Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: KCNH8
Description: potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 8
Alias: ELK, ELK1, Kv12.1, elk3, ELK channel 3, ether-a-go-go-like potassium channel 1, ether-a-go-go-like potassium channel 3, hElk1, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 8, potassium voltage-gated channel, subfamily H (eag-related), member 8, voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv12.1
Publications145 found, 100 shown here
- Nuclear factor-kappa B activation by the CXC chemokine melanoma growth-stimulatory activity/growth-regulated protein involves the MEKK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathwayD Wang
Department of Veterans Affairs, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
J Biol Chem 276:3650-9. 2001..induction of NF-kappaB is independent of the MEK1/ERK cascade, because MGSA/GROalpha failed to increase ERK and ELK activation, and specific chemical inhibitors for MEK1 (PD98059) had no effect on MGSA/GROalpha-enhanced NF-kappaB ..
- Atypical protein kinase C-zeta stimulates thyrotropin-independent proliferation in rat thyroid cellsN Fernandez
Center for Experimental Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6160, USA
Endocrinology 141:146-52. 2000..Experiments using a luciferase reporter for Elk-1 revealed that PKCzeta overexpressing cells exhibit higher basal Elk-1 transcriptional activity than vector-..
- Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in bull elkW E Cook
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie 82070, USA
J Wildl Dis 36:484-8. 2000Some of the elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) of the Greater Yellowstone Area (Wyoming, Idaho, Montana; USA) are infected with Brucella abortus, the bacterium that causes bovine brucellosis...
- Bartonella spp. isolated from wild and domestic ruminants in North AmericaC C Chang
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 6:306-11. 2000..isolated from 49% of 128 cattle from California and Oklahoma, 90% of 42 mule deer from California, and 15% of 100 elk from California and Oregon...
- Health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elkJ L Corn
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
J Wildl Dis 37:413-26. 2001When considering an elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation...
- Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccination in elk. I. Efficacy of reduced dosageWalter E Cook
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA
J Wildl Dis 38:18-26. 2002Bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA...
- Elk-1, C/EBPalpha, and Pit-1 confer an insulin-responsive phenotype on prolactin promoter expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells and define the factors required for insulin-increased transcriptionK K Jacob
Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA
J Biol Chem 276:24931-6. 2001..b>Elk-1 and Sap-1 were the only Ets-related transcription factors tested as chimeras with LexA DNA-binding domain that ..
- Chronic wasting disease of cervidsM W Miller
Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526 2097, USA
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 284:193-214. 2004..Three cervid species, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of CWD...
- Surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in Arkansas and KentuckyJoseph L Corn
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
J Wildl Dis 46:186-94. 2010Surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Arkansas and Kentucky. Elk had been captured in Colorado and Nebraska and released in Arkansas during 1981-1985...
- Temporal recruitment of the mSin3A-histone deacetylase corepressor complex to the ETS domain transcription factor Elk-1S H Yang
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
Mol Cell Biol 21:2802-14. 2001..Here, we demonstrate that the equilibrium between activation and repression via a single transcription factor, Elk-1, is altered following activation of the Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade...
- Comparison of muscle fatty acid profiles and cholesterol concentrations of bison, beef cattle, elk, and chickenD C Rule
Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie 82071 3684, USA
J Anim Sci 80:1202-11. 2002..bison (18 mo of age), range beef cows (4 to 7 yr of age), feedlot steers (18 mo of age), free-ranging cow elk (3 to 5 yr of age), and chicken breast. Lipids were analyzed by capillary GLC...
- Wolf presence and increased willow consumption by Yellowstone elk: implications for trophic cascadesScott Creel
Department of Ecology, 310 Lewis Hall, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
Ecology 90:2454-66. 2009..Ecosystem (GYE) have been attributed to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade from wolves (Canis lupus) to elk (Cervus elaphus) to willows...
- Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of scrapie to elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculationA N Hamir
National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agricultural, Ames, IA 50010, USA
Vet Pathol 40:81-5. 2003To determine the transmissibility of scrapie to Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), six elk calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from sheep naturally affected with scrapie...
- Immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or 19S C Olsen
Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:1098-103. 2006Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)...
