GRIA4

Summary

Gene Symbol: GRIA4
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 4
Alias: GLUR4, GLUR4C, GLURD, GluA4, glutamate receptor 4, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 4, gluR-4, gluR-D, glutamate receptor, ionotrophic, AMPA 4, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 4
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain
    Arja Pasternack
    Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, P O Box 56, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5, Helsinki FIN 00014, Finland
    J Biol Chem 277:49662-7. 2002
  2. ncbi Surface expression of GluR-D AMPA receptor is dependent on an interaction between its C-terminal domain and a 4.1 protein
    Sarah K Coleman
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Biochemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland FIN 00014
    J Neurosci 23:798-806. 2003
  3. ncbi Phosphorylation-dependent interactions of alpha-Actinin-1/IQGAP1 with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4
    Mutsuo Nuriya
    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurochem 95:544-52. 2005
  4. ncbi Differential co-expression of AMPA receptor subunits in substance P receptor-containing neurons of basal forebrain regions of C57/BL mice
    Jin Ping Zhang
    Institute of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi an 710032, PR China
    Neurochem Int 49:319-26. 2006
  5. ncbi Effects of 5'-alkyl-benzothiadiazides on (R,S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor biophysics and synaptic responses
    Amy C Arai
    Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois 62794 9629, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 62:566-77. 2002
  6. ncbi In vitro classical conditioning of the turtle eyeblink reflex: approaching cellular mechanisms of acquisition
    Joyce Keifer
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57010, USA
    Cerebellum 2:55-61. 2003
  7. pmc N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor is required for the synaptic incorporation and removal of AMPA receptors during cerebellar long-term depression
    Jordan P Steinberg
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18212-6. 2004
  8. ncbi Expression of genes encoding glutamate receptors and transporters in rod and cone bipolar cells of the primate retina determined by single-cell polymerase chain reaction
    Michael C Hanna
    The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Cellular Neurology Unit, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Vis 13:2194-208. 2007
  9. ncbi Effect of photoreceptor degeneration on RNA splicing and expression of AMPA receptors
    Kazuhiko Namekata
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan
    Mol Vis 12:1586-93. 2006
  10. ncbi Distribution of AMPA receptor subunits GluR1-4 in the dorsal vagal complex of the rat: a light and electron microscope immunocytochemical study
    J P Kessler
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, UPR 9024, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 31, chem Joseph Aiguier, F13402 Marseille cx 20, France
    Synapse 34:55-67. 1999

Detail Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain
    Arja Pasternack
    Institute of Biotechnology, Viikki Biocenter, P O Box 56, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5, Helsinki FIN 00014, Finland
    J Biol Chem 277:49662-7. 2002
    ..g. in the assembly of heteromeric receptors and in synaptic protein interactions...
  2. ncbi Surface expression of GluR-D AMPA receptor is dependent on an interaction between its C-terminal domain and a 4.1 protein
    Sarah K Coleman
    Department of Biosciences, Division of Biochemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland FIN 00014
    J Neurosci 23:798-806. 2003
    ..1 family protein(s) plays an essential role in the transport to and stabilization of GluR-D-containing AMPA receptors at the cell surface...
  3. ncbi Phosphorylation-dependent interactions of alpha-Actinin-1/IQGAP1 with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4
    Mutsuo Nuriya
    Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurochem 95:544-52. 2005
    ..with AMPA receptors and regulate their function, little is known about the regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4. To understand the molecular mechanisms of GluR4 functional regulation, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to ..
  4. ncbi Differential co-expression of AMPA receptor subunits in substance P receptor-containing neurons of basal forebrain regions of C57/BL mice
    Jin Ping Zhang
    Institute of Neurosciences, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, Xi an 710032, PR China
    Neurochem Int 49:319-26. 2006
    ..The percentages of AMPA receptor subunits co-localizing in SPR-positive neurons were GluR4 (48%), GluR1 (47%), GluR2 (26%) and GluR3 (20%), respectively...
  5. ncbi Effects of 5'-alkyl-benzothiadiazides on (R,S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor biophysics and synaptic responses
    Amy C Arai
    Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois 62794 9629, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 62:566-77. 2002
    ..In tests with recombinantly expressed AMPA receptor subunits, D1 preferred the glutamate receptor (GluR) subunit GluR4 flip (0.64 microM) over GluR4 flop (5...
  6. ncbi In vitro classical conditioning of the turtle eyeblink reflex: approaching cellular mechanisms of acquisition
    Joyce Keifer
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57010, USA
    Cerebellum 2:55-61. 2003
    ..mechanisms are required to generate CRs and that the level of conditioning is associated with the upregulation of GluR4-containing AMPA receptors in the abducens motor nuclei...
  7. pmc N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor is required for the synaptic incorporation and removal of AMPA receptors during cerebellar long-term depression
    Jordan P Steinberg
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18212-6. 2004
    ..The sequence of the GluR2 subunit is similar to that of the GluR3 and GluR4c subunits, which also contain PDZ ligands and protein kinase C consensus sites...
  8. ncbi Expression of genes encoding glutamate receptors and transporters in rod and cone bipolar cells of the primate retina determined by single-cell polymerase chain reaction
    Michael C Hanna
    The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Cellular Neurology Unit, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Vis 13:2194-208. 2007
    ..Here we apply the same protocol to compare expression of these genes in cDNA constructed from single rod and cone bipolar cells previously-labeled for morphological identification in fixed slices of macaque retina...
  9. ncbi Effect of photoreceptor degeneration on RNA splicing and expression of AMPA receptors
    Kazuhiko Namekata
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan
    Mol Vis 12:1586-93. 2006
    ..This study was conducted to examine the developmental progression of the flip-to-flop alternative splicing switch of AMPA receptors in wild-type and rd mouse retina...
