IL 29

Summary

Gene Symbol: IL 29
Description: interferon lambda 1
Alias: IL-29, IL29, interferon lambda-1, IFN-lambda-1, cytokine Zcyto21, interleukin 29 (interferon, lambda 1), interleukin-29
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi IL-28, IL-29 and their class II cytokine receptor IL-28R
    Paul Sheppard
    ZymoGenetics, Inc, 1201 Eastlake Avenue E, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:63-8. 2003
  2. ncbi IL-28A and IL-29 mediate antiproliferative and antiviral signals in intestinal epithelial cells and murine CMV infection increases colonic IL-28A expression
    Stephan Brand
    Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Munich Grosshadern, University of Munich, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 289:G960-8. 2005
  3. ncbi Interferon-lambda-treated dendritic cells specifically induce proliferation of FOXP3-expressing suppressor T cells
    Franck J D Mennechet
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité mixte de recherche 5124, University of Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Blood 107:4417-23. 2006
  4. pmc IFNalpha and IFNlambda differ in their antiproliferative effects and duration of JAK/STAT signaling activity
    Stephen G Maher
    Department of Surgery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Cancer Biol Ther 7:1109-15. 2008
  5. pmc Interleukin-29 functions cooperatively with interferon to induce antiviral gene expression and inhibit hepatitis C virus replication
    Nicole E Pagliaccetti
    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:30079-89. 2008
  6. ncbi IFN-lambdas mediate antiviral protection through a distinct class II cytokine receptor complex
    Sergei V Kotenko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:69-77. 2003
  7. pmc Comparative analysis of the lambda-interferons IL-28A and IL-29 regarding their transcriptome and their antiviral properties against hepatitis C virus
    Julia Diegelmann
    Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Munich Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e15200. 2010
  8. doi IL-29 and IFNα differ in their ability to modulate IL-12 production by TLR-activated human macrophages and exhibit differential regulation of the IFNγ receptor expression
    Bi Sheng Liu
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, s Gravendijkwal 230, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Blood 117:2385-95. 2011
  9. pmc Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) induces signal transduction and gene expression in human hepatocytes, but not in lymphocytes or monocytes
    Harold Dickensheets
    Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 29 Lincoln Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 93:377-85. 2013
  10. doi IFN-lambda1 (IL-29) inhibits GATA3 expression and suppresses Th2 responses in human naive and memory T cells
    Jihong Dai
    Genetic Immunology Laboratory, HUMIGEN, The Institute for Genetic Immunology, Hamilton, NJ 08690, USA
    Blood 113:5829-38. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Interferon-gamma To Treat Chronic HCV Infection
    Andrew Muir; Fiscal Year: 2002
  2. Characterization of the IL-TIF Receptor Complex
    Sergei Kotenko; Fiscal Year: 2005
  3. Role of Interferon-lambda in Antiviral Response
    Sergei Kotenko; Fiscal Year: 2009

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. ncbi IL-28, IL-29 and their class II cytokine receptor IL-28R
    Paul Sheppard
    ZymoGenetics, Inc, 1201 Eastlake Avenue E, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:63-8. 2003
    ..This newly described cytokine family may serve as an alternative to type I IFNs in providing immunity to viral infection...
  2. ncbi IL-28A and IL-29 mediate antiproliferative and antiviral signals in intestinal epithelial cells and murine CMV infection increases colonic IL-28A expression
    Stephan Brand
    Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Munich Grosshadern, University of Munich, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 289:G960-8. 2005
    ....
  3. ncbi Interferon-lambda-treated dendritic cells specifically induce proliferation of FOXP3-expressing suppressor T cells
    Franck J D Mennechet
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité mixte de recherche 5124, University of Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Blood 107:4417-23. 2006
    ..IFN-lambdas are thus able to generate tolerogenic DCs, an activity that could thwart IFN-beta functions...
  4. pmc IFNalpha and IFNlambda differ in their antiproliferative effects and duration of JAK/STAT signaling activity
    Stephen G Maher
    Department of Surgery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Cancer Biol Ther 7:1109-15. 2008
    ..Thus our data demonstrate that the duration of IFNlambda signaling is different from that of IFNalpha, and that IFNlambda could be a suitable cytokine to evaluate for cancer therapy...
  5. pmc Interleukin-29 functions cooperatively with interferon to induce antiviral gene expression and inhibit hepatitis C virus replication
    Nicole E Pagliaccetti
    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:30079-89. 2008
    ..These findings provide new insight into the coregulation of a critical innate immune response by functionally distinct cytokine families...
  6. ncbi IFN-lambdas mediate antiviral protection through a distinct class II cytokine receptor complex
    Sergei V Kotenko
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Nat Immunol 4:69-77. 2003
    ..This receptor-ligand system may contribute to antiviral or other defenses by a mechanism similar to, but independent of, type I IFNs...