- TNF receptor family member BCMA (B cell maturation) associates with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 and activates NF-kappa B, elk-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinaseA Hatzoglou
Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
J Immunol 165:1322-30. 2000..We also show that overexpression of BCMA in 293 cells activates NF-kappa B, Elk-1, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase...
- The Chernobyl accident. Transport of radionuclides to man living in northern SwedenL Olofsson
Radiation Physics Department, , Sweden
Acta Oncol 27:841-9. 1988..The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish...
- Evaluation of Western blotting methods using samples with or without sodium phosphotungstic acid precipitation for diagnosis of scrapie and chronic wasting diseaseHongsheng Huang
Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Animal Diseases Research Institute, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 3851 Fallowfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario
Can J Vet Res 69:193-9. 2005..A total of 100 cerebrum samples (52 sheep and 48 elk), including 66 negative (31 sheep, 35 elk) and 34 positive (21 scrapie and 13 CWD positive) samples diagnosed by ..
- Prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in South DakotaChristopher N Jacques
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, USA
J Wildl Dis 39:29-34. 2003Heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout South Dakota (USA) and within established chronic wasting disease (CWD) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with CWD and bovine tuberculosis (TB)...
- Behavioral responses of bison and elk in Yellowstone to snowmobiles and snow coachesJohn J Borkowski
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman 59717, USA
Ecol Appl 16:1911-25. 2006..Most vehicles toured the central portion of the park where bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) concentrate in geothermal areas...
- Transdisciplinary habitat models for elk and cattle as a proxy for bovine tuberculosis transmission riskRyan K Brook
Environmental Conservation Lab, Clayton H Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth, and Resources, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Prev Vet Med 91:197-208. 2009..Transmission of TB between cattle (Bos taurus) and wild elk (Cervus elaphus) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada remains poorly understood but there is a risk when commingling ..
- Estimating the true prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk in MichiganDaniel J O'Brien
Wildlife Disease Laboratory, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, Michigan 48910 8106, USA
J Wildl Dis 44:802-10. 2008Although relatively small, Michigan's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) herd is highly valued by both hunters and the general public...
- Evaluating prey switching in wolf-ungulate systemsRobert A Garrott
Ecology Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
Ecol Appl 17:1588-97. 2007..taxa and field data from ongoing wolf-ungulate studies to construct a model of predator diet composition for a wolf-elk-bison system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA...
- Neither ERK nor JNK/SAPK MAP kinase subtypes are essential for histone H3/HMG-14 phosphorylation or c-fos and c-jun inductionE Cano
Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Randall Institute, King s College London, UK
J Cell Sci 108:3599-609. 1995..JNK/SAPKs bind to GST-cJun1-79, and ERKs, particularly ERK-2, to GST-Elk1(307-428); there is no cross-specificity of binding...
- Epidemiology of an outbreak of chronic wasting disease on elk farms in SaskatchewanConnie K Argue
Western Animal Health Program Network, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Calgary, Alberta
Can Vet J 48:1241-8. 2007An outbreak of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in farmed elk in Saskatchewan from 1996 to 2002 was reviewed to 1, determine the progression of CWD from infection to death in farmed elk; 2, assess animal risk factors for CWD infection in ..
- C/EBP beta and Elk-1 synergistically transactivate the c-fos serum response elementM Hanlon
Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee USA
BMC Cell Biol 1:2. 2000..Due to these common observations, we addressed the possibility that C/EBPbeta and Elk-1 could both be necessary for Ras-stimulated transactivation of the SRE.
- Growth factor-induced transcription via the serum response element is inhibited by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in MCF-7 breast cancer cellsW L Lowe
Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Chicago Healthcare System and Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Endocrinology 138:2219-26. 1997..upon the activation by phosphorylation of a ternary complex factor; included among the ternary complex factors is Elk-1...
- Transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic miceGULTEKIN TAMGUNEY
Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143 0518, USA
J Virol 80:9104-14. 2006Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. Unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals...
- Epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in Colorado and WyomingM W Miller
Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins 80526 2097, USA
J Wildl Dis 36:676-90. 2000..and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming (USA)...
- Effects of management, behavior, and scavenging on risk of brucellosis transmission in elk of western WyomingEric J Maichak
Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Pinedale, Wyoming 82941, USA
J Wildl Dis 45:398-410. 2009Brucellosis is endemic in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using winter feedgrounds of western Wyoming, USA presumably because of increased animal density, duration of attendance, and subsequent contact with aborted fetuses...
