NUP43

Summary

Gene Symbol: NUP43
Description: nucleoporin 43
Alias: bA350J20.1, p42, nucleoporin Nup43, nucleoporin 43kDa, nup107-160 subcomplex subunit Nup43
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Adherence regulates macrophage signal transduction and primes tumor necrosis factor production
    G J Bauer
    Department of Surgery, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, USA
    Shock 14:435-40. 2000
  2. ncbi Atypical protein kinase C-zeta stimulates thyrotropin-independent proliferation in rat thyroid cells
    N Fernandez
    Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6160, USA
    Endocrinology 141:146-52. 2000
  3. pmc Rapid mitogen-activated protein kinase by basic fibroblast growth factor in rat intestine after ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Xiao bing Fu
    Wound Healing and Cell Biology Laboratory, 304 Hospital, Burns Institute, Trauma Center of Postgraduate Medical College, 51 Fu Cheng Road, Beijing 100037, China
    World J Gastroenterol 9:1312-7. 2003
  4. pmc Gene transcription profile of the detached retina (An AOS Thesis)
    David N Zacks
    Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 107:343-82. 2009
  5. ncbi Comitogenic effect of catecholamines on rat cardiac fibroblasts in culture
    M Leicht
    Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 27, D 04103, Leipzig, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 48:274-84. 2000
  6. doi Aqueous humor outflow effects of 2-arachidonylglycerol
    Ya Fatou Njie
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Exp Eye Res 87:106-14. 2008
  7. ncbi Role of arrestins in endocytosis and signaling of alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes
    J L DeGraff
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:11253-9. 1999
  8. ncbi Participation of a stress-activated protein kinase cascade in the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in chromaffin cells
    G Thomas
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland
    Eur J Biochem 247:1180-9. 1997
  9. ncbi 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) modulate growth plate chondrocyte physiology via protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase
    Z Schwartz
    Department of Orthopedics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78229, USA
    Endocrinology 143:2775-86. 2002
  10. doi Expression of annexin-1 in equine leucocytes and the effects of the N-terminal annexin-1 peptide, Ac2-26, on equine neutrophil superoxide production
    Kirstie J Pickles
    Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Campus, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 135:226-33. 2010

Detail Information

Publications303 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Adherence regulates macrophage signal transduction and primes tumor necrosis factor production
    G J Bauer
    Department of Surgery, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, USA
    Shock 14:435-40. 2000
    ..activation of MAPK was assessed by western analysis using a dual phosphospecific antibody against p38MAPK, p42,44ERK, and p54SAPK. LPS is known to induce activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1...
  2. ncbi Atypical protein kinase C-zeta stimulates thyrotropin-independent proliferation in rat thyroid cells
    N Fernandez
    Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6160, USA
    Endocrinology 141:146-52. 2000
    ..Cells overexpressing PKCzeta show higher levels of phosphorylated p42/p44 MAPK compared with vector-transfected cells...
  3. pmc Rapid mitogen-activated protein kinase by basic fibroblast growth factor in rat intestine after ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Xiao bing Fu
    Wound Healing and Cell Biology Laboratory, 304 Hospital, Burns Institute, Trauma Center of Postgraduate Medical College, 51 Fu Cheng Road, Beijing 100037, China
    World J Gastroenterol 9:1312-7. 2003
    ....
  4. pmc Gene transcription profile of the detached retina (An AOS Thesis)
    David N Zacks
    Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 107:343-82. 2009
    ..We also define the early activation of kinases that might be responsible for the detachment-induced changes in gene transcription...
  5. ncbi Comitogenic effect of catecholamines on rat cardiac fibroblasts in culture
    M Leicht
    Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 27, D 04103, Leipzig, Germany
    Cardiovasc Res 48:274-84. 2000
    ..We studied the ability of norepinephrine and of other catecholamines to affect the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts isolated from adult rat hearts. Furthermore, we investigated the possible adrenergic receptor involved in this process...
  6. doi Aqueous humor outflow effects of 2-arachidonylglycerol
    Ya Fatou Njie
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Exp Eye Res 87:106-14. 2008
    ..2-AG induced activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase was determined by Western blot analysis using an anti-phospho p42/44 MAP ..
  7. ncbi Role of arrestins in endocytosis and signaling of alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes
    J L DeGraff
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:11253-9. 1999
    ..in the trafficking of human alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) and the effect of receptor trafficking on p42/p44 MAP kinase activation...
  8. ncbi Participation of a stress-activated protein kinase cascade in the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in chromaffin cells
    G Thomas
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland
    Eur J Biochem 247:1180-9. 1997
    ..Stimulation of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with acetylcholine activated SAPK2 and MAPKAP-K2, as well as p42/p44 MAP kinases and their downstream target MAPKAP-K1...
  9. ncbi 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) modulate growth plate chondrocyte physiology via protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase
    Z Schwartz
    Department of Orthopedics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78229, USA
    Endocrinology 143:2775-86. 2002
    ..In both cells the effect was due to ERK1/2 activation (p42 > p44 in GC; p42 = p44 in RC). MAPK activation was dependent on PKC, but not protein kinase A...
  10. doi Expression of annexin-1 in equine leucocytes and the effects of the N-terminal annexin-1 peptide, Ac2-26, on equine neutrophil superoxide production
    Kirstie J Pickles
    Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Campus, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 135:226-33. 2010
    ..Annexin-1 expression in equine neutrophils and mononuclear cells and the ability of Ac2-26 to activate neutrophil p42/44 MAPK were determined by immunoblotting...
  11. ncbi A role for the MEK-MAPK pathway in okadaic acid-induced meiotic resumption of incompetent growing mouse oocytes
    C de Vantéry Arrighi
    Clinique de Stérilité et d Endocrinologie Gynécologique, Département de gynécologie et obstétrique, Maternité, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 1211 Geneve 14, Switzerland
    Biol Reprod 63:658-65. 2000
    ..maturation promoting factor (MPF; [p34(cdc2)/cyclin B kinase]) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (p42(MAPK) and p44(MAPK)), are implicated in meiotic competence acquisition...
  12. ncbi Nitric oxide modulates stretch activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in mesangial cells
    A J Ingram
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University Hamilton, and University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Kidney Int 58:1067-77. 2000
    ..We have shown activation of Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in stretched MCs and have also demonstrated that L-arginine decreases ..
  13. pmc Reduction of experimental diabetic vascular leakage by delivery of angiostatin with a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector
    Mong Ping Shyong
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei and Su Ao Veterans Hospital, I Lan, Taiwan
    Mol Vis 13:133-41. 2007
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing mouse angiostatin (Kringle domains 1 to 4) in reducing retinal vascular leakage in an experimental diabetic rat model...
