IL 21

Summary

Gene Symbol: IL 21
Description: interleukin 21
Alias: CVID11, IL-21, Za11, interleukin-21, interleukin-21 isoform
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Cytokine-mediated regulation of human B cell differentiation into Ig-secreting cells: predominant role of IL-21 produced by CXCR5+ T follicular helper cells
    Vanessa L Bryant
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
    J Immunol 179:8180-90. 2007
  2. ncbi Interleukin-21 enhances T-helper cell type I signaling and interferon-gamma production in Crohn's disease
    Giovanni Monteleone
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Centro di Eccellenza per lo studio delle malattie complesse e multifattoriali, Universita Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    Gastroenterology 128:687-94. 2005
  3. ncbi IL-21 effects on human IgE production in response to IL-4 or IL-13
    Nancy Wood
    Wyeth Research, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Cell Immunol 231:133-45. 2004
  4. ncbi Interleukin-21: a new modulator of immunity, infection, and cancer
    Katja Brandt
    Research Center Borstel, Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Parkallee 22, Borstel, Germany
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 18:223-32. 2007
  5. ncbi A study on anti-tumor immunity induced by gene-modified melanoma B16 cells
    Lijuan Fang
    Research Center for Human Gene Therapy, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China
    Oncol Rep 19:1589-95. 2008
  6. ncbi Regulation of B cell differentiation and plasma cell generation by IL-21, a novel inducer of Blimp-1 and Bcl-6
    Katsutoshi Ozaki
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 173:5361-71. 2004
  7. doi Targeting interleukin-21 in inflammatory diseases
    Massimiliano Sarra
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Universita Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 15:695-702. 2011
  8. ncbi Kinetics of human B cell behavior and amplification of proliferative responses following stimulation with IL-21
    Kim L Good
    Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, New South Wales, Australia
    J Immunol 177:5236-47. 2006
  9. doi Involvement of interleukin-21 in the epidermal hyperplasia of psoriasis
    Roberta Caruso
    Gastroenterology, University Tor Vergata of Rome, Rome, Italy
    Nat Med 15:1013-5. 2009
  10. ncbi Genetic association of interleukin-21 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus
    A H Sawalha
    US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:458-61. 2008

Research Grants

  1. Modulation of HIV-specific CD8+ T and B cell function by CD4+ T helper responses
    Hendrik Streeck; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Yi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2016
  3. Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource (T1DR)
    David V Serreze; Fiscal Year: 2012
  4. Genetic Basis for susceptibility to EAE
    Vijay K Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2011
  5. Francisco J Quintana; Fiscal Year: 2015
  6. Dendritic cell mediated modulation of tolerance by apoptotic cells in aging
    Anshu Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. ANTIOXIDANTS AND FEMALE HORMONES IN THE ETIOLOGY OF RA
    Elizabeth Karlson; Fiscal Year: 2002

Detail Information

Publications143 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Cytokine-mediated regulation of human B cell differentiation into Ig-secreting cells: predominant role of IL-21 produced by CXCR5+ T follicular helper cells
    Vanessa L Bryant
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
    J Immunol 179:8180-90. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that IL-21 produced by TFH cells during the primary as well as the subsequent responses to T cell-dependent Ag makes a major contribution to eliciting and maintaining long-lived humoral immunity...
  2. ncbi Interleukin-21 enhances T-helper cell type I signaling and interferon-gamma production in Crohn's disease
    Giovanni Monteleone
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Centro di Eccellenza per lo studio delle malattie complesse e multifattoriali, Universita Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    Gastroenterology 128:687-94. 2005
    ..In this study, we examined the expression and role of IL-21, a T-cell-derived cytokine of the IL-2 family; in tissues and cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
  3. ncbi IL-21 effects on human IgE production in response to IL-4 or IL-13
    Nancy Wood
    Wyeth Research, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Cell Immunol 231:133-45. 2004
    ..In contrast, IL-21-stimulated secretion of IgG4 from PBMC. Our findings indicate that IL-21 may influence the production of both human IgE and IgG4, and thus contribute to the regulation of atopic reactions...
  4. ncbi Interleukin-21: a new modulator of immunity, infection, and cancer
    Katja Brandt
    Research Center Borstel, Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Parkallee 22, Borstel, Germany
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 18:223-32. 2007
    ..This review intends to give the reader an overview of the recent findings concerning the biology of IL-21 and its physiological role in immunity, infection, and cancer...
  5. ncbi A study on anti-tumor immunity induced by gene-modified melanoma B16 cells
    Lijuan Fang
    Research Center for Human Gene Therapy, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China
    Oncol Rep 19:1589-95. 2008
    ..IL21 played a more cooperative role with the OVA-linker-beta2m than CD80 in this study. This strategy might lay foundations for the research of a new type of tumor vaccine...