- Activation of Elk-1, an Ets transcription factor, by glucose and EGF treatment of insulinoma cellsE Bernal-Mizrachi
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281:E1286-99. 2001b>Elk-1, a member of the ternary complex factor family of Ets domain proteins that bind serum response elements, is activated by phosphorylation in a cell-specific manner in response to growth factors and other agents...
- Elk browsing increases aboveground growth of water-stressed willows by modifying plant architectureDanielle B Johnston
Colorado Division of Wildlife, 711 Independent Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81505, USA
Oecologia 154:467-78. 2007In the northern elk wintering range of Yellowstone National Park, USA, wolf (Canis lupus) removal allowed elk (Cervus elaphus) to overbrowse riparian woody plants, leading to the exclusion of beaver (Castor canadensis) and a subsequent ..
- Evaluation of a forage allocation model for Theodore Roosevelt National ParkLynn R Irby
Ecology Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
J Environ Manage 64:153-69. 2002..National Park (TRNP), North Dakota determine optimum numbers of four ungulate species, bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and feral horses, in the Park...
- Disease-specific motifs can be identified in circulating nucleic acids from live elk and cattle infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathiesPaul M K Gordon
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Sun Center of Excellence for Visual Genomics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1
Nucleic Acids Res 37:550-6. 2009..spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), we searched for disease-specific patterns in circulating nucleic acids (CNA) in elk and cattle...
- Rapid electrical and delayed molecular signals regulate the serum response element after nerve injury: convergence of injury and learning signalsHana Lin
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 1201 Black Building, Columbia University, West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Neurobiol 57:204-20. 2003..nerves in Aplysia californica and the sciatic nerve in the mouse and found short- and long-term activation of an Elk1-SRF transcription complex that binds to the serum response element (SRE)...
- Mice deficient for the ets transcription factor elk-1 show normal immune responses and mildly impaired neuronal gene activationFrancesca Cesari
Abteilung Molekularbiologie, Universitatsklinikum Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
Mol Cell Biol 24:294-305. 2004The transcription factor Elk-1 belongs to the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of Ets proteins. TCFs interact with serum response factor to bind jointly to serum response elements in the promoters of immediate-early genes (IEGs)...
- A TAT-DEF-Elk-1 peptide regulates the cytonuclear trafficking of Elk-1 and controls cytoskeleton dynamicsJeremie Lavaur
Signalisation Neuronale et Régulations Géniques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7102, 75005 Paris, France
J Neurosci 27:14448-58. 2007The transcription factor Elk-1 plays a key role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis...
- Physiologic effects of nasal oxygen or medical air administered prior to and during carfentanil-xylazine anesthesia in North American elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis)Jessica M Paterson
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada
J Zoo Wildl Med 40:39-50. 2009This study compared the physiologic effects of carfentanil-xylazine anesthesia in elk administered nasal oxygen or medical air...
- Activation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 long terminal repeat by the ternary complex factor Elk-1Heather Y Winter
Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, MS 385, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Virol 81:13075-81. 2007..Binding of the TCF family member Elk-1 to these sites was shown to activate transcription of the promoter...
- Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, CanadaP R Grimstad
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556
J Wildl Dis 22:453-8. 1986Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from ..
- The functional properties of the human ether-à-go-go-like (HELK2) K+ channelAndrea Becchetti
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milan, Italy
Eur J Neurosci 16:415-28. 2002The voltage-dependent K+ channels belonging to the ether-à-go-go family (eag, erg, elk) are widely expressed in the mammalian CNS. Their neuronal function, however, is poorly understood...
- Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.APauline Nol
U S Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinary Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 41:510-5. 2010..on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera ..
- Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting methodHongsheng Huang
Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ontario, Canada
Can J Vet Res 75:69-72. 2011..on the detection of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in lymphoid and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from elk and sheep...
- Transmission of scrapie and sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions to transgenic mice expressing elk prion proteinGULTEKIN TAMGUNEY
Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0518, USA
J Gen Virol 90:1035-47. 2009..To address whether prions from sheep might be able to cause disease in cervids, we inoculated mice expressing the elk prion protein (PrP) transgene [Tg(ElkPrP) mice] with two scrapie prion isolates...