  7. pmc Comparative analysis of the lambda-interferons IL-28A and IL-29 regarding their transcriptome and their antiviral properties against hepatitis C virus
    Julia Diegelmann
    Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Munich Grosshadern, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e15200. 2010
    ..This is the first study comparatively investigating the transcriptome and the antiviral properties of the Lambda-interferons IL-28A and IL-29...
  8. doi IL-29 and IFNα differ in their ability to modulate IL-12 production by TLR-activated human macrophages and exhibit differential regulation of the IFNγ receptor expression
    Bi Sheng Liu
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, s Gravendijkwal 230, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Blood 117:2385-95. 2011
    ..Our findings on the differences between IFNα and IL-29 in modulating TLR-induced cytokine production by macrophages may contribute to understanding the role of IFNs in regulating immunity to pathogens...
  9. pmc Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) induces signal transduction and gene expression in human hepatocytes, but not in lymphocytes or monocytes
    Harold Dickensheets
    Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 29 Lincoln Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 93:377-85. 2013
    ..This important functional difference may provide a clinical advantage for IFN-λ as a treatment for chronic HCV infection, as it is less likely to induce the leukopenias that are often associated with IFN-α therapy...
  10. doi IFN-lambda1 (IL-29) inhibits GATA3 expression and suppresses Th2 responses in human naive and memory T cells
    Jihong Dai
    Genetic Immunology Laboratory, HUMIGEN, The Institute for Genetic Immunology, Hamilton, NJ 08690, USA
    Blood 113:5829-38. 2009
    ..Taken together, our data describe unique immunomodulatory effects of IFN-lambda1 and identify novel mechanisms for the reduction of existing Th2 responses and the regulation of new ones, in circulating naive and memory CD4(+) T cells...
  11. pmc Lambda interferon inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of macrophages
    Wei Hou
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 83:3834-42. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that IFN-lambda may have therapeutic value in the treatment of HIV-1 infection...
  12. pmc Differentiated human alveolar type II cells secrete antiviral IL-29 (IFN-lambda 1) in response to influenza A infection
    Jieru Wang
    Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    J Immunol 182:1296-304. 2009
    ..These results suggest that IL-29 exerts IFN-beta-independent protection in type II cells through direct activation of antiviral genes during IAV infection...
  13. ncbi Interferon lambda-1 (IFN-lambda1/IL-29) induces ELR(-) CXC chemokine mRNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in an IFN-gamma-independent manner
    V Pekarek
    HUMIGEN, The Institute for Genetic Immunology, Hamilton, NJ 08690 3303, USA
    Genes Immun 8:177-80. 2007
    ..Overall the action of IFN-lambda1 was similar to that previously reported for IFN-gamma and may invite more detailed investigation of the role of IFN-lambda1 at the innate/adaptive interface...
  14. ncbi Characterization of the mouse IFN-lambda ligand-receptor system: IFN-lambdas exhibit antitumor activity against B16 melanoma
    Ahmed Lasfar
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Cancer Res 66:4468-77. 2006
    ..IFN-lambda2 cells, suggesting that IFN-lambdas engage host mechanisms to inhibit melanoma growth. These in vivo experiments show the antitumor activities of IFN-lambdas and suggest their strong therapeutic potential...
  15. ncbi Role of the interleukin (IL)-28 receptor tyrosine residues for antiviral and antiproliferative activity of IL-29/interferon-lambda 1: similarities with type I interferon signaling
    Laure Dumoutier
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels Branch and the Experimental Medicine Unit, Universite de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Biol Chem 279:32269-74. 2004
    ..Taken together, these observations extend the functional similarities between IFN-lambdas and type I IFNs and shed some new light on the mechanisms of activation of STAT2 and STAT4 by these cytokines...
  16. ncbi Modulation of the human cytokine response by interferon lambda-1 (IFN-lambda1/IL-29)
    W J Jordan
    Department of Oral Biology, New Jersey Dental School, Newark, NJ, USA
    Genes Immun 8:13-20. 2007
    ....
  17. pmc Gene expression and antiviral activity of alpha/beta interferons and interleukin-29 in virus-infected human myeloid dendritic cells
    Pamela Osterlund
    Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Virol 79:9608-17. 2005
    ..Our results show that in human mDCs viruses can readily induce the expression of IL-28 and IL-29 genes whose gene products are likely to contribute to the host antiviral response...
  18. doi Modulation of human plasmacytoid DC function by IFN-lambda1 (IL-29)
    Nicholas J Megjugorac
    Genetic Immunology Laboratory, HUMIGEN LLC, Institute for Genetic Immunology, Hamilton, New Jersey 08690, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 86:1359-63. 2009
    ..This work characterizes the variable effects of IFN-lambda on DC surface molecule expression and identifies a role in pDC activation and immunostimulatory potential...
  19. pmc Hepatitis C virus impairs TLR3 signaling and inhibits IFN-λ 1 expression in human hepatoma cell line
    Yizhong Wang
    1The Center for Animal Experiment ABSL 3 Laboratory, Wuhan University, Hubei, People s Republic of China
    Innate Immun 20:3-11. 2014
    ..These observations provide the experimental evidence that HCV and its proteins impair TLR3 signaling and inhibit intracellular IFN-λ1/ISG expression in a hepatoma cell line, which may account for HCV persistence in the liver. ..