  10. ncbi Distribution of AMPA receptor subunits GluR1-4 in the dorsal vagal complex of the rat: a light and electron microscope immunocytochemical study
    J P Kessler
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, UPR 9024, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 31, chem Joseph Aiguier, F13402 Marseille cx 20, France
    Synapse 34:55-67. 1999
    ..within this region was investigated using immunohistochemistry and antibodies recognizing either one (GluR1 or GluR4) or two (GluR2 and GluR3) AMPA receptors subunits...
  11. ncbi The effects of willed movement therapy on AMPA receptor properties for adult rat following focal cerebral ischemia
    Qingping Tang
    Department of Neurology, Xiang Ya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China
    Behav Brain Res 181:254-61. 2007
    ....
  12. ncbi Primary afferent terminals in spinal cord express presynaptic AMPA receptors
    Chun Rong Lu
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurosci 22:9522-9. 2002
    ..for the C terminus of glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) and GluR3 (GluR2/3) rather than by an antibody for GluR4. In dorsal roots, anti-GluR2/3 stains predominantly myelinated fibers; anti-GluR4 or anti-GluR2/4 stains ..
  13. ncbi Altered glutamate and GABA release within thalamocortical circuitry in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice
    X Wang
    Division of Neurology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuroscience 134:1195-203. 2005
    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is highly expressed presynaptically on thalamocortical neurons that are involved in the pathogenesis of generalized absence seizures...
  14. ncbi Neurochemistry of the mammalian cone 'synaptic complex'
    N Vardi
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104 6058, USA
    Vision Res 38:1359-69. 1998
    ..Surprisingly, invaginating bipolar dendrites in the cat also express the AMPA receptor subunits, GluR2/3 and GluR4. (ii) Dendrites forming basal contacts in the cat (probably OFF) express the AMPA subunits GluR2/3, GluR4, and ..
  15. ncbi Localization of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in distinct neuronal elements of the rat substantia nigra
    K K Yung
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, China
    Neurochem Int 33:313-26. 1998
    ..using commercially available antibodies (against subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors: GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4, NMDAR1, NMDAR2A/B; and subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors: mGluR1alpha, mGluR2/3)...
  16. ncbi Facilitation of extinction learning for contextual fear memory by PEPA: a potentiator of AMPA receptors
    Ko Zushida
    Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502, Japan
    J Neurosci 27:158-66. 2007
    ..Quantitative PCR studies suggested the pronounced expression of PEPA-preferring AMPA receptor subunits (GluR3 and GluR4) and a splice variant (flop) in the mPFC...
  17. ncbi Conversion of silent synapses into the active pool by selective GluR1-3 and GluR4 AMPAR trafficking during in vitro classical conditioning
    Maxim Mokin
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, 414 E Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:1278-86. 2007
    ..Later in conditioning, levels of GluR1-3 declined and enhanced colocalization of GluR4-containing AMPAR subunits at synapses was observed...
  18. pmc Oligomeric amyloid-{beta} inhibits the proteolytic conversion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AMPA receptor trafficking, and classical conditioning
    Zhaoqing Zheng
    From the Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069
    J Biol Chem 285:34708-17. 2010
    ..imaging indicate that oligomeric Aβ, but not fibrillar or scrambled forms, suppresses colocalization of GluR1 and GluR4 AMPA receptor subunits with synaptophysin, indicating that trafficking of these subunits to synapses during the ..
  19. ncbi Differential distribution of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the rat olfactory bulb
    A A Montague
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8082, USA
    J Comp Neurol 405:233-46. 1999
    ..to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits: GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4; and kainate (KA) receptor subunits: GluR5/6/7...
  20. pmc Large projection neurons in lamina I of the rat spinal cord that lack the neurokinin 1 receptor are densely innervated by VGLUT2-containing axons and possess GluR4-containing AMPA receptors
    Erika Polgár
    Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:13150-60. 2008
    ..Unlike most glutamatergic synapses in superficial laminas, those on the gephyrin-coated cells contain the GluR4 subunit of the AMPA receptor...
  21. ncbi Use of [3H]fluorowillardiine to study properties of AMPA receptor allosteric modulators
    Markus Kessler
    Department of Pharmacology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 801 N Rutledge, PO Box 19629, Springfield, IL 62794 9629, USA
    Brain Res 1076:25-41. 2006
    ..One potential limitation of [3H]FW is a large preference for subunits GluR1 and GluR2 (KD 4-10 nM) over GluR3 and GluR4 (160-600 nM) which implies that tests with brain membranes preferentially reveal drug effects produced at the ..
  22. ncbi Glutamate receptor subunits in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and other regions of the medulla oblongata in the cat
    R Ambalavanar
    Voice and Speech Section, NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1416, USA
    J Comp Neurol 402:75-92. 1998
    ..alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)-selective glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 in the cat caudal brainstem was investigated by using ..
  23. ncbi Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescent punctate staining of synaptically localized proteins using confocal microscopy and stereology
    Maxim Mokin
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 157:218-24. 2006
    ..Triple-labeling of the presynaptic marker synaptophysin, the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors, and the GluR4 subunit of AMPA receptors was performed on pseudoconditioned (control) and conditioned in vitro brain stem ..
  24. ncbi Comparative distribution of glutamate transporters and receptors in relation to afferent innervation density in the mammalian cochlea
    David N Furness
    MacKay Institute of Communication and Neuroscience, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:11296-304. 2003
    ..or excitatory amino acid transporter 1), vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1), and the AMPA receptor glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) along the spiral...
  25. ncbi Metabotropic glutamate and dopamine receptors co-regulate AMPA receptor activity through PKA in cultured chick retinal neurones: effect on GluR4 phosphorylation and surface expression
    André R Gomes
    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Portugal
    J Neurochem 90:673-82. 2004
    ..kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR4 on Ser842, both in vitro and in vivo...