  14. pmc Fibroblast growth factor-2 binds to small heparin-derived oligosaccharides and stimulates a sustained phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and proliferation of rat mammary fibroblasts
    Maryse Delehedde
    School of Biological Sciences, Life Science Building, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, U K
    Biochem J 366:235-44. 2002
    ..of disaccharides did not stimulate DNA synthesis and it only elicited an early transient dual phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
  15. pmc Effect of protein kinase C and Ca(2+) on p42/p44 MAPK, Pyk2, and Src activation in rat conjunctival goblet cells
    Robin R Hodges
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, 20 Staniford Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Exp Eye Res 85:836-44. 2007
    ..Transactivation of the EGF receptor activates a kinase cascade culminating in the activation of p42/p44 MAPK (MAPK) and ultimately that leads to secretion of high molecular weight glycocongujates (HMWGC), including ..
  16. doi Bradykinin and high glucose promote renal tubular inflammation
    Sydney C W Tang
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 25:698-710. 2010
    ..The role of the kallikrein-kinin system in diabetic nephropathy remains controversial...
  17. ncbi Modulations of signal transduction pathways during sepsis and the effects of insulin and mifepristone
    Subir R Maitra
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Stony Brook University Hospital, NY 11794, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 10:1-8. 2003
    ..states and the inferred activation of specific members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p42/44, p38, and SAPK/JNK) were quantitated in the livers of rats by Western blot analysis during the progression of ..
  18. ncbi p38 and JNK have distinct regulatory functions on the development of apoptosis during simulated ischaemia and reperfusion in neonatal cardiomyocytes
    A M Engelbrecht
    Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, Republic of South Africa
    Basic Res Cardiol 99:338-50. 2004
    ..strong, biphasic activation of p38 concomitant with a weak and transient activation of the two ERK isoenzymes, p42/p44-MAPK...
  19. doi Hypothetical mechanism of sodium pump regulation by estradiol under primary hypertension
    Emina Sudar
    Laboratory for Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology, Institute Vinca, P O Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, Serbia
    J Theor Biol 251:584-92. 2008
    ..involve the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phosphatydil inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44(MAPK))...
  20. ncbi Dual regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells by nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1: modulation by type III phosphodiesterase inhibition
    Yung Ming Chen
    Department of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7, Chung Shan South Rd, Taipei, 10016, Taiwan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:978-86. 2004
    ..PD98059), 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126) [both inhibitors of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase], and anthra[1hyphen]9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one (SP600125) [an ..
  21. ncbi Cell cycle related signaling in Neuro2a cells proceeds via the receptor for advanced glycation end products
    A Schmidt
    Department of Neuroanatomy, Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    J Neural Transm 114:1413-24. 2007
    ..S100B and AGEs may interact with the multiligand receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and trigger for the activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK), whether they also count for cell cycle related signaling in ..
  22. ncbi Role of caveolin-1 in p42/p44 MAP kinase activation and proliferation of human airway smooth muscle
    Reinoud Gosens
    Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291:L523-34. 2006
    ..Therefore, we investigated their role in p42/p44 MAPK signaling and proliferation using human ASM cell lines...
  23. doi Transient protective effect of caspase inhibitors in RCS rat
    O Perche
    Univ Clermont 1, UFR Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biophysique Sensorielle, EA 2667, Clermont Ferrand, France
    Exp Eye Res 86:519-27. 2008
    ..Retinal status was evaluated at P35 and P42 by electroretinography, morphometry and apoptotic nuclei detection...
  24. ncbi CB2 cannabinoid receptors in trabecular meshwork cells mediate JWH015-induced enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility
    Lichun Zhong
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:1988-92. 2005
    ....
  25. pmc Human T- and B-cell responses to Schistosoma mansoni recombinant glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase correlate with resistance to reinfection with S. mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium after chemotherapy
    R El Ridi
    Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Infect Immun 69:237-44. 2001
    Recently we reported that human T- and B-cell recognition of a 42-kDa protein (p42) in soluble extracts of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms correlates with resistance to reinfection with S. mansoni or S. haematobium...
  26. ncbi Genetic deletion of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta abrogates activation of IkappaBalpha kinase, JNK, Akt, and p44/p42 MAPK but potentiates apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor
    Yasunari Takada
    Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Bioimmunotherapy, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:39541-54. 2004
    ..Deletion of GSK-3beta also abolished TNF-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p44/p42 mitogen-activated kinase activation...
  27. ncbi Dihydropyridine and beta adrenergic receptor binding in dogs with tachycardia-induced atrial fibrillation
    R Gaspo
    Department of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Quebec, Canada
    Cardiovasc Res 42:434-42. 1999
    ..The present study was designed to determine whether atrial tachycardia alters biochemical indices of the number of L-type Ca2+ channels and/or of the number and binding affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors...
  28. ncbi Ligand-independent activation of steroid receptors
    A P F Flint
    School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leics LE12 5RD, UK
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 23:13-24. 2002
    ..added at various times following transfection, and MAP kinase phosphorylation was monitored by western blotting of p42 and p44...
  29. ncbi Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in canine cultured vascular smooth muscle cells
    C M Yang
    Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei San, Taiwan
    Cell Signal 12:205-14. 2000
    ..associated with a specific pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by [3H]thymidine incorporation and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation in canine cultured VSMCs...
  30. doi A biotin-coupled bifunctional enzyme exhibiting both glutamine synthetase activity and glutamate decarboxylase activity
    Khomkrit Arunchaipong
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
    Curr Eye Res 34:809-18. 2009
    To purify and study native form and enzymatic activity of the 42 kDa biotin-coupled protein (p42), which is related to glutamate action in chick retina.
  31. pmc Ontogeny of acute tolerance to ethanol-induced social inhibition in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Elena I Varlinskaya
    Center for Developmental Psychobiology, Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:1833-44. 2006
    ..The present study explored ontogenetic development of acute tolerance within 30 minutes after administration of a relatively low ethanol dose, using ethanol-induced social impairment as the target response measure...
  32. ncbi Inhibition of IL-8-mediated MAPK activation in human neutrophils by beta1 integrin ligands
    Demetra Xythalis
    Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, NY 12208, USA
    Inflammation 26:83-8. 2002
    ..leads to the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins that initiate multiple signaling cascades, including p38 and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways...
  33. pmc Confluence of vascular endothelial cells induces cell cycle exit by inhibiting p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity
    F Vinals
    Centre de Biochimie CNRS UMR 6543, Universite de Nice, 06108 Nice, France
    Mol Cell Biol 19:2763-72. 1999
    ..In this work, we have studied the effect of cellular contact on the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by growth factors in mouse vascular endothelial cells...
  34. pmc Prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway promotes DNA synthesis in primary hepatocytes from p21Cip-1/WAF1-null mice, but not in hepatocytes from p16INK4a-null mice
    K L Auer
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Biochem J 336:551-60. 1998
    In primary rat hepatocytes, prolonged activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is associated with a decrease in DNA synthesis and increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ..