  20. doi Genetic polymorphisms of the IFNλ genes are associated with biochemical features in Han Chinese with HCV infection from Yunnan Province, China
    A Mei Zhang
    Molecular Virus Units, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China Electronic address
    Infect Genet Evol 21:161-5. 2014
    ..We aimed to test whether genetic polymorphisms of three IFNλ genes (IL28A, IL28B and IL29) are associated with HCV infection in Han Chinese...
  21. doi Expression of class II cytokine genes in children's skin
    Paula Reemann
    Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
    Acta Derm Venereol 94:386-92. 2014
    ..The mRNA expression level of IL10, IL19, IL20, IL22, IL24, IL26, IL28B, IL29 and their receptors IL10RA, IL10RB, IL20RA, IL20RB, IL22RA1, IL22RA2, IL28RA was compared in skin biopsies of ..
  22. doi Interferon lambda 1 expression in cervical cells differs between low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus-positive women
    Fabiana Cannella
    Laboratory of Virology, Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University, Viale di Porta, Tiburtina 28, 00185, Rome, Italy
    Med Microbiol Immunol 203:177-84. 2014
    ..This study reports a first attempt to evaluate the activation of type III IFN genes (IFN lambda 1-3), IFN lambda receptor genes (IFN-lambdaR1 and IL10R2), and IFN-induced genes (MxA, ISG15, ISG56) in HPV-..
  23. doi Adenovirus expressing IFN-λ1 (IL-29) attenuates allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in experimental asthma
    Yan Li
    Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Immunology, Ningbo University School of Medicine, Ningbo 315211, China
    Int Immunopharmacol 21:156-62. 2014
    ..IFN-λ1 (also known as IL-29) is a recently described member of the IFN-λ family and has been shown to decrease production of Th2 cytokines in vitro. However, the role and mechanism of IFN-λ1 in asthma remain unknown...
  24. doi IFNL cytokines do not modulate human or murine NK cell functions
    Maria H Morrison
    Natural Killer Cell Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Biomedical Science Institute, 152 160 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Hum Immunol 75:996-1000. 2014
    ..In addition, and in contrast to our preliminary study, we did not find any evidence that IFNL cytokines inhibited NK cell cytokine production; thus, the biological basis for the genetic synergy remains to be discovered. ..
  25. doi Correlation of the interleukin-29 levels in crevicular fluid and plasma with the genetic polymorphism in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients
    B M Shivaprasad
    Ph D Research Scholar, Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bangalore, India Reader, Department of Periodontology, Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India Electronic address
    Arch Oral Biol 60:37-44. 2015
    ..To assess the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the Interleukin (IL-29) quantity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma of chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients...
  26. doi The role of IL-29 in immunity and cancer
    Noah E Kelm
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA 50312, United States
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 106:91-8. 2016
    ..In recent years, the role of IL-29 in the pathogenesis of various cancers has also been extensively studied. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances of IL-29 in immunological processes and the pathogenesis of various cancer. ..
  27. pmc Persistent hepatitis C virus infection impairs ribavirin antiviral activity through clathrin-mediated trafficking of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
    Rajesh Panigrahi
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    J Virol 89:626-42. 2015
    ..activity of RBV against HCV was progressively impaired in the persistently infected culture, whereas interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), a type III IFN, showed a strong antiviral response and induced viral clearance...
  28. doi MAP kinase p38α regulates type III interferon (IFN-λ1) gene expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in response to RNA stimulation
    Miao Jiang
    Virology Unit, Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Institute for Quantitative and Computational Biosciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland and Department of Virology, University of Turku, Finland
    J Leukoc Biol 97:307-20. 2015
    ....
  29. doi Increased Serum Levels of IL-28 and IL-29 and the Protective Effect of IL28B rs8099917 Polymorphism in Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
    Dilek Arpaci
    a Bulent Ecevit University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zonguldak, Turkey
    Immunol Invest 45:668-78. 2016
    ..However, the role and mechanism of IFN-λ1 in HT remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether IL29 and IL28B gene polymorphisms are susceptibility genes for the development of HT...
  30. ncbi Mgn-3/biobran enhances generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells via upregulation of dec-205 expression on dendritic cells
    M Ghoneum
    Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, U S A
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 27:523-30. 2014
    ..DCs in a dose-dependent manner; and ii) MGN-3 induced significant production of Type III interferon, IL29, but not Type I IFNs α and β...
  31. doi Potential genetic markers for prediction of treatment response in Egyptian children infected with HCV genotype 4
    Normeen Hany Rady
    Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Kasr Alainy Medical School, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Cytokine 75:349-55. 2015
    ..Limitations of the current HCV treatment in children are low rate of sustained virological response, significant side effects and high expenses, making prediction of treatment response crucial...
