New Guinea (PNG), it was found that BAEBL bound different erythrocyte receptors...
- Emergency care of the trauma patient in remote regions of Papua New GuineaAnthony S Jackson
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka
P N G Med J 45:222-32. 2002..best practice' regarding the management of a trauma victim's upper airway in a remote region of Papua New Guinea (PNG)...
- Mosquito-parasite interactions and filariasis transmission in Papua New GuineaBRUCE MARTIN CHRISTENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2012..During the last year, we conducted preliminary studies in Papua New Guinea (PNG) that demonstrate that Anopheles punctulatus, a principal vector of W...
- JAMES WALTER KAZURA; Fiscal Year: 2016..is to advance knowledge of how national and regional programs to control and eliminate malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Solomon Islands and Vanuatu affect the epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis/immunity of Plasmodium ..
- Daniel J Tisch; Fiscal Year: 2015..years experience and access to a large archive of samples obtained in studying LF transmission in Papua New Guinea (PNG) using novel antigens provided by colleagues at NIH and the recent introduction of LLINs in PNG for malaria control ..
- Peter A Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2014..As these population-level studies address an important gap in Wb epidemiology and elimination programs, our results have potential to strengthen design of future MDA efforts beyond PNG.
- Peter A Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2015Project Summary - Today in Papua New Guinea (PNG) infectious diseases impose a significant impact on public health...
- Louis R Barrows; Fiscal Year: 2014..to the description, assessment, rational utilization, and conservation of biodiversity in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG is home to approximately 5% of the world's biodiversity...
- Changing Dynamics of Anopheline Transmission of Malaria and Filariasis in Papua nPeter A Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2010..landscape heterogeneity of plant, animal, and human communities in four ecologically different sites in northern PNG. 2. Examine the change in patterns of mosquito and human infection with Plasmodium species and with W...
- Creating Internet-based Research Review, Approval, and Monitoring for Global HealPeter Max Siba; Fiscal Year: 2010..Review Board (UHCMC IRB) and the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research Institutional Review Board (PNG IMR IRB), promote a common research compliance monitoring program and provide education exchanges and bioethics ..
- Modeling lymphatic filariasis transmission and eradication in Papua New GuineaEdwin Michael; Fiscal Year: 2011..anopheline mosquitoes and its control using annual mass drug administration (MDA) strategies in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and elsewhere, and to develop and apply effective model-based decision support tools for optimizing the design and ..
- PAPUA NEW GUINEAN DUFFY NEGATIVITY AND VIVAX MALARIAPeter Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2005..is that the molecular polymorphism responsible for Duffy-negativity (Fy[a-b-1) has emerged in Papua New Guinea (PNG) because it confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage malaria...
- HIV and TB Screening of PNG Marine OrganismsChris Ireland; Fiscal Year: 2004..at the University of Papua New Guinea to support discovery of new natural product anti-HIV and anti-TB agents from PNG marine organisms...
- Red blood cell polymorphisms and malaria in PNGSHERAL PATEL; Fiscal Year: 2004..examine the in vitro characteristics of infection and growth of P. falciparum using erythrocytes from individuals living in the Wosera with and without ovalocytosis and genotypically discordant in select candidate genes. ..
- CELL CYCLE CONTROL IN EARLY DROSOPHILA DEVELOPMENTTerry L Orr-Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013..The PAN GU (PNG) protein kinase complex regulates the early embryonic cycles by promoting translation of Cyclin B to drive mitosis...
- Michel A Lemay; Fiscal Year: 2015..Recently we replicated this rat acute PNG approach in cats where we observed thousands of axons regenerating into the graft, a small percentage of which ..
- Edward J Zuperku; Fiscal Year: 2016..5OR agonist) microinjections by monitoring changes in respiratory phase durations from the phrenic neurogram (PNG)...
- Regulation Vascular Smooth Muscle Myosin PhosphataseMasumi Eto; Fiscal Year: 2010..Relevance) Drugs, blocking the contraction, are used for treatment of hypertension, asthma and erectile dysfunction. The results of this project will expose potential therapeutic targets for smooth muscle diseases. ..
- Yu Shang Lee; Fiscal Year: 2016..that could allow for the resumption of supraspinal control of bladder activity utilizes peripheral nerve grafting (PNG) to provide a favorable environment for axonal regeneration and remyelination in order to bridge the lesion gap...
- Human Genetic Polymorphisms in Malaria-endemic AreasCAIRA WOODS; Fiscal Year: 2009..polymorphisms in a population in Gabon, West Africa where malaria transmission is seasonal and two populations in PNG where malaria has been historically absent or present using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing 2) ..
- NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF PYRIDOXINE-BETA-GLUCOSIDEJESSE GREGORY; Fiscal Year: 2001DESCRIPTION: Pyridoxine-beta-glucoside (PNG) is a major component of vitamin B6 (B6) in plant foods, and PNG hydrolysis catalyzed by PNG hydrolase is rate limiting for the in vivo utilization...
- Chloroquine Resistance and pfcrt Variants in PNGPeter Zimmerman; Fiscal Year: 2006..Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in PNG, and as drug treatment is the only effective means of control for clinical malaria, an improved understanding of ..
- PHYSIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF DIABETESAllison Goldfine; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- EMBRYONIC CORTICAL APOPTOSIS ROLES AND REGULATIONSJerold Chun; Fiscal Year: 2001..effect of apoptosis on embryonic, postmitotic neurons within postmitotic neuroanatomical compartments (defined by png-I in situ hybridization) in Balb/c and CPP32 +/+, +/- and -/- embryos. (Years 1-5)...
- MULTIAXIAL STRENGTH BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TRABECULAR BONETony M Keaveny; Fiscal Year: 2010..This project should provide substantial insight into the roles of trabecular bone strength and bone quality on osteoporotic fracture risk and treatment and other orthopedic applications. ..
- Biomechanics of Spine FractureTONY KEAVENY; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Therapeutic Vaccine for EBV-associated Hodgkins DiseaseRajiv Khanna; Fiscal Year: 2005..The long-term aim of this project is to develop a rational basis for the delivery of a curative EBV-specific CTL immunity to not only in HIV patients with HD patients but also for non-HIV HD. ..
- Assessement of Trabecular Bone Strength & DamageTONY KEAVENY; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- STRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES OF POST-YIELD BEHAVIOR OF BONETONY KEAVENY; Fiscal Year: 2003..It is suggested that results should lead, therefore, to improved understanding of vertebral fracture etiology, and may motivate development of new drug treatments. ..