- Similarities and differences in the way transmembrane-type ligands interact with the Elk subclass of Eph receptorsR Brambilla
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
Mol Cell Neurosci 8:199-209. 1996..that are tethered to the cell surface via a transmembrane domain, and a subset of Eph receptors, the so-called Elk subclass...
- Paresis and death in elk (Cervus elaphus) due to lichen intoxication in WyomingWalter E Cook
Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming 82070, USA
J Wildl Dis 43:498-503. 2007During February-April 2004, an estimated 400-500 free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) developed paresis, became recumbent, and died or were euthanized in the Red Rim Wildlife Habitat Management Area (RRWHMA), Wyoming, USA...
- Ectoparasites from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from WyomingW M Samuel
Department of Zoology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
J Wildl Dis 27:446-51. 1991Hides of nine elk, collected during the winter of 1986-1987 from the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming (USA) were examined for ectoparasites. Parasites recovered were mites, Psoroptes sp...
- Foot-and-mouth disease in North American bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni): susceptibility, intra- and interspecies transmission, clinical signs, and lesionsJack Rhyan
National Wildlife Research Center, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
J Wildl Dis 44:269-79. 2008..about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in North American bison (Bison bison) or elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)...
- Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian modelsPaul C Cross
Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e10322. 2010..We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming...
- Blood culture and stimulation conditions for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in cervids by the Cervigam assayW R Waters
Tuberculosis Research Project, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA
Vet Rec 162:203-8. 2008..to Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer and reindeer, M bovis BCG-vaccinated white-tailed deer and elk, and unvaccinated, uninfected white-tailed deer, fallow deer, elk and reindeer...
- FLI1 and EWS-FLI1 function as ternary complex factors and ELK1 and SAP1a function as ternary and quaternary complex factors on the Egr1 promoter serum response elementsD K Watson
Center for Molecular and Structural Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA
Oncogene 14:213-21. 1997..The SRE is a cis-element that regulates the expression of many growth factor responsive genes. ELK1 and SAP1a have been shown to form ternary complexes with SRF on the SRE located in the c-fos promoter...
- Chronic wasting disease of deer and elk in transgenic mice: oral transmission and pathobiologyMatthew J Trifilo
Viral Immunobiology Laboratory, Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Virology 365:136-43. 2007To study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, transgenic (tg) mice were generated that expressed the prion protein (PrP) of deer containing a glycine at amino acid (aa) 96 and a serine at aa 225 under ..
- Mineral deficiencies in tule elk, Owens Valley, CaliforniaHeather E Johnson
Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Recovery Program, California Department of Fish and Game, 407 West Line Street, Bishop, CA 93514, USA
J Wildl Dis 43:61-74. 2007Male tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) are susceptible to high rates of antler breakage in Owens Valley, California. We hypothesized that a mineral deficiency in the diet predisposed male elk to antler breakage...
- Prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting diseaseJean E Jewell
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory WSVL, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, WY 82070, USA
J Gen Virol 87:3443-50. 2006..appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (Alces alces shirasi) were examined by ELISA, Western immunoblot and ..
- Multiscale wolf predation risk for elk: does migration reduce risk?Mark Hebblewhite
Wildlife Biology Program, Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, College of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
Oecologia 152:377-87. 2007..We test the predation risk reduction hypothesis at two spatial scales in a partially migratory elk (Cervus elaphus) population by comparing exposure of migrant and resident elk to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk...
- Osteocyte lacuna population densities in sheep, elk and horse calcaneiJohn G Skedros
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84107, USA
Cells Tissues Organs 181:23-37. 2005..and medial/lateral ("shear" or neutral axis) cortices of mid-diaphyseal sections of calcanei of adult sheep, elk, and horses. Ot.Lc.N/B...
- Female elk contacts are neither frequency nor density dependentP C Cross
U S Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, 2327 University Way, Suite 2, Bozeman, Montana 59715, USA
Ecology 94:2076-86. 2013..We studied the interaction patterns of 149 female elk (Cervus canadensis) distributed across five different regions of western Wyoming over three years, defining a ..
- Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)Bruce K Johnson
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, 1401 Gekeler Lane, La Grande, Oregon 98750, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 37:301-5. 2006The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated...