  32. doi Hepatic expression levels of interferons and interferon-stimulated genes in patients with chronic hepatitis C: A phenotype-genotype correlation study
    M Noureddin
    1 Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA 2 Division of Gastroenterology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Genes Immun 16:321-9. 2015
    ..Hepatic IFNL2/3 expression is functionally linked to IFNL4 and IFNL3 polymorphisms, potentially explaining the tight association among ISG expression and treatment response. ..
  33. pmc Interleukin-29 Enhances Synovial Inflammation and Cartilage Degradation in Osteoarthritis
    Lingxiao Xu
    Department of Rheumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
    Mediators Inflamm 2016:9631510. 2016
    ..In conclusion, IL-29 stimulates inflammation and cartilage degradation by OA FLS, indicating that this cytokine is likely involved in the pathogenesis of OA. ..
  34. doi Interferons and systemic sclerosis: correlation between interferon gamma and interferon-lambda 1 (IL-29)
    Andréa Tavares Dantas
    a Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco UFPE, Brazil
    Autoimmunity 48:429-33. 2015
    ..We evaluated serum levels of IFN-λ1 in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and healthy controls and its association with IFN-γ and clinical manifestations...
  35. doi Inhibition of Pim1 kinase, new therapeutic approach in virus-induced asthma exacerbations
    Maaike de Vries
    University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Experimental Pulmonology and Inflammation Research, Dept of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen, The Netherlands Brooke Laboratory, Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, GRIAC Research Institute, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 47:783-91. 2016
    ..We have identified Pim1 kinase as novel target to reduce viral replication in ALI cultures of PBECs. This may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions in virus-induced asthma exacerbations. ..
  36. pmc Interferon-λ4 (IFNL4) transcript expression in human liver tissue samples
    Ahmad Amanzada
    Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 8:e84026. 2013
    ..By contrast, IFNL4 ss469415590 genotypes were not found to be related to IFN-λ2/3/IL28 or IFN-λ1/IL29 gene expression...
  37. pmc Inducible interleukin 32 (IL-32) exerts extensive antiviral function via selective stimulation of interferon λ1 (IFN-λ1)
    Yongkui Li
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
    J Biol Chem 288:20927-41. 2013
    ..Our results demonstrate that elevated IL-32 levels during viral infection mediate antiviral effects by stimulating the expression of IFN-λ1. ..
  38. pmc siRNA enhances DNA-mediated interferon lambda-1 response through crosstalk between RIG-I and IFI16 signalling pathway
    Hongyan Sui
    Laboratory of Human Retrovirology, Clinical Services Program, Applied and Developmental Directorate, SAIC Frederick, Inc, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA, Laboratory of Proteomics and Analytical Technologies, Advanced Technology Program, SAIC Frederick, Inc, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA and Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 42:583-98. 2014
    ..Collectively, these findings may provide rational information for siRNA-induced innate immunity, with important implications for developing siRNA-based reagents to control human diseases. ..
  39. doi Interferon-λs: special immunomodulatory agents and potential therapeutic targets
    Ya Wen Zheng
    Department of Biotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China
    J Innate Immun 5:209-18. 2013
    ..Diseases associated with IFN-λs include asthma, allergy, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the biology of IFN-λs and their immunomodulatory function in relevant human diseases...
  40. doi Different effects of three interferons L on Toll-like receptor-related gene expression in HepG2 cells
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba 260 8677, Japan Electronic address
    Cytokine 64:577-83. 2013
    IFNL1 (IL29), IFNL2 (IL28A) and IFNL3 (IL28B) might play important roles in anti-viral defense. IFNL3 genotypes have been shown to be associated with hepatitis C spontaneous and treatment-induced viral clearance...
  41. doi Regulation of interferon lambda-1 (IFNL1/IFN-λ1/IL-29) expression in human colon epithelial cells
    Adam Swider
    Genetic Immunology Laboratory, HUMIGEN LLC, 2439 Kuser Road, Hamilton, NJ 08690, United States 1
    Cytokine 65:17-23. 2014
    ..Our data provide insight to the regulation of IFNL1 expression in the human colon and suggest novel therapeutic approaches to elevate IFNλ-1 protein where required. ..
  42. pmc HHV-6B induces IFN-lambda1 responses in cord plasmacytoid dendritic cells through TLR9
    Inger Nordström
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 7:e38683. 2012
    ..However, human CD4+ T-cells do not express the IFN-lambda receptor and are refractory to IFN-lambda1 treatment. The HHV-6B-induced alterations in the Th1/Th2 balance are instead mediated mainly through TLR9 and IFN-alpha...
  43. pmc Type III IFNs are produced by and stimulate human plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Zhiwei Yin
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    J Immunol 189:2735-45. 2012
    ..Thus, IFN-λ can serve as an autocrine signal to strengthen the antiviral response of pDC by increasing IFN-α and IFN-λ production, resulting in prolonged pDC survival...