  35. ncbi D-glucose stimulation of L-arginine transport and nitric oxide synthesis results from activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p42/44 and Smad2 requiring functional type II TGF-beta receptors in human umbilical vein endothelium
    Rodrigo Vásquez
    Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical Research Centre, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    J Cell Physiol 212:626-32. 2007
    ..via TGF-beta receptors I (TbetaRI) and TbetaRII, activates Smad2 and mitogen-activated protein kinases p44 and p42 (p42/44(mapk))...
  36. pmc Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of homologous protein kinases during oocyte maturation and mitogenic activation of fibroblasts
    J Posada
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98104
    Mol Cell Biol 11:2517-28. 1991
    ..Two tyrosine-phosphorylated 42-kDa proteins (p42) were detected with this antiserum in Xenopus eggs...
  37. ncbi Interleukin-1beta induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways in human tracheal smooth muscle cells
    Kao Chih Liang
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Kwei San, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
    J Cell Physiol 211:759-70. 2007
    ..Here, we investigated the roles of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-kappaB pathways for IL-1beta-induced MMP-9 production in HTSMCs...
  38. ncbi Protein kinase C zeta plays a central role in activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase by endotoxin in alveolar macrophages
    M M Monick
    Department of Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Iowa City, IA, USA
    J Immunol 165:4632-9. 2000
    ..respond to endotoxin (LPS) by activation of a number of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, including the p42/44 (extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)) kinase pathway...
  39. pmc Leukotriene B(4) BLT receptor signaling regulates the level and stability of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA through restricted activation of Ras/Raf/ERK/p42 AUF1 pathway
    Beibei Zhai
    Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1
    J Biol Chem 285:23568-80. 2010
    ..RNAs confirmed that LTB(4) stabilization of COX-2 mRNA was apparently mediated through the RNA-binding protein, p42 AUF1...
  40. ncbi Histochemical evidence for wide expression of the metalloendopeptidase nardilysin in human brain neurons
    H G Bernstein
    Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of University of Magdeburg, Leipziger Str 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Neuroscience 146:1513-23. 2007
    ..Previously, we have detected that nardilysin interacts with brain-specific proteins, i.e. p42(IP4)/centaurin-alpha1 [Stricker R, Chow KM, Walther D, Hanck T, Hersh LB, Reiser G (2006) Interaction of the brain ..
  41. ncbi Identification, purification, and characterization of a PA700-dependent activator of the proteasome
    G N DeMartino
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:3112-8. 1996
    ..and is composed of three electrophoretically distinct subunits with Mr values of 50,000, 42,000, and 27,000 (p50, p42, and p27, respectively)...
  42. ncbi The growth-promoting effect of low-density lipoprotein may Be mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
    A Sachinidis
    Medizinische Universitäts Poliklinik, 53111 Bonn, Germany
    Mol Pharmacol 52:389-97. 1997
    ..PTX)-sensitive stimulation of the 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (p44(mapk)) and 42-kDa MAP kinase (p42(mapk)) isoforms as well as in a PTX-sensitive increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i)...
  43. ncbi Inhibitory effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to p44/p42 MAPK on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic response in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocyte
    Shi Qin Zhang
    Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Xiang Ya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 25:41-6. 2004
    ..To explore the inhibitory effect of antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) to mitogen activated protein kinase(MAPK) on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II)...
  44. pmc Cloning and characterization of the p42 subunit of mammalian translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3): demonstration that eIF3 interacts with eIF5 in mammalian cells
    A Bandyopadhyay
    Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 27:1331-7. 1999
    ..cDNAs encoding all the subunits of mammalian eIF3 except the p42 subunit have been cloned in several laboratories...
  45. ncbi Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide stimulates the phosphorylation of p44 and p42 MAP kinases through CD14 and TLR-4 receptor activation in human gingival fibroblasts
    Gloria Gutiérrez-Venegas
    Laboratorio de Bioquímica División de Estudios de Posgrado Facultad de Odontología Universidad, Nacional Autónoma de México México, D F 04510
    Life Sci 78:2577-83. 2006
    ..the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein inhibited the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of p44 and p42 MAP kinases in a dose dependent manner...
  46. ncbi Lipoxin A4 inhibits connective tissue growth factor-induced production of chemokines in rat mesangial cells
    S H Wu
    Department of Pediatrics, Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
    Kidney Int 69:248-56. 2006
    ..enhanced the mRNA expression and protein release of fractalkine, MCP-1, and RANTES, the expression of phospho (P)-p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), P-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K), P-Akt, and activity of nuclear ..
  47. ncbi Oligomerization controls in tissue-specific manner ligand binding of native, affinity-purified p42(IP4)/centaurin alpha1 and cytohesins-proteins with high affinity for the messengers D-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate/phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphos
    Rolf Stricker
    Institut fur Neurobiochemie, Medizinische Fakultät der Otto von Guericke Universität Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1651:102-15. 2003
    ..for the second messengers Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) are already known, such as the brain-specific p42(IP4), which we have previously cloned from different species, and cytohesins...
  48. ncbi Chlamydophila pneumoniae induces p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in human fibroblasts through Toll-like receptor 4
    Iana H Haralambieva
    Department of Microbiology, Medical University, Zdrave 2 str, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria
    J Med Microbiol 53:1187-93. 2004
    ..C. pneumoniae elementary bodies were demonstrated to up-regulate the phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in human fibroblasts...
  49. ncbi Bile acid-mediated induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and Mcl-1 in hepatic stellate cells
    Kang Mo Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 744, South Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342:1108-13. 2006
    ..COX-2 induction was found to be due to transcriptional enhancement dependent on p42/44, p38 MAPK, and JNK activation, whereas Mcl-1 induction resulted from bile acid-mediated protein stabilization in ..
  50. ncbi Epidermal growth factor regulates astrocyte expression of the interleukin-4 receptor via a MAPK-independent pathway
    B P Barna
    Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA
    Cell Immunol 208:18-24. 2001
    ..Similarly, EGF but not IL-4 strongly activated phosphorylation of p42/p44 extracellular regulated kinase isoforms, a reaction blocked by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ..
  51. pmc Influenza C virus CM2 protein is produced from a 374-amino-acid protein (P42) by signal peptidase cleavage
    S Hongo
    Department of Bacteriology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Iida Nishi, Yamagata 990 2331, Japan
    J Virol 73:46-50. 1999
    ..It was reported previously that the 374-amino-acid protein (P42) is an integral membrane protein having two internal hydrophobic domains, one of which (residues 241 to 252) is ..
  52. pmc Lnk inhibits erythropoiesis and Epo-dependent JAK2 activation and downstream signaling pathways
    Wei Tong
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Blood 105:4604-12. 2005
    ..the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activates multiple pathways including Stat5, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The adaptor protein Lnk is implicated in cytokine receptor signaling...