- Chronic wasting disease of elk and deer and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: comparative analysis of the scrapie prion proteinZhiliang Xie
Institute of Pathology and National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Biol Chem 281:4199-206. 2006Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible prion disease that affects elk and deer, poses new challenges to animal and human health. Although the transmission of CWD to humans has not been proven, it remains a possibility...
- Preferential binding to Elk-1 by SLE-associated IL10 risk allele upregulates IL10 expressionDaisuke Sakurai
Division of Rheumatology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
PLoS Genet 9:e1003870. 2013..from SLE patients for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified specific binding of transcription factor Elk-1 to oligodeoxynucleotides containing the risk (G) allele of rs3122605, suggesting rs3122605 as the most likely ..
- Prion protein NMR structures of elk and of mouse/elk hybridsAlvar D Gossert
Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Biophysik, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, CH 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:646-50. 2005The NMR structure of the recombinant elk prion protein (ePrP), which represents the cellular isoform (ePrPC) in the healthy organism, is described here...
- Variable patterns of distribution of PrP(CWD) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting diseaseT R Spraker
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
Vet Rec 155:295-302. 2004..at the level of the obex, palatine tonsil and medial retropharyngeal lymph node from 10,269 captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), were examined by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody for the prion ..
- Radionuclides in soil and water near a low-level disposal site and potential ecological and human health impactsJ K Ferenbaugh
ESH 20, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA
Environ Monit Assess 74:243-54. 2002..doses resulting from uptake of Area G radionuclides by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus), then consumption of deer and elk meat by humans...
- Grape seed extract inhibits EGF-induced and constitutively active mitogenic signaling but activates JNK in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: possible role in antiproliferation and apoptosisAlpana Tyagi
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA
Oncogene 22:1302-16. 2003..g. EGFR-TGFalpha) results in a constitutive activation of MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in human PCA at an advanced and androgen-independent stage...
- Elk exposure to arsenic in geothermal watersheds of Yellowstone National Park, USABenjamin D Kocar
Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94305, USA
Environ Toxicol Chem 23:982-9. 2004..This study was conducted to determine concentrations of arsenic in the tissues, feces, and rumen contents of elk (Cervus elaphus) residing in the Madison-Firehole (MF) River basin, and to evaluate potential arsenic exposure ..
- Safety of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in non-target ungulates and coyotesTerry J Kreeger
Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 2362 Highway 34, Wheatland, Wyoming 82201, USA
J Wildl Dis 38:552-7. 2002Brucellosis is endemic in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA; USA)...
- Alternative splicing within the elk-1 5' untranslated region serves to modulate initiation events downstream of the highly conserved upstream open reading frame 2Gwendoline Rahim
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
Mol Cell Biol 32:1745-56. 2012..We previously reported the characterization of two alternatively spliced 5' UTR isoforms of the human elk-1 gene...
- Functional characterization of the promoter region of the human EVI1 gene in acute myeloid leukemia: RUNX1 and ELK1 directly regulate its transcriptionM Maicas
Laboratory of Genetics, Division of Oncology, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Oncogene 32:2069-78. 2013..Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays identified RUNX1 and ELK1 as putative transcription factors of EVI1...
- Evaluation of four raw meat diets using domestic cats, captive exotic felids, and cecectomized roostersK R Kerr
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
J Anim Sci 91:225-37. 2013..carnivores containing traditional and alternative raw meat sources, specifically, beef trimmings, bison trimmings, elk muscle meat, and horse trimmings...
- Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone EcosystemAbigail A Nelson
Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA
Ecol Appl 22:2293-307. 2012..In this study, we evaluate the influence of elk (Cervus elaphus) distribution and other landscape features on wolf (Canis lupus) habitat use in an area of chronic ..
- Elk-1 phosphorylated at threonine-417 is present in diverse cancers and correlates with differentiation grade of colonic adenocarcinomaJacqueline F Morris
Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Hum Pathol 44:766-76. 2013b>Elk-1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, which are identified by a conserved Ets DNA-binding domain that mediates transcriptional regulation at Ets sequence--containing promoters...
- Chimeric elk/mouse prion proteins in transgenic miceGULTEKIN TAMGUNEY
Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
J Gen Virol 94:443-52. 2013Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk is a highly communicable neurodegenerative disorder caused by prions. Investigations of CWD are hampered by slow bioassays in transgenic (Tg) mice...
- Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?Hawthorne L Beyer
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
Ecol Appl 17:1563-71. 2007..Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the ..
- Ternary complex factors Elk-1 and Sap-1a mediate growth hormone-induced transcription of egr-1 (early growth response factor-1) in 3T3-F442A preadipocytesR W Clarkson
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University Queensland, St Lucia, Australia
Mol Endocrinol 13:619-31. 1999..EMSA supershifts indicated these ternary complexes contained serum response factor (SRF) and the Ets factors Elk-1 and Sap-1a...
- Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculationJustin J Greenlee
Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA, USA
J Vet Diagn Invest 24:1087-93. 2012..The purpose of the current study was to assess the potential for CWD derived from elk to transmit to cattle after intracranial inoculation...
- Human selection of elk behavioural traits in a landscape of fearSimone Ciuti
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Proc Biol Sci 279:4407-16. 2012..By monitoring elk (Cervus elaphus) with satellite telemetry, we tested whether individuals harvested by hunters adopted less ..
- Opposing roles of Elk-1 and its brain-specific isoform, short Elk-1, in nerve growth factor-induced PC12 differentiationP Vanhoutte
Laboratoire de Neurochimie Anatomie, Institut des Neurosciences, CNRS UMR 7624, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris, France
J Biol Chem 276:5189-96. 2001The ternary complex factor Elk-1, a major nuclear target of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, is a strong transactivator of serum-responsive element (SRE) driven gene expression...
- Detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplificationTracy A Nichols
National Wildlife Research Center, U S Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 4101 La Porte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
J Vet Diagn Invest 24:746-9. 2012..The present report describes the detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in the CSF of elk and evaluates its usefulness as an antemortem test for CWD...
- Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)Gordon B Mitchell
National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
PLoS ONE 7:e39055. 2012..wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, remains prevalent in North American elk, white-tailed deer and mule deer...
- Molecular epidemiology of Brucella abortus isolates from cattle, elk, and bison in the United States, 1998 to 2011James Higgins
Mycobacteria and Brucella Section, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, USDA APHIS, Ames, Iowa, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 78:3674-84. 2012..abortus genome was used to assess genetic diversity among 366 field isolates recovered from cattle, bison, and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Texas during 1998 to 2011...
- Abomasal parasite syndrome in North American elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis)M R Woodbury
Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon SK, Canada S7N 5B4
N Z Vet J 57:235-40. 2009..of chronic ill-thrift, weight loss and emaciation, and eventual death occurred in a group of 520 translocated elk of mixed age and sex...
- Locations of the ets subfamily members net, elk1, and sap1 (ELK3, ELK1, and ELK4) on three homologous regions of the mouse and human genomesA Giovane
Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France
Genomics 29:769-72. 1995Net, Elk1, and Sap1 are related members of the Ets oncoprotein family...
- Elucidation of the ELK1 target gene network reveals a role in the coordinate regulation of core components of the gene regulation machineryJoanna Boros
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
Genome Res 19:1963-73. 2009..We have used ChIP-chip analysis to identify the target genes of the ETS-domain transcription factor ELK1. Two distinct modes of ELK1 target gene selection are identified; the first involves redundant promoter binding ..
- cDNA cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal localization of NET(EPHT2), a human EPH-related receptor protein-tyrosine kinase gene preferentially expressed in brainX X Tang
Division of Neurology Research, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Genomics 29:426-37. 1995..NET shows 87% homology in nucleotide sequence and 99% homology in the deduced amino acid sequence to rat elk, suggesting that NET is the human homologue of elk...
- Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) as experimental definitive hosts for Fascioloides magnaW J Foreyt
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman 99164 7040, USA
J Wildl Dis 32:603-6. 1996In August 1992, six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) fawns and four elk (Cervus elaphus) calves (n = 2) or yearlings (n = 2) each were inoculated orally with 50, 250, or 2,000 metacercariae of the liver fluke Fascioloides magna ..
- Radionuclides in deer and elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory and the doses to humans from the ingestion of muscle and boneP R Fresquez
Environment, Safety and Health Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545, USA
J Environ Sci Health B 34:901-15. 1999..238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and totU) in muscle and bone tissue of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, lands from 1991 ..