  26. ncbi Phosphorylation of GluR4 AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit by protein kinase C in cultured retina amacrine neurons
    Ana Luisa Carvalho
    Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Portugal
    Eur J Neurosci 15:465-74. 2002
    ..1998). In this study, we evaluated the phosphorylation of the GluR4 subunit, which is very abundant in cultured amacrine neurons, to correlate it with the effects of PKC on AMPA ..
  27. ncbi Recent advances in the study of AMPA receptors
    Takeshi Suzuki
    Department of Pharmacology, Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan
    Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 122:515-26. 2003
    ..AMPA receptors are cation-conducting complexes composed of various combinations of four subunits (GluR1 to GluR4)...
  28. pmc Neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord have synaptic AMPA receptors that contain GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits
    Andrew J Todd
    Neuroscience and Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 29:718-26. 2009
    ..b>GluR4 can be alternatively spliced such that it has a long or short cytoplasmic tail...
  29. ncbi Transient Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors in postnatal rat primary auditory neurons
    Michel Eybalin
    INSERM U583, Institut des Neurosciences, Hopital St Eloi, 80, avenue Augustin Fliche, BP 74103, 34091 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2981-9. 2004
    ..GluR2 immunoreactivity was not detected until PND10 and GluR3 and GluR4 immunoreactivities were detected at all the ages examined...
  30. ncbi Cellular localization of AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits in the basal ganglia of pigeons (Columba livia)
    Antonio V Laverghetta
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Brain Behav Evol 67:10-38. 2006
    ..Parvalbuminergic and calretininergic striatal interneurons were rich in GluR1 and GluR4, a few cholinergic striatal interneurons possessed GluR2, but somatostatinergic striatal interneurons were devoid ..
  31. ncbi Phosphorylation of AMPA receptors: mechanisms and synaptic plasticity
    John Q Wang
    Department of Basic Medical Science, University of Missouri Kansas City, School of Medicine, USA
    Mol Neurobiol 32:237-49. 2005
    ..and cultured neurons have shown that the AMPA receptor can be phosphorylated on their subunits (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR4). All phosphorylation sites reside at serine, threonine, or tyrosine on the intracellular C-terminal domain...
  32. pmc Glutamate Receptors GluR1 and GluR4 in the Hamster Superior Colliculus: Distribution and Co-localization with Calcium-Binding Proteins and GABA
    Jae Sik Choi
    Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702 701, South Korea
    Acta Histochem Cytochem 42:29-38. 2009
    We investigated the distributions of AMPA glutamate receptor subtypes GluR1 and GluR4 in the hamster superior colliculus (SC) with antibody immunocytochemistry and the effect of enucleation on these distributions...
  33. ncbi Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors show unique postsynaptic, presynaptic, and glial localizations in the dorsal cochlear nucleus
    R S Petralia
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Comp Neurol 372:356-83. 1996
    ..receptors was examined with preembedding immunocytochemistry, using 14 antibodies to ionotropic (GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4, GluR5-7, GluR6/7, KA2, NR1, NR2A/B, delta 1/2) and metabotropic (mGluR1 alpha, mGluR2/3, mGluR5) glutamate ..
  34. pmc How do tonic glutamatergic synapses evade receptor desensitization?
    Ji Jie Pang
    Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, NC 205, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Physiol 586:2889-902. 2008
    ..ribbon junctions as releasing sites for low-frequency, synchronized multiquantal release at each site; and (2) the GluR4 AMPA receptors as the postsynaptic receptors...
  35. ncbi Differential postsynaptic distribution of GluRs 1-4 on cartwheel and octopus cell somata in the gerbil cochlear nucleus
    I R Schwartz
    Section of Otolaryngology, Yale University School of Medicine, P O Box 208041, New Haven, CT 06520 8041, USA
    Hear Res 147:70-6. 2000
    ..which confers calcium impermeability to the assembled receptor and slower gating kinetics to receptors with a high GluR4 content, is the major difference in the AMPA receptors on the somata of these cell types...
  36. ncbi Identifications, classification, and evolution of the vertebrate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit genes
    Y C Chen
    Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec 2, Kang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043, Republic of China
    J Mol Evol 53:690-702. 2001
    ..Mammalian and avian AMPARs are assembled from the products of four genes (GRIA1-GRIA4) conserved in their translated sequences and gene organizations...
  37. ncbi Distribution and synaptic localisation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) in the rodent CNS
    C Corti
    Cambridge Brain Bank Laboratory, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Neuroscience 110:403-20. 2002
    ..In addition, the question of alternatively spliced mGluR4 isoforms is discussed...
  38. ncbi Rat gustatory neurons in the geniculate ganglion express glutamate receptor subunits
    Alejandro Caicedo
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami School of Medicine, 1638 NW 10th Avenue, William L McKnight Vision Research Center, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Chem Senses 29:463-71. 2004
    ..AMPA and NMDA type subunits were immunohistochemically detected with antibodies against GluR1, GluR2, GluR2/3, GluR4 and NR1 subunits...
  39. ncbi Activity of 2,3-benzodiazepines at native rat and recombinant human glutamate receptors in vitro: stereospecificity and selectivity profiles
    D Bleakman
    Eli Lilly and Co, Lilly Research Centre, Windlesham, Surrey, U K
    Neuropharmacology 35:1689-702. 1996
    ..IC50 values of 18 microM, 24 microM and 6 microM, respectively and AMPA (10 microM) responses in recombinant human GluR4 expressing HEK293 cells with approximate IC50 values of 22 microM, 28 microM and 5 microM, respectively...
  40. ncbi Immunoelectron microscopy of AMPA receptor subunits reveals three types of putative glutamatergic synapse in the rat vestibular end organs
    A Matsubara
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Brain Res 819:58-64. 1999
    ..Immunoreactivities for GluR2/3 and GluR4 were associated with the synapses between type I hair cells and the surrounding chaliceal nerve endings and with ..