  53. ncbi Phosphorylation of MCT-1 by p44/42 MAPK is required for its stabilization in response to DNA damage
    S Nandi
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Oncogene 26:2283-9. 2007
    ..combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches, we established that phosphorylation of MCT-1 protein by p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases is critical for stabilization of MCT-1 protein and for its ability to promote ..
  54. ncbi The upregulation of plasticity-related proteins following TBI is disrupted with acute voluntary exercise
    Grace Sophia Griesbach
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Brain Res 1016:154-62. 2004
    ..that FPI alone lead to significant increases in synapsin I, CAMKII, and phosphorylated (P) MAPKI (p44) and MAPKII (p42). Exercise in the sham operates led to significant cortical increases of CREB and synapsin I...
  55. ncbi Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecule N-(3 oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone disrupts epithelial barrier integrity of Caco-2 cells
    Elena Vikström
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linkoping University, SE 58185 Linkoping, Sweden
    FEBS Lett 580:6921-8. 2006
    ..P. aeruginosa 3O-C(12)-HSL activate p38 and p42/44 kinases, and inhibition of these kinases partly prevented 3O-C(12)-HSL-induced changes in TER, paracellular flux ..
  56. pmc Restoration of CCAAT enhancer binding protein α P42 induces myeloid differentiation and overcomes all-trans retinoic acid resistance in human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4-R1 cells
    Limengmeng Wang
    Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P R China
    Int J Oncol 47:1685-95. 2015
    ..Moreover, two forms of C/EBPα were unequally suppressed in NB4-R1 cells. Suppression of the full-length form P42 was more pronounced than the truncated form P30...
  57. doi Activation of RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells in vitro through treatment with recombinant ricin toxin-binding subunit B: involvement of protein tyrosine, NF-κB and JAK-STAT kinase signaling pathways
    Na Xu
    Department of Immunology, Norman Bethune College of Medical Science, Jilin University, Jilin, P R China
    Int J Mol Med 32:729-35. 2013
    ..RTB and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, the p42/44 inhibitor, PD98059, the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, the protein kinase C (PKC) ..
  58. pmc Requirement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase for long-term potentiation in adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex
    Hiroki Toyoda
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada
    Mol Pain 3:36. 2007
    ..In this study, we examined whether LTP in ACC requires the activation of ERK. We found that P42/P44 MAPK inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, suppressed the induction of cingulate LTP that was induced by presynaptic ..
  59. pmc Caveolin-1-deficient mice show accelerated mammary gland development during pregnancy, premature lactation, and hyperactivation of the Jak-2/STAT5a signaling cascade
    David S Park
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 13:3416-30. 2002
    ..In addition, the Ras-p42/44 MAPK cascade is hyper-activated...
  60. ncbi Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase C in regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor expression
    Kamal D Mehta
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus 43210, USA
    Gene Expr 10:153-64. 2002
    ..growth factors, anisomycin, and phorbol esters involves the extracellular/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44MAPK) cascade. In fact, degree of p42/44MAPK activation determines the extent of LDL receptor induction...
  61. ncbi The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway mediates resistance to sequential administration of radiation and chemotherapy in primary human glioblastoma cells in a RAS-dependent manner
    Arnab Chakravarti
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Cancer Res 62:4307-15. 2002
    ..signaling pathways including RAS, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/p42), and protein kinase C were inactivated with both pharmacological inhibitors and transient transfection experiments ..
  62. ncbi c-Src is involved in regulating signal transmission from PDGFbeta receptor-GPCR(s) complexes in mammalian cells
    Catherine M Waters
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 27 Taylor St, Glasgow G4 ONR, UK
    Cell Signal 17:263-77. 2005
    ..g. S1P(1) receptor) that enables more efficient activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to PDGF and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)...
  63. ncbi Differential regulation of chondrogenic differentiation by the serotonin2B receptor and retinoic acid in the embryonic mouse hindlimb
    N Bhasin
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7090, USA
    Dev Dyn 230:201-9. 2004
    ..chondrogenic differentiation) by activation of 5-HT2B receptors, which use the mitogen activated protein kinase (p42 MAPK) signal transduction pathway, whereas RA dose-dependently inhibits sulfate incorporation and promotes ..
  64. ncbi p42/p44 MAP kinase activation is localized to caveolae-free membrane domains in airway smooth muscle
    Reinoud Gosens
    Department of Physiology, University of Manitoba, Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292:L1163-72. 2007
    ..We previously demonstrated, however, that p42/p44 MAP kinase, a critical effector for cell proliferation, does not colocalize with RTKs in caveolae of quiescent ..
  65. ncbi Inhibition of LPS-induced p42/44 MAP kinase activation and iNOS/NO synthesis by parthenolide in rat primary microglial cells
    Bernd L Fiebich
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 132:18-24. 2002
    ..mechanisms by which parthenolide prevents iNOS/NO synthesis, we found that parthenolide inhibits the activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not IkBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation or nuclear factor-kappaB (..
  66. ncbi cFLIP-L inhibits p38 MAPK activation: an additional anti-apoptotic mechanism in bile acid-mediated apoptosis
    Annette Grambihler
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Medical School, Clinic, and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:26831-7. 2003
    ..induced apoptosis and activated all three classic mediators of the MAPK pathways including JNK 1/2, p38, and p42/44, only p38 MAPK inhibition attenuated apoptosis...
  67. ncbi Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is a potent inhibitor of the growth of light chain-secreting human multiple myeloma cells
    Min Li
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2632, USA
    Cancer Res 66:8796-803. 2006
    ..of IL-6 by BMSCs was completely inhibited by 10(-9) mol/L PACAP, which also attenuated the phosphorylation of both p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) as well as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in ..
  68. pmc Exposure to estrogen and ionizing radiation causes epigenetic dysregulation, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and genome instability in the mammary gland of ACI rats
    Kristy Kutanzi
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada
    Cancer Biol Ther 14:564-73. 2013
    ..we for the first time demonstrated that estrogen and radiation exposure caused a significant induction of p42/44 MAPK and p38 pathways that was paralleled by elevated levels of H3S10 phosphorylation, a well-established ..
  69. pmc A3 adenosine receptors modulate hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in human A375 melanoma cells
    Stefania Merighi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Pharmacology Unit, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44100, Italy
    Neoplasia 7:894-903. 2005
    ..In particular, we found that A3 receptor stimulation activates p44/p42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are required for A3-induced increase of HIF-1alpha and Ang-2...
  70. ncbi Concanavalin A induced expression of Toll-like receptors in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro
    Ajit Sodhi
    School of Biotechnology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Int Immunopharmacol 7:454-63. 2007
    ..Pretreatment of macrophages with inhibitors of JNK, p38, p42/44 and NF-kappaB, significantly decreased the Con A induced expression of TLRs...