- Expression of mRNA for voltage-dependent and inward-rectifying K channels in GH3/B6 cells and rat pituitaryI Wulfsen
Abteilung fur angewandte Physiologie, Institut fur Physiologie, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Universitat Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
J Neuroendocrinol 12:263-72. 2000..2, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, Kv3.2, Kv4.1, Kv5.1; six EAG: eag1, erg1, erg2, elk1-elk3; three KCNQ: KCNQ1-KCNQ3) and for five different Kir channel alpha-subunits (Kir1.1, Kir2.3, Kir3.2, Kir3.3, Kir6...
- Safety and efficacy of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in captive pregnant elkT J Kreeger
Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Wheatland 82201, USA
J Wildl Dis 36:477-83. 2000..Strain RB51 vaccine was evaluated in pregnant captive elk (Cervus elaphus) to determine (1) if it induced abortion and (2) if it protected against abortion following ..
- Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with mycotic pneumonia in two juvenile elk (Cervus elaphus)Nicole M Ferguson
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, 625 Harrison Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:849-53. 2008Two yearling bull elk (cervus claphus) from the same farm developed anorexia, weight loss, and lameness. On physical examination, both elk were thin and showed diffuse swelling of all lower limbs...
- Cholangiectasis and duodenal diverticulosis in a farm-raised elk (Cervus elaphus)Michael A Owston
Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and Deapartment of Comparative Pathobiology, School fo Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
J Vet Diagn Invest 20:517-20. 2008A 6-year-old male elk presented in August with a 4-month history of weight loss and a 1-day history of being recumbent and unable to rise. The elk's body condition score was 1.5/5...
- Oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against Brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus)Angela M Arenas-Gamboa
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Texas 77845 1114, USA
J Wildl Dis 45:1021-9. 2009Bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), USA, are infected with Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease...
- Evaluation of the Western immunoblot as a detection method for Brucella abortus exposure in elkBrant A Schumaker
Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
J Wildl Dis 46:87-94. 2010..The western immunoblot was evaluated for use in detecting B. abortus exposure in elk (Cervus elaphus) and for ruling out exposure to cross-reacting bacteria...
- Embryo brain kinase: a novel gene of the eph/elk receptor tyrosine kinase familyJ Ellis
Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
Mech Dev 52:319-41. 1995A new gene belonging to the Eph/Eck/Elk receptor tyrosine kinase family has been cloned from mouse brain. The gene maps to mouse chromosome 4. In the adult brain it is expressed exclusively and abundantly in the hippocampus...
- ERF: an ETS domain protein with strong transcriptional repressor activity, can suppress ets-associated tumorigenesis and is regulated by phosphorylation during cell cycle and mitogenic stimulationD N Sgouras
Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
EMBO J 14:4781-93. 1995..of the protein at the N-terminus and th repression domain at the C-terminus is reminiscent of the organization of ELK1-like members of the ets family; however, there is no significant homology between ERF and ELK1 or any other ets ..
- The SRF accessory protein Elk-1 contains a growth factor-regulated transcriptional activation domainR Marais
Transcription Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, England
Cell 73:381-93. 1993The Elk-1 and SRF transcription factors form a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (SRE)...
- Immediate-early transcriptional response to angiotensin II in human adrenocortical cellsGerald Thiel
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 44, University of Saarland Medical Center, D 66421 Homburg, Germany
Endocrinology 152:4211-23. 2011..Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of the ternary complex factor Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, prevented Egr-1 expression ..
- Fibroblast growth factor 21 induces glucose transporter-1 expression through activation of the serum response factor/Ets-like protein-1 in adipocytesXuan Ge
Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
J Biol Chem 286:34533-41. 2011..assay demonstrated that the transcription factors serum response factor (SRF) and Ets-like protein-1 (Elk-1) were recruited to the GLUT1 promoter upon FGF21 stimulation...
- Travel history, hunting, and venison consumption related to prion disease exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population SurveyJoseph Y Abrams
Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, all with the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
J Am Diet Assoc 111:858-63. 2011..Travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption could result in the exposure of US residents to the agents that cause BSE and CWD...
- elk-1 proteins interact with MAP kinasesV N Rao
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Cancer Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 5541
Oncogene 9:1855-60. 1994..b>elk-1, an ets related gene codes for two transcriptional factors elk-1, which regulates c-fos transcription and delta ..