  41. ncbi [3H]CNQX and NMDA-sensitive [3H]glutamate binding sites and AMPA receptor subunit RNA transcripts in the striatum of normal and weaver mutant mice and effects of ventral mesencephalic grafts
    A Mitsacos
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Patras, Greece
    Cell Transplant 8:11-23. 1999
    ..the striatum are seen with a decreasing signal intensity in the following order: GluRB > GluRA > GluRC > GluRD. The weaver caudate-putamen shows a 12% increase in GluRA subunit mRNA compared to +/+, whereas mesencephalic ..
  42. ncbi Diminished calcium homeostasis and increased susceptibility to excitotoxicity of JS 3/16 progenitor cells after differentiation to oligodendroglia
    T Itoh
    Neurology Research, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Glia 31:165-80. 2000
    ..First, signal intensities of immunoreactive GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4 AMPA-GluR subunits are increased 1.3- to 2...
  43. ncbi Binding of an AMPA receptor potentiator ([3H]LY395153) to native and recombinant AMPA receptors
    A M Linden
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, DC 0510, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
    Neuropharmacology 40:1010-8. 2001
    ..and compare [(3)H]LY395153 binding to native AMPA receptors from rat cerebral cortex and recombinant human GluR4(flip) receptors expressed in HEK293 cells...
  44. ncbi Expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptors in pretectal nuclei of the chick brain
    Claudio A B Toledo
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, City University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Brain Res Bull 57:359-61. 2002
    ..GluR1- and GluR2/3-positive neurons and fibers were detected in the pretectal nucleus, with GluR4-positive neurons forming a cap surrounding the main core of that nucleus...
  45. ncbi Expression of transcripts encoding AMPA receptor subunits and associated postsynaptic proteins in the macaque brain
    Monica Beneyto
    Mental Health Research Institute and Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Comp Neurol 468:530-54. 2004
    ..Using in situ hybridization, we examined the expression of transcripts encoding the AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1-GluR4) and a family of AMPA-related intracellular proteins...
  46. ncbi A novel variant of ionotropic glutamate receptor regulates somatostatin secretion from delta-cells of islets of Langerhans
    Akiko Muroyama
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700 8530, Japan
    Diabetes 53:1743-53. 2004
    ..In this study, we showed that delta-cells express GluR4c-flip, a newly identified splicing variant of GluR4, an (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic ..
  47. pmc Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 expression identifies glutamatergic amacrine cells in the rodent retina
    Juliette Johnson
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Comp Neurol 477:386-98. 2004
    ..VGLUT3 immunostaining was closely associated with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4, which is consistent with glutamatergic synaptic exocytosis by these cells...
  48. pmc Blockade of glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor channels by trimethyltin chloride
    Katharina Krüger
    Institute of Physiology I, Robert Koch Str 27a, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Br J Pharmacol 144:283-92. 2005
    ..7. In general, TMT affects the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processes in a receptor specific manner and is able to disturb the activity within a neuronal network...
  49. ncbi The cellular mRNA expression of GABA and glutamate receptors in spinal motor neurons of SOD1 mice
    S Petri
    Department of Neurology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, D 30623, Hannover, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 238:25-30. 2005
    ..e. around 140 days) (n=5, respectively). We detected a slight but statistically significant decrease of the AMPA receptor subunits GluR3 and GluR4 only in end stage disease animals.
  50. ncbi Pathophysiologic characteristics of balloon cells in cortical dysplasia
    Hyun Sik Oh
    Department of Pathology, Chonnam National University Medical School and Center for Biomedical Human Resources BK 21, 5 Hakdong, Dongku, Gwangju, 501 746, Korea
    Childs Nerv Syst 24:175-83. 2008
    ..This study was carried out to investigate the developmental histogenesis and epileptogenesis of balloon cells in FCD...
  51. pmc Glutamate receptors on myelinated spinal cord axons: II. AMPA and GluR5 receptors
    Mohamed Ouardouz
    Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Ann Neurol 65:160-6. 2009
    ..However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for excitotoxic damage to white matter elements are not fully understood. We explored the roles of AMPA and GluR5 kainate receptors in axonal Ca(2+) deregulation...
  52. pmc AMPA receptor regulation at the mRNA and protein level in rat primary cortical cultures
    Cesare Orlandi
    Division of Biology and Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnologies and National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
    PLoS ONE 6:e25350. 2011
    ..that resulted from APV/TTX treatment up-regulated GluR1 and GluR3 with a parallel down-regulation of GluR2 and GluR4. RNA editing at the R/G site increased during neuronal cell maturation for all AMPA receptors (from 8-39% at DIV5 ..
  53. doi Hippocampal AMPA-type receptor complexes containing GluR3 and GluR4 are paralleling training in the Multiple T-Maze
    Soheil Keihan Falsafi
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Neurochem Int 60:425-30. 2012
    ..it is well-known that AMPA receptors are involved in spatial learning and memory, published data on GluR3 and GluR4 are limited...
  54. doi A potent and selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 positive allosteric modulator improves movement in rodent models of Parkinson's disease
    Emmanuel Le Poul
    Addex Pharmaceuticals, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 343:167-77. 2012
    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease...
  55. pmc Abnormal N-linked glycosylation of cortical AMPA receptor subunits in schizophrenia
    Janusz Tucholski
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 0017, USA
    Schizophr Res 146:177-83. 2013
    ..Of the four AMPA receptor subunits, only GluR4 was significantly increased in schizophrenia. GluR2 and GluR4 were both sensitive to Endo H and PNGase F treatment...
  56. pmc Co-operative binding assay for the characterization of mGlu4 allosteric modulators
    Pekka Poutiainen
    Athinoula A Martinos Biomedical Imaging Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuropharmacology 97:142-8. 2015
    The interest in the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) in CNS related disorders has increased the need for methods to investigate the binding of allosteric drug candidates...