  71. ncbi Changes of insulin-mediated protein kinases phosphorylation and the expression of IGFBP-3 in skeletal muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic mice
    K Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agricultural University, Nowoursynowska 159, 02 776 Warsaw, Poland
    Pol J Vet Sci 8:231-40. 2005
    ..No apparent differences in levels of p42(MAPK), p44(MAPK) and p90(rsk) protein in gastrocnemius muscles between control and STZ-treated mice were observed...
  72. ncbi Oxidized low density lipoproteins induce apoptosis in human lymphocytes: involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases
    M Bustamante
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Concepcion, 2850 Alonso de Ribera Street, Concepcion, Chile
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 53:OL954-64. 2007
    ..Furthermore, oxLDL and H2O2 but not native LDL strongly enhanced phosphorylation of JNK, p38MAPK and p42/44MAPK...
  73. ncbi Pterocarpans phaseollin and neorautenol isolated from Erythrina addisoniae induce apoptotic cell death accompanied by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation
    W Watjen
    Heinrich Heine Universitat, Institute of Toxicology, 40001, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Toxicology 242:71-9. 2007
    ..TNF-alpha), on the other hand both pterocarpans (10 microM, 2 h) decreased the activation of the ERK kinase (p44/p42), an mitogen activated protein kinase which is associated with cell proliferation...
  74. ncbi Oxidative stress and adenosine A1 receptor activation differentially modulate subcellular cardiomyocyte MAPKs
    Cherry Ballard-Croft
    Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, MN265 Chandler Medical Center, 800 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536 0298, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H263-71. 2008
    ..CCPA and H(2)O(2) activated p38 MAPK and p44/p42 ERKs in cytosolic fractions...
  75. ncbi Mechanisms of oncogenic KIT signal transduction in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)
    Anette Duensing
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Oncogene 23:3999-4006. 2004
    ..Additionally, most GISTs showed activation of MAPK p42/44, AKT, S6K, STAT1, and STAT3. STAT5 and JNK were not demonstrably activated in any GIST...
  76. ncbi Cell-specific posttranscriptional regulation of CFTR gene expression via influence of MAPK cascades on 3'UTR part of transcripts
    Maryvonne Baudouin-Legros
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U467, Faculte de Medecine Necker, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris, France
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289:C1240-50. 2005
    ..proteins, which reacted with the U- and C-repeats of CFTR mRNA 3'UTR, were mainly controlled by stimulation of the p42/p44 and p38 MAP kinase cascades with interaction between these pathways...
  77. ncbi AICAR positively regulate glycogen synthase activity and LDL receptor expression through Raf-1/MEK/p42/44MAPK/p90RSK/GSK-3 signaling cascade
    Hsiang Ming Wang
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Dorothy M Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 464 Hamilton Hall, Columbus, OH 43210, United States
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:457-67. 2008
    ..The signal connection between AICAR and GSK-3 is indirect and involves activation of Raf-1/MEK/p42/44(MAPK)/p90(RSK) signaling cascade as pharmacologic inhibition of MEK significantly reduced phosphorylation/..
  78. ncbi Primitive myeloid cells express high levels of phospholipase A(2) activity in the absence of leukotriene release: selective regulation by stem cell factor involving the MAP kinase pathway
    P J Roberts
    Department of Haematology, University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Blood 94:1261-72. 1999
    ..SCF stimulated the rapid but transient activation of ERK2 (p42 MAP kinase) in CD34(+) cells, and we used the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor, PD 098059, which at 30 micromol/L blocks ..
  79. pmc Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol and social behavior: effects of age, sex, and timing of exposure
    Sandra M Mooney
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, United States
    Behav Brain Res 216:358-64. 2011
    ..in male and female off-spring during early adolescence, late adolescence, or adulthood, on postnatal day (P) 28, P42, or P75, respectively, using a modified social interaction test...
  80. ncbi Epidermal growth factor impairs the cytochrome C/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway induced by transforming growth factor beta in rat fetal hepatocytes via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway
    I Fabregat
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia Centro Mixto CSIC UCM, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
    Hepatology 32:528-35. 2000
    ..We show here that EGF activates p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)...
  81. doi Enterovirus 71 modulates a COX-2/PGE2/cAMP-dependent viral replication in human neuroblastoma cells: role of the c-Src/EGFR/p42/p44 MAPK/CREB signaling pathway
    Wei Hsuan Tung
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Kwei San, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
    J Cell Biochem 112:559-70. 2011
    ..We also observed that EV71-induced p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation was decreased following pretreatment with AG1478...
  82. pmc Prostaglandin E2 increases cardiac fibroblast proliferation and increases cyclin D expression via EP1 receptor
    Pamela Harding
    Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
    Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 84:147-52. 2011
    ..Next, we found that treatment of NVF with PGE(2) increased phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK and Akt and that PGE(2)-stimulation of cyclin D3 was antagonized with both a MEK inhibitor and a PI3 kinase ..
  83. ncbi Blockade of RAGE-amphoterin signalling suppresses tumour growth and metastases
    A Taguchi
    College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 405:354-60. 2000
    ..Inhibition of the RAGE-amphoterin interaction suppressed activation of p44/p42, p38 and SAP/JNK MAP kinases; molecular effector mechanisms importantly linked to tumour proliferation, invasion ..
  84. doi Reversible transformation between chiral and achiral Dy6Mo4 clusters through a symmetric operation
    Yong Zheng
    State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
    Chem Commun (Camb) 50:14728-31. 2014
    ..Single-crystal analysis reveals that cluster I crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group (P42/n), while clusters II and II crystallized in the chiral space group (P3121 or P3221), and cluster I can be ..
  85. ncbi Exclusion of known protease-activated receptors in factor VIIa-induced signal transduction
    L C Petersen
    Novo Nordisk A S, Health Care Discovery, Tissue Factor Factor VII Research, Måløv, Denmark
    Thromb Haemost 83:571-6. 2000
    ..known although a mechanism involving PAR cleavage has been deduced from studies of cytosolic Ca2+ release and p44/p42 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation...
  86. doi Positive interaction between lapatinib and capecitabine in human breast cancer models: study of molecular determinants
    Mohamed Chefrour
    Oncopharmacology Unit, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 06189 Nice, France
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 26:530-7. 2012
    ..dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase, Bax, Bcl2, P21 levels, and phospho p42/44 and HER1/2 signaling pathway were studied...
  87. doi Short-term hypoxia enhances the migratory capability of dendritic cell through HIF-1α and PI3K/Akt pathway
    Irene Filippi
    Unit of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
    J Cell Physiol 229:2067-76. 2014
    ..was enhanced in both immature and mature DC exposed to hypoxia, other signaling pathways, such as p38 and p42/p44 MAPK, were differently affected during hypoxic treatment...
  88. doi Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase regulates platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration
    Miki Iida
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1 1, Gifu 501 1194, Japan
    Arch Biochem Biophys 530:83-92. 2013
    ..It has been reported that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB induces VSMC migration via the p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway...