- Vaccination with Brucella abortus recombinant in vivo-induced antigens reduces bacterial load and promotes clearance in a mouse model for infectionJake E Lowry
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e17425. 2011..ineffective in inducing protective immunity in animals that are chronically infected with Brucella abortus, such as elk. Using a gene discovery approach, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) on B...
- Activation and repression of cellular immediate early genes by serum response factor cofactorsSeung Min Lee
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA
J Biol Chem 285:22036-49. 2010..Two families of SRF coactivators have also been implicated in IEG induction, the ternary complex factors (TCFs), ELK1, Sap1, and Net, and the myocardin-related factors, MKL1 and MKL2...
- Probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the Greater Yellowstone EcosystemP C Cross
U S Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, 229 AJM Johnson Hall, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
Ecol Appl 20:278-88. 2010..We present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for Brucella abortus in new areas of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE)..
- Characterization of prion protein conformational changesVALERIE D DAGGETT; Fiscal Year: 2010..in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. While rare, these diseases are always fatal...
- Assessing the Transmissibility of CWD to HumansQingzhong Kong; Fiscal Year: 2010DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the prion disease in cervids (deer and elk), is widespread in North America...
- PrP-scrapie transport across intestinal & BBBNeena Singh; Fiscal Year: 2007..An emerging concern is the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a prion disease of the deer and elk in certain parts of USA, and the uncertainties regarding its transmission to livestock and humans...
- Interaction of Prions with Dendritic CellsMichael Green; Fiscal Year: 2004..encephalopathy (BSE), and the observation of an ever-growing outbreak of chronic wasting disease among deer and elk in the United States have brought the issue of prion diseases into the spotlight...
- Transmission of Prions Within and Between SpeciesRobert Harrington; Fiscal Year: 2006..Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a form of TSE in wild and captive elk, mule deer, and white tail deer...
- Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (Prion) Disease of Deer and ElkLaura Solforosi; Fiscal Year: 2007..utilize a transgenic (tg) model we developed to study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk. At the last review the grant received a 13% score, not sufficient for funding...
- Infectious prion generation by mouse transgenesisChristina Sigurdson; Fiscal Year: 2009..Based on structural PrP NMR studies of the elk PrP (K...
- Genetic Study of the Yeast Prion-Interacting ProteinsYury O Chernoff; Fiscal Year: 2010..Mammalian prion diseases, such as "mad cow" disease and chronic wasting disease of elk and deer, represent a significant health threat due to a possibility of their transmission to humans with infected ..
- Defining the prion domain of PrPJames Mastrianni; Fiscal Year: 2006..With the continued threat of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, and the current spread of chronic wasting disease of deer and elk in the U.S., these studies are urgently needed.
- RAPID TEST FOR TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIESElizabeth Williams; Fiscal Year: 2001..Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) of deer and elk will be used as a model for other TSEs...
- Pathogenesis Studies in Scrapie (TSE Diseases)Michael Oldstone; Fiscal Year: 2003..and its potential for transmission via the food chain to humans and the awareness that the majority of deer and elk on farms as well as 10 to 20% of wild deer and about 1% of elk develop TSE disease (CWD)...
- Development of Novel Brucella Vaccine CandidatesStacy Ferguson; Fiscal Year: 2004..The prevalence of Brucella abortus infection among elk and bison populations of Yellowstone National Park has raised concerns about reintroduction of B...
- Phosphorylation of Prion Protein as a novel mechanism for conversionAndrea C LeBlanc; Fiscal Year: 2010..diseases are transmitted through the conversion of the normally inoffensive prion protein of a host (human, bovine, Elk) into a disease-causing protein. The mechanism for the conversion of this protein is unknown...
- SIGNALS FOR RENAL ENDOTHELIAL CAPILLARY MORPHOGENESISJin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2001..In this regard, previous studies by this investigator have shown that the ELK subclass of Eph family of receptors are critical in cultured human renal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) ..
- Social and emotional skills training with young childrenMELISSA DEROSIER; Fiscal Year: 2004..is to develop and test a research-based emotional intelligence program, entitled "Emotionally Literate Kids" (ELK), for K through 2nd grade students...