  6. ncbi Regulation of B cell differentiation and plasma cell generation by IL-21, a novel inducer of Blimp-1 and Bcl-6
    Katsutoshi Ozaki
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 173:5361-71. 2004
    ..Finally, BXSB-Yaa mice, which develop a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease, have greatly elevated IL-21, suggesting a role for IL-21 in the development of autoimmune disease...
  7. doi Targeting interleukin-21 in inflammatory diseases
    Massimiliano Sarra
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Universita Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 15:695-702. 2011
    ..Initially considered to be a critical regulator of T and B cell function, IL-21 is now known to regulate the activity of many other cell types, including both immune and non-immune cells...
  8. ncbi Kinetics of human B cell behavior and amplification of proliferative responses following stimulation with IL-21
    Kim L Good
    Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, New South Wales, Australia
    J Immunol 177:5236-47. 2006
    ..Thus, antagonizing IL-21 may be a novel strategy for treating Ab-mediated autoimmune diseases...
  9. doi Involvement of interleukin-21 in the epidermal hyperplasia of psoriasis
    Roberta Caruso
    Gastroenterology, University Tor Vergata of Rome, Rome, Italy
    Nat Med 15:1013-5. 2009
    ..In the human psoriasis xenograft mouse model, blockade of IL-21 activity resolves inflammation and reduces keratinocyte proliferation. Blocking IL-21 may represent a new therapeutic strategy in psoriasis...
  10. ncbi Genetic association of interleukin-21 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus
    A H Sawalha
    US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:458-61. 2008
    ..The reported effect of IL-21 on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells and its effect on dendritic cell maturation and T-cell responses make IL-21 an attractive candidate gene for SLE...
  11. pmc Testing for the association of the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 gene region with rheumatoid arthritis in a European family-based study
    Vitor Hugo Teixeira
    GenHotel EA3886, Evry University Paris 7 University Medical School, AutoCure European Consortium, Evry Genopole, France
    Arthritis Res Ther 11:R45. 2009
    ..Therefore, our aim was to test this association in populations of European origin by using a family-based approach...
  12. ncbi Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function
    J Parrish-Novak
    Department of Functional Cloning, ZymoGenetics, Inc, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA
    Nature 408:57-63. 2000
    ....
  13. ncbi Cutting edge: the common gamma-chain is an indispensable subunit of the IL-21 receptor complex
    H Asao
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
    J Immunol 167:1-5. 2001
    ..The chemical cross-linking study reveals the direct binding of IL-21 to the gamma(c). These data clearly demonstrate that the gamma(c) is an indispensable subunit of the functional IL-21R complex...
  14. ncbi IL-21 up-regulates the expression of genes associated with innate immunity and Th1 response
    Mari Strengell
    Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Immunol 169:3600-5. 2002
    ..Moreover, the enhanced transcription of these genes in T cells establishes a significant role for IL-21 also in the Th1 response...
  15. ncbi IL-21 in synergy with IL-15 or IL-18 enhances IFN-gamma production in human NK and T cells
    Mari Strengell
    Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Immunol 170:5464-9. 2003
    ..IL-18, however, activated the binding of NF-kappa B to the IFN-gamma promoter NF-kappa B site. Our results suggest that both IL-15 and IL-21 have an important role in activating the NK cell-associated innate immune response...
  16. ncbi Interleukin-21 inhibits dendritic cell activation and maturation
    Katja Brandt
    Research Center Borstel, Dept of Immunology and Cell Biology, Parkallee 22, 23845 Borstel, Germany
    Blood 102:4090-8. 2003
    b>Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a newly described cytokine with homology to IL-4 and IL-15. They belong to a cytokine family that uses the common gamma chain for signaling but also have their private high-affinity receptors...
  17. ncbi Cutting edge: IL-21 is a switch factor for the production of IgG1 and IgG3 by human B cells
    Jerome Pene
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 454, Montpellier, France
    J Immunol 172:5154-7. 2004
    ..These results show that IL-21, in addition to promoting growth and differentiation of committed B cells, is a specific switch factor for the production of IgG(1) and IgG(3)...
  18. ncbi Biology of IL-21 and the IL-21 receptor
    Devangi S Mehta
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunol Rev 202:84-95. 2004
    ..Overall, the current data point to IL-21 being a novel immunomodulatory cytokine, whose regulation of any given immune response is highly dependent on the surrounding environmental context...