  89. pmc Purine nucleosides: endogenous neuroprotectants in hypoxic brain
    Bettina Thauerer
    Division of Neurobiochemistry, Biocenter Department, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    J Neurochem 121:329-42. 2012
    ..pathway for the regulation of multiple modalities involved in O₂ sensing is the mitogen activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) or (ERK1/2 extracellular signal-regulated kinases) pathway terminating in a variety of transcription ..
  90. pmc Inhibition of FAAH confers increased stem cell migration via PPARα
    Yvonne Wollank
    Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Rostock University Medical Center, D 18057 Rostock, Germany Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, D 18057 Rostock, Germany
    J Lipid Res 56:1947-60. 2015
    ..Promigratory effects of FAAH inhibitors and substrates were causally linked to activation of p42/44 MAPKs, as well as to cytosol-to-nucleus translocation of the transcription factor, PPARα...
  91. pmc Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on aqueous humor outflow
    Akhilesh Kumar
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:4416-25. 2012
    ..To study the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a fatty acid ethanolamide, on aqueous humor outflow facility...
  92. pmc Homotrimeric macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) drives inflammatory responses in the corneal epithelium by promoting caveolin-rich platform assembly in response to infection
    Thomas Reidy
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:8269-78. 2013
    ..IL-8 responses via the formation of caveolin-1-rich "signaling hubs" in the corneal cells that led to elevated MAPK p42/p44 activation and sustained inflammatory signaling...
  93. ncbi The pivotal role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase in the human somatostatin sst(4) receptor-mediated stimulation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular acidification
    K S Smalley
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QJ, United Kingdom
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 263:239-43. 1999
    ..In the present study, we have examined the human sst(4) receptor-mediated stimulation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase to determine whether this response is susceptible to a similar agonist-..
  94. doi Regulation of IRS-2 signaling by IGF-1 receptor in the diabetic rat heart
    Youde Jiang
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 88:553-61. 2010
    ..Diabetes increased TNF-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1alpha levels in the heart. JNK and p42/p44 activity was significantly increased in the diabetic heart, while IGF-1R phosphorylation, IRS-2 tyrosine ..
  95. doi Murine bone marrow-derived mast cells express chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper class 2 cells (CRTh2)
    Stefen A Boehme
    Actimis Pharmaceuticals, Inc, 10835 Road to the Cure, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Int Immunol 21:621-32. 2009
    ..D(2) (DK-PGD(2)), resulted in signaling response including Ca(2+) mobilization and phosphorylation of the p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) kinases...
  96. ncbi p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases phosphorylate hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and enhance the transcriptional activity of HIF-1
    D E Richard
    Institute of Signaling, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, UMR CNRS 6543, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 Avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice, France
    J Biol Chem 274:32631-7. 1999
    ..In vitro, HIF-1alpha is phosphorylated by p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and not by p38 MAPK or c-Jun N-terminal kinase...
  97. doi Baicalein attenuates intimal hyperplasia after rat carotid balloon injury through arresting cell-cycle progression and inhibiting ERK, Akt, and NF-kappaB activity in vascular smooth-muscle cells
    Chieh Yu Peng
    Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 378:579-88. 2008
    ..progression in S/G2/M phase, consistent with the cell-cycle effects, baicalein significant inhibited cyclin D1, p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt phosphorylation without change in the other cell-cycle ..
  98. ncbi Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks by G protein-coupled receptors
    J S Gutkind
    Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Sci STKE 2000:re1. 2000
    ..They include extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 (or p44(MAPK) and p42(MAPK)), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs), ERK5 (or BMK), and p38 MAPKs, including p38alpha (or CSBP-1), p38beta, ..
  99. doi Nardilysin in human brain diseases: both friend and foe
    H G Bernstein
    Department of Psychiatry, Otto v Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany
    Amino Acids 45:269-78. 2013
    ..growth factor, tumour necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme, neuregulin 1, beta-secretase 1, malate dehydrogenase, P42(IP4)/centaurin-α1, the histone H3 dimethyl Lys4, and others) and is involved in a plethora of normal brain ..
  100. doi Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type-1 agonism impairs blood dendritic cell chemotaxis and skin dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes under inflammatory conditions
    Gerald Gollmann
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Int Immunol 20:911-23. 2008
    ..to impair chemotaxis of immature and mature human DCs in vitro, possibly by interfering with the activation of p44/p42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
  101. ncbi Expression profiling of medulloblastoma: PDGFRA and the RAS/MAPK pathway as therapeutic targets for metastatic disease
    T J MacDonald
    Center for Cancer and Transplantation Biology, Children s National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue NW, Washington, DC, USA
    Nat Genet 29:143-52. 2001
    ..alpha (PDGFA) enhances medulloblastoma migration and increases downstream MAP2K1 (MEK1), MAP2K2 (MEK2), MAPK1 (p42 MAPK) and MAPK3 (p44 MAPK) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner...

Research Grants73

  1. NOVEL KINASE SIGNALING CASCADES IN PANCREATIC ACINI
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..CCK activates three mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades in rat acini leading to activation of ERKs (p42 and p44 MAPK), Jun Kinase and p38/Reactivating Kinase...
  2. TNF-alpha Signaling in Silica-Induced Lung Fibrosis
    Luis A Ortiz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We also showed that silica promotes activation of p42 MAPK/ERK and induces phosphorylation of TNFR1, a process that modulates silica-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages...
  3. TNF-alpha Control of a Surfactant Enzyme in Lung Injury
    Rama K Mallampalli; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One effect of TNFa is the activation multiple kinase pathways, including p42/44 MAP kinase. TNFa also activates calpains and the ubiquitin-proteasome system...
  4. MECHANISMS OF CORONARY FLOW REGULATION BY ADENOSINE
    S Jamal Mustafa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A1 AR in CASMC involves activation of PLC-2III->PKC1 ->p42/44 in causing contraction. A2B causes relaxation thorough p-38 MAPK...
  5. Ligand Directed Functional Selectivity of G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signalling
    Gerry S Oxford; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..0 channels, CaV2.0 channels, p42/44 MAP kinase (Erk1/2), and 2-arrestin translocation...
  6. Control of Conjuctival Goblet Cell Mucin Production
    Darlene Dartt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and human conjunctival goblet cells will be used to determined if EGF stimulates proliferation by activating 1) p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, (2) phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, or (3) PKC isoforms, Proliferation will be ..
  7. TRAINING IN ENVIRONMENTAL PATHOLOGY
    Agnes B Kane; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..well-funded research programs supported by 27 active research grants, 3 training grants, 2 COBRE grants, an NIEHS P42 Superfund Research Grant, a P20 Formative Center Grant, and a pilot project from the National Children's Study...