  44. pmc Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on interleukin-29 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis patients
    B M Shivaprasad
    Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Hospital and Research Institute, Bangalore, India
    Dis Markers 34:1-7. 2013
    Recently discovered interleukin 29 (IL-29) has antiviral properties and its production is induced by herpes viruses...
  45. doi Modulation of PAR expression and tryptic enzyme induced IL-4 production in mast cells by IL-29
    Huiyun Zhang
    Department of Pathophysiology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou, Hainan 571101, China
    Cytokine 61:469-77. 2013
    ..In conclusion, IL-29 can regulate expression of PARs and tryptase- and trypsin-induced IL-4 production in mast cells, through which participates in the mast cell related inflammation...
  46. doi IL-29 is produced by T(H)17 cells and mediates the cutaneous antiviral competence in psoriasis
    Kerstin Wolk
    Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Sci Transl Med 5:204ra129. 2013
    ..These data suggest that T(H)17 cell-derived IL-29, which is absent in AD, mediates the robust antiviral state on psoriatic skin, and demonstrate a new function of T(H)17 cells...
  47. doi [Population genetics and human immunity: the interferon paradigm]
    Jeremy Manry
    Institut Pasteur, Département Génomes et Génétique, unité génétique évolutive humaine, 25, rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France CNRS URA3012, 75015 Paris, France
    Med Sci (Paris) 28:1095-101. 2012
    ..This has been shown for type III IFN, where mutations at IL28A, IL28B and IL29 have been positively selected in Europeans and Asians, most likely by increasing resistance to viral infection...
  48. ncbi Interleukin-29 uses a type 1 interferon-like program to promote antiviral responses in human hepatocytes
    Sean E Doyle
    ZymoGenetics, Inc, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    Hepatology 44:896-906. 2006
    ..This fact, combined with significant receptor expression in hepatitis virus-infected livers, suggests that IL-29 may have therapeutic value against chronic viral hepatitis in human patients...
  49. pmc Induction of an antiviral state and attenuated coxsackievirus replication in type III interferon-treated primary human pancreatic islets
    Katharina Lind
    Department of Medicine HS, The Center for Infectious Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Virol 87:7646-54. 2013
    ..Our novel observations suggest that type III IFNs may regulate viral replication and thereby contribute to reduced tissue damage and promote islet cell survival during coxsackievirus infection...
  50. pmc Human coronavirus HKU1 infection of primary human type II alveolar epithelial cells: cytopathic effects and innate immune response
    Samuel R Dominguez
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e70129. 2013
    ..At 72 hours post inoculation, HCoV-HKU1 infection of type II cells induced increased levels of mRNAs encoding IL29,CXCL10, CCL5, and IL-6 with no significant increases in the levels of IFNβ...
  51. pmc Epigenetic changes mediated by microRNA miR29 activate cyclooxygenase 2 and lambda-1 interferon production during viral infection
    Jiali Fang
    The State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
    J Virol 86:1010-20. 2012
    ..Activation of the protein kinase A signaling pathway and phosphorylation of CREB1 also contributed to COX2 expression. Collectively, our work defines a novel proinflammatory cascade in the control of influenza A virus infection...
  52. doi Regulation of IFN-λ1 promoter activity (IFN-λ1/IL-29) in human airway epithelial cells
    Rachael Siegel
    Genetic Immunology Laboratory, HUMIGEN LLC, Institute for Genetic Immunology, Genesis Biotechnology Group, Hamilton, NJ 08690, USA
    J Immunol 187:5636-44. 2011
    ....
  53. pmc A mechanistic role for type III IFN-λ1 in asthma exacerbations mediated by human rhinoviruses
    E Kathryn Miller
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185:508-16. 2012
    ..Moreover, although several hypotheses have been advanced to explain virus-induced exacerbations, their mechanism remains unclear...
  54. doi Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegylated interferon lambda-1 in cynomolgus monkeys
    Kelly A Byrnes-Blake
    Department of Preclinical Development, ZymoGenetics, Inc, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 32:198-206. 2012
    ..These data demonstrate the suitability of cynomolgus monkeys for the preclinical evaluation of pegIFNλ. Additionally, the absence of pegIFNλ pharmacologic activity in leukocytes is consistent with its low receptor expression in blood...
  55. doi Hepatitis B virus induces a novel inflammation network involving three inflammatory factors, IL-29, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2
    Yi Yu
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, People s Republic of China
    J Immunol 187:4844-60. 2011
    ..These new findings provide insights for our understanding of the mechanism by which inflammatory factors regulate each other in response to HBV infection...
  56. doi The mRNA expression profile of cytokines connected to the regulation of melanocyte functioning in vitiligo skin biopsy samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Ene Reimann
    Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
    Hum Immunol 73:393-8. 2012
    ..We evaluated possible changes in the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 family cytokines (IL26, IL-28A, IL28B, IL29), their receptor subunits (IL20RB, IL22RA2, IL28RA), and genes potentially related to functioning of melanocytes (..