  19. ncbi IL-21 sustains CD28 expression on IL-15-activated human naive CD8+ T cells
    Nuno L Alves
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 175:755-62. 2005
    ..Our data show that IL-21 modulates the phenotype of naive CD8+ T cells that have undergone IL-15 induced homeostatic proliferation and preserves their responsiveness to CD28 ligands...
  20. ncbi Interleukin-21: a modulator of lymphoid proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation
    Warren J Leonard
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1674, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:688-98. 2005
    ..Moreover, it has antitumour activity and might have a role in the development of autoimmunity, so these findings have implications for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases...
  21. ncbi IL-21 induces differentiation of human naive and memory B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells
    Rachel Ettinger
    Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 175:7867-79. 2005
    ..Taken together, our data show that IL-21 plays a central role in CSR and plasma cell differentiation during T cell-dependent B cell responses...
  22. ncbi IL-21 down-regulates NKG2D/DAP10 expression on human NK and CD8+ T cells
    Steven J Burgess
    Receptor Cell Biology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Immunol 176:1490-7. 2006
    ..These data indicate that IL-21 is able to channel NK and CD8+ T cell function by altering the expression pattern of activation/costimulatory receptors...
  23. ncbi IL-21 enhances SOCS gene expression and inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Mari Strengell
    Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    J Leukoc Biol 79:1279-85. 2006
    ..Our results demonstrate that IL-21, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, can directly inhibit the activation and cytokine production of myeloid DCs, providing a negative feedback loop between DCs and T lymphocytes...
  24. ncbi A functional role for interleukin-21 in promoting the synthesis of the T-cell chemoattractant, MIP-3alpha, by gut epithelial cells
    Roberta Caruso
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Centro di Eccellenza, Studio delle Malattie Complesse e Multifattoriali, Universita Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Gastroenterology 132:166-75. 2007
    ..In this study we examined whether intestinal epithelial cells express IL-21R and respond to IL-21 in IBD...
  25. ncbi IL-21 is highly produced in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa and promotes gelatinases synthesis
    Roberta Caruso
    Department of Internal Medicine and Centre of Excellence for Genomic Risk Assessment in Multifactorial and Complex Diseases, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    J Immunol 178:5957-65. 2007
    ..These data indicate that IL-21 is overexpressed in Hp-infected gastric mucosa where it could contribute to increased epithelial gelatinase production...
  26. ncbi Molecular scanning of interleukin-21 gene and genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes
    Katsuaki Asano
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Hum Immunol 68:384-91. 2007
    ..These data suggest a contribution of IL21 and IL21R to genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and possible involvement of IL-21 and its receptor system in the disease pathogenesis...
  27. ncbi High IL-21 receptor expression and apoptosis induction by IL-21 in follicular lymphoma
    Norihiko Akamatsu
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1 7 1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852 8501, Japan
    Cancer Lett 256:196-206. 2007
    ..More importantly, IL-21 decreased Bcl-2 expression but increased Bax expression. These results support a new therapeutic approach using the IL-21/IL-21R system in follicular lymphoma...
  28. ncbi IL-21 induces apoptosis of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes
    Brianne R Barker
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115
    J Immunol 179:3596-603. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that IL-21 may play an important role in the contraction of CD8+ T cell responses...
  29. pmc IL-21 mediated Foxp3 suppression leads to enhanced generation of antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Yongqing Li
    Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Blood 111:229-35. 2008
    ....
  30. ncbi Essential role of IL-21 in B cell activation, expansion, and plasma cell generation during CD4+ T cell-B cell collaboration
    Stefan Kuchen
    Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 179:5886-96. 2007
    ..These data are the first to document that B cell activation, expansion, and PC differentiation induced by direct interaction of B cells with activated T cells requires IL-21...
  31. ncbi [Changes of serum BAFF and IL-21 levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and their clinical significance]
    Xiao Fei Wang
    Department of Rheumatism Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
    Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 23:1041-2. 2007
    ..To investigate the changes of serum BAFF and IL-21 levels in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and explore their clinical significance...
  32. pmc Interleukin-21 activates human natural killer cells and modulates their surface receptor expression
    Kresten Skak
    Cancer Pharmacology, Novo Nordisk A S, Måløv, Denmark
    Immunology 123:575-83. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that IL-21 modulates NK cell activity through induction of intracellular effector molecules as well as modulation of surface receptor expression...
  33. ncbi Autocrine regulation of IL-21 production in human T lymphocytes
    Flavio Caprioli
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, Rome, Italy
    J Immunol 180:1800-7. 2008
    ..These data suggest the existence of a positive autocrine loop that could help to amplify and stabilize IL-21-driven, T cell-mediated responses...