  57. doi Quantitative proteomics suggests decrease in the secretogranin-1 cerebrospinal fluid levels during the disease course of multiple sclerosis
    Ann C Kroksveen
    The KG Jebsen Centre for MS research, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    Proteomics 15:3361-9. 2015
    ..1, secretogranin-1 (Sg1), cerebellin-1, neuroserpin, cell surface glycoprotein MUC18, testican-2 and glutamate receptor 4. An independent sample set of 13 early-MS patients, 13 RRMS patients and 13 neurological controls was used ..
  58. pmc Development and Antiparkinsonian Activity of VU0418506, a Selective Positive Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4 Homomers without Activity at mGlu2/4 Heteromers
    Colleen M Niswender
    Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York 10032, United States
    ACS Chem Neurosci 7:1201-11. 2016
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) is emerging as a potential therapeutic target for numerous central nervous system indications, including Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  59. ncbi Differential effects of excitatory amino acids on mesencephalic neurons expressing either calretinin or tyrosine hydroxylase in primary cultures
    K R Isaacs
    Laboratory of Clinical Science, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 36:114-26. 1996
    ..Very low levels of NMDAR1 receptor subunits were detected on cells in this culture and GluR4 receptor subunits were not detectable...
  60. ncbi Expression of the AMPA-selective receptor subunits in the vestibular nuclei of the chinchilla
    P Popper
    Division of Head and Neck Surgery, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90024 1624, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 44:21-30. 1997
    ..used to localize the messenger RNAs and proteins of the AMPA-selective receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 in the vestibular nuclei of the chinchilla...
  61. ncbi Calcium handling proteins in isolated spinal motoneurons
    L van den Bosch
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Life Sci 65:1597-606. 1999
    ..GluR1 and GluR2 mRNAs were present abundantly, while GluR3 and GluR4 mRNAs were much less abundant...
  62. ncbi Co-localization of NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors in neurons of the vestibular nuclei of rats
    L W Chen
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 5 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong, China
    Brain Res 884:87-97. 2000
    ..of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A/B) and AMPA glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2, GluR2/3 and GluR4) in individual neurons of the rat vestibular nuclei...
  63. ncbi Absolute quantification of AMPA receptor subunit mRNAs in single hippocampal neurons
    K Tsuzuki
    Department of Physiology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan
    J Neurochem 77:1650-9. 2001
    ..324 molecules of GluR1, 1080 +/- 273 molecules of GluR2, 100 +/- 20 molecules of GluR3, and 50 +/- 10 molecules of GluR4 (mean +/- SEM, n = 12)...
  64. ncbi Differential expression of AMPA receptor subunits in dopamine neurons of the rat brain: a double immunocytochemical study
    L W Chen
    Institute of Neuroscience, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an 710032, PR China
    Neuroscience 106:149-60. 2001
    ..No tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons displayed glutamate receptor 4 immunoreactivity, though a partially overlapping distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase- and glutamate ..
  65. ncbi Glutamate receptor subunit immunoreactivity in neurons of the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla
    G Cristina Brailoiu
    Department of Pharmacology, James H Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City 37614, USA
    Auton Neurosci 98:55-8. 2002
    ..Double labeling the medullary sections with polyclonal GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4, NMDAR1, NMDAR2A/B, mGluR1alpha, and mGluR2/3 antiserum and monoclonal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antiserum ..
  66. ncbi AMPA receptor subunit RNA transcripts and [(3)H]AMPA binding in the cerebellum of normal and pcd mutant mice: an in situ hybridization study combined with receptor autoradiography
    K Fragioudaki
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
    J Neural Transm 109:1115-27. 2002
    ..mutants, GluRA, GluRB and GluRC mRNAs were not detected in the Purkinje cell layer, and the levels of GluRB and GluRD mRNAs were significantly decreased in the granule cell layer by 16% and 57%, respectively...
  67. ncbi Glutamate receptor subunit expression after spinal cord injury in young rats
    Kwame M Brown
    Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 152:61-8. 2004
    ..Acutely after injury significant decreases were observed in the GluR1, GluR2, and GluR4 subunits of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionate (AMPA) receptor, and the NR2A and NR2B ..
  68. ncbi Localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors to invaginating dendrites at the cone synapse in primate retina
    David J Calkins
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Vanderbilt Eye Institute and Vanderbilt Vision Research Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Vis Neurosci 22:469-77. 2005
    ..for electron microscopy, we quantified the distribution of the AMPA-sensitive subunits GluR2/3 and GluR4 and of the kainate-sensitive subunits GluR6/7 across 207 labeled dendrites occupying specific morphological loci ..
  69. pmc The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is internalized and desensitized upon protein kinase C activation
    Jesper Mosolff Mathiesen
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, H Lundbeck A S, DK 2500 Valby, Denmark
    Br J Pharmacol 148:279-90. 2006
    1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is a Galphai-coupled receptor that modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission...
  70. ncbi Synaptic pattern of AMPA receptor subtypes upon direction-selective retinal ganglion cells
    Seong Ah Jeong
    Neuroscience Lab, Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Daegu, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 56:427-34. 2006
    ..DS) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we studied the distributions of AMPA receptor subtypes GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 upon the dendritic arbors of DS RGCs of the rabbit with antibody immunocytochemistry...
  71. pmc Ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in preganglionic neurons of the rat inferior salivatory nucleus
    M Kim
    Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1078, United States
    Auton Neurosci 138:83-90. 2008
    ..antibodies to glutamate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, NR2B, (NMDA receptor subunits) GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, GluR4 (AMPA receptor subunits), and GluR5-7, KA2 (kainate receptor subunits) to determine their expression in ISN ..