  8. Alcohol and Sca-1;Impairment of the granulopoietic precursor cell response
    John Nicholas Melvan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This process involves key cell signaling pathways that down-regulate STAT3 signaling and enhance p44/p42-cyclin D signaling...
  9. Health Effects and Geochemistry of Arsenic and Manganese
    Joseph H Graziano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is submitted in response to RFA-ES-10-010, entitled "Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training Program (P42)...
  10. Developmental Teratogenesis of Methylmercury in Hippocampal stem cells
    Maryann Obiorah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Next, the effects of a single early exposure (P7) on later adult neurogenesis (P21, P42) will be studied...
  11. Antigenic variation by multiple promoter inversions in Mycoplasma penetrans
    Michael Calcutt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..38 of which constitute a large paralogous family (designated mpl) that includes the abundant lipoproteins P35 and P42. Although the precise function of the mpl family is unknown, the individual members are considered to be ..
  12. MT COBRE: CEHS FACULTY DEVELOPMENT, ADMIN CORE
    Andrij Holian; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..4) position the Center for training grant and program project grants including a Superfund Basic Research Center (P42)...
  13. Role of p38 and p42/44 MAPK in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
    James D West; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..BMPR2 can signal through several different pathways, including SMAD 1/5/8 and both p38 and p42/44 MAPK...
  14. TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION BY FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR
    Dwight Towler; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..by expression of dominant negative Ras or MAPK ohosphatase -2, yet is unaffected by inhibition of the classic p44/p42 MAPK cacade...
  15. RAGE and a Novel Tumor Axis
    Ann Schmidt; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In murine tumor models, blockade of amphoterin/RAGE suppresses activation of members of the kinase family, p44/p42, p38 and SAPKIJNK involved in modulating tumor proliferation, invasion/migration, and activation of matrix ..
  16. CYTOSOLIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 TRANSFORMED CELLS
    Raphael Nemenoff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..cPLA2 is phosphorylated and activated in vitro by two growth-factor regulated protein kinases: protein kinase C and p42 MAP kinase...
  17. RAGE and modulation of tumor properties
    Emina Huang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In murine tumor models, blockade of amphoterin/RAGE suppressed activation of members of the MAP kinase family, p44/p42, p38 and SAPK/JNK, involved in tumor cell proliferation, invasion/migration, and activation of matrix ..
  18. METABOLIC CONTROL OF INSULIN EXOCYTOSIS
    Christopher Rhodes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..there are two other PP-2B phosphoprotein substrates on the beta-granule to be identified and characterized (p42 and p36)...
  19. AIRWAY MYOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND LYSOSOMAL HYDROLASE
    DUKHEE LEW; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Specific aims are: 1) To determine the contribution of p42 and p44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44MAPK) and 70-kD ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k) in mannosyl-..
  20. SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL PRECONDITIONING
    RAKESH KUKREJA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..is that pharmacological triggers of PC activate signaling pathway leading to phosphorylation of p38, p44 and p42 MAP kinases and also cause their translocation in the nucleus...
  21. PX REGION OF HTLV I AND II
    William Haseltine; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The focus of research over the past two years has been in the p42 transactivator protein encoded by the pX region...
  22. EARLY S PHASE REPLICATION SITES AS ENVIRONMENTAL TARGETS
    David Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..origins (column with higher affinity for ss-DNA, which origins should have), and has mastered a 2D electrophoresis method to detect unusual DNA structures that are formed during DNA replication (conceptually presented in Fig 18, p42).
  23. Role of PARP-1 in Mediating Inflammatory Gene Transcription
    MITCHELL C JUNG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with a sequence-specific transcription factor(s) and increasing its DMA binding activity;(3) investigate whether p42/44MAPK directly or indirectly phosphprylates and induces PARP-1 catalytic activity in response to LPS;(4) determine ..
  24. Regulation of Cell Signaling and Adhesion
    JOE RAMOS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..I have used an expression-cloning strategy to isolate a protein that blocks ERK/MAPK (p42/p44) signaling, PEA-15. PEA-15 impairs several ERK functions such as activation of transcription...
  25. Mechanisms of CD40-mediated Expression of MMPs & TIMP-1
    Peter Chen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..enhancer A3 promoter activity on the TIMP-1 gene will be determined as well as the relative roles of the JNK, p42/p44 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in mediating TIMP-1 expression...
  26. A P. falciparum MSP1 p42/QS-21 malaria vaccine
    Sandra Chang; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will provide cGMP material and preclinical information for a clinical trial of MSP1.42/QS21 during STTR Phase II. PROPOSED COMMERCIAL APPLICATION: NOT AVAILABLE ..
  27. Evaluation of Immunogenicity : Malaria Subunit Vaccine
    David Clements; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..adjuvants will be evaluated for the ability to elicit an appropriate immune response when combined with an MSP-1 p42 subunit...
  28. ERK/MAPK Signaling and Circadian Clock Entrainment
    GREGORY BUTCHER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Recent evidence has indicated the p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway couples light to clock entrainment...
  29. CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES
    A Carter; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The focus of this application is to define the role(s) of the p42/44 MAPK pathway and its interaction with the p38 MAPK pathway in regulating cytokine gene expression in human AM in ..
  30. ARTERIAL INJURY AND SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL SIGNALING
    Michael Reidy; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The first group of experiments will document the activation of the MAP kinase pathways, namely p42/44erk in the ballooned injured rat carotid arteries...
  31. G PROTEIN REGULATION IN THE KIDNEY
    LOUIS ERCOLANI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..active pre-differentiated LLC-PKI cells, Gi protein function in growth and differentiation cascades link to p42/44 and/or JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinases...
  32. Development of a MSP1-p42 Subunit Vaccine for Malaria
    David Clements; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Phase I research demonstrated that the MSP-1 p42 antigen is expressed at high levels in the Drosophila cell expression system...
  33. Regulation of NO Signaling in Pulmonary Vaculature
    Roger Johns; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The second aim will investigate the effect of NO and L-arginase I expression on polyamine activation of p42/p44 protein kinases, p21 and resultant changes in cell cycle and proliferative response of pulmonary microvascular ..
  34. Neural Substrates of Anorexia
    Dawna Salter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..NPY neurons immediately after anorexia reversal by using imunohistochemical detection of the phosphorylated form of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein/extracellular sinai-regulated kinase (pERK1/2) and in-situ hybridization for NPY mRNA; ..
  35. OSMOTIC REGULATION OF MACROPHAGES IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS
    David Riches; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..will involve concurrent activation of p38 MAP kinase and inhibition of pro-survival signals conferred by either p42 ERK and/or Akt...
  36. Mechanism of ethanol-clonidine synergistic sedation
    TARA BENDER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..acting at the alpha-2A receptor, enhances the effects of ethanol through a phosphorylation cascade involving p42/44 MARK, which activates nNOS...