  34. doi Interleukin 21: combination strategies for cancer therapy
    Kresten Skak
    Cancer Pharmacology, Novo Nordisk, Novo Nordisk Park, DK 2760 Måløv, Denmark
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 7:231-40. 2008
    ..b>Interleukin 21 (IL21) is a new immune-stimulating cytokine that has demonstrated antitumour activity in several preclinical ..
  35. pmc IL-21 is expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma and activates STAT5: evidence that activated STAT5 is required for Hodgkin lymphomagenesis
    Ferenc A Scheeren
    Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Blood 111:4706-15. 2008
    ..Data from experiments using reporter assays and overexpression of constitutively active IKK2 support the hypothesis that the STAT5 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathways collaborate in HL genesis...
  36. pmc Newly identified genetic risk variants for celiac disease related to the immune response
    Karen A Hunt
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 4 Newark Street, London E1 2AT, UK
    Nat Genet 40:395-402. 2008
    ..Type 1 diabetes and celiac disease share HLA-DQ, IL2-IL21, CCR3 and SH2B3 risk regions. Thus, this extensive genome-wide association follow-up study has identified additional celiac disease risk variants in relevant biological pathways...
  37. doi Neutralizing IL-21 and IL-15 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production in rheumatoid arthritis
    A K Andersson
    Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London, UK
    Scand J Immunol 68:103-11. 2008
    ..The data confirm that IL-15 plays a role in RA and suggests that IL-21 is also involved in driving the pro-inflammatory cytokine response in RA...
  38. ncbi IL-21-induced isotype switching to IgG and IgA by human naive B cells is differentially regulated by IL-4
    Danielle T Avery
    Immunology and Inflammation Group, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Immunol 181:1767-79. 2008
    ..Our findings demonstrate the dynamic interplay between IL-4 and IL-21 in regulating the production of IgG subclasses and IgA, and suggest temporal roles for these cytokines in humoral immune responses to specific pathogens...
  39. doi A common exonic variant of interleukin21 confers susceptibility to atopic asthma
    Rajshekhar Chatterjee
    Molecular Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 148:137-46. 2009
    ..As IL-21 regulates IgE production, a key mediator of various allergic disorders and asthma, it is a prime candidate gene for studying atopic asthma...
  40. pmc Dissociation of its opposing immunologic effects is critical for the optimization of antitumor CD8+ T-cell responses induced by interleukin 21
    Sascha Ansén
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:6125-36. 2008
    b>Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a promising new cytokine, which is undergoing clinical testing as an anticancer agent...
  41. doi Interleukin 21 as a target of intervention in autoimmune disease
    R Ettinger
    Autoimmunity Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:iii83-6. 2008
    b>Interleukin 21 (IL21) belongs to a family of cytokines that bind to a composite receptor consisting of a private receptor (IL21R) and the common cytokine receptor gamma chain (gamma(C))...
  42. pmc Shared and distinct genetic variants in type 1 diabetes and celiac disease
    Deborah J Smyth
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 359:2767-77. 2008
    ..Since both diseases are associated with the HLA class II genes on chromosome 6p21, we tested whether non-HLA loci are shared...
  43. pmc Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis
    E A M Festen
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Gut 58:799-804. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to test for association between the IL2/IL21 locus and the IBDs...
  44. doi Il-21 enhances NK cell activation and cytolytic activity and induces Th17 cell differentiation in inflammatory bowel disease
    Zhanju Liu
    Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 15:1133-44. 2009
    ..Here we investigated IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) expression in inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and evaluated its role in the induction of NK cell cytotoxicity and activation as well as Th17 differentiation...
  45. doi Confirmation of STAT4, IL2/IL21, and CTLA4 polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis
    Nina A Daha
    Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Rheum 60:1255-60. 2009
    ....
  46. doi Novel association of the interleukin 2-interleukin 21 region with inflammatory bowel disease
    Ana Marquez
    Immunology Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid 28040, Spain
    Am J Gastroenterol 104:1968-75. 2009
    ..Therefore, we decide to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the IL-2 axis (IL2, IL2RA, and IL2RB genes) with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)...
  47. pmc Human dendritic cells induce the differentiation of interleukin-21-producing T follicular helper-like cells through interleukin-12
    Nathalie Schmitt
    Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, Baylor Research Institute, Dallas, TX 75204, USA
    Immunity 31:158-69. 2009
    ..These data suggest that the developmental pathway of Tfh cells differs between mice and humans, which have considerable implications for vaccine development...
  48. doi Common and different genetic background for rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease
    Marieke J H Coenen
    Department of Human Genetics, Institute for Genetic and Metabolic Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Hum Mol Genet 18:4195-203. 2009
    ..We confirmed two known loci and identified four novel ones for shared CD-RA genetic risk. Most of the shared loci further emphasize a role for adaptive and innate immunity in these diseases...