  72. doi Antagonism of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 receptors by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine alters the taste of amino acids in rats
    B K Eschle
    Department of Biology and Vermont Chemical Senses Group, 109 Carrigan Drive, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Neuroscience 163:1292-301. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that multiple receptors are involved in amino acid taste and that taste-mGluR4 receptors contribute to the taste of MSG and at least some l-amino acids...
  73. doi Genetic analysis of GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes in migraine
    Claudia F Gasparini
    Genomics Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
    Headache 54:303-12. 2014
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in the GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes, which encode subunits of the ionotropic AMPA receptor for association in an Australian Caucasian population.
  74. doi Methoxychlor and fenvalerate induce neuronal death by reducing GluR2 expression
    Kanae Umeda
    Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University
    J Toxicol Sci 41:255-64. 2016
    ..selectively decreased GluR2 protein expression; the expression of other AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4 did not change under the same conditions...
  75. doi OptoGluNAM4.1, a Photoswitchable Allosteric Antagonist for Real-Time Control of mGlu4 Receptor Activity
    Xavier Rovira
    Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, CNRS, UMR 5203, Universite de Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France INSERM, U1191, 34000 Montpellier, France
    Cell Chem Biol 23:929-34. 2016
    OptoGluNAM4.1, a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) contains a reactive group that covalently binds to the receptor and a blue-light-activated, fast-relaxing azobenzene group that allows ..
  76. ncbi Cloning of a cDNA for a glutamate receptor subunit activated by kainate but not AMPA
    J Egebjerg
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037
    Nature 351:745-8. 1991
    ..DNA clones encoding non-NMDA glutamate receptor subunits reveals at least two subunit classes: the GluR1 to GluR4 class and the GluR5 class...
  77. ncbi Transient expression of NMDA receptors during rearrangement of AMPA-receptor-expressing fibers in the developing inner ear
    M Knipper
    Tübingen Centre for Hearing Research, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Tubingen, Röntgenweg 11, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 287:23-41. 1997
    ..During the following 2 weeks, GluR2/3 receptors were downregulated in exchange for GluR4 receptors...
  78. pmc Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+
    L P Wollmuth
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Physiol 506:13-32. 1998
    ..The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues...
  79. ncbi The postnatal development of AMPA receptor subunits in the basal ganglia of the rat
    M W Jakowec
    The Parkinson s Institute, Sunnyvale, Calif 94089 1605, USA
    Dev Neurosci 20:19-33. 1998
    ..GluR1 and GluR2 are expressed at high levels in the neonate with reduced expression in the adult. GluR3 and GluR4 are expressed at significantly lower levels in both neonates and adults and have much more modest degrees of ..
  80. ncbi Factors regulating AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit changes induced by sciatic nerve injury in rats
    F J Alvarez
    Department of Anatomy, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
    J Comp Neurol 426:229-42. 2000
    ..Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed glutamate receptor (GluR)1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 AMPA subunit immunoreactivity (ir) in motoneurons 3, 7, or 14 days after axotomy or continuous tetrodotoxin (TTX) ..
  81. ncbi In vitro eye-blink classical conditioning is NMDA receptor dependent and involves redistribution of AMPA receptor subunit GluR4
    J Keifer
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota 57010, USA
    J Neurosci 21:2434-41. 2001
    ..a significant positive correlation between the levels of conditioning and greater immunoreactivity with the glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) AMPA receptor subunit in the abducens motor nuclei, but not with NMDAR1 or GluR1...
  82. ncbi LY404187: a novel positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors
    Jennifer C Quirk
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285 0510, USA
    CNS Drug Rev 8:255-82. 2002
    ..LY404187 preferentially acts at recombinant human homomeric GluR2 and GluR4 versus GluR1 and GluR3 AMPA receptors...
  83. ncbi Ontogeny of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit expression in the rat hippocampus
    Laura M Ritter
    Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 139:227-36. 2002
    ..In the case of the AMPA receptor, gluR1 expression did not change over this time period, while gluR2, gluR3, and gluR4 did. These three subunits each underwent a transient period of increased expression at either PND 7 or PND 18...
  84. ncbi Gene expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in rod-type ON bipolar cells of rat retina
    Willem Kamphuis
    Graduate School for the Neurosciences Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Neurosci 18:1085-92. 2003
    ..signature (n = 15), 73% of these cells expressed GluR2, with a minor contribution of GluR1 (20%), GluR3 (7%), and GluR4 (20%)...
  85. pmc Allosteric modulation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptor 4: a potential approach to Parkinson's disease treatment
    Michael J Marino
    Department of Neuroscience, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13668-73. 2003
    ..We previously identified the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) as a potential drug target and predicted that selective activation of mGluR4 could provide ..
  86. ncbi AMPA receptor properties and coexpression with sodium-calcium exchangers in rat hypothalamic neurons
    O A Sergeeva
    Department of Neurophysiology, Heinrich Heine Universitat, POB 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 19:957-65. 2004
    ..receptor GluR2 (100% of the neurons) and GluR1 (75%) were the most frequently detected, followed by the mRNA for GluR4 (56%), whereas GluR3 cDNA amplification did not yield a PCR product in any neuron...
  87. ncbi Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor subunit expression in rat olfactory bulb
    Michelle S Horning
    Department of Biological Science, Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 4340, USA
    Neurosci Lett 372:230-4. 2004
    ..e., glur2 (61 +/- 2.4%), glur1 (31 +/- 3.5%), glur4 (6.3 +/- 1.4%), glur3 (1.4 +/- 0.7%)...
  88. ncbi Stereochemistry of glutamate receptor agonist efficacy: engineering a dual-specificity AMPA/kainate receptor
    Dean R Madden
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Biochemistry 43:15838-44. 2004
    ..Here we report that the structure-based mutation L651V converts the GluR4 AMPA receptor into a dual-specificity AMPA/kainate receptor fully activated by both agonists...