  37. REGULATION OF CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION
    Ian Macara; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Vanadate is a potent inhibitor of Friend cell differentiation. Total cell and p42 phosphotyrosine levels will be determined along with measurements of DG, myc RNA and S6 kinase activities...
  38. APP AND HIPPOCAMPAL MAP KINASE
    JOHN SWEATT; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..that the chronic exposure of neurons to elevated levels of extracellular Abeta that occurs in Tg2576 mice affects p42 MAPK regulation...
  39. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF ETS1 PROTEIN ISOTYPES
    TAKIS PAPAS; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..understand in detail the mechanism by which an isotype of ETS1, generated as a splicing variant and referred to as p42-ETS1, represses tumorigenicity and induces apoptosis in epithelial cells...
  40. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF DELAYED PRECONDITIONING
    RAKESH KUKREJA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our second hypothesis is that rapid pacing triggers signaling pathway leading to the phosphorylation of p38, p44/p42 (ERK I & 2) and p46/p54 JNK kinases...
  41. Cancer: MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation
    DANIEL MARENDA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In mammals, MARK proteins p42/p44 (also called ERK 1/2) phosphorylate and activate a number of targets in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and ..
  42. Regulation of LTP by Gi Linked Receptors
    Danny Winder; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This regulation occurs in large part through the recruitment of the cAMP and p42-44 MAP kinase (ERK) signaling cascades in hippocampal neurons...
  43. P42/MAP KINASE--STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, AND REGULATION
    Michael Weber; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This is a first amended renewal of a grant, currently in its fifth year, to study the regulation and function of p42 MAP kinase. The MAP kinases are crucial components of diverse signalling cascades. In general, Dr...
  44. Molecular Mechanism of Protein Kinase Cbeta-Mediated Cholesterol Homeostasis
    Kamal D Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The greatest potential for arresting this epidemic is likely to come through a clearer understanding of its molecular pathogenesis to develop rational and mechanism based therapy. ..
  45. Adenosine in trauma and sepsis
    Gyorgy Hasko; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Intracellular signaling in anesthetic and hypoxic preconditioning of neurons
    Philip E Bickler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The work will also identify why the aging brain may not be able to benefit from the neuroprotective actions of anesthetics or other preconditioning treatments. ..
  47. Mechanisms of p42/44MAPK-induced LDL receptor expression
    KAMAL MEHTA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Recently, we provided the first evidence that specific activation of the p42/44mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is not only required but is sufficient to fully induce LDL receptor ..
  48. Role of EGFR in Viral Infected Lung Epithelial Cells
    Martha M Monick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Completion of these studies will add to our understanding of mechanisms of RSV infection of airway epithelium and the role of targeted signaling pathways in the subsequent inflammation and life span of infected cells. ..
  49. Hypertension and Collagen: Effect of Ac-SDKP
    Nour Eddine Rhaleb; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ET-1-stimulated transactivation of the EGFR;2) whether Ac-SDKP inhibits the effects of calcium ionophores or EGF on p42/44 MAPK and collagen synthesis;3) whether PLC, EGFR, cSrc, calmodulin kinase or IP3 inhibitors attenuate MAPK ..
  50. The CXCR4-SDF-1 Axis in Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will be of relevance for designing strategies to block the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis to treat CXCR4-positive cancers. ..
  51. SIGNALING OF MECHANICAL STRAIN IN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS
    Patricia Chess; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The project is designed to optimize the principle investigator's research development, while yielding information regarding pulmonary epithelial responses to mechanical strain. ..
  52. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF HIV BASED THROMBOCYTOPEN
    Mariusz Ratajczak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In toto, the studies proposed in this grant will increase the knowledge about pathogenesis of AIDS associated thrombocytopenia and may lead to development of new strategies for its treatment of prevention. (End of Abstract) ..
  53. GLU6PASE AND 6P2K/FBASE GENE REGULATION IN SEPSIS
    SUBIR MAITRA; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The results of this study are essential to understand the molecular basis of deranged metabolism in sepsis. Understanding the mechanism might be useful for developing appropriate therapeutic intervention during sepsis. ..
  54. TISSUE-CRYSTAL INTERACTION CA OXALATE NEPHROLITHIASIS
    Saeed Khan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We can follow various events of nephrolithiasis in the animal model and cats explore the outcome of renal epithelial cell exposure to oxalate and calcium oxalate crystals in the cell cultures. ..
  55. Pasteurella multocida toxin: Structure and Activity
    Brenda Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..4) To characterize the cellular receptor(s) and to elucidate the internalization pathway(s) utilized by PMT to gain entry into cells. ..
  56. Glycosaminoglycan-based inhibitors for treatment of prostate cancer
    Vinata B Lokeshwar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If proven efficacious, sHA compounds and 4-MU will be a novel class of glycosaminoglycan-based target-specific anti-tumor drugs. ..
  57. IGF-I and its binding proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Cunming Duan; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF BASIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALS
    Herman Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Hypothesis 3: BCP crystals induce MMP-1 via a Ras-dependent p42/44 MAPK signal transduction pathway...
  59. GENETICS AND INTERMITTENT MYOCARDIAL HYPOXIA
    John Baker; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  60. Radiation injury to the heart
    John E Baker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..1 ..
  61. Identification of a new protein that binds Src and PKC
    STEPHEN SOLTOFF; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Future efforts will determine if this new protein alters cell morphology, tight junction formation, or other functions in salivary cells. ..
  62. CaP, crystal responsible for idiopathic nephrolithasis
    Saeed Khan; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Type density and size must conform to limits and specifications provided in the PHS 398Instructions. RESEARCH GRANT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Numbers Face Page 1 Description, ..
  63. Prosaposin, a novel tumor marker for prostate cancer
    Shahriar Koochekpour; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  64. CHRONIC HYPOXIA AND RESISTANCE TO MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
    John E Baker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..kinase signaling cascade: JAK/STAT, Ras, Raf, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt, PKC, JNK, p38 MARK and p42/44 MARK...
  65. Protein ubiquitination based neuroprotection for stroke
    Robert Meller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  66. CREB and Synaptic Reorganization
    Karl Obrietan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..An understanding of the intracellular signaling events that couple seizures to synaptic remodeling should allow for the development of therapeutic approaches designed to block the development of some forms of epilepsy. ..
  67. SATELLITE STEM CELL BIOLOGY
    Frank Booth; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The outcomes of the research will provide a more scientific basis to devise therapies to prevent and treat sarcopenia and physical frailty. ..
  68. MCP-1, TISSUE FACTOR, AND VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE
    ALISON SCHECTER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The receptor will be expressed in COS cells to study the properties of the new receptor in mammalian cells and, in particular, to examine its coupling to TF induction. ..
  69. Developmental Interactions of methamphetamine and stress
    Michael Williams; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The use of different strains of rats prone to hyper- or hyposecretion of HPA axis hormones will be used, as will animals that are exposed to MA without the concurrent increase in CORT. ..