  49. doi Elevated production of B cell chemokine CXCL13 is correlated with systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity
    C K Wong
    Department of Chemical Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
    J Clin Immunol 30:45-52. 2010
    ..CXCL13 can induce the trafficking of CXCR5+ T lymphocyte subset designated as follicular helper T lymphocytes (T(FH)) which are specifically involved in autoantibody production...
  50. doi Dynamics and consequences of IL-21 production in HIV-infected individuals: a longitudinal and cross-sectional study
    Alexandre Iannello
    Laboratory of Innate Immunity, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte Justine Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
    J Immunol 184:114-26. 2010
    ..Together, our results suggest that serum IL-21 concentrations may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring HIV disease progression and the cytokine may be considered for immunotherapy in HIV-infected patients...
  51. doi Elevated interleukin-21 correlated to Th17 and Th1 cells in patients with immune thrombocytopenia
    Xiaojuan Zhu
    Haematology Oncology Centre, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People s Republic of China
    J Clin Immunol 30:253-9. 2010
    ..Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is critical in the development of autoimmune diseases. The role of IL-21 in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unknown...
  52. pmc B cell-intrinsic signaling through IL-21 receptor and STAT3 is required for establishing long-lived antibody responses in humans
    Danielle T Avery
    Immunology Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
    J Exp Med 207:155-71. 2010
    ..STAT3-activating cytokines such as IL-21 thus underpin Ag-specific humoral immune responses and provide a mechanism for the functional antibody deficit in STAT3-deficient patients...
  53. pmc Confirmation of an association between rs6822844 at the Il2-Il21 region and multiple autoimmune diseases: evidence of a general susceptibility locus
    Amit K Maiti
    Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK73104, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 62:323-9. 2010
    ....
  54. doi HIV-specific IL-21 producing CD4+ T cells are induced in acute and chronic progressive HIV infection and are associated with relative viral control
    Feng Yun Yue
    Clinical Sciences Division, St Michael s Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Immunol 185:498-506. 2010
    ..Thus, IL-21-producing CD4(+) T cells are induced in viremic HIV infection and likely contribute to viral control by affecting CD8(+) T cell maintenance...
  55. pmc Only one independent genetic association with rheumatoid arthritis within the KIAA1109-TENR-IL2-IL21 locus in Caucasian sample sets: confirmation of association of rs6822844 with rheumatoid arthritis at a genome-wide level of significance
    Jade E Hollis-Moffatt
    Department of Biochemistry, 710 Cumberland Street, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
    Arthritis Res Ther 12:R116. 2010
    ..Here we aimed to: one, confirm at a genome-wide level of significance association of rs6822844 with RA and, two, evaluate whether or not there were effects independent of rs6822844 on RA at the KIAA1109-TENR-IL2-IL21 locus...
  56. doi Targeting interleukin-21 in rheumatoid arthritis
    Feng Lai Yuan
    The Third Hospital Affiliated to Nantong University, Wuxi, 214041 Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
    Mol Biol Rep 38:1717-21. 2011
    ..In this review, we discuss the biological features of IL-21 and summarize recent advances in the role of IL-21 in the pathogenesis and treatment of RA...
  57. pmc IL-21 and IL-21 receptor expression in lymphocytes and neurons in multiple sclerosis brain
    John S Tzartos
    Department of Neuropathology, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 178:794-802. 2011
    ..These findings suggest role(s) for IL-21 in both the acute and chronic stages of MS via direct effects on T and B lymphocytes and, demonstrated for the first time, also on neurons...
  58. pmc Fine-mapping and transethnic genotyping establish IL2/IL21 genetic association with lupus and localize this genetic effect to IL21
    Travis Hughes
    Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 63:1689-97. 2011
    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether this genetic effect could be localized, using a very large cohort of lupus patients and controls...
  59. doi Critical role of IL-21 in modulating TH17 and regulatory T cells in Behçet disease
    Guillaume Geri
    Laboratory I3 Immunology, Immunopathology, Immunotherapy, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 128:655-64. 2011
    ..Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology...
  60. pmc Increase in IL-21 producing T-cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    Sebastian Dolff
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:R157. 2011
    ..The novel cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) is suggested to be crucial for triggering T-cell responses towards IL-17 producing cells. Thus, we aimed to investigate the ability of T-cells to produce IL-21 and IL-17 in SLE patients...
  61. doi IL-21 enhances the potential of human γδ T cells to provide B-cell help
    Raj R Bansal
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Eur J Immunol 42:110-9. 2012
    ....