  89. ncbi Spinal axonal injury induces brief downregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and no stripping of synapses in cord-projection central neurons
    Yueh Jan Wang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
    J Neurotrauma 21:1624-39. 2004
    ..In control neurons, GluR2 appeared to be low as compared to GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4, while NR1 labeling was intense...
  90. ncbi AMPA receptor phosphorylation during synaptic plasticity
    J Boehm
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Biochem Soc Trans 33:1354-6. 2005
    ..sites in the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR4. The regulated insertion of these receptors is a key event in the induction of LTP...
  91. ncbi MAPK signaling pathways mediate AMPA receptor trafficking in an in vitro model of classical conditioning
    Joyce Keifer
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, 414 E Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:2067-74. 2007
    ..Previous studies showed that NMDA-mediated trafficking of synaptic glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4)-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs) underlies conditioning in this preparation and that this is ..
  92. ncbi Functional characterization of Tet-AMPA [tetrazolyl-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl- 4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid] analogues at ionotropic glutamate receptors GluR1-GluR4. The molecular basis for the functional selectivity profile of 2-Bn-Tet-AMPA
    Anders A Jensen
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Med Chem 50:4177-85. 2007
    ..Examination of homology models of the S1-S2 domains of GluR1 and GluR4 containing 2-Bn-Tet-AMPA suggested four nonconserved residues in a region adjacent to the orthosteric site as ..
  93. pmc Glutamate receptor subunit expression in the rhesus macaque locus coeruleus
    Nigel C Noriega
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Brain Res 1173:53-65. 2007
    ..histological findings and showed expression of mRNA encoding ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits NR2A, NR2D, GluR4, and GluR6, as well as the metabotropic glutamate receptor subunits mGluR1, mGluR3, mGluR4, mGluR5, and mGluR7...
  94. ncbi Spinal astrocyte glutamate receptor 1 overexpression after ischemic insult facilitates behavioral signs of spasticity and rigidity
    Michael P Hefferan
    Anesthesiology Research Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0695, USA
    J Neurosci 27:11179-91. 2007
    ..of lumbar spinal cord tissue from spastic animals showed a significant increase in GluR1 but decreased GluR2 and GluR4 proteins...
  95. doi Morphometric analysis of the AMPA-type neurons in the Deiter's vestibular complex of the chick brain
    Maria F Passetto
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, City University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 03071 000, Brazil
    J Chem Neuroanat 35:334-45. 2008
    ..Our results revealed that neurons of both divisions were poor in GluR1. The vND, the GluR2/3+ and GluR4+ label presented no area or neuronal size preference, although most neurons were around 75%...
  96. pmc Genetic complexity of absence seizures in substrains of C3H mice
    S Tokuda
    The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609 1500, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 8:283-9. 2009
    ..Previous studies using the C3H/HeJ (HeJ) substrain identified a mutation in the Gria4 gene as a major susceptibility locus...
  97. pmc PKA has a critical role in synaptic delivery of GluR1- and GluR4-containing AMPARs during initial stages of acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning
    Zhaoqing Zheng
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota School of Medicine, 414 E Clark St, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
    J Neurophysiol 101:2539-49. 2009
    ..role in initiating a signaling cascade that results in synaptic delivery of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1)- and GluR4-containing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) in abducens motor neurons ..
  98. doi Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 with a new agonist reverses experimental parkinsonism
    Corinne Beurrier
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216 CNRS Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France
    FASEB J 23:3619-28. 2009
    ..Finally, systemic administration of LSP1-2111 counteracts haloperidol-induced catalepsy, opening promising perspectives for the development of antiparkinsonian therapeutic strategies focused on orthosteric mGlu4-receptor agonists...
  99. pmc DNA hypermethylation accompanied by transcriptional repression in follicular lymphoma
    LYNDA B BENNETT
    Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 48:828-41. 2009
    ..COBRA) also established DNA methylation for the previously identified PRC2 targets DCC, DES, GAD2, AQP5, GPR61, GRIA4, GJD2, and AMPH in FL but not in BFH...
  100. ncbi Glutamate receptors in pediatric tumors of the central nervous system
    Katja S Brocke
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Children s Hospital, University of Technology Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    Cancer Biol Ther 9:455-68. 2010
    ..We examined expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR1-NR3B, AMPA receptor subunits GluR1-GluR4, kainate receptor subunits GluR5-GluR7, KA1, KA2 and metabotropic receptor subunits mGluR1-8...
  101. doi Screening and identification of differentially expressed genes from chickens infected with Newcastle disease virus by suppression subtractive hybridization
    Daoliang Lan
    College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationality, Chengdu, People s Republic of China
    Avian Pathol 39:151-9. 2010
    ..on the best known function of their protein products, which involved signalling transduction (HSPC166, PDE7B, GRIA4, GARNL1), transcriptional regulation (ANP32A, LOC423724, SATB1, QKI, ETV6), cellular molecular dynamics (MYLK, ..

Research Grants34

  1. Characterizing an AMPA Receptor Splice Modulator in Preventing Epileptogenesis
    Melanie K Tallent; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Four AMPA receptor subunits exist, GluR1-GluR4, with functional channels containing various combinations of these four subunits...
  2. Role of cGKII in AMPA Receptor Transport
    Edward B Ziff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3. To study the cGKII regulated trafficking of GluR4 and GluR2L...
  3. Targeting AMPA Receptor Splicing as a Therapeutic Approach for ALS
    Gordon J Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, when the flip/flop ratio of GluR1, GluR3 and GluR4 is elevated, the AMPA receptors are resistant to desensitization, and neurons are more excitable and permit ..
  4. NEURONAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING IN VITRO MOTOR LEARNING
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..delivery of GluR1-containing AMPARs initially activate silent synapses, followed by synaptic incorporation GluR4 subunits that support the acquisition of CRs...