  57. doi Anti-hepatitis C virus drugs in development
    Esperance A K Schaefer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Unit, Boston, USA
    Gastroenterology 142:1340-1350.e1. 2012
    ..These new reagents against hepatitis C virus should lead to highly effective, well-tolerated, and likely interferon-sparing therapies in the next several years...
  58. doi Interleukin-29 suppresses hepatitis A and C viral internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation
    Tatsuo Kanda
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan
    Viral Immunol 25:379-86. 2012
    ..Combining IL-29 with IFN-α or amantadine resulted in stronger inhibition of HAV IRES activity. Our findings demonstrated a novel antiviral effect of IFNs-λ against HAV and HCV through the suppression of IRES-mediated translation...
  59. doi IL-29 and IFN-α regulate the expression of MxA, 2',5'-OAS and PKR genes in association with the activation of Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signal pathways in HepG2.2.15 cells
    Yu Chai
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, 69 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China
    Mol Biol Rep 38:139-43. 2011
    ....
  60. pmc Interferon-lambda1 (interleukin-29) preferentially down-regulates interleukin-13 over other T helper type 2 cytokine responses in vitro
    Shekar Srinivas
    The Institute for Genetic Immunology, Hamilton, NJ 08690, USA
    Immunology 125:492-502. 2008
    ..Thus, IFN-lambda1 appears to be an inhibitor of human Th2 responses whose action is primarily directed towards IL-13 but which may also affect Th2 responses generally and does not invoke a complementary elevation of IFN-gamma secretion...
  61. pmc Interferon-lambda: a new addition to an old family
    Raymond P Donnelly
    Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:555-64. 2010
    ..In addition, preclinical studies by several groups indicate that IFN-lambda may also be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for other clinical indications, including certain types of cancer...
  62. ncbi Biological activity of interleukins-28 and -29: comparison with type I interferons
    Anthony Meager
    Division of Immunology and Endocrinology, The National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Herts EN6 3QG, UK
    Cytokine 31:109-18. 2005
    ..In conclusion, we found IL-28A and IL-29 act similarly to IFNs, but are less effective generally and have activity in a more limited range of cell lines...
  63. ncbi Purification and characterization of recombinant human interleukin-29 expressed in Escherichia coli
    Mingcai Li
    Allergy and Inflammation Research Institute, Shantou University Medical College, 22 Xin Ling Road, Shantou 515041, Guangdong Province, People s Republic of China
    J Biotechnol 122:334-40. 2006
    ..N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of the purified protein. The recombinant IL-29 showed specific antiviral activity that was comparable to the commercially available IFN alfa-2b preparation...
  64. ncbi Liposome-mediated IL-28 and IL-29 expression in A549 cells and anti-viral effect of IL-28 and IL-29 on WISH cells
    Ming Cai Li
    Allergy and Inflammation Research Institute, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 27:453-9. 2006
    ....
  65. pmc Anti-interferon autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1
    Anthony Meager
    Biotherapeutics, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, South Mimms, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 3:e289. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi Human interferon lambda-1 (IFN-lambda1/IL-29) modulates the Th1/Th2 response
    W J Jordan
    Department of Oral Biology, New Jersey Dental School, Newark, NJ, USA
    Genes Immun 8:254-61. 2007
    ..These functions were independent of IL-10. Our data support a hitherto unsuspected role for IFN-lambda1 in modulating the development of Th1 and Th2 cells, with an apparent emphasis on the diminution of IL-13 secretion...
  67. ncbi IL-28 and IL-29: newcomers to the interferon family
    Gilles Uze
    CNRS UMR 5124, University Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Biochimie 89:729-34. 2007
    ....
  68. doi Maturing dendritic cells are an important source of IL-29 and IL-20 that may cooperatively increase the innate immunity of keratinocytes
    Kerstin Wolk
    Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, Berlin, Germany
    J Leukoc Biol 83:1181-93. 2008
    ..However, the strongest response to TLR2 and TLR3 activation showed keratinocytes in the simultaneous presence of IL-20 and IL-29...
  69. ncbi SOCS-1 inhibits expression of the antiviral proteins 2',5'-OAS and MxA induced by the novel interferon-lambdas IL-28A and IL-29
    Stephan Brand
    Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Munich Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 331:543-8. 2005
    ..In conclusion, we assume that despite antiviral properties of IFN-lambdas, their efficacy as antiviral agents may have similar limitations as IFN-alpha due to inhibition by SOCS proteins...
  70. pmc A role for IFN-lambda1 in multiple myeloma B cell growth
    A J Novak
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Leukemia 22:2240-6. 2008
    ..Our data also show that IFN-lambda1 induces phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3 and Erk. Taken together, our results suggest that IFN-lambda1 may regulate myeloma cell biology and could prove to be therapeutically important...
  71. doi Interferon-lambdas: the modulators of antivirus, antitumor, and immune responses
    Mingcai Li
    Institute of Inflammation and Immune Diseases, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    J Leukoc Biol 86:23-32. 2009
    ..In this review, we summarize recent findings about the biology of IFN-lambdas and their pathophysiological roles in viral infection, cancer, and immune responses of the innate and adaptive arms...