  62. pmc IL-21 is the primary common γ chain-binding cytokine required for human B-cell differentiation in vivo
    Mike Recher
    Division of Immunology, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Blood 118:6824-35. 2011
    ..Furthermore, in vitro stimulation with CD40L/IL-21 can predict in vivo B-cell immunity in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after transplantation...
  63. doi Regulation of CD28 expression on umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood CD8+ T cells by interleukin(IL)-15/IL-21
    Yu Han Chen
    Division of Asthma, Allergy, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC
    Cytokine 58:40-6. 2012
    ..Our results suggest that combining IL-21 and IL-15 immunotherapy may be better than IL-15 alone to ameliorate graft-versus-host disease while preserving antitumor effect in the post-UCB transplantation period...
  64. pmc Expansion of HIV-specific T follicular helper cells in chronic HIV infection
    Madelene Lindqvist
    Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, Boston, MA, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:3271-80. 2012
    ..Thus, our study suggests that high levels of HIV viremia drive the expansion of TFH cells, which in turn leads to perturbations of B cell differentiation, resulting in dysregulated antibody production...
  65. doi IL-21 is a central memory T cell-associated cytokine that inhibits the generation of pathogenic Th1/17 effector cells
    Ilko Kastirr
    Istituto Nazionale di Genetica Molecolare Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi, 20122 Milan, Italy Deutsches Rheumaforschungszentrum, 10117 Berlin, Germany Charité Research Centre for Immunosciences, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    J Immunol 193:3322-31. 2014
    ..These findings shed new light on the role of IL-21 in T cell differentiation, and have relevant implications for anti-IL-21 therapy of autoimmune diseases. ..
  66. ncbi IL-21 induces both rapid maturation of human CD34+ cell precursors towards NK cells and acquisition of surface killer Ig-like receptors
    Simona Sivori
    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita di Genova, Genova, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 33:3439-47. 2003
    ....
  67. ncbi IL-21 influences the frequency, phenotype, and affinity of the antigen-specific CD8 T cell response
    Yongqing Li
    Program in Immunology, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    J Immunol 175:2261-9. 2005
    ....
  68. pmc A genome-wide association study for celiac disease identifies risk variants in the region harboring IL2 and IL21
    David A van Heel
    Centre for Gastroenterology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK
    Nat Genet 39:827-9. 2007
    ..3 x 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.63), suggesting that genetic variation in this region predisposes to celiac disease...
  69. pmc IL-21 and TGF-beta are required for differentiation of human T(H)17 cells
    Li Yang
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 454:350-2. 2008
    ..These data will allow the investigation of this new population of T(H)17 cells in human inflammatory disease...
  70. doi Novel genetic risk markers for ulcerative colitis in the IL2/IL21 region are in epistasis with IL23R and suggest a common genetic background for ulcerative colitis and celiac disease
    Jurgen Glas
    Department of Medicine II, Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Am J Gastroenterol 104:1737-44. 2009
    ..Given the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among celiac disease patients, we investigated the possible involvement of these SNPs in IBD...
  71. doi Generation of multi-functional antigen-specific human T-cells by lentiviral TCR gene transfer
    M Perro
    Department of Immunology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
    Gene Ther 17:721-32. 2010
    ..The data demonstrate that the combination of lentiviral TCR gene transfer together with IL15/IL21 stimulation can efficiently redirect the antigen specificity of resting primary human T-cells and generate multi-functional T-cells...
  72. ncbi [Effects of IL-21 alone or in combination with IL-15/IL-2 on proliferation and anti-tumor activity of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro]
    Lan Li
    Department of Hematology and Transplantation, Hospital 307, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China
    Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 16:350-4. 2008
    ..and antitumor activity of rhG-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (G-PBMNCs) activated by interleukin 21 (IL-21) alone or in combination with interleukin 15 (IL-15)/interleukin 2 (IL-2) and to evaluate the ..
  73. pmc A genome-wide association study of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis identifies new disease loci
    Ying Liu
    Division of Human Genetics, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000041. 2008
    ..This region harbors the interleukin 2 (IL2) and interleukin 21 (IL21) genes and was recently shown to be associated with four autoimmune diseases (Celiac disease, Type 1 ..
  74. ncbi Gene-expression profiling of systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma reveals differences based on ALK status and two distinct morphologic ALK+ subtypes
    Laurence Lamant
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U563 Centre de physiopathologie Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France
    Blood 109:2156-64. 2007
    ..Once confirmed on a larger number of patients, the results of the present study could be used for clinical and therapeutic management of patients at the time of diagnosis...