  5. GENE EXPRESSION IN SINGLE AGING NEURONS AND GLIA
    James H Eberwine; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..three RNAs that are targeted to and differentially translated in neuronal dendrites, those that encode the GluR2, GluR4 and the NMDA-R1 receptor subunit proteins...
  6. GLUTATHIONE DEPLETION AND MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX I DYSFUNCTION
    Julie Kay Andersen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..in glutathione in our cell model also results in inhibition of the GSSG reducing enzyme glutathione reductase (GluRd) and up-regulation of the enzyme g-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) which breaks down extracellular GSHto substrates ..
  7. Gluthathione Depletion /Mitochondrial Complex I Dysfunct
    Julie Andersen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..in our cell model also results in inhibition of the GSSG reducing enzyme[unreadable] glutathione reductase (GluRd) and up-regulation of the enzyme g-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) which[unreadable] breaks down extracellular GSH ..
  8. NEURONAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING IN VITRO MOTOR LEARNING
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  9. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
    Joyce Keifer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For research focused on the changes to neural function induced by chronic social stress during adolescence, and to direct pharmacotherapy of associated psychiatric disorders. ..
  10. Protein Kinases in Synaptic Plasticity
    Roberto Malinow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This will be examined early in development, when GluR4 controls synaptic delivery, and later in life, when synaptic delivery is controlled by GluR1...
  11. Regulation of GluR2 expression by synaptic activity
    Stephanie Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..proteins (GRIP1/GRIP2 or PICK1) or that lack the last 7 amino acids of the C-terminus of GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, or GluR4. Next, the targets of Ca2+ influx through Ca2+- permeable AMPA receptors will be dissected with pharmacological ..
  12. Mapping AMPA-R trafficking in dendritic compartments
    Charles Kopec; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Working in young rat hippocampal slices we will first study the trafficking of GluR4, a process critical for early synaptic strengthening...
  13. Accumbens-pallidal GABA and morphine reinforcement
    Scott Hemby; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Changes in the expression levels of multiple genes will be assessed in terms of morphine reinforcement and direct pharmacological effects of the drug. ..
  14. Molecular Fingerprint of Cocaine Abuse Analysis
    Scott Hemby; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In addition, identification of differentially expressed genes may provide novel targets for the pharmacotherapeutic development and/or the refinement of existent pharmacotherapies. ..
  15. Entorhinal Transcriptome in Schizophrenia
    Scott Hemby; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To date, the treatment regimen, necropsy and tissue harvesting have been completed with both fresh frozen and paraffin-embedded EC available. ..
  16. NEUROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COCAINE REINFORCEMENT
    Scott Hemby; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Aging as a risk factor for seizure-induced cell death
    PAULA SCHAUWECKER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Rhesus Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Serotonin Neurons
    CYNTHIA BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The knowledge obtained from this work will lead to novel treatments for psychoneuropathologies. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. Dysregulation of Type I interferon in human SLE
    Lynda Bennett; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, the studies proposed here will provide insights into mechanisms of IFN action in SLE as well as invaluable information necessary for developing tools to block the excess of type 1 IFN as novel therapy in SLE. ..
  20. Cell-type Specific Genomics in the Aging Human Retina
    DAVID CALKINS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The information generated will provide a basis for more extensive investigations of the mechanisms that mediate neuronal aging in the retina and brain. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Androgens and apoE4 induced cognitive impairments
    Jacob Raber; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  22. Regulation of cAMP production by tissue transglutaminase
    Janusz Tucholski; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of these studies will provide important new information on the function of tTG in neurons and provide the basis for an R01 application. ..
  23. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS IN BASAL GANGLIA
    COLLEEN NISWENDER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, we will test the hypothesis that agonists or allosteric potentiators of this receptor can provide palliative relief in rodent models of PD by actions in the GP. ..
  24. Measurement of GPCR-mediated thallium flux:GIRK (RMI)
    COLLEEN NISWENDER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Identified compounds will provide new pharmacological tools to test the role of the ?2C adrenergic receptor in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders and the role of GIRK 1/2 channels in the modulation of neuronal excitability. ..
  25. Mechanisms of Synaptic Depression: Focus on Rap Signaling Pathways
    J Julius Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Genetic Regulation of Seizure-Induced Neurogenesis
    PAULA SCHAUWECKER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. DIFFERENCES IN SYNAPTIC VS NONSYNAPTIC AMPA RECEPTORS
    AMY ARAI; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Determining which cellular factor stabilizes the low-affinity receptors will constitute the Fifth Aim of this application. ..
  28. Domoic Acid and Neonatal Microglia Activation
    Alejandro Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..activated microglia cells and their mediators play in DOM-induced excitotoxic neuronal injury and thus contribute to potential novel approaches for the therapy of the neuropathology associated with Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in humans ..
  29. Effects/Ethanol/Specific sites/AMPA glutamate receptors
    BABATUNDE AKINSHOLA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This grant will contribute significantly to the career establishment and development of the investigator by providing the time, salary support and supplies needed for education and training in alcohol research in a minority institution. ..
  30. Differential effects of TARPs on AMPA receptor subunits
    AMY ARAI; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Aim 1, we will complete our analysis of their impact on GluR3 and extend our analysis to include GluR2 and GluR4. Moreover, we will examine the effects of the four TARPs on heteromeric subunit combinations that are prevalent in ..
  31. Olympus FV 1000 Confocal Microscope for Neurobiology and Cellular Biology Researc
    Francisco Alvarez; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Assay for HTS of Gi/Go-linked GPCRs: mGluR7 as Prot(RMI)
    COLLEEN NISWENDER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. OVARIAN STEROID REGULATION OF SEROTONIN IN PRIMATES
    CYNTHIA LOUISE BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Altogether, we will show that ovarian steroids support serotonin neuron survival and we will provide pivotal underlying genomic mechanisms. ..
  34. RETINAL ORGANIZATION OF COLOR PATHWAYS
    DAVID CALKINS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....