  72. doi Despite IFN-lambda receptor expression, blood immune cells, but not keratinocytes or melanocytes, have an impaired response to type III interferons: implications for therapeutic applications of these cytokines
    K Witte
    Interdisciplinary Group of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, Berlin, Germany
    Genes Immun 10:702-14. 2009
    ....
  73. pmc Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the complex of interferon-lambda1 with its receptor
    Eugenia Magracheva
    Basic Research Program, SAIC Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 66:61-3. 2010
    ..A search for heavy-atom derivatives as well as molecular-replacement trials are in progress...
  74. doi Genetic variation in IL28B is associated with chronic hepatitis C and treatment failure: a genome-wide association study
    Andri Rauch
    University Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Bern and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Gastroenterology 138:1338-45, 1345.e1-7. 2010
    ..We performed a genome-wide association study to screen for host genetic determinants of HCV persistence and response to therapy...
  75. pmc Interleukin-29 binds to melanoma cells inducing Jak-STAT signal transduction and apoptosis
    Kristan D Guenterberg
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Arthur G James Cancer Hospital and Richard J SoloveResearch Institute, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 9:510-20. 2010
    ....
  76. doi IL-4 enhances IFN-lambda1 (IL-29) production by plasmacytoid DCs via monocyte secretion of IL-1Ra
    Nicholas J Megjugorac
    HUMIGEN LLC, The Institute for Genetic Immunology, Hamilton, NJ 08690, USA
    Blood 115:4185-90. 2010
    ..Thus, our experiments revealed a novel mechanism for regulation of both IFN-lambda1 production and pDC function, and suggests an expanded immunomodulatory role for Th2-associated cytokines...
  77. pmc Alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta)-independent induction of IFN-lambda1 (interleukin-29) in response to Hantaan virus infection
    Malin Stoltz
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Virol 84:9140-8. 2010
    ..Importantly, the results suggest the existence of specific signaling pathways that induce IFN-lambda1 without simultaneous type I IFN induction during virus infection...
  78. doi Interleukin-28 and interleukin-29: novel regulators of skin biology
    Kerstin Wolk
    Interdisciplinary Department of Molecular Immunopathology, Dermatology Medical Immunology, University Hospital Charite, Berlin, Germany
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:617-28. 2010
    ..In summary, IL-28/IL-29 may play an important role in the skin in the clearance of viral and microbial infections and in the removal of tumors...
  79. doi Evidence for a pathophysiological role of keratinocyte-derived type III interferon (IFNλ) in cutaneous lupus erythematosus
    Sabine Zahn
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    J Invest Dermatol 131:133-40. 2011
    ..The recently discovered type III IFNs (IFNλ1/IL29, IFNλ2/IL28a, IFNλ3/IL28b) share several functional similarities with type I IFNs, particularly in antiviral ..
  80. doi CD14+ cell-derived IL-29 modulates proinflammatory cytokine production in patients with allergic airway inflammation
    S He
    Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
    Allergy 66:238-46. 2011
    ..Whether it plays a role in immune disorders is unclear. This study aims to examine the role of IL-29 in the modulation of immune response under allergic environment...
  81. doi Toll-like receptor 7 rs179008/Gln11Leu gene variants in chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    Eva Askar
    Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Medical Center, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
    J Med Virol 82:1859-68. 2010
    ....
  82. pmc Crystal structure of human interferon-λ1 in complex with its high-affinity receptor interferon-λR1
    Zachary J Miknis
    Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Mol Biol 404:650-64. 2010
    ....
  83. doi TLR ligands induce synergistic interferon-β and interferon-λ1 gene expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Sanna M Mäkelä
    Department of Vaccination and Immune Protection, National Institute for Heath and Welfare, PO Box 30, FI 00271 Helsinki, Finland
    Mol Immunol 48:505-15. 2011
    ..The data indicates that IFNs contribute to TLR-dependent gene activation in human DCs stimulated with multiple TLR ligands...
  84. pmc Regulatory effects of ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) in IFNλ signaling
    Barbara Kroczynska
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Medical School and Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:1147-56. 2011
    ..Altogether, our data provide evidence for a critical role for the activated RSK1 in IFNλ signaling...
  85. doi Molecular cloning, expression and antiviral activity of porcine interleukin-29 (poIL-29)
    Dang Wang
    Division of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Dev Comp Immunol 35:378-84. 2011
    ....
  86. doi Interferon-lambda serum levels in hepatitis C
    Bettina Langhans
    Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    J Hepatol 54:859-65. 2011
    ..Thus far, studies have focused on types I and II interferon (IFN). We studied IFN-lambda1 (IL-29) and IFN-lambda2/3 (IL-28A/B) serum levels in patients with different outcomes of HCV infection...
  87. doi Preclinical and clinical development of pegylated interferon-lambda 1 in chronic hepatitis C
    Eleanor L Ramos
    ZymoGenetics, Inc, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:591-5. 2010
    ..Constitutional symptoms appeared lower than historical data for PEG-IFN-alpha. These results form the basis of further development of pegIFNlambda as a novel treatment for chronic hepatitis C...
  88. doi Expression and release of IL-29 by mast cells and modulation of mast cell behavior by IL-29
    Shaoheng He
    Clinical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
    Allergy 65:1234-41. 2010
    ..However, little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Because mast cells are recognized as primary effector cells of allergy, we investigated the potential relationship between IL-29 and mast cells in this study...
  89. pmc Cutting edge: Ku70 is a novel cytosolic DNA sensor that induces type III rather than type I IFN
    Xing Zhang
    Applied and Developmental Research Directorate, Science Applications International Corporation Frederick, Inc, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    J Immunol 186:4541-5. 2011
    ..Thus, to our knowledge, we show for the first time that Ku70 mediates type III IFN induction by DNA...
  90. pmc IL-29/IL-28A suppress HSV-1 infection of human NT2-N neurons
    Lin Zhou
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Medical Education Research Building, 1052, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:212-9. 2011
    ....
  91. pmc Interferon-lambda1 induces peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived chemokines secretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: its correlation with disease activity
    Qian Wu
    Department of Rheumatology, Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, 324 Jing Wu Road, Jinan, 250021, People s Republic of China
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:R88. 2011
    ..In this study we investigated its role in SLE, including its correlation with disease activity, organ disorder and production of chemokines...
  92. doi Inverse association of IL28B genotype and liver mRNA expression of genes promoting or suppressing antiviral state
    Hiromi Abe
    Laboratory for Digestive Diseases, Center for Genomic Medicine, RIKEN, Hiroshima, Japan
    J Med Virol 83:1597-607. 2011
    ..Expression levels of 16 genes (OAS1, PKR, MxA, ISG15, RIG-I, TLR8, IRF7, IRF9, NFKBIA, IL28A/IL28B, IL29, IL28RA, IL10RB, IFNAR2, and STAT1) that promote antiviral state and 4 genes (SOCS1, SOCS3, Zc3h12a, and A20) that ..
  93. doi Type-III interferon, not type-I, is the predominant interferon induced by respiratory viruses in nasal epithelial cells
    Tamaki Okabayashi
    Department of Microbiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, S1 W17, Chuo Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060 8556, Japan
    Virus Res 160:360-6. 2011
    ..These data indicate that IFN-λ, but not IFN-β/α, contributes to the main first line defense via RIG-I-dependent pathway against respiratory virus infection in NECs...
  94. doi Interleukin 29 enhances expression of Toll receptor 3 and mediates antiviral signals in human keratinocytes
    Sheng Quan Zhang
    Institute of Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, 1st Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, 69 Meishan Road, Hefei, 230032, Anhui, China
    Inflamm Res 60:1031-7. 2011
    b>Interleukin 29 (IL-29) is a class II cytokine and displays numerous immune functions other than its anti-viral and antiproliferation activities. This study is focused on the effect of IL-29 on human keratinocytes (KCs).
  95. doi Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase negatively regulates the porcine interferon-λ1 pathway
    Dang Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    Mol Immunol 49:407-12. 2011
    ..FMDV in IBRS-2 cells could be significantly inhibited after treatment with the purified recombinant porcine interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), a newly identified type III interferon...
  96. pmc A vesicular stomatitis virus replicon-based bioassay for the rapid and sensitive determination of multi-species type I interferon
    Marianne Berger Rentsch
    Institut für Viruskrankheiten und Immunprophylaxe, Mittelhausern, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 6:e25858. 2011
    ..This safe bioassay will be useful for the rapid and sensitive quantification of multi-species type I IFN and potentially other antiviral cytokines...
  97. pmc Expression of paramyxovirus V proteins promotes replication and spread of hepatitis C virus in cultures of primary human fetal liver cells
    Linda Andrus
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Hepatology 54:1901-12. 2011
    ..V protein expression efficiently antagonized the HCV-inhibitory effects of added IFNs in HFLC. In addition, induction of the type III IFN, IL29, following acute HCV infection was inhibited in V protein-transduced cultures.
  98. doi Phase 1b study of pegylated interferon lambda 1 with or without ribavirin in patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection
    Andrew J Muir
    Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA
    Hepatology 52:822-32. 2010
    b>Interferon lambda 1 (IFN-lambda1) is a type III IFN that produces intracellular responses similar to those of IFN-alpha but in fewer cell types because of differences in the receptor distribution pattern, and this could potentially ..

Research Grants3

  1. Interferon-gamma To Treat Chronic HCV Infection
    Andrew Muir; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Secondary endpoints include the biochemical response, inflammatory and regulatory cytokine levels, and quality of life during treatment. ..
  2. Characterization of the IL-TIF Receptor Complex
    Sergei Kotenko; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The long-term goal of this project is to obtain new knowledge that will improve our understanding of mechanisms that regulate proper functioning of the immune system. ..
  3. Role of Interferon-lambda in Antiviral Response
    Sergei Kotenko; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..