  75. doi Genome-wide association scan in psoriasis: new insights into chronic inflammatory disease
    Steven J Schrodi
    Statistical Genetics Group, Celera, Inc, 1401 Harbor Bay Parkway, Alameda, CA 94502, USA
    Expert Rev Clin Immunol 4:565-71. 2008
    ..These results, while still preliminary, may substantially expand our knowledge of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis genetics, opening new avenues of chronic inflammatory disease research...
  76. doi Interleukin-21 restores immunoglobulin production ex vivo in patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgA deficiency
    Stephan Borte
    Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University of Leipzig, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Blood 114:4089-98. 2009
    ..Thus, our work provides an initial basis for a potential therapeutic role of IL-21 to reconstitute immunoglobulin production in CVID and IgAD...
  77. doi Antitumor efficacy induced by human ovarian cancer cells secreting IL-21 alone or combination with GM-CSF cytokines in nude mice model
    Jun Dou
    Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
    Immunobiology 214:483-92. 2009
    ....
  78. doi Differential regulation of interleukin 17 and interferon gamma production in inflammatory bowel disease
    L Rovedatti
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 2AT, UK
    Gut 58:1629-36. 2009
    ..Interleukin 17 (IL17) is now known to be involved in a number of chronic inflammatory disorders. However, the mechanisms regulating its production in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still unclear...
  79. pmc Replication of celiac disease UK genome-wide association study results in a US population
    C P Garner
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 7550, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 18:4219-25. 2009
    ..The underlying functional mutations responsible for these replicated associations need to be identified...
  80. pmc The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation
    Barbara U Schraml
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 460:405-9. 2009
    ..18) promoters. These results demonstrate that the AP-1 protein BATF has a critical role in T(H)17 differentiation...
  81. pmc IL-21 is produced by Th17 cells and drives IL-17 production in a STAT3-dependent manner
    Lai Wei
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:34605-10. 2007
    ..These data argue that IL-21 serves as an autocrine factor secreted by Th17 cells that promotes or sustains Th17 lineage commitment...
  82. pmc Screening of functional and positional candidate genes in families with common variable immunodeficiency
    Ulrich Salzer
    Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical School, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetterstr, 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    BMC Immunol 9:3. 2008
    ..The recent discovery that some CVID patients show monogenic defects in the genes encoding ICOS, TACI or CD19 prompted us to investigate several functional candidate genes in individuals with CVID...
  83. pmc IL-21 signaling is critical for the development of type I diabetes in the NOD mouse
    Rosanne Spolski
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 7B05, Bethesda, MD 20892 1674, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14028-33. 2008
    ..Our studies establish a critical role for IL-21 in the development of type I diabetes in the NOD mouse, with obvious potential implications for type I diabetes in humans...
  84. ncbi Interleukin 21 contributes to the mucosal T helper cell type 1 response in coeliac disease
    D Fina
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e Centro di Eccellenza per lo studio delle malattie complesse e multifattoriali, Universitè Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    Gut 57:887-92. 2008
    ..However, the molecular mechanisms which regulate T-bet and promote the Th1 cell response are unknown...
  85. pmc Novel association in chromosome 4q27 region with rheumatoid arthritis and confirmation of type 1 diabetes point to a general risk locus for autoimmune diseases
    Alexandra Zhernakova
    Complex Genetics Section, Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Am J Hum Genet 81:1284-8. 2007
    ..72 [95% CI 0.61-0.86]). Our results replicate and extend the association found in the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 gene region with autoimmune diseases, implying that this locus is a general risk factor for multiple autoimmune diseases...
  86. doi Comparison of immune responses induced in mice by vaccination with DNA vaccine constructs expressing mycobacterial antigen 85A and interleukin-21 and Bacillus Galmette-Guérin
    Jun Dou
    Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Southeast University School of Basic Medical Science, Nanjing, China
    Immunol Invest 37:113-27. 2008
    ....
  87. doi Crohn's disease: Th1, Th17 or both? The change of a paradigm: new immunological and genetic insights implicate Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease
    S Brand
    Department of Medicine II Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Gut 58:1152-67. 2009
    ..However, the complex relationship between Th1 and Th17 cells has not been completely analysed. This will be of great importance to delineate the specific contributions of these cells to Crohn's disease and other autoimmune diseases...
  88. pmc Polymorphisms in the IL2, IL2RA and IL2RB genes in multiple sclerosis risk
    María L Cavanillas
    Immunology Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Hum Genet 18:794-9. 2010
    ..The relevant role of the IL2RA gene on MS susceptibility adds support to its common effect on autoimmune risk and the suggestive association of IL2/IL21 warrants further investigation...
  89. pmc Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data identifies additional type 1 diabetes risk loci
    Jason D Cooper
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 40:1399-401. 2008
    ..7 x 10(-12)), 10p15 (PRKCQ, P = 3.7 x 10(-9)), 15q24 (CTSH, P = 3.2 x 10(-15)) and 22q13 (C1QTNF6, P = 2.0 x 10(-8))...
  90. doi [The latest TH17 lymphocyte in the family of T CD4+ lymphocytes]
    M Essakalli
    Service de transfusion et d hémovigilance de l hôpital Ibn Sina, CHU Rabat, BP 2014, Rabat Ryad, Rabat, Maroc
    Pathol Biol (Paris) 58:437-43. 2010
    ..TH17 lymphocyte opens up new therapeutic prospects for these pathologies...
  91. pmc Type 1 diabetes in the BB rat: a polygenic disease
    Robert H Wallis
    Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Diabetes 58:1007-17. 2009
    ..The strong effects of these have impeded previous efforts to map additional loci. We tested the hypothesis that type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease in the BBDP rat...
  92. pmc Ex vivo expansion of tumor specific lymphocytes with IL-15 and IL-21 for adoptive immunotherapy in melanoma
    Eduardo Huarte
    Department of Medicine, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    Cancer Lett 285:80-8. 2009
    ....
  93. pmc The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacts with c-Maf to promote the differentiation of type 1 regulatory T cells induced by IL-27
    Lionel Apetoh
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:854-61. 2010
    ..Manipulating AhR signaling could therefore be beneficial in the resolution of excessive inflammatory responses...
  94. doi Autocrine IL-21 stimulation is involved in the maintenance of constitutive STAT3 activation in Sézary syndrome
    Leslie van der Fits
    Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Invest Dermatol 132:440-7. 2012
    ....
  95. doi ssICAM-1, IL-21 and IL-23 in patients with tick borne encephalitis and neuroborreliosis
    Anna Moniuszko
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
    Cytokine 60:468-72. 2012
    ....
  96. pmc Increased IL-21 secretion by aged CD4+T cells is associated with prolonged STAT-4 activation and CMV seropositivity
    Anshu Agrawal
    Department of Medicine, Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617, USA
    Aging (Albany NY) 4:648-59. 2012
    ....
  97. doi In the presence of IL-21 human cord blood T cells differentiate to IL-10-producing Th1 but not Th17 or Th2 cells
    Aysefa Doganci
    Pediatric Immunology Mainz, Children s Hospital, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg Universitiy Mainz, Germany
    Int Immunol 25:157-69. 2013
    ....
  98. ncbi Interleukin-21 is increased in active systemic lupus erythematosus patients and contributes to the generation of plasma B cells
    Magdalene Nakou
    University of Crete, Greece
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 31:172-9. 2013
    ..Excessive interleukin- (IL-) 21 production by T cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We explored the expression and function of IL-21 in human SLE...
  99. pmc IL-21 is required for optimal antibody production and T cell responses during chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection
    Jason S Stumhofer
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e62889. 2013
    ..Together, these results identify a key role for IL-21 in shaping the humoral and cellular response to T. gondii, but indicate that IL-21 has a limited role in regulating immunopathology...
  100. doi Enhancement of CD154/IL4 proliferation by the T follicular helper (Tfh) cytokine, IL21 and increased numbers of circulating cells resembling Tfh cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
    Matthew J Ahearne
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Br J Haematol 162:360-70. 2013
    ..In this report we determined interleukin 21 (IL21) function in CLL and showed that IL21 and interleukin 4 (IL4) act co-operatively to promote leukaemic ..

Research Grants7

  1. Modulation of HIV-specific CD8+ T and B cell function by CD4+ T helper responses
    Hendrik Streeck; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  2. Yi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ....
  3. Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource (T1DR)
    David V Serreze; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The mission of the T1DR is to import, re-derive to a high-level health status, curate, genotypically and phenotypically validate, cryopreserve, and distribute mouse stocks of value to the T1D research community. ..
  4. Genetic Basis for susceptibility to EAE
    Vijay K Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Francisco J Quintana; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..We will investigate how a protein called Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor controls the immune system and how affecting it ameliorates an animal model of multiple sclerosis. ..
  6. Dendritic cell mediated modulation of tolerance by apoptotic cells in aging
    Anshu Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..2) to analyze a role of dendritic cells in age-associated alterations in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. ANTIOXIDANTS AND FEMALE HORMONES IN THE ETIOLOGY OF RA
    Elizabeth Karlson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..RA will be confirmed by a screening questionnaire regarding rheumatic symptoms and review of medical records. The study will identify potentially modifiable risk factors for primary prevention of